G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase
G00000458 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000150768 (Ensembl human gene)
1737 (Entrez Gene)
161 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DLAT (GeneCards)
608770 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2896 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3782 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P10515 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PDC-E2

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • Apotopes and the biliary specificity of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Lleo A, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Gores GJ, Ansari AA, Van de Water J and Gershwin ME

    Division of Rheumatology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

    Unlabelled: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), directed to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Notwithstanding the presence of mitochondria in virtually all nucleated cells, the destruction in PBC is limited to small intrahepatic bile ducts. The reasons for this tissue specificity remain unknown, although biliary epithelial cells (BECs) uniquely preserve the PDC-E2 epitope following apoptosis. Notably, PBC recurs in an allogeneic transplanted liver, suggesting generic rather than host PBC-specific susceptibility of BEC. We used cultured human intrahepatic BECs (HIBECs) and other well-characterized cell lines, including, HeLa, CaCo-2 cells, and nontransformed human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, to determine the integrity and specific localization of PDC-E2 during induced apoptosis. All cell lines, both before and after apoptosis, were tested with sera from patients with PBC (n = 30), other autoimmune liver and rheumatic diseases (n = 20), and healthy individuals (n = 20) as well as with a mouse monoclonal antibody against PDC-E2 and AMA with an immunoglobulin A isotype. PDC-E2 was found to localize unmodified within apoptotic blebs of HIBECs, but not within blebs of various other cell lineages studied. The fact that AMA-containing sera reacted with PDC-E2 on apoptotic BECs without a requirement for permeabilization suggests that the autoantigen is accessible to the immune system during apoptosis.

    Conclusion: Our data indicate that the tissue (cholangiocyte) specificity of the autoimmune injury in PBC is a consequence of the unique characteristics of HIBECs during apoptosis and can be explained by exposure to the immune system of intact immunoreactive PDC-E2 within apoptotic blebs.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK39588, DK70004, R01 DK039588, R21 DK070004, R37 DK039588, R37 DK039588-21, Z01 DK070004

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2009;49;3;871-9

  • Binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Korotchkina LG and Patel MS

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

    In human (h) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is bound to the E1-binding domain of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2). The C-terminal surface of the E1beta subunit was scanned for the negatively charged residues involved in binding with E2. betaD289 of hE1 interacts with K276 of hE2 in a manner similar to the corresponding interaction in Bacillus stearothermophilus PDC. In contrast to bacterial E1beta, the C-terminal residue of the hE1beta does not participate in the binding with positively charged residues of hE2. This latter finding shows species specificity in the interaction between hE1beta and hE2 in PDC.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20478, R01 DK020478-20

    FEBS letters 2008;582;3;468-72

  • Differential epitope mapping of antibodies to PDC-E2 in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Bellucci R, Oertelt S, Gallagher M, Li S, Zorn E, Weller E, Porcheray F, Alyea EP, Soiffer RJ, Munshi NC, Gershwin ME and Ritz J

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    A unique characteristic of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the presence of high-titer and extremely specific autoantibodies to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Autoantibodies to PDC-E2 antigen have only been detected in patients with disease or in those who subsequently develop PBC. One exception has been a subgroup of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) after transplantation. These patients developed high-titer antibodies to a variety of myeloma-associated antigens, including PDC-E2, coincident with rejection of myeloma cells in vivo. To examine the specificity of autoantibodies to PDC in these patients, we screened sera from patients with MM, chronic leukemias, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), PBC, and healthy donors. Three of 11 patients with MM (27%) and 2 of 6 patients with chronic leukemias (33%) developed anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in association with DLI response; 2 of 12 (17%) patients in the MGUS pretreatment control population also had detectable anti-PDC responses. Interestingly, the epitope specificity of these PDC-E2 autoantibodies was distinctive, suggesting that the mechanisms leading to loss of tolerance in the transplantation patients are distinct from PBC.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA078378, P01 CA078378; NIAID NIH HHS: AI29530, P01 AI029530, U19 AI029530; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK037003, DK39588, R01 DK039588, R01 DK083352, R37 DK039588

    Blood 2007;109;5;2001-7

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Clinical and genetic spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) deficiency.

    Head RA, Brown RM, Zolkipli Z, Shahdadpuri R, King MD, Clayton PT and Brown GK

    Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction in infancy and early childhood. Most cases are caused by mutations in the X-linked gene for the E1alpha subunit of the complex. Mutations in DLAT, the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 core component of the complex, have not been described previously. We report two unrelated patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency caused by defects in the E2 subunit. Both patients are less severely affected than typical patients with E1alpha mutations and both have survived well into childhood. Episodic dystonia was the major neurological manifestation, with other more common features of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, such as hypotonia and ataxia, being less prominent. The patients had neuroradiological evidence of discrete lesions restricted to the globus pallidus, and both are homozygous for different mutations in the DLAT gene. The clinical presentation and neuroradiological findings are not typical of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and extend the clinical and mutational spectrum of this condition.

