G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta
G00000469 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000168291 (Ensembl human gene)
5162 (Entrez Gene)
837 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PDHB (GeneCards)
179060 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8808 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P11177 (UniProt)

Literature (30)

Pubmed - other

  • MuRF1-dependent regulation of systemic carbohydrate metabolism as revealed from transgenic mouse studies.

    Hirner S, Krohne C, Schuster A, Hoffmann S, Witt S, Erber R, Sticht C, Gasch A, Labeit S and Labeit D

    Institute for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Operative Care, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim 68167, Germany.

    Under various pathophysiological muscle-wasting conditions, such as diabetes and starvation, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1), are induced to target muscle proteins for degradation via ubiquitination. We have generated transgenic mouse lines over-expressing MuRF1 in a skeletal muscle-specific fashion (MuRF1-TG mice) in an attempt to identify the in vivo targets of MuRF1. MuRF1-TG lines were viable, had normal fertility and normal muscle weights at eight weeks of age. Comparison of quadriceps from MuRF1-TG and wild type mice did not reveal elevated multi-ubiquitination of myosin as observed in human patients with muscle wasting. Instead, MuRF1-TG mice expressed lower levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial key enzyme in charge of glycolysis, and of its regulator PDK2. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid interaction studies demonstrated the interaction of MuRF1 with PDH, PDK2, PDK4, PKM2 (all participating in glycolysis) and with phosphorylase beta (PYGM) and glycogenin (both regulating glycogen metabolism). Consistent with the idea that MuRF1 may regulate carbohydrate metabolism, MuRF1-TG mice had twofold elevated insulin blood levels and lower hepatic glycogen contents. To further examine MuRF1's role for systemic carbohydrate regulation, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) in wild type and MuRF1-TG mice. During GTT, MuRF1-TG mice developed striking hyperinsulinaemia and hepatic glycogen stores, that were depleted at basal levels, became rapidly replenished. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MuRF1 expression in skeletal muscle re-directs glycogen synthesis to the liver and stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion, thereby providing a regulatory feedback loop that connects skeletal muscle metabolism with the liver and the pancreas during metabolic stress.

    Journal of molecular biology 2008;379;4;666-77

  • Mutations of the E1beta subunit gene (PDHB) in four families with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Okajima K, Korotchkina LG, Prasad C, Rupar T, Phillips JA, Ficicioglu C, Hertecant J, Patel MS and Kerr DS

    Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism, Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 6004, USA.

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiencies are a major cause of primary lactic acidosis. Most cases result from mutations of the gene for the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha subunit (PDHA1), with fewer cases resulting from mutations in genes for E3, E3-binding protein, E2, and the E1beta subunit (PDHB). We have found four cases of PDHB mutations among 83 analyzed cases of PDC deficiency. In this series, PDHB mutations were found to be about 10% as frequent as PDHA1 mutations. All cases were diagnosed by low PDC activity, with normal E2 and E3 activities. These included a 6.5-year-old male (consanguineous, homozygous R36C); a neonatal female who died soon after birth, (compound heterozygous C306R/D319V), a 26-year-old female (heterozygous I142M/W165S), and a 13month old female (consanguineous, homozygous Y132C) who is a sibling of a previously published case. Their ethnic background is diverse (Caucasian, Arab, and African American descent). All cases had lactic acidosis and developmental delay. Three cases had agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and hypotonia; one died within the first year of life. These clinical findings are similar to those of PDHA1 deficiency, except that ataxia was more frequent in PDHA1 cases and consanguinity was found only in PDHB families. PDC activity in lymphocytes from six parents is normal, who all are heterozygous carriers for the respective mutations. Immunoreactivity of E1beta was markedly reduced in one case and showed a slightly larger form of E1beta in one case. Computer analysis predicts that: R36C affects the interaction of several amino acids resulting in conformational change, C306R affects interaction of the two beta subunits, D319 is in the interface of E1 and E2, I142M affects conformation around a K ion affecting stability of the beta subunit, W165S affects hydrophobic interaction between the beta subunits, and Y132C affects interaction between the beta subunits. All of these residues are conserved in E1beta across species, and Y132 is also conserved in other TPP-requiring enzymes. These observations support the conclusion that these are pathogenic mutations.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2008;93;4;371-80

  • Binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Korotchkina LG and Patel MS

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

    In human (h) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is bound to the E1-binding domain of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2). The C-terminal surface of the E1beta subunit was scanned for the negatively charged residues involved in binding with E2. betaD289 of hE1 interacts with K276 of hE2 in a manner similar to the corresponding interaction in Bacillus stearothermophilus PDC. In contrast to bacterial E1beta, the C-terminal residue of the hE1beta does not participate in the binding with positively charged residues of hE2. This latter finding shows species specificity in the interaction between hE1beta and hE2 in PDC.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20478, R01 DK020478-20

    FEBS letters 2008;582;3;468-72

  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency caused by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of the E1 subunit.

    Han Z, Zhong L, Srivastava A and Stacpoole PW

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cellular and Molecular Therapy, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

    Congenital deficiencies of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex are considered to be due to loss of function mutations in one of the component enzymes. Here we describe a case of PDH deficiency associated with the PDH E1beta subunit (PDHB) gene. The clinical phenotype of the patient was consistent with reported cases of PDH deficiency. Cultured skin fibroblasts demonstrated a 55% reduction in PDH activity and markedly decreased immunoreactivity for PDHB protein, compared with healthy controls. Surprisingly, nucleotide sequence analyses of cDNAs corresponding to the patient PDH E1alpha (PDHA1) and PDHB genes revealed no pathological mutations. Moreover, the relative expression level of PDHB mRNA and the rates of transcription and translation of the PDHB gene were normal. However, PDC activity could be restored in cells from this patient following treatment with MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor, and normal levels of E1beta could be detected in MG132-treated cells. Similar results were obtained following treatment with Tyr-phostin 23 (Tyr23), a specific inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor-protein-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK), which also restored E1beta protein levels to those in cells from healthy subjects or from patients with PDHA1 deficiency. The index patient's cells contained a high basal level of EGFR-PTK activity that correlated with the high level of ubiquitination of cellular proteins, although the total EGFR protein levels were similar to those in cells from Elalpha-deficient subjects and healthy subjects. These data indicate that PDH deficiency in our patient involves a post-translational modification in which EGFR-PTK-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the E1beta protein leads to enhanced ubiquitination followed by proteasome-mediated degradation. They also provide a novel mechanism accounting for congenital deficiency of the PDH complex and perhaps other inborn errors of metabolism.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK 058237; PHS HHS: M01 000082

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;1;237-43

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Mutations in the gene for the E1beta subunit: a novel cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Brown RM, Head RA, Boubriak II, Leonard JV, Thomas NH and Brown GK

    Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QU, Oxford, UK.

    We describe two unrelated patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency attributable to mutations in the gene encoding the E1beta subunit of the complex. This is a previously unrecognised form of PDH deficiency, which most commonly results from mutations in the X-linked gene for the E1alpha subunit. Both patients had reduced immunoreactive E1beta protein and both had missense mutations in the E1beta gene. Activity of the PDH complex was restored in cultured fibroblasts from both patients by transfection and expression of the normal E1beta coding sequence.

    Human genetics 2004;115;2;123-7

  • Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components.

    Hiromasa Y, Fujisawa T, Aso Y and Roche TE

    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

    The subunits of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can form a 60-mer via association of the C-terminal I domain of E2 at the vertices of a dodecahedron. Exterior to this inner core structure, E2 has a pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1)-binding domain followed by two lipoyl domains, all connected by mobile linker regions. The assembled core structure of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex also includes the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3)-binding protein (E3BP) that binds the I domain of E2 by its C-terminal I' domain. E3BP similarly has linker regions connecting an E3-binding domain and a lipoyl domain. The composition of E2.E3BP was thought to be 60 E2 plus approximately 12 E3BP. We have prepared homogenous human components. E2 and E2.E3BP have s(20,w) values of 36 S and 31.8 S, respectively. Equilibrium sedimentation and small angle x-ray scattering studies indicate that E2.E3BP has lower total mass than E2, and small angle x-ray scattering showed that E3 binds to E2.E3BP outside the central dodecahedron. In the presence of saturating levels of E1, E2 bound approximately 60 E1 and maximally sedimented 64.4 +/- 1.5 S faster than E2, whereas E1-saturated E2.E3BP maximally sedimented 49.5 +/- 1.4 S faster than E2.E3BP. Based on the impact on sedimentation rates by bound E1, we estimate fewer E1 (approximately 12) were bound by E2.E3BP than by E2. The findings of a smaller E2.E3BP mass and a lower capacity to bind E1 support the smaller E3BP substituting for E2 subunits rather than adding to the 60-mer. We describe a substitution model in which 12 I' domains of E3BP replace 12 I domains of E2 by forming 6 dimer edges that are symmetrically located in the dodecahedron structure. Twelve E3 dimers were bound per E248.E3BP12 mass, which is consistent with this model.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18320

