G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M
G00000475 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000070918 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000099783 (Ensembl human gene)
4670 (Entrez Gene)
849 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HNRPM (GeneCards)
160994 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:5046 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P52272 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CEAR
  • HNRPM4
  • HTGR1

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • hnRNP M interacts with PSF and p54(nrb) and co-localizes within defined nuclear structures.

    Marko M, Leichter M, Patrinou-Georgoula M and Guialis A

    RNA Processing Laboratory, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vas. Constantinou Avenue, 11635 Athens, Greece.

    The abundant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M) is able to associate with early spliceosomes and to influence splicing patterns of specific pre-mRNAs. Here, by a combination of immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays, we have identified PSF (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor) and p54(nrb), two highly related proteins involved in transcription and RNA processing, as new binding partners of hnRNP M. HnRNP M was found to co-localize with PSF within a subset of nuclear paraspeckles and to largely co-fractionate with PSF and p54(nrb) in biochemical nuclear matrix preparations. In cells transfected with an alternatively spliced preprotachykinin (PPT) minigene expression of hnRNP M promoted exon skipping while expression of PSF favours exon inclusion. The latter effect was reverted specifically by co-expressing the full length hnRNP M or a deletion mutant capable of interaction with PSF and p54(nrb). Together our data provide new insights and some functional implications on the hnRNP M network of interactions.

    Experimental cell research 2010;316;3;390-400

  • cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors in the localization of mRNA for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

    Russo A, Cirulli C, Amoresano A, Pucci P, Pietropaolo C and Russo G

    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini 5, Napoli 80131, Italy.

    mRNA localization is a conserved post-transcriptional process crucial for a variety of systems. Although several mechanisms have been identified, emerging evidence suggests that most transcripts reach the protein functional site by moving along cytoskeleton elements. We demonstrated previously that mRNA for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, and that localization in the proximity of mitochondria is mediated by the 3'-UTR. Here we show by biochemical analysis that these mRNA transcripts are associated with the cytoskeleton through the microtubule network. Cytoskeleton association is functional for their intracellular localization near the mitochondrion, and the 3'-UTR is involved in this cytoskeleton-dependent localization. To identify the minimal elements required for localization, we generated DNA constructs containing, downstream from the GFP gene, deletion mutants of mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 3'-UTR, and expressed them in HeLa cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that the localization signals responsible for mRNA localization are located in the first 154 nucleotides. RNA pull-down assays, mass spectrometry, and RNP immunoprecipitation assay experiments, demonstrated that mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 3'-UTR interacts specifically with TRAP1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein1), hnRNPM4 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M4), Hsp70 and Hsp60 (heat shock proteins 70 and 60), and alpha-tubulin in vitro and in vivo.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2008;1779;12;820-9

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Systematic identification and analysis of mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifier substrates.

    Gocke CB, Yu H and Kang J

    Department of Pharmacology, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates diverse cellular processes through its reversible, covalent attachment to target proteins. Many SUMO substrates are involved in transcription and chromatin structure. Sumoylation appears to regulate the functions of target proteins by changing their subcellular localization, increasing their stability, and/or mediating their binding to other proteins. Using an in vitro expression cloning approach, we have identified 40 human SUMO1 substrates. The spectrum of human SUMO1 substrates identified in our screen suggests general roles of sumoylation in transcription, chromosome structure, and RNA processing. We have validated the sumoylation of 24 substrates in living cells. Analysis of this panel of SUMO substrates leads to the following observations. 1) Sumoylation is more efficient in vitro than in living cells. Polysumoylation occurs on several substrates in vitro. 2) SUMO isopeptidases have little substrate specificity. 3) The SUMO ligases, PIAS1 and PIASxbeta, have broader substrate specificities than does PIASy. 4) Although SUMO1 and SUMO2 are equally efficiently conjugated to a given substrate in vitro, SUMO1 conjugation is more efficient in vivo. 5) Most SUMO substrates localize to the nucleus, and sumoylation does not generally affect their subcellular localization. Therefore, sumoylation appears to regulate the functions of its substrates through multiple, context-dependent mechanisms.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61542

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;6;5004-12

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The WW domain-containing proteins interact with the early spliceosome and participate in pre-mRNA splicing in vivo.

