G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (E2 component of 2-oxo-glutarate complex)
G00000460 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000029190 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000119689 (Ensembl human gene)
1743 (Entrez Gene)
814 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DLST (GeneCards)
126063 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2911 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3010 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P36957 (UniProt)

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • Substantial linkage disequilibrium across the dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase gene region without Alzheimer's disease association.

    Brown AM, Gordon D, Lee H, Caudy M, Haroutunian V and Blass JP

    Dementia Research Service, Burke Medical Research Institute, 785 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, New York 10605, USA. ambrown@med.cornell.edu

    Association of the candidate gene DLST with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk has been suggested on the basis of case-control studies. This gene, located on chromosome 14q24.3, encodes a subunit of a mitochondrial component known to be defective in AD, the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Positive reports have correlated different DLST alleles with LOAD, whereas other groups have failed to find any significant association. We therefore reexamined the association of DLST and LOAD in a more ethnically homogeneous series using three additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within or closely flanking either end of the DLST gene. Pairwise analysis of these SNPs indicated there was strong linkage disequilibrium across the DLST locus. Analysis of complex genotypes or haplotypes based upon all five SNP loci failed to identify a LOAD risk allele, suggesting that further studies of DLST in relation to AD are not warranted.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: K01-HG00055; NIA NIH HHS: AG14930, P01-AG02219; NIMH NIH HHS: MH44292

    Neurochemical research 2004;29;3;629-35

  • Truncated product of the bifunctional DLST gene involved in biogenesis of the respiratory chain.

    Kanamori T, Nishimaki K, Asoh S, Ishibashi Y, Takata I, Kuwabara T, Taira K, Yamaguchi H, Sugihara S, Yamazaki T, Ihara Y, Nakano K, Matuda S and Ohta S

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-396 Kosugi-cho, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-8533, Japan.

    Dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST) is a subunit enzyme of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex of the Krebs cycle. While studying how the DLST genotype contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we found a novel mRNA that is transcribed starting from intron 7 in the DLST gene. The novel mRNA level in the brain of AD patients was significantly lower than that of controls. The truncated gene product (designated MIRTD) localized to the intermembrane space of mitochondria. To investigate the function of MIRTD, we established human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing a maxizyme, a kind of ribozyme, that specifically digests the MIRTD mRNA. The expression of the maxizyme specifically eliminated the MIRTD protein and the resultant MIRTD-deficient cells exhibited a marked decrease in the amounts of subunits of complexes I and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in a decline of activity. A pulse-label experiment revealed that the loss of the subunits is a post-translational event. Thus, the DLST gene is bifunctional and MIRTD transcribed from the gene contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;12;2913-23

  • [Association between DLST gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease].

    Ma Q, Chan P and Yang J

    Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

    Objective: To investigate the association between the polymorphic alleles of dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST) gene cDNA at position A19117G in intron 13 and C19183T in exon 14 and the risk for sporandic Alzheimer's disease (SAD).

    Methods: The polymorphism of DLST gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in 105 patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease and 109 normal controls.

    Results: The frequency of AT/AC genotype was found to be significantly higher in SAD patients (21%) than in controls (10%) with an odds ratio of 2.36 (P < 0.05). The frequencies of AC/AC, AT/AT genotypes and AC allele were slightly decreased in cases with SAD as compared with controls. While the frequencies of the GC/GC genotype and GC allele were slightly higher in SAD patients than in controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion: The AT/AC genotype of DLST gene is associated with an increased risk for SAD.

    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 2001;81;20;1246-8

  • No association between DLST gene and Alzheimer's disease or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Matsushita S, Arai H, Yuzuriha T, Kato M, Matsui T, Urakami K and Higuchi S

    Department of Clinical Research, National Institute on Alcoholism, Kurihama National Hospital, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.

    Among many candidate genes for the genetically heterogeneous Alzheimer's disease (AD), only apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been confirmed. Another candidate is the dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) gene, one of three components of thiamine-dependent mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), because KGDHC activity is reported reduced in AD patients. Also characterized by reduced KGDHC activity is another neuropsychiatric disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), which results from thiamine deficiency. Examination of specific DLST gene polymorphism in 247 Japanese AD patients, 53 alcoholic WKS patients, and 368 nondemented Japanese control subjects revealed no significant differences in DLST genotypes and failed to replicate the findings of earlier studies indicating an association between DLST gene polymorphism and AD.

