G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase (lipoamide)
G00000466 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023571 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000105953 (Ensembl human gene)
4967 (Entrez Gene)
831 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
OGDH (GeneCards)
203740 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8124 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q02218 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • E1k

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Exclusion of OGDH and BMP4 as candidate genes in two siblings with autosomal recessive DOOR syndrome.

    van Bever Y, Balemans W, Duval EL, Jespers A, Eyskens F, van Hul W and Courtens W

    Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium. y.vanbever@erasmusmn.nl

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2007;143A;7;763-7

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Reduction in the E2k subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex has effects independent of complex activity.

    Shi Q, Chen HL, Xu H and Gibson GE

    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University at Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York 10605, USA.

    The activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) declines in brains of patients with several neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of multiple copies of E1k, E2k, and E3. E1k and E2k are unique to KGDHC and may have functions independent of the complex. The present study tested the consequences of different levels of diminished E2k mRNA on protein levels of the subunits, KGDHC activity, and physiological responses. Human embryonic kidney cells were stably transfected with an E2k sense or antisense expression vector. Sense control (E2k-mRNA-100) was compared with two clones in which the mRNA was reduced to 67% of control (E2k-mRNA-67) or to 30% of control (E2k-mRNA-30). The levels of the E2k protein in clones paralleled the reduction in mRNA, and E3 proteins were unaltered. Unexpectedly, the clone with the greatest reduction in E2k protein (E2k-mRNA-30) had a 40% increase in E1k protein. The activity of the complex was only 52% of normal in E2k-mRNA-67 clone, but was near normal (90%) in E2k-mRNA-30 clone. Subsequent experiments tested whether the physiological consequences of a reduction in E2k mRNA correlated more closely to E2k protein or to KGDHC activity. Growth rate, increased DCF-detectable reactive oxygen species, and cell death in response to added oxidant were proportional to E2k proteins, but not complex activity. These results were not predicted because subunits unique to KGDHC have never been manipulated in mammalian cells. These results suggest that in addition to its essential role in metabolism, the E2k component of KGDHC may have other novel roles.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG11921, AG14600, AG14930

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;12;10888-96

  • Regulation of 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase stability by the RING finger ubiquitin ligase Siah.

    Habelhah H, Laine A, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Gershwin ME, Bowtell DD and Ronai Z

    Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGHDC) (also known as the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mitochondrial Krebs cycle. Here we report that the RING finger ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase Siah2 binds to and targets OGDHC-E2 for ubiquitination-dependent degradation. OGDHC-E2 expression and activity are elevated in Siah2(-/-) cells compared with Siah2(+)(/)(+) cells. Deletion of the mitochondrial targeting sequence of OGDHC-E2 results in its cytoplasmic localization and rapid proteasome-dependent degradation in Siah2(+)(/)(+) but not in Siah2(-/-) cells. Significantly, because of its overexpression or disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of OGDHC-E2 from mitochondria to the cytoplasm also results in its concomitant degradation. The role of the Siah family of ligases in the regulation of OGDHC-E2 stability is expected to take place under pathological conditions in which the levels of OGDHC-E2 are altered.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78419

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;51;53782-8

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Subunit interactions in the mammalian alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Evidence for direct association of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase components.

    McCartney RG, Rice JE, Sanderson SJ, Bunik V, Lindsay H and Lindsay JG

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.

    Selective tryptic proteolysis of the mammalian alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) leads to its rapid inactivation as a result of a single cleavage within the N-terminal region of its alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1) component, which promotes the dissociation of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) enzyme and also a fully active E1' fragment. Similarities between the N-terminal region of E1 and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and E3-binding components (E3BP) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are highlighted by the specific cross-reactivities of subunit-specific antisera. Analysis of the pattern of release of E1 and E1' polypeptides from the OGDC during tryptic inactivation suggests that both polypeptide chains of individual E1 homodimers must be cleaved to permit the dissociation of the E1 and E3 components. A new protocol has been devised that promotes E1 dissociation from the oligomeric dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) core in an active state. Significant levels of overall OGDC reconstitution could also be achieved by re-mixing the constituent enzymes in stoichiometric amounts. Moreover, a high affinity interaction has been demonstrated between the homodimeric E1 and E3 components, which form a stable subcomplex comprising single copies of these two enzymes.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;37;24158-64

  • The gene encoding human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase: structural organization and mapping to chromosome 7p13-p14.

    Koike K

    Department of Pathological Biochemistry, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Genomic clones covering the entire sequence of the gene encoding human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) were isolated by screening leukocyte and placenta genomic libraries with radio- and digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled human OGDH cDNAs. The human OGDH gene contains 22 exons spanning approx. 85 kb. All exon/intron splice junctions follow the GT/AG rule. The results of primer extension analysis imply that the OGDH transcription start point is a thymine residue 55 bp upstream from the ATG start codon. The 5'-flanking region of OGDH lacked canonical TATA or CAAT boxes. Using DNAs from human x rodent somatic cell hybrids that segregate human chromosomes in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization, human OGDH was assigned to chromosome arm 7p, an area that corresponds to the boundary between bands 7p13 and 7p14.

    Gene 1995;159;2;261-6

  • Localization of the gene (OGDH) coding for the E1k component of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex to chromosome 7p13-p11.2.

    Szabo P, Cai X, Ali G and Blass JP

    Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York.

    alpha-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1k), also designated oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH; EC, is a component of the enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of alpha-ketogluterate to succinyl coenzyme A, a critical step in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiencies in the activity of this enzyme complex have been observed in brain and peripheral cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This finding led us to localize the genes for the polypeptides that compose the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KDGHC). The E1k locus was mapped to chromosome 7p13-p11.2 using a pair of human/rodent somatic cell hybrid panels. A second related sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified and mapped to chromosome 10.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: NIA AG00541, NIA AG009014

    Genomics 1994;20;2;324-6

  • Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide).

    Koike K, Urata Y and Goto S

    Department of Pathological Biochemistry, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.

    2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) (( OGDH: 2-oxoglutarate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-succinylating), EC )) is a component enzyme of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. We have cloned a human cDNA encoding OGDH from a fetal liver cDNA library by plaque hybridization with a mixture of oligonucleotide probes designed from the amino acid sequences of porcine OGDH. This cDNA spans 4156 bases and contains an open reading frame of 3009 nucleotides encoding a presequence of 40 amino acid residues and a mature protein of 963 amino acid residues (Mr = 108,642). The size of the mRNA is approximately 4.2 kilobases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the human OGDH with experimentally determined segments of porcine OGDH comprising 308 amino acid residues shows 93% sequence identity. The human OGDH has 37% sequence identity with 933 amino acid residues of the Escherichia coli OGDH and 40% sequence identity with 1014 residues of the yeast OGDH.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;5;1963-7

  • Structure-function relationships in dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases.

    Reed LJ and Hackert ML

    Clayton Foundation Biochemical Institute, Austin, Texas.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM06590

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;16;8971-4

OMIM - other

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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