    Lin KT, Lu RM and Tarn WY

    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128 Academy Rd., Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

    A growing body of evidence supports the coordination of mRNA synthesis and its subsequent processing events. Nuclear proteins harboring both WW and FF protein interaction modules bind to splicing factors as well as RNA polymerase II and may serve to link transcription with splicing. To understand how WW domains coordinate the assembly of splicing complexes, we used glutathione S-transferase fusions containing WW domains from CA150 or FBP11 in pull-down experiments with HeLa cell nuclear extract. The WW domains associate preferentially with the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein and with splicing factors SF1, U2AF, and components of the SF3 complex. Accordingly, WW domain-associating factors bind to the 3' part of a pre-mRNA to form a pre-spliceosome-like complex. We performed both in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to explore the role of WW/FF domain-containing proteins in this process. However, although CA150 is associated with the spliceosome, it appears to be dispensable for splicing in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo depletion of CA150 substantially reduced splicing efficiency of a reporter pre-mRNA. Moreover, overexpression of CA150 fragments containing both WW and FF domains activated splicing and modulated alternative exon selection, probably by facilitating 3' splice site recognition. Our results suggest an essential role of WW/FF domain-containing factors in pre-mRNA splicing that likely occurs in concert with transcription in vivo.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;20;9176-85

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • A proteomic study of SUMO-2 target proteins.

    Vertegaal AC, Ogg SC, Jaffray E, Rodriguez MS, Hay RT, Andersen JS, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom.

    The SUMO family in vertebrates includes at least three distinct proteins (SUMO-1, -2, and -3) that are added as post-translational modifications to target proteins. A considerable number of SUMO-1 target proteins have been identified, but little is known about SUMO-2. A stable HeLa cell line expressing His6-tagged SUMO-2 was established and used to label and purify novel endogenous SUMO-2 target proteins. Tagged forms of SUMO-2 were functional and localized predominantly in the nucleus. His6-tagged SUMO-2 conjugates were affinity-purified from nuclear fractions and identified by mass spectrometry. Eight novel potential SUMO-2 target proteins were identified by at least two peptides. Three of these proteins, SART1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) M, and the U5 small nuclear RNP 200-kDa helicase, play a role in RNA metabolism. SART1 and heterogeneous nuclear RNP M were both shown to be genuine SUMO targets, confirming the validity of the approach.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0301131

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;32;33791-8

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Surface expression of heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding protein M4 on Kupffer cell relates to its function as a carcinoembryonic antigen receptor.

    Bajenova O, Stolper E, Gapon S, Sundina N, Zimmer R and Thomas P

    Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, 801 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA. baj@bu.edu

    Elevated concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood are associated with the development of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancers. Clearance of circulating CEA occurs through endocytosis by liver macrophages, Kupffer cells. Previously we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins M4 (hnRNP M4) as a receptor (CEAR) for CEA. HnRNP M4 has two isoform proteins (p80, p76), the full-length hnRNP M4 (CEARL) and a truncated form (CEARS) with a deletion of 39 amino acids between RNA binding domains 1 and 2, generated by alternative splicing. The present study was undertaken to clarify any isoform-specific differences in terms of their function as CEA receptor and localization. We develop anti-CEAR isoform-specific antibodies and show that both CEAR splicing isoforms are expressed on the surface of Kupffer cells and can function as CEA receptor. Alternatively, in P388D1 macrophages CEARS protein has nuclear and CEARL has cytoplasmic localization. In MIP101 colon cancer and HeLa cells the CEARS protein is localized to the nucleus and CEARL to the cytoplasm. These findings imply that different functions are assigned to CEAR isoforms depending on the cell type. The search of 39 amino acids deleted region against the Prosite data base revealed the presence of N-myristylation signal PGGPGMITIP that may be involved in protein targeting to the plasma membrane. Overall, this report demonstrates that the cellular distribution, level of expression, and relative amount of CEARL and CEARS isoforms determine specificity for CEA binding and the expression of alternative spliced forms of CEAR is regulated in a tissue-specific manner.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 74941

    Experimental cell research 2003;291;1;228-41

  • Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome.

    Zhou Z, Licklider LJ, Gygi SP and Reed R

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

    The precise excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA is performed by the spliceosome, a macromolecular machine containing five small nuclear RNAs and numerous proteins. Much has been learned about the protein components of the spliceosome from analysis of individual purified small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and salt-stable spliceosome 'core' particles. However, the complete set of proteins that constitutes intact functional spliceosomes has yet to be identified. Here we use maltose-binding protein affinity chromatography to isolate spliceosomes in highly purified and functional form. Using nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identify approximately 145 distinct spliceosomal proteins, making the spliceosome the most complex cellular machine so far characterized. Our spliceosomes comprise all previously known splicing factors and 58 newly identified components. The spliceosome contains at least 30 proteins with known or putative roles in gene expression steps other than splicing. This complexity may be required not only for splicing multi-intronic metazoan pre-messenger RNAs, but also for mediating the extensive coupling between splicing and other steps in gene expression.