    Neurobiology of aging 2001;22;4;569-74

  • Lack of replication of association findings in complex disease: an analysis of 15 polymorphisms in prior candidate genes for sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Prince JA, Feuk L, Sawyer SL, Gottfries J, Ricksten A, Nägga K, Bogdanovic N, Blennow K and Brookes AJ

    Center for Genomics Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Jonathan.Prince@cgr.ki.se

    There is considerable enthusiasm for the prospect of using common polymorphisms (primarily single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in candidate genes to unravel the genetics of complex disease. This approach has generated a number of findings of loci which are significantly associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a total of 15 genes of interest were chosen from among the previously published reports of significant association in AD. Genotyping was performed on polymorphisms within those genes (14 SNPs and one deletion) using Dynamic Allele Specific Hybridization (DASH) in 204 Swedish patients with sporadic late-onset AD and 186 Swedish control subjects. The genes chosen for analysis were; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1), angiotensin converting enzyme (DCP1), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH), dihydrolipoyl S-succinyltransferase (DLST), tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6), nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE), Fe65 (APBB1), oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), cathepsin D (CTSD), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and interleukin 1A (IL1A). We found no strong evidence of association for any of these loci with AD in this population. While the possibility exists that the genes analysed are involved in AD (ie they have weak effects and/or are population specific), results reinforce the need for extensive replication studies if we are to be successful in defining true risk factors in complex diseases.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2001;9;6;437-44

  • Modulation by DLST of the genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease in a very elderly population.

    Sheu KF, Brown AM, Haroutunian V, Kristal BS, Thaler H, Lesser M, Kalaria RN, Relkin NR, Mohs RC, Lilius L, Lannfelt L and Blass JP

    Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, NY 10605, USA.

    The mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is deficient in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The DLST gene encodes the core, dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) component of KGDHC, and recent reports indicate an association between polymorphisms of DLST and AD in both white and Japanese patients. We therefore examined the relationship between AD and the DLST and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes in elderly (89 +/- 7 years) AD patients, in whom the epsilon4 allele of APOE (APOE4) is a weak risk factor for AD. Polymorphisms of DLST (A19,117G and T19,183C), shown to be of interest in previous studies, were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. In a series of 429 white subjects from two Jewish nursing homes, an association of APOE4 with AD was found only in patients homozygous for the G,C allele of DLST. Similar relationships occurred in the "very elderly" (> or =85 years, n = 302) subgroup of this series, and also in an autopsy series (n = 225) that included white subjects from the Jewish nursing homes as well as other white subjects. These findings suggest a relationship between APOE4 and a DLST locus in the pathogenesis of AD in very elderly subjects.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG09014

    Annals of neurology 1999;45;1;48-53

  • Subunit interactions in the mammalian alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Evidence for direct association of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase components.

    McCartney RG, Rice JE, Sanderson SJ, Bunik V, Lindsay H and Lindsay JG

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.

    Selective tryptic proteolysis of the mammalian alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) leads to its rapid inactivation as a result of a single cleavage within the N-terminal region of its alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1) component, which promotes the dissociation of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) enzyme and also a fully active E1' fragment. Similarities between the N-terminal region of E1 and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and E3-binding components (E3BP) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are highlighted by the specific cross-reactivities of subunit-specific antisera. Analysis of the pattern of release of E1 and E1' polypeptides from the OGDC during tryptic inactivation suggests that both polypeptide chains of individual E1 homodimers must be cleaved to permit the dissociation of the E1 and E3 components. A new protocol has been devised that promotes E1 dissociation from the oligomeric dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) core in an active state. Significant levels of overall OGDC reconstitution could also be achieved by re-mixing the constituent enzymes in stoichiometric amounts. Moreover, a high affinity interaction has been demonstrated between the homodimeric E1 and E3 components, which form a stable subcomplex comprising single copies of these two enzymes.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;37;24158-64

  • A polypeptide derived from mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase is located on the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle.

    Matuda S, Kodama J, Goshi N, Takase C, Nakano K, Nakagawa S and Ohta S

    Department of Biology and Health Science, Kanoya National Institute of Fitness and Sports, Kagoshima, Kanoya, 891-23, Japan. matsuda@nifs-k.ac.jp

    Dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST) is the core-enzyme of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex which is located in mitochondria. In this study, several tissues from rat and human were immunostained with an affinity-purified anti-DLST antibody. Of the tissues examined, the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle was immunostained with the antibody besides mitochondria. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation analysis coupled with Western blotting demonstrated that the antigen of the anti-DLST antibody is distributed on the plasma membrane fraction in addition to the mitochondria fraction in skeletal muscle and that it is free from the complex. The molecular weight of the polypeptide bound to the plasma membrane was about 20 kilodaltons (kDa). The polypeptide was purified by immunoprecipitation and its N-terminal amino-acid sequence was determined. The amino-acid sequence exactly corresponded to a part of DLST. Northern blots revealed the presence of mRNA corresponding to the 20 kDa protein. We are the first to report that a mitochondrial protein is also present on the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle as well as in mitochondria.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;241;1;151-6

  • Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags.

