G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) alpha
G00000464 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000166411 (Ensembl human gene)
3419 (Entrez Gene)
825 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
IDH3A (GeneCards)
601149 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:5384 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P50213 (UniProt)

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Role of alpha-Asp181, beta-Asp192, and gamma-Asp190 in the distinctive subunits of human NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Bzymek KP and Colman RF

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.

    Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is allosterically activated by ADP by lowering the Km for isocitrate. The enzyme has three subunit types with distinguishable sequences present in the approximate ratio 2alpha:1beta:1gamma and, per tetramer, binds 2 mol of each ligand. To evaluate whether the subunits also have distinct functions, we replaced equivalent aspartates, one subunit at a time, by asparagines; each expressed, purified enzyme was composed of one mutant and two wild-type subunits. The aspartates were chosen because beta-Asp192 and gamma-Asp190 had previously been affinity labeled by a reactive ADP analogue and alpha-Asp181 is equivalent based on sequence alignments. The alpha-D181N IDH mutant exhibits a 2000-fold decrease in Vmax, with increases of 15-fold in the Kms for Mn(II) and NAD and a much smaller change in the Km for isocitrate. In contrast, the Vmax values of the beta-D192N and gamma-D190N IDHs are only reduced 4-5-fold as compared to wild-type enzyme. The Km for NAD of the beta-D192N enzyme is 9 times that of the normal enzyme with little or no effect on the affinity for Mn(II) or isocitrate, while the Kms for coenzyme and for Mn(II) of the gamma-D190N enzyme are 19 and 72 times, respectively, that of the normal enzyme with a much smaller effect on the Km for isocitrate. Finally, all three mutant enzymes fail to respond to ADP by lowering the Km for isocitrate, although they do bind ADP. Thus, these aspartates are close to but not in the ADP site and are required for communication between the ADP and isocitrate sites. These results demonstrate that alpha-Asp181 is the only one of these aspartates essential for catalysis. Beta-Asp192 is a determinant of the enzyme's affinity for NAD, as is gamma-Asp190, while gamma-Asp190 also influences the enzyme's affinity for metal ion. We conclude that the NAD and ADP sites are shared between alpha- and beta- and alpha- and gamma-subunits, and the Mn(II) site is shared between alpha- and gamma-subunits, while the alpha-subunit is essential for catalysis. Although alpha-Asp181, beta-Asp192, and gamma-Asp190 may have derived from a common progenitor, these aspartates of the three subunits have evolved distinct functions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL 67774

    Biochemistry 2007;46;18;5391-7

  • Identification of Mn2+-binding aspartates from alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Soundar S, O'hagan M, Fomulu KS and Colman RF

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716, USA.

    The human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), with three types of subunits present in the ratio of 2alpha:1beta:1gamma, requires a divalent metal ion to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate. With the aim of identifying ligands of the enzyme-bound Mn(2+), we mutated aspartates on the alpha, beta, or gamma subunits. Mutagenesis target sites were based on crystal structures of metal-isocitrate complexes of Escherichia coli and pig mitochondrial NADP-IDH and sequence alignments. Aspartates replaced by asparagine or cysteine were 206, 230, and 234 of the alpha subunit and those corresponding to alpha-Asp-206: 217 of the beta subunit and 215 of the gamma subunit. Each expressed, purified mutant enzyme has two wild-type subunits and one subunit with a single mutation. Specific activities of WT, alpha-D206N, alpha-D230C, alpha-D234C, beta-D217N, and gamma-D215N enzymes are 22, 29, 1.4, 0.2, 7.3 and 3.7 micromol of NADH/min/mg, respectively, whereas alpha-D230N and alpha-D234N enzymes showed no activity. The K(m,Mn(2+)) for alpha-D230C and gamma-D215N are increased 32- and 100-fold, respectively, along with elevations in K(m,isocitrate). The K(m,NAD) of alpha-D230C is increased 16-fold, whereas that of beta-D217N is elevated 10-fold. For all the mutants K(m,isocitrate) is decreased by ADP, indicating that these aspartates are not needed for normal ADP activation. This study demonstrates that alpha-Asp-230 and alpha-Asp-234 are critical for catalytic activity, but alpha-Asp-206 is not needed; alpha-Asp-230 and gamma-Asp-215 may interact directly with the Mn(2+); and alpha-Asp-230 and beta-Asp-217 contribute to the affinity of the enzyme for NAD. These results suggest that the active sites of the human NAD-IDH are shared between alpha and gamma subunits and between alpha and beta subunits.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL67774

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;30;21073-81

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Evaluation by mutagenesis of the importance of 3 arginines in alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Soundar S, Park JH, Huh TL and Colman RF

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.