    Annals of neurology 2005;58;2;234-41

  • Crystal structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 bound to lipoyl domain 2 of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Kato M, Chuang JL, Tso SC, Wynn RM and Chuang DT

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is regulated by reversible phosphorylation by four isoforms of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). PDKs phosphorylate serine residues in the dehydrogenase (E1p) component of PDC, but their amino-acid sequences are unrelated to eukaryotic Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases. PDK3 binds to the inner lipoyl domains (L2) from the 60-meric transacetylase (E2p) core of PDC, with concomitant stimulated kinase activity. Here, we present crystal structures of the PDK3-L2 complex with and without bound ADP or ATP. These structures disclose that the C-terminal tail from one subunit of PDK3 dimer constitutes an integral part of the lipoyl-binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the opposing subunit. The two swapped C-terminal tails promote conformational changes in active-site clefts of both PDK3 subunits, resulting in largely disordered ATP lids in the ADP-bound form. Our structural and biochemical data suggest that L2 binding stimulates PDK3 activity by disrupting the ATP lid, which otherwise traps ADP, to remove product inhibition exerted by this nucleotide. We hypothesize that this allosteric mechanism accounts, in part, for E2p-augmented PDK3 activity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 26758, DK 62308, R01 DK026758, R01 DK062306, R56 DK062306

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;10;1763-74

  • Disease-specific cross-reactivity between mimicking peptides of heat shock protein of Mycobacterium gordonae and dominant epitope of E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is common in Spanish but not British patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Bogdanos DP, Pares A, Baum H, Caballeria L, Rigopoulou EI, Ma Y, Burroughs AK, Rodes J and Vergani D

    Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK.

    Previous studies on Spanish patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) have shown extensive, disease-specific cross-reactivity between the 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) of Mycobacterium gordonae and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2), the major target of anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA). Studies on a British population were unable to substantiate these findings. Having found that there is an excellent and almost unique match between the PDC-E2 autoepitope and a sequence in mycobacterial hsp65s, we tested the corresponding peptides by ELISA for cross-reactivity using sera from 90 PBC patients, 40 Spanish and 50 British, and 84 pathological controls. Reactivity to the MYCGO hsp65(90-104)/human PDC-E2(212-226)pair was present in 19 (47.5%) Spanish PBC patients and in 2 (4%) of the 50 British. Reactivity was not seen in any of the controls. Simultaneous reactivity to mimics was due to cross-reactivity as confirmed by inhibition studies. Three dimensional modelling predicts mycobacterial hsp65(90-104)to be exposed on the surface of the protein. The affinity of anti-hsp65(90-104)antibody was higher than that of anti-PDC-E2(212-226). Hsp65(90-104)is a target of disease-specific cross-reactivity to PDC-E2(212-226). The geographical confinement of this phenomenon is probably the result of complex genetic, environmental and immunological interaction.

    Journal of autoimmunity 2004;22;4;353-62

  • Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components.

    Hiromasa Y, Fujisawa T, Aso Y and Roche TE

    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

    The subunits of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can form a 60-mer via association of the C-terminal I domain of E2 at the vertices of a dodecahedron. Exterior to this inner core structure, E2 has a pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1)-binding domain followed by two lipoyl domains, all connected by mobile linker regions. The assembled core structure of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex also includes the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3)-binding protein (E3BP) that binds the I domain of E2 by its C-terminal I' domain. E3BP similarly has linker regions connecting an E3-binding domain and a lipoyl domain. The composition of E2.E3BP was thought to be 60 E2 plus approximately 12 E3BP. We have prepared homogenous human components. E2 and E2.E3BP have s(20,w) values of 36 S and 31.8 S, respectively. Equilibrium sedimentation and small angle x-ray scattering studies indicate that E2.E3BP has lower total mass than E2, and small angle x-ray scattering showed that E3 binds to E2.E3BP outside the central dodecahedron. In the presence of saturating levels of E1, E2 bound approximately 60 E1 and maximally sedimented 64.4 +/- 1.5 S faster than E2, whereas E1-saturated E2.E3BP maximally sedimented 49.5 +/- 1.4 S faster than E2.E3BP. Based on the impact on sedimentation rates by bound E1, we estimate fewer E1 (approximately 12) were bound by E2.E3BP than by E2. The findings of a smaller E2.E3BP mass and a lower capacity to bind E1 support the smaller E3BP substituting for E2 subunits rather than adding to the 60-mer. We describe a substitution model in which 12 I' domains of E3BP replace 12 I domains of E2 by forming 6 dimer edges that are symmetrically located in the dodecahedron structure. Twelve E3 dimers were bound per E248.E3BP12 mass, which is consistent with this model.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18320

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;8;6921-33

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Facilitated interaction between the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 and the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase.