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;8;6921-33

  • Structural basis for flip-flop action of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes revealed by human pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Ciszak EM, Korotchkina LG, Dominiak PM, Sidhu S and Patel MS

    Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center and Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama 35812, USA. Ewa.M.Ciszak@nasa.gov

    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate, is a cofactor of enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production. In alpha2beta2-heterotetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, this cofactor is used to cleave the Calpha-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites has not yet been understood. To understand the mechanism of action of this enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95-A resolution. We propose a model for the flip-flop action of this enzyme through a concerted approximately 2-A shuttle-like motion of its heterodimers. Similarity of thiamin pyrophosphate binding in human pyruvate dehydrogenase with functionally related enzymes suggests that this newly defined shuttle-like motion of domains is common to the family of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20478

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;23;21240-6

  • Activation and mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cdelta are necessary for insulin stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in muscle and liver cells.

    Caruso M, Maitan MA, Bifulco G, Miele C, Vigliotta G, Oriente F, Formisano P and Beguinot F

    Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare and Centro di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    In L6 skeletal muscle cells and immortalized hepatocytes, insulin induced a 2-fold increase in the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. This effect was almost completely blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) delta inhibitor Rottlerin and by PKCdelta antisense oligonucleotides. At variance, overexpression of wild-type PKCdelta or of an active PKCdelta mutant induced PDH complex activity in both L6 and liver cells. Insulin stimulation of the activity of the PDH complex was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in PDH phosphatases 1 and 2 (PDP1/2) activity with no change in the activity of PDH kinase. PKCdelta antisense blocked insulin activation of PDP1/2, the same as with PDH. In insulin-exposed cells, PDP1/2 activation was paralleled by activation and mitochondrial translocation of PKCdelta, as revealed by cell subfractionation and confocal microscopy studies. The mitochondrial translocation of PKCdelta, like its activation, was prevented by Rottlerin. In extracts from insulin-stimulated cells, PKCdelta co-precipitated with PDP1/2. PKCdelta also bound to PDP1/2 in overlay blots, suggesting that direct PKCdelta-PDP interaction may occur in vivo as well. In intact cells, insulin exposure determined PDP1/2 phosphorylation, which was specifically prevented by PKCdelta antisense. PKCdelta also phosphorylated PDP in vitro, followed by PDP1/2 activation. Thus, in muscle and liver cells, insulin causes activation and mitochondrial translocation of PKCdelta, accompanied by PDP phosphorylation and activation. These events are necessary for insulin activation of the PDH complex in these cells.

    Funded by: Telethon: E.0896

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;48;45088-97

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Identification of the catalytic glutamate in the E1 component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Fang R, Nixon PF and Duggleby RG

    Department of Molecular Biochemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, PR China.

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. The first component (E1) converts pyruvate to bound acetaldehyde using thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) and Mg2+ as cofactors. There is no 3D structure of E1 available but those of other ThDP-dependent enzymes show some similarities including a glutamate residue that assists in ThDP activation. Eukaryotic E1 has an alpha2beta2 structure and the conserved Glu89 of the beta-subunit was identified as a possible catalytic residue by sequence alignment. Human E1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Mutating Glu89 to glutamine, aspartate and alanine markedly reduces catalytic activity and the affinity for ThDP, consistent with a role as the catalytic glutamate.

    FEBS letters 1998;437;3;273-7

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Recombinant expression and evaluation of the lipoyl domains of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Liu S, Baker JC, Andrews PC and Roche TE

    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66406.