    Mammalian NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is an allosteric enzyme, activated by ADP and composed of 3 distinct subunits in the ratio 2alpha:1beta:1gamma. Based on the crystal structure of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and pig heart, and a comparison of their amino acid sequences, alpha-Arg88, beta-Arg99, and gamma-Arg97 of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase were chosen as candidates for mutagenesis to test their roles in catalytic activity and ADP activation. A plasmid harboring cDNA that encodes alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of the human isocitrate dehydrogenase (Kim, Y. O., Koh, H. J., Kim, S. H., Jo, S. H., Huh, J. W., Jeong, K. S., Lee, I. J., Song, B. J., and Huh, T. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36866-36875) was used to express the enzyme in isocitrate dehydrogenase-deficient E. coli. Wild type (WT) and mutant enzymes (each containing 2 normal subunits plus a mutant subunit with alpha-R88Q, beta-R99Q, or gamma-R97Q) were purified to homogeneity yielding enzymes with 2alpha:1beta:1gamma subunit composition and a native molecular mass of 315 kDa. Specific activities of 22, 14, and 2 micromol of NADH/min/mg were measured, respectively, for WT, beta-R99Q, and gamma-R97Q enzymes. In contrast, mutant enzymes with normal beta and gamma subunits and alpha-R88Q mutant subunit has no detectable activity, demonstrating that, although beta-Arg99 and gamma-Arg97 contribute to activity, alpha-Arg88 is essential for catalysis. For WT enzyme, the Km for isocitrate is 2.2 mm, decreasing to 0.3 mm with added ADP. In contrast, for beta-R99Q and gamma-R97Q enzymes, the Km for isocitrate is the same in the absence or presence of ADP, although all the enzymes bind ADP. These results suggest that beta-Arg99 and gamma-Arg97 are needed for normal ADP activation. In addition, the gamma-R97Q enzyme has a Km for NAD 10 times that of WT enzyme. This study indicates that a normal alpha subunit is required for catalytic activity and alpha-Arg88 likely participates in the isocitrate site, whereas the beta and gamma subunits have roles in the nucleotide functions of this allosteric enzyme.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL67774

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;52;52146-53

  • Toward a human blood serum proteome: analysis by multidimensional separation coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Adkins JN, Varnum SM, Auberry KJ, Moore RJ, Angell NH, Smith RD, Springer DL and Pounds JG

    Biological Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.

    Blood serum is a complex body fluid that contains various proteins ranging in concentration over at least 9 orders of magnitude. Using a combination of mass spectrometry technologies with improvements in sample preparation, we have performed a proteomic analysis with submilliliter quantities of serum and increased the measurable concentration range for proteins in blood serum beyond previous reports. We have detected 490 proteins in serum by on-line reversed-phase microcapillary liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry. To perform this analysis, immunoglobulins were removed from serum using protein A/G, and the remaining proteins were digested with trypsin. Resulting peptides were separated by strong cation exchange chromatography into distinct fractions prior to analysis. This separation resulted in a 3-5-fold increase in the number of proteins detected in an individual serum sample. With this increase in the number of proteins identified we have detected some lower abundance serum proteins (ng/ml range) including human growth hormone, interleukin-12, and prostate-specific antigen. We also used SEQUEST to compare different protein databases with and without filtering. This comparison is plotted to allow for a quick visual assessment of different databases as a subjective measure of analytical quality. With this study, we have performed the most extensive analysis of serum proteins to date and laid the foundation for future refinements in the identification of novel protein biomarkers of disease.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2002;1;12;947-55

  • The human plasma proteome: history, character, and diagnostic prospects.