    Nature 2002;419;6903;182-5

  • Purification and characterization of native spliceosomes suitable for three-dimensional structural analysis.

    Jurica MS, Licklider LJ, Gygi SR, Grigorieff N and Moore MJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA.

    We describe characterization of spliceosomes affinity purified under native conditions. These spliceosomes consist largely of C complex containing splicing intermediates. After C complex assembly on an MS2 affinity-tagged pre-mRNA substrate containing a 3' splice site mutation, followed by RNase H digestion of earlier complexes, spliceosomes were purified by size exclusion and affinity selection. This protocol yielded 40S C complexes in sufficient quantities to visualize in negative stain by electron microscopy. Complexes purified in this way contain U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs, but very little U1 or U4 snRNA. Analysis by tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of core snRNP proteins (SM and LSM), U2 and U5 snRNP-specific proteins, and the second step factors Prp16, Prp17, Slu7, and Prp22. In contrast, proteins specific to earlier splicing complexes, such as U2AF and U1 snRNP components, were not detected in C complex, but were present in similarly purified H complex. Images of these spliceosomes revealed single particles with dimensions of approximately 270 x 240 A that assort into well-defined classes. These images represent an important first step toward attaining a comprehensive three-dimensional understanding of pre-mRNA splicing.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53007, GM62580

    RNA (New York, N.Y.) 2002;8;4;426-39

  • The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription.

    Westermarck J, Weiss C, Saffrich R, Kast J, Musti AM, Wessely M, Ansorge W, Séraphin B, Wilm M, Valdez BC and Bohmann D

    EMBL, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometric peptide sequencing showed that the DEAD-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a functional interaction partner of c-Jun in human cells. The N-terminal transcription activation region of, c-Jun interacts with a C-terminal domain of RHII/Gu. This interaction is stimulated by anisomycin treatment in a manner that is concurrent with, but independent of, c-Jun phosphorylation. A possible explanation for this effect is provided by the observation that RHII/Gu translocates from nucleolus to nucleoplasm upon anisomycin or UV treatment or when JNK signaling is activated by overexpression of a constitutively active form of MEKK1 kinase. Several experiments show that the RNA helicase activity of RHII/Gu supports c-Jun-mediated target gene activation: dominant-negative forms of RHII/Gu, as well as a neutralizing antibody against the enzyme, significantly interfered with c-Jun target gene activity but not with transcription in general. These findings clarify the mechanism of c-Jun-mediated transcriptional regulation, and provide evidence for an involvement of RHII/Gu in stress response and in RNA polymerase II-catalyzed transcription in mammalian cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52341, R01 DK052341

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;3;451-60

  • Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.

    Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, Denmark.

    Background: The nucleolus is a subnuclear organelle containing the ribosomal RNA gene clusters and ribosome biogenesis factors. Recent studies suggest it may also have roles in RNA transport, RNA modification, and cell cycle regulation. Despite over 150 years of research into nucleoli, many aspects of their structure and function remain uncharacterized.

    Results: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar proteins were encoded by novel or uncharacterized genes, while the known proteins included several unexpected factors with no previously known nucleolar functions. MS analysis of nucleoli isolated from HeLa cells in which transcription had been inhibited showed that a subset of proteins was enriched. These data highlight the dynamic nature of the nucleolar proteome and show that proteins can either associate with nucleoli transiently or accumulate only under specific metabolic conditions.

    Conclusions: This extensive proteomic analysis shows that nucleoli have a surprisingly large protein complexity. The many novel factors and separate classes of proteins identified support the view that the nucleolus may perform additional functions beyond its known role in ribosome subunit biogenesis. The data also show that the protein composition of nucleoli is not static and can alter significantly in response to the metabolic state of the cell.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;1;1-11

  • The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins.

    Tchernev VT, Mansfield TA, Giot L, Kumar AM, Nandabalan K, Li Y, Mishra VS, Detter JC, Rothberg JM, Wallace MR, Southwick FS and Kingsmore SF

    CuraGen Corporation, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. velizart@molecularstaging.com

    Background: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an inherited immunodeficiency disease characterized by giant lysosomes and impaired leukocyte degranulation. CHS results from mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) gene, which encodes a 425-kD cytoplasmic protein of unknown function. The goal of this study was to identify proteins that interact with LYST as a first step in understanding how LYST modulates lysosomal exocytosis.

    Fourteen cDNA fragments, covering the entire coding domain of LYST, were used as baits to screen five human cDNA libraries by a yeast two-hybrid method, modified to allow screening in the activation and the binding domain, three selectable markers, and more stringent confirmation procedures. Five of the interactions were confirmed by an in vitro binding assay.