    The subunits of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) associate to form a large inner core with a protruding structure composed of three globular domains connected by mobile linker regions. This exterior region of E2 includes two lipoyl domains which engage not only in the intermediate reactions of the complex but also have integral roles in the kinase-phosphatase regulatory interconversion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. To facilitate understanding of these roles, lipoyl domain constructs of the E2 component of human PDC were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-linked fusion proteins from plasmid inserts prepared by polymerase chain reaction procedures. The NH2-terminal lipoyl domain, E2L1, and the interior lipoyl domain, E2L2, are connected by a 30-amino-acid hinge region, H1. Constructs designed and expressed were E2L1(1-98), E2L1.H1(1-128), E2L2(120-233), E2H1.L2(98-233), and E2L1.H1.L2(1-233), where numbers in parentheses give the amino acid sequence for the portions of the E2 component incorporated into a construct. The domains were expressed in Escherichia coli with and without lipoate supplementation. GST constructs were purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and selectively released by thrombin treatment. Sequencing of insert DNAs and NH2-terminal sequencing confirmed that domains were produced as designed. Measurement of masses by electrospray mass spectrometry indicated that constructs with lipoylated, nonlipoylated, and octanoylated forms were produced when expression was with E. coli grown without lipoate supplementation and that fully lipoylated forms were produced upon lipoate supplementation. The lipoylation status was confirmed, following delipoylation with Enterococcus faecalis lipoamidase, by the expected decrease in mass and by the observation in native gel electrophoresis of a shift to a slower mobility (possibly less compact) form. Constructs were used in E1-catalyzed reductive-acetylation reaction in proportion to their degree of lipoylation and were effective substrates in a NADH-dependent dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase reduction reaction. Thus, we have produced lipoyl domain constructs that can be employed in sorting the specific roles of E2L1 and E2L2 in facilitating catalytic and regulatory processes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18320

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1995;316;2;926-40

  • The human myocardial two-dimensional gel protein database: update 1994.

    Corbett JM, Wheeler CH, Baker CS, Yacoub MH and Dunn MJ

    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, National Heart and Lung Institute, Heart Science Centre, Middlesex, UK.

    An updated human heart protein two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) database is presented. The database, which contains some 1388 protein spots characterised in terms of M(r) and pI, has been analysed further by Western immunoblotting and protein sequencing. From a total of 103 protein spots analysed, 49 have been identified by immunoblotting and 32 have been identified by protein sequencing. A further six proteins have tentatively been assigned by comparison with the human heart 2-DE protein database of Jungblut et al. (Electrophoresis) 1994, 15, 685-607). This database is being used in studies of alterations in protein expression in the diseased and transplanted human heart.

    Electrophoresis 1994;15;11;1459-65

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Isolation, characterization and chromosomal localization of cDNA clones for the E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Chun K, Mackay N, Willard HF and Robinson BH

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.

    A full-length cDNA clone for the E1 beta subunit of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase (PyrDH) complex was isolated from a human skin fibroblast cDNA library. When sequenced, it showed differences from the nucleotide sequence already published [Koike, K., Ohta, S., Urata, Y., Kagawa, Y. & Koike, M. (1988) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 85, 41-45], such that 19 amino acids were different in the translated open reading frame. Northern blotting of human fibroblast cell lines revealed a major mRNA species of 1.6 kb and a weaker band of 5.5 kb. In a series of nine PyrDH-complex-deficient cell lines from patients with this deficiency, no patients had severely reduced amounts of mRNA, but there was one patient cell line with an increased amount of abnormal-size mRNA. Chromosome localization carried out with DNA blots from man-mouse hybrid cell lines indicated that the E1 beta subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is located on chromosome 3. A motif AXGXXXXGL(R/K)X15(D/E)Q was found in common with a variety of other oxo-acid oxidoreductases, but its function is not known.

    European journal of biochemistry 1990;194;2;587-92

  • Characterization of two cDNA clones for pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit and its regulation in tricarboxylic acid cycle-deficient fibroblast.

    Huh TL, Casazza JP, Huh JW, Chi YT and Song BJ

    Laboratory of Metabolism and Molecular Biology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, Maryland 20852.