    Hillier LD, Lennon G, Becker M, Bonaldo MF, Chiapelli B, Chissoe S, Dietrich N, DuBuque T, Favello A, Gish W, Hawkins M, Hultman M, Kucaba T, Lacy M, Le M, Le N, Mardis E, Moore B, Morris M, Parsons J, Prange C, Rifkin L, Rohlfing T, Schellenberg K, Bento Soares M, Tan F, Thierry-Meg J, Trevaskis E, Underwood K, Wohldman P, Waterston R, Wilson R and Marra M

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. lhillier@watson.wustl.edu

    We report the generation of 319,311 single-pass sequencing reactions (known as expressed sequence tags, or ESTs) obtained from the 5' and 3' ends of 194,031 human cDNA clones. Our goal has been to obtain tag sequences from many different genes and to deposit these in the publicly accessible Data Base for Expressed Sequence Tags. Highly efficient automatic screening of the data allows deposition of the annotated sequences without delay. Sequences have been generated from 26 oligo(dT) primed directionally cloned libraries, of which 18 were normalized. The libraries were constructed using mRNA isolated from 17 different tissues representing three developmental states. Comparisons of a subset of our data with nonredundant human mRNA and protein data bases show that the ESTs represent many known sequences and contain many that are novel. Analysis of protein families using Hidden Markov Models confirms this observation and supports the contention that although normalization reduces significantly the relative abundance of redundant cDNA clones, it does not result in the complete removal of members of gene families.

    Genome research 1996;6;9;807-28

  • Mutation analysis of the chromosome 14q24.3 dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) gene in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Cruts M, Backhovens H, Van Gassen G, Theuns J, Wang SY, Wehnert A, van Duijn CM, Karlsson T, Hofman A, Adolfsson R et al.

    Born-Bunge Foundation, University of Antwerp (UIA), Department of Biochemistry, Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Linkage analysis studies have indicated that the chromosome band 14q24.3 harbours a major gene for familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we localized the chromosome 14 AD gene (AD3) in the 6.4 cM interval between the markers D14S289 and D14S61. We mapped the gene encoding dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST), the E2k component of human alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), in the AD3 candidate region using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The DLST gene is a candidate for the AD3 gene since deficiencies in KGDHC activity have been observed in brain tissue and fibroblasts of AD patients. The 15 exons and the promoter region of the DLST gene were analysed for mutations in chromosome 14 linked AD cases and in two series of unrelated early-onset AD cases (onset age < 55 years). Sequence variations in intronic sequences (introns 3, 5 and 10) or silent mutations in exonic sequences (exons 8 and 14) were identified. However, no AD related mutations were observed, suggesting that the DLST gene is not the chromosome 14 AD3 gene.

    Neuroscience letters 1995;199;1;73-7

  • Isolation, characterization and structural organization of the gene and pseudogene for the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase component of the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    Nakano K, Takase C, Sakamoto T, Nakagawa S, Inazawa J, Ohta S and Matuda S

    Department of Biochemistry, Kagoshima Women's Junior College, Japan.

    In the present study, the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex was isolated from a human genomic DNA library and its entire nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene was approximately 23 kbp in size with 15 exons and 14 introns. All of the donor and acceptor splice sites of this gene conformed to the GT/AG rule. A guanine residue 43 bases upstreams of the ATG initiating translation codon was the transcription initiation site of the human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase mRNA. Sequence analysis of the promoter-regulatory region showed the presence of a CAAT-box-like sequence but the presence of a TATA-box-like sequence was not evidenced. Also located in this region were sequences resembling glucocorticoid-responsive and cAMP-responsive elements, and an Sp1 binding site. No nucleotide sequence corresponding to the E3-binding and/or E1-binding domain was found in any region of the gene. Therefore, the exon coding for the E3-binding and/or E1-binding domain may have been lost from the gene during evolution. Moreover, a processed pseudogene of dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase was isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the pseudogene is 93% similar to the sequence of the human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase cDNA, but the pseudogene is not functional for base changes, deletions and insertions of the pseudogene. Southern-blot analysis showed the presence of a single copy of this gene and a single copy of a pseudogene in the human genome. In addition, a possible relationship between dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase and familial Alzheimer's disease is discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1994;224;1;179-89

  • Isolation, characterization, and mapping of gene encoding dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k) of human alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    Ali G, Wasco W, Cai X, Szabo P, Sheu KF, Cooper AJ, Gaston SM, Gusella JF, Tanzi RE and Blass JP

    Burke Medical Research Institute, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, New York 10605.