    Results: Twenty-one proteins that interact with LYST were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens. Four interactions, confirmed directly, were with proteins important in vesicular transport and signal transduction (the SNARE-complex protein HRS, 14-3-3, and casein kinase II).

    Conclusions: On the basis of protein interactions, LYST appears to function as an adapter protein that may juxtapose proteins that mediate intracellular membrane fusion reactions. The pathologic manifestations observed in CHS patients and in mice with the homologous mutation beige suggest that understanding the role of LYST may be relevant to the treatment of not only CHS but also of diseases such as asthma, urticaria, and lupus, as well as to the molecular dissection of the CHS-associated cancer predisposition.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01 AI039824; NICHD NIH HHS: U19 HD077693

    Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2002;8;1;56-64

  • Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells.

    Bajenova OV, Zimmer R, Stolper E, Salisbury-Rowswell J, Nanji A and Thomas P

    Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    Here we report the isolation of the recombinant cDNA clone from rat macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC) that encodes a protein interacting with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). To isolate and identify the CEA receptor gene we used two approaches: screening of a KC cDNA library with a specific antibody and the yeast two-hybrid system for protein interaction using as a bait the N-terminal part of the CEA encoding the binding site. Both techniques resulted in the identification of the rat heterogeneous RNA-binding protein (hnRNP) M4 gene. The rat ortholog cDNA sequence has not been previously described. The open reading frame for this gene contains a 2351-base pair sequence with the polyadenylation signal AATAAA and a termination poly(A) tail. The mRNA shows ubiquitous tissue expression as a 2.4-kilobase transcript. The deduced amino acid sequence comprised a 78-kDa membrane protein with 3 putative RNA-binding domains, arginine/methionine/glutamine-rich C terminus and 3 potential membrane spanning regions. When hnRNP M4 protein is expressed in pGEX4T-3 vector system in Escherichia coli it binds (125)I-labeled CEA in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion. Transfection of rat hnRNP M4 cDNA into a non-CEA binding mouse macrophage cell line p388D1 resulted in CEA binding. These data provide evidence for a new function of hnRNP M4 protein as a CEA-binding protein in Kupffer cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA74941

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;33;31067-73

  • Cloning and characterization of a novel deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M4 from human dendritic cells.

    Huang X, Zhao Z, Yuan Z, Zhang M, Zhu X, Chen G and Cao X

    Department of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, 200433, Shanghai, China.

    To identify differentially expressed genes from antigen-stimulated human dendritic cells (DC), subtractive cloning was adopted and more than ten novel genes differentially expressed were cloned. One is a deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) M4 in which the residues from 159 to 197 of hnRNP M4 have been absent. The deletion mutant was shown to be co-expressed with hnRNP M4 in cell lines. The mutant was expressed in antigen-stimulated DC but not in normal DC. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of a major hnRNP M4 deletion mutant mRNA transcript of 2.4 kilobase with the highest levels in peripheral lymphocytes, lung, liver and spleen. It was also expressed in bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC), BMSC treated with several cytokines but not in BMSC treated with TNF-alpha. The results revealed a new member of hnRNP family and suggested that hnRNP would participate in antigen process and presentation.

    Science in China. Series C, Life sciences 2000;43;6;648-54

  • Mass spectrometry and EST-database searching allows characterization of the multi-protein spliceosome complex.

    Neubauer G, King A, Rappsilber J, Calvio C, Watson M, Ajuh P, Sleeman J, Lamond A and Mann M

    Protein & Peptide Group, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Many important cell mechanisms are carried out and regulated by multi-protein complexes, for example, transcription and RNA processing machinery, receptor complexes and cytoskeletal structures. Most of these complexes remain only partially characterized due to the difficulty of conventional protein analysis methods. The rapid expansion of DNA sequence databases now provides whole or partial gene sequences of model organisms, and recent advances in protein microcharacterization via mass spectrometry allow the possibility of linking these DNA sequences to the proteins in functional complexes. This approach has been demonstrated in organisms whose genomes have been sequenced, such as budding yeast. Here we report the first characterization of an entire mammalian multi-protein complex using these methods. The machinery that removes introns from mRNA precursors--the spliceosome--is a large multi-protein complex. Approximately half of the components excised from a two-dimensional gel separation of the spliceosome were found in protein sequence databases. Using nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry, the remainder were identified and cloned using public expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. Existing EST databases are thus already sufficiently complete to allow rapid characterization of large mammalian protein complexes via mass spectrometry.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Nature genetics 1998;20;1;46-50

  • The human hnRNP-M proteins: structure and relation with early heat shock-induced splicing arrest and chromosome mapping.