    Two distinct types of cDNA clones encoding for the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) E1 beta subunit were isolated from a human liver lambda gt11 cDNA library and characterized. These cDNA clones have identical nucleotide sequences for PDH E1 beta protein coding region but differ in their lengths and in the sequences of their 3'-untranslated regions. The smaller cDNA had an unusual polyadenylation signal within its protein coding region. The cDNA-deduced protein of PDH E1 beta subunit revealed a precursor protein of 359 amino acid residues (Mr 39,223) and a mature protein of 329 residues (Mr 35,894), respectively. Both cDNAs shared high amino acid sequence similarity with that isolated from human foreskin (Koike, K.K., Ohta, S., Urata, Y., Kagawa, Y., and Koike, M. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 41-45) except for three regions of frameshift mutation. These changes led to dramatic alterations in the local net charges and predicted protein conformation. One of the different sequences in the protein coding region of liver cDNA (nucleotide position 452-752) reported here was confirmed by sequencing the region after amplification of cDNA prepared from human skin fibroblasts by the polymerase chain reaction. Southern blot analysis verified simple patterns of hybridization with E1 beta cDNA, indicating that the PDH E1 beta subunit gene is not a member of a multigene family. The mechanisms of differential expression of the PDH E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits were also studied in established fibroblast cell lines obtained from patients with Leigh's syndrome and other forms of congenital lactic acidosis. In Northern blot analyses for PDH E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits, no apparent differences were observed between two Leigh's syndrome and the control fibroblasts studied: one species of PDH E1 alpha mRNA and three species of E1 beta mRNA were observed in all the cell lines examined. However, in one tricarboxylic acid cycle deficient fibroblast cell line, which has one-tenth of the normal enzyme activity, the levels of immunoreactive PDH E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits were markedly decreased as assessed by immunoblot analyses. These data indicated a regulatory mutation caused by either inefficient translation of E1 alpha and E1 beta mRNAs into protein or rapid degradation of both subunits upon translation. In contrast, the PDH E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits in two fibroblast cell lines from Leigh's syndrome patients appeared to be normal as judged by 1) enzyme activity, 2) mRNA Northern blot, 3) genomic DNA Southern blot, and 4) immunoblot analyses indicating that the lactic acidosis seen in these patients did not result from a single defect in either of these E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of the PDH complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;22;13320-6

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of human pyruvate dehydrogenase beta subunit gene.

    Koike K, Urata Y and Koike M

    Department of Pathological Biochemistry, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.

    A genomic clone encompassing the entire gene for the human pyruvate dehydrogenase beta subunit (PDH beta) has been isolated by screening a leukocyte genomic library with a nick-translated human foreskin fibroblast PDH beta cDNA probe. The 18-kilobase clone was characterized by restriction enzyme analysis, extensive DNA sequencing, and primer-extension analysis. The PDH beta structural gene is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns. All intron-exon splice junctions follow the GT/AG rule. The Alu family was found in introns 2 and 8. The 5' flanking region of the PDH beta gene contains a "CAAT" consensus promoter sequence but no "TATA" sequence. Primer-extension analysis indicated that the PDH beta gene transcription start site is an adenine residue located 132 bases upstream from the initiation codon in exon 1.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990;87;15;5594-7

  • Cloning and cDNA sequence of the beta-subunit component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Ho L and Patel MS

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106.

    Two cDNA clones (lambda E1 beta 1, 1469 bp; lambda E1 beta 12, 1437 bp) encoding the beta-subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were isolated from a human liver lambda gt11 cDNA library. The composite human liver E1 beta cDNA encoded the entire mature E1 beta [329 amino acids (aa)] as well as a portion (26 aa) of the E1 beta leader peptide. Significant discrepancies were identified between the nucleotide and deduced aa sequences of human liver E1 beta cDNAs and the corresponding sequences of a previously reported cultured human foreskin fibroblast E1 beta cDNA [Koike et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 (1988) 41-45]. The composite human liver E1 beta cDNA generated in this study provides a reference sequence for investigating the structure-function relationship of human E1 beta and for characterizing genetic mutations in patients with E1 deficiency.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 07319; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 20478

    Gene 1990;86;2;297-302

  • Three genes for enzymes of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex map to human chromosomes 3, 7, and X.

    Olson S, Song BJ, Huh TL, Chi YT, Veech RL and McBride OW

    National Institutes of Health 20892.