    We have isolated and sequenced cDNAs representing the full-length (2987-bp) gene for dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k component) of the human alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) from a human fetal brain cDNA library. The E2k cDNA was mapped to human chromosome 14 using a somatic cell hybrid panel, and more precisely to band 14q24.3 by in situ hybridization. This cDNA also cross-hybridized to an apparent E2k pseudogene on chromosome 1p31. Northern analysis revealed the E2k gene to be ubiquitously expressed in peripheral tissues and brain. Interestingly, chromosome 14q24.3 has recently been reported to contain gene defects for an early-onset form of familial Alzheimer's disease and for Machado-Joseph disease. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether the E2k gene plays a role in either of these two disorders.

    Somatic cell and molecular genetics 1994;20;2;99-105

  • Human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase: cDNA cloning and localization on chromosome 14q24.2-q24.3.

    Nakano K, Matuda S, Sakamoto T, Takase C, Nakagawa S, Ohta S, Ariyama T, Inazawa J, Abe T and Miyata T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kagoshima Women's Junior College, Japan.

    We isolated cDNA for dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase from a human fibroblast cDNA library in lambda gt11. The cDNA revealed that the human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase lacked a sequence motif of an E3 and/or E1 binding site. This suggests that the human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase possesses a unique structure consisting of two domains in contrast with the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases of other alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. In addition, we found that the human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene is located on chromosome 14 at q24.2-q24.3 and that a sequence related to the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene is located on chromosome 1 at p31. Interestingly, the gene for the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase of the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex is also located on chromosome 1p31 (Zneimer et al. (1991) Genomics 10, 740-747).

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993;1216;3;360-8

  • An unspliced cDNA for human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase: characterization and mapping of the gene to chromosome 14q24.2-q24.3.

    Nakano K, Takase C, Sakamoto T, Ohta S, Nakagawa S, Ariyama T, Inazawa J, Abe T and Matuda S

    Department of Biochemistry, Kagoshima Women's Junior College, Japan.

    Abnormality of the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene may be a cause of familial Alzheimer's disease linked to chromosome 14q24.3. However, the locus of the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene on this chromosome was uncertain. An unspliced cDNA of about 2.3 kb for human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase was isolated. This cDNA contained three exons and four introns and the nucleotide sequences at the 5' donor and 3' acceptor sites of all introns conformed to the gt-ag rule. The amino acid sequences of the three exons support our previous observation that human dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase lacks a sequence motif for an E1 and/or E3 binding site. The unspliced cDNA was mapped only on human chromosome 14q24.2-q24.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Thus the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase gene is concluded to be located on human chromosome 14q24.2-q24.3.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;196;2;527-33

  • Maple syrup urine disease: domain structure, mutations and exon skipping in the dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E2) component of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex.

    Chuang DT, Fisher CW, Lau KS, Griffin TA, Wynn RM and Cox RP

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in the oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids derived from leucine, isoleucine and valine. The enzyme deficient in MSUD, the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex, is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex consisting of at least six distinct subunits. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous as manifested by lesions in different subunits of the BCKAD complex among unrelated patients. To approach the biochemical basis of MSUD involving the dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E2) subunit, the domain structure of this polypeptide from human and bovine livers has been defined by limited proteolysis and cDNA cloning. The assembly of 24 E2 subunits into a cubic structure, forming the core of the mammalian BCKAD complex, was established by electron microscopy and sedimentation equilibrium analysis. Highly assembled bovine E2 devoid of prosthetic lipoic acid has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Studies carried out with this bacterial expression system have provided insights into the lipoylation process of E2, and the involvement of the His391 residue in the transacylation reaction. At the genetic level, the human E2 gene (DBT) has been regionally assigned to chromosome 1p31, and a related E2 pseudogene to chromosome 3q24 by in situ hybridization. Genomic cloning has shown that the human E2 gene undergoes premature transcriptional termination and alternate splicing as normal events, although its functional significance is unknown. Through the use of the polymerase chain reaction and other recombinant DNA methods, several compound heterozygous mutations at the E2 locus have been identified in classical as well as thiamine-responsive MSUD patients. These mutations would appear to be useful genetic models, which will facilitate investigations into macromolecular organization and protein-protein interactions. Moreover, an array of precise single and multiple exon deletions has been observed in the amplified mutant E2 transcripts. The results represent unexpected secondary effects that are apparently associated with the above primary mutations in the E2 gene.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-26758, DK-37373

    Molecular biology & medicine 1991;8;1;49-63

  • Structure-function relationships in dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases.