    Gattoni R, Mahé D, Mähl P, Fischer N, Mattei MG, Stévenin J and Fuchs JP

    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP, C.U. De Strasbourg, France.

    With anti-hnRNP monoclonal antibody 6D12 we previously showed in HeLa cells that as early as 10 min after the onset of a heat shock at 45 degrees C, a 72.5-74 kDa antigen doublet leaves the hnRNPs and strongly associates with the nuclear matrix, the effect being reversed after a 6 h recovery at 37 degrees C. cDNA cloning and sequencing enabled us to identify these antigens as hnRNP-M proteins and further to show that the correct sequence differs by an 11 amino acid stretch from the originally published sequence. We also show that monoclonal antibodies raised against synthetic hnRNP-M peptides can directly inhibit in vitro splicing. Furthermore, stressing cells at 45 degrees C for 10 min is sufficient to abolish the splicing capacity of subsequently prepared nuclear extracts which, interestingly, do not contain the hnRNP-M proteins any more. Taken together, our data suggest that these proteins are involved in splicing as well as in early stress-induced splicing arrest. Further in situ hybridization assays located the hnRNP-M encoding gene on human chromosome 19.

    Nucleic acids research 1996;24;13;2535-42

  • Molecular cloning, cDNA analysis, and localization of a monomer of the N-acetylglucosamine-specific receptor of the thyroid, NAGR1, to chromosome 19p13.3-13.2.

    Blanck O, Perrin C, Mziaut H, Darbon H, Mattei MG and Miquelis R

    Genomics 1995;27;3;561

  • Molecular cloning, cDNA analysis, and localization of a monomer of the N-acetylglucosamine-specific receptor of the thyroid, NAGR1, to chromosome 19p13.3-13.2.

    Blanck O, Perrin C, Mziaut H, Darbon H, Mattei MG and Miquelis R

    Laboratoire de Biochimie, URA 1455, Marseille, France.

    We have proposed that the GlcNAc thyroid receptor triggers selective recycling of immature GlcNAc-bearing thyroglobulin molecules through the Golgi back to the apical membrane for further processing until maturation is achieved. This process, which we call "receptor-mediated exocytosis," prevents lysosomal degradation of thyroid prohormones. In the present study, we report cloning of the cDNA encoding the (or one of the) monomer(s) constituting the human GlcNAc thyroid receptor. This novel gene, called NAGR1, was assigned by in situ hybridization to subbands p13.3-p13.2 of chromosome 19. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding NAGR1 was present as a single transcript of 2.1 kb in the thyroid, but not in the heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. The deduced amino acid sequence comprised a 51-kDa type I membrane protein with a single spanning region and a short intracytoplasmic domain. Sequence analysis showed that NAGR1 is a glycine-, tryptophan-, and methionine-rich protein with no cysteine residues or glycosylation site. No sequence homology with any known cDNA or protein was noted. The extracellular domain is composed of 420 amino acids and contains a region of 204 residues showing 15 repeats of 4 amino acids, each 1 having an acidic amino acid presumably involved in calcium coordination. The intracellular domain contained what appeared to be a tyrosine internalization signal. The usefulness of this clone in glycobiology, cell biology, and thyroid pathology studies is discussed.

    Genomics 1994;21;1;18-26

  • The human hnRNP M proteins: identification of a methionine/arginine-rich repeat motif in ribonucleoproteins.

    Datar KV, Dreyfuss G and Swanson MS

    Department of Immunology and Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0266.

    Recent reports indicate that proteins which directly bind to nascent RNA polymerase II transcripts, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), play an important role in both transcript-specific packaging and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a group of abundant hnRNPs, the M1-M4 proteins, which appear as a cluster of four proteins of 64,000-68,000 daltons by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The M proteins are pre-mRNA binding proteins in vivo, and they bind avidly to poly(G) and poly(U) RNA homopolymers in vitro. Covalently associated polyadenylated RNA-protein complexes, generated by irradiating living HeLa cells with UV light, were purified and used to elicit antibodies in mice. The resulting antisera were then employed to isolate cDNA clones for the largest M protein, M4, by immunological screening. The deduced amino acid sequence of M4 indicates that the M proteins are members of the ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence family of RNA-binding proteins with greatest similarity to a hypothetical RNA-binding protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The M proteins also possess an unusual hexapeptide-repeat region rich in methionine and arginine residues (MR repeat motif) that resembles a repeat in the 64,000 dalton subunit of cleavage stimulation factor, which is involved in 3'-end maturation of pre-mRNAs. Proteins immunologically related to M exist in divergent eukaryotes ranging from human to yeast.

    Nucleic acids research 1993;21;3;439-46

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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