    Anderson NL and Anderson NG

    Plasma Proteome Institute, Washington, DC 20009-3450, USA. leighanderson@plasmaproteome.org

    The human plasma proteome holds the promise of a revolution in disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring provided that major challenges in proteomics and related disciplines can be addressed. Plasma is not only the primary clinical specimen but also represents the largest and deepest version of the human proteome present in any sample: in addition to the classical "plasma proteins," it contains all tissue proteins (as leakage markers) plus very numerous distinct immunoglobulin sequences, and it has an extraordinary dynamic range in that more than 10 orders of magnitude in concentration separate albumin and the rarest proteins now measured clinically. Although the restricted dynamic range of conventional proteomic technology (two-dimensional gels and mass spectrometry) has limited its contribution to the list of 289 proteins (tabulated here) that have been reported in plasma to date, very recent advances in multidimensional survey techniques promise at least double this number in the near future. Abundant scientific evidence, from proteomics and other disciplines, suggests that among these are proteins whose abundances and structures change in ways indicative of many, if not most, human diseases. Nevertheless, only a handful of proteins are currently used in routine clinical diagnosis, and the rate of introduction of new protein tests approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has paradoxically declined over the last decade to less than one new protein diagnostic marker per year. We speculate on the reasons behind this large discrepancy between the expectations arising from proteomics and the realities of clinical diagnostics and suggest approaches by which protein-disease associations may be more effectively translated into diagnostic tools in the future.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2002;1;11;845-67

  • Bovine NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase: alternative splicing and tissue-dependent expression of subunit 1.

    Weiss C, Zeng Y, Huang J, Sobocka MB and Rushbrook JI

    Department of Biochemistry, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA.

    NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), a key regulatory enzyme in the Krebs cycle, is a multi-tetrameric enzyme. At least three of the subunits in the core tetramer of mammals are unique gene products. Subunits 1/beta and 2/gamma are considered to be regulatory, while subunits 3,4/alpha, comprising half the tetramer, are catalytic. The full sequence was obtained for the major subunit 1 cDNA in bovine heart, IDH 1-A. A second cDNA, rare in heart, was also identified (IDH 1-B). Differences in the two were confined to the 3'-region, suggesting alternative splicing. Screening of brain, kidney, and liver RNA showed the presence of IDH 1-A and 1-B and a third major species, IDH 1-C. Amplification of bovine genomic DNA by PCR across the regions of difference produced a single product. Comparison of the genomic and mRNA sequences showed that IDH 1-A resulted from splicing of exon W to exon Y, eliminating intron w, exon X, and intron x. IDH 1-B was formed by splice junctions between exon W, exon X, and exon Y. IDH 1-C resulted from splicing of exon W to exon X and subsequent retention of intron x. The 2 proteins predicted from these 3 mRNAs are identical over their first 357 residues. Protein IDH 1-A, resulting from a termination codon within exon Y, contains an additional 26 residues. Proteins IDH 1-B and 1-C derive from a common termination codon within exon X and contain an additional 28 residues. The two C-terminal regions differ notably in the number and nature of charged residues, resulting in proteins with a charge difference of 3.2 at pH 7.0. Subunit 1 sequences previously reported from other species grouped with one or the other of the bovine proteins. No evidence was found for alternative splicing in subunit 3,4/alpha. The results of the present study, together with recent work on the 2/gamma subunit [Brenner,V., Nyakatura, G., Rosenthal, A., and Platzer, M. (1998) Genomics 44, 8], indicate that the regulatory subunits of the enzyme, but not the catalytic, possess alternatively spliced forms varying in C-terminal properties with tissue-specific expression. The finding is suggestive of a mechanism for modulation of allosteric regulation tailored to the needs of different tissues.

    Biochemistry 2000;39;7;1807-16

  • Identification and functional characterization of a novel, tissue-specific NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase beta subunit isoform.

    Kim YO, Koh HJ, Kim SH, Jo SH, Huh JW, Jeong KS, Lee IJ, Song BJ and Huh TL

    Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701, Korea.