    Reed LJ and Hackert ML

    Clayton Foundation Biochemical Institute, Austin, Texas.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM06590

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;16;8971-4

  • Inhibition of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity by a distinct population of autoantibodies recognizing dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Fregeau DR, Prindiville T, Coppel RL, Kaplan M, Dickson ER and Gershwin ME

    Division of Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis 95616.

    Sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis contain autoantibodies that recognize mitochondrial proteins. Five of the target autoantigens have now been identified as enzymes of three related multienzyme complexes: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Each complex consists of component enzymes designated E1, E2 and E3. In this report, we confirm that primary biliary cirrhosis sera react with dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, the E2 component of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Seventy-three of 188 (39%) primary biliary cirrhosis sera reacted with alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-E2 when immunoblotted against purified alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; one of these sera also reacted with the E1 component. In addition, primary biliary cirrhosis sera possessing alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-E2 reactivity specifically inhibited enzyme function of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Enzyme activity was not affected by primary biliary cirrhosis sera that contained autoantibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 and/or branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex-E2, which lacked alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-E2 reactivity. Furthermore, affinity-purified primary biliary cirrhosis sera against alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-E2 inhibited only alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activity but did not alter enzyme activity of either pyruvate dehydrogenase complex or branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Finally, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-E2 specific affinity-purified antisera did not react on immunoblot with any component enzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex or branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 39588

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 1990;11;6;975-81

  • Purification, resolution, and reconstitution of rat liver branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex.

    Ono K, Hakozaki M, Kimura A and Kochi H

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) was solubilized as an enzyme complex from rat liver mitochondria by sonic treatment. Dehydrogenase (E1) and dihydrolipoyltransacylase (E2) components of the complex were purified in an associated form and resolved into individual components in the presence of 1 M NaCl, while lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) component was dissociated from the complex during purification. Analysis by gel electrophoresis in dodecyl sulfate revealed the E1 comprised two different subunits with apparent molecular weights of 36,000 and 45,500, presumably in an equal molar ratio, while E2 consisted of a single subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 51,000. The BCKADH complex was reconstituted by combining E1, E2, and E3, and the formation of the complex was confirmed by analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The reconstituted enzyme complex oxidized not only alpha-ketoisovalerate (KIV), alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), and alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate (KMV), but also pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Apparent Km values were 10-12 microM for the branched-chain alpha-keto acids, 2.2 mM for pyruvate, and 2.5 mM for alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Journal of biochemistry 1987;101;1;19-27

  • Inhibition of glycine oxidation by pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acids in rat liver mitochondria: presence of interaction between the glycine cleavage system and alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

    Kochi H, Seino H and Ono K

    Pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acids which were transaminated products of valine, leucine, and isoleucine inhibited glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria. However, glycine synthesis (the reverse reaction of glycine decarboxylation) was stimulated by those alpha-keto acids with the concomitant decarboxylation of alpha-keto acid added in the absence of NADH. Both the decarboxylation and the synthesis of glycine by mitochondrial extract were affected similarly by alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acids in the absence of pyridine nucleotide, but not by pyruvate. This failure of pyruvate to have an effect was due to the lack of pyruvate oxidation activity in the mitochondrial extract employed. It indicated that those alpha-keto acids exerted their effects by providing reducing equivalents to the glycine cleavage system, possibly through lipoamide dehydrogenase, a component shared by the glycine cleavage system and alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. On the decarboxylation of pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acids in intact mitochondria, those alpha-keto acids inhibited one another. In similar experiments with mitochondrial extract, decarboxylations of alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid were inhibited by branched-chain alpha-keto acid and alpha-ketoglutarate, respectively, but not by pyruvate. NADH was unlikely to account for the inhibition. We suggest that the lipoamide dehydrogenase component is an indistinguishable constituent among alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system in mitochondria in nature, and that lipoamide dehydrogenase-mediated transfer of reducing equivalents might regulate alpha-keto acid oxidation as well as glycine oxidation.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1986;249;2;263-72

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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