    The genes for three proteins of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex have been assigned to human chromosomes by Southern analysis of a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNAs with cDNA probes for these genes. PDH-E1 alpha has been localized on human chromosome 3p13-q23. The assignments of lipoamide dehydrogenase(E3) and PDH-E1 alpha [corrected] to chromosomes 7 and Xp, respectively, have been confirmed. Restrictive-fragment-length polymorphisms have been identified with E3, which will permit further localization of this gene by genetic linkage analysis.

    American journal of human genetics 1990;46;2;340-9

  • Isolation of tryptic fragment of antigen from mitochondrial inner membrane proteins reacting with antimitochondrial antibody in sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Muno D, Kominami E, Ishii H, Usui K, Saifuku K, Sakakibara Y and Namihisa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

    Most of the sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis contains antimitochondrial antibodies, which react with four proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane. We reported in a previous paper that when beef heart mitochondrial inner membrane proteins were digested by trypsin, a new reactive 36 kDa fragment with antimitochondrial antibody was obtained. This 36 kDa fragment derives from original 70 kDa protein because the monoclonal antibody specific to 70 kDa protein reacts with the 36 kDa band equivalent to 70 kDa band. The 36 kDa fragment was purified using an affinity column conjugated with an immunoglobulin-rich fraction of primary biliary cirrhosis serum containing antimitochondrial antibody, preparative electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography using a reverse phase column. The final preparation showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino acid composition is in good agreement with that of the subunit binding domain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 from bovine heart.

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 1990;11;1;16-23

  • Identification of a cDNA clone for the beta-subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Ho L, Javed AA, Pepin RA, Thekkumkara TJ, Raefsky C, Mole JE, Caliendo AM, Kwon MS, Kerr DS and Patel MS

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106.

    We report the isolation of a 1.5 kb cDNA clone for the beta subunit of human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) from a human liver lambda gt11 cDNA library using anti-E1 serum. We generated a peptide sequence of 24 amino acids starting from the N-terminus of bovine heart mature E1 beta. The identity of the E1 beta cDNA clone was confirmed by the similarity between the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA nucleotide sequence and the known amino acid sequence of bovine heart E1 beta. In Northern analysis of total RNA extracted from human heart, the E1 beta cDNA clone hybridized to a major 1.6 kb and a minor 5.2 kb RNA species.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 07319, AM 20478

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;150;3;904-8

  • Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding alpha and beta subunits of human pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Koike K, Ohta S, Urata Y, Kagawa Y and Koike M

    Department of Pathological Biochemistry, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.

    The cDNAs encoding fragments of the alpha and beta subunits (PDH alpha and PDH beta) of human pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, EC were isolated from a HeLa cell cDNA library in the lambda gt11 expression vector by immunoscreening. Phage cDNA fragments were subsequently used to screen a human foreskin fibroblast cDNA library by colony hybridization. Nucleotide sequence analyses of the positive plasmid clones (pHPDA and pHPDB) revealed an insert of 1.36 kilobases (kb) for PDH alpha and one of 1.69 kb for PDH beta, respectively, allowing us to predict the complete amino acid sequences of the precursor and mature proteins of these two subunits. A putative leader sequence of 29 amino acid residues was identified in pHPDA, resulting in a precursor protein of 392 amino acid residues (Mr 43,414) and a mature protein of 363 residues (Mr 40,334). A similar leader sequence of 30 amino acid residues in pHPDB was also identified, resulting in a precursor protein of 359 amino acid residues (Mr 39,046) and a mature protein of 329 residues (Mr 35,911). The amino acid sequences of NH2-terminal regions of the two subunits of human PDH were highly homologous with those of mature porcine PDH. The amino acid sequences of phosphorylation sites determined in PDH alpha of bovine and porcine enzymes were also conserved in the human PDH alpha. Blot analysis of HeLa cell poly(A)+ RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.8 kb for PDH alpha and 1.7 kb for PDH beta, respectively. The precursor proteins of PDH alpha and PDH beta were detected by immunoprecipitation from an 35S-labeled cell-free translation system.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;1;41-5

  • The glucose-lactic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis.

    Cori CF

    Current topics in cellular regulation 1981;18;377-87

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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