    To understand the interactions and functional role of each of the three mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma), we have characterized human cDNAs encoding two beta isoforms (beta(1) and beta(2)) and the gamma subunit. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that beta(1) and beta(2) encode 349 and 354 amino acids, respectively, and the two isoforms only differ in the most carboxyl 28 amino acids. The gamma cDNA encodes 354 amino acids and is almost identical to monkey IDHgamma. Northern analyses revealed that the smaller beta(2) transcript (1.3 kilobases) is primarily expressed in heart and skeletal muscle, whereas the larger beta(1) mRNA (1.6 kilobases) is prevalent in nonmuscle tissues. Sequence analysis of the IDHbeta gene indicates that the difference in the C-terminal 28 amino acids between beta(1) and beta(2) proteins results from alternative splicing of a single transcript. Among the various combinations of human IDH subunits co-expressed in bacteria, alphabetagamma, alphabeta, and alphagamma combinations exhibited significant amounts of IDH activity, whereas subunits produced alone and betagamma showed no detectable activity. These data suggest that the alpha is the catalytic subunit and that at least one of the other two subunits plays an essential supporting role for activity. Substitution of beta(1) with beta(2) in the co-expression system lowered the pH optimum for IDH activity from 8.0 to 7.6. This difference in optimal pH was analogous to what was observed in mouse kidney and brain (beta(1) prevalent; optimal pH 8.0) versus heart (beta(2) prevalent; pH 7.6) mitochondria. Experiments with a specially designed splicing reporter construct stably transfected into HT1080 cells indicate that acidic conditions favor a splicing pattern responsible for the muscle- and heart-specific beta(2) isoform. Taken together, these data indicate a regulatory role of IDHbeta isoforms in determining the pH optimum for IDH activity through the tissue-specific alternative splicing.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;52;36866-75

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Assignment of the human mitochondrial NAD+ -specific isocitrate dehydrogenase alpha subunit (IDH3A) gene to 15q25.1-->q25.2by in situ hybridization.

    Huh TL, Kim YO, Oh IU, Song BJ and Inazawa J

    Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, Korea.

    Genomics 1996;32;2;295-6

  • Characterization of a cDNA clone for human NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase alpha-subunit and structural comparison with its isoenzymes from different species.

    Kim YO, Oh IU, Park HS, Jeng J, Song BJ and Huh TL

    Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, Korea.

    A 0.6 kb cDNA fragment encoding the human NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase alpha-subunit (H-IDH alpha) was amplified by PCR using oligonucleotide primers synthesized on the basis of pig tryptic peptide sequences [Huang and Colman (1990) Biochemistry 29, 8266-8273]. With the amplified cDNA as a probe, cDNA clones for IDH alpha were isolated from a human heart lambda gt11 cDNA library. The deduced protein sequence of the largest cDNA clone (2628 bp) rendered a precursor protein of 366 amino acids (39,591 Da) and a mature protein of 339 amino acids (36,640 Da). The deduced H-IDH alpha protein sequence is highly similar to the partial peptide sequences of the pig enzyme. It is 55, 43 and 44% identical with yeast NAD(+)-specific IDH2, yeast NAD(+)-specific IDH1 and monkey NAD(+)-specific IDH gamma-subunit (IDH gamma) respectively. However, it has less similarity (about 30%) to NADP(+)-specific IDH from Escherichia coli and bovine mitochondria. These results indicate that the structure of IDH alpha closely resembles that of IDH2, the catalytic subunit of the yeast enzyme. Structural analysis of the deduced H-IDH alpha protein revealed that the amino acids responsible for the binding of isocitrate, Mg2+ and NAD+ are highly conserved. It also has two conserved motifs for the binding sites of ATP and ADP, but a canonical Ca(2+)-binding motif was not recognized. Unusual penta-(ATTTA) and tri-(TAA or ATT) nucleotides which are respectively believed to interact with RNA-binding proteins and be near the endonuclease cleavage sites were frequently recognized in its 3' untranslated region, indicating the possibility of an additional method of regulation of this enzyme. Northern-blot analysis suggests that one mRNA transcript (2.8 kb) exists in cultured HeLa cells. Genomic DNA Southern-blot analysis indicates that the IDH alpha gene is not closely related to that of the other IDH isoenzymes, and IDH alpha appears to be encoded by a single gene.

    The Biochemical journal 1995;308 ( Pt 1);63-8

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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