    Hiromasa Y and Roche TE

    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

    The dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) has an enormous impact on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component by acting as a mobile binding framework and in facilitating and mediating regulation of PDK activity. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies established that the soluble PDK2 isoform is a stable dimer. The interaction of PDK2 with the lipoyl domains of E2 (L1, L2) and the E3-binding protein (L3) were characterized by AUC. PDK2 interacted very weakly with L2 (Kd approximately 175 microM for 2 L2/PDK2) but much tighter with dimeric glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L2 (Kd approximately 3 microM), supporting the importance of bifunctional binding. Reduction of lipoyl groups resulted in approximately 8-fold tighter binding of PDK2 to GST-L2red, which was approximately 300-fold tighter than binding of 2 L2red and also much tighter than binding by GST-L1red and GST-L3red. The E2 60-mer bound approximately 18 PDK2 dimers with a Kd similar to GST-L2. E2.E1 bound more PDK2 (approximately 27.6) than E2 with approximately 2-fold tighter affinity. Lipoate reduction fostered somewhat tighter binding at more sites by E2 and severalfold tighter binding at the majority of sites on E2.E1. ATP and ADP decreased the affinity of PDK2 for E2 by 3-5-fold and adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate or phosphorylation of E1 similarly reduced PDK2 binding to E2.E1. Reversible bifunctional binding to L2 with the mandatory singly held transition fits the proposed "hand-over-hand" movement of a kinase dimer to access E1 without dissociating from the complex. The gain in binding interactions upon lipoate reduction likely aids reduction-engendered stimulation of PDK2 activity; loosening of binding as a result of adenine nucleotides and phosphorylation may instigate movement of lipoyl domain-held kinase to a new E1 substrate.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18320

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;36;33681-93

  • Comprehensive mapping of HLA-A0201-restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes on PDC-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Matsumura S, Kita H, He XS, Ansari AA, Lian ZX, Van De Water J, Yamamoto K, Tsuji T, Coppel RL, Kaplan M and Gershwin ME

    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 95616, USA.

    Growing evidence has implicated the involvement of autoreactive T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We have recently taken advantage of motif prediction analysis of HLA-A*0201 and identified the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted epitope, amino acids 159 to 167 on E2 components of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDC-E2), the major mitochondrial antigens in PBC. The mechanisms involved in the selection of epitope peptide(s) that comprise the PDC-E2-specific autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are unknown and likely involve other epitopes on PDC-E2 restricted by MHC class I molecules. To address this issue, a comprehensive mapping of the CTL epitope repertoire on the PDC-E2 molecule that binds HLA-A*0201 was performed to provide further clues regarding the role of CTLs. We used the T2 cell line to screen 79 overlapping 15mer peptides, spanning the entire PDC-E2 molecule. Six of the 79 peptides exhibited significantly higher binding activity to HLA-A*0201 than the other 15mer peptides. Two of these 6 peptides induced CTL lines from patients with PBC. Fine mapping with N-terminus or C-terminus truncated peptides identified 10mer peptide, PDC-E2 amino acids 165 to 174, which is a novel CD8 epitope restricted by HLA-A*0201. In conclusion, using a combination of the 15mer peptide library screening with the T2 binding assay and also the induction of CTL lines with candidate peptides, we have defined a novel HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope PDC-E2 165 to 174 in patients with PBC. These data will become important in the development of altered peptide ligands to modulate disease activity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK39588

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2002;36;5;1125-34

  • Interaction between the individual isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and the inner lipoyl-bearing domain of transacetylase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Tuganova A, Boulatnikov I and Popov KM

    Division of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499, U.S.A.

    Protein-protein interactions play an important role in the regulation of enzymic activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). It is generally believed that the binding of PDK to the inner lipoyl-bearing domain L2 of the transacetylase component E2 of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex largely determines the level of kinase activity. In the present study, we characterized the interaction between the individual isoenzymes of PDK (PDK1-PDK4) and monomeric L2 domain of human E2, as well as the effect of this interaction on kinase activity. It was found that PDK isoenzymes are markedly different with respect to their affinities for L2. PDK3 demonstrated a very tight binding, which persisted during isolation of PDK3-L2 complexes using size-exclusion chromatography. Binding of PDK1 and PDK2 was readily reversible with the apparent dissociation constant of approx. 10 microM for both isoenzymes. PDK4 had a greatly reduced capacity for L2 binding (relative order PDK3>PDK1=PDK2>PDK4). Monomeric L2 domain alone had very little effect on the activities of either PDK1 or PDK2. In contrast, L2 caused a 3-fold increase in PDK3 activity and approx. 37% increase in PDK4 activity. These results strongly suggest that the interactions between the individual isoenzymes of PDK and L2 domain are isoenzyme-specific and might be among the major factors that determine the level of kinase activity of particular isoenzyme towards the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK56898; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 51262, R01 GM051262, R01 GM051262-11

    The Biochemical journal 2002;366;Pt 1;129-36

  • Three-dimensional structure of the major autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Howard MJ, Fuller C, Broadhurst RW, Perham RN, Tang JG, Quinn J, Diamond AG and Yeaman SJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge Centre for Molecular Recognition, University of Cambridge, England.

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in patients' serum. The major autoantigen, recognized by antibodies from > 95% of patients with PBC, has been identified as the E2 component (E2p) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. Immunodominant sites on E2p have been localized to the inner of the two lipoyl domains, where the essential cofactor lipoic acid is attached covalently. The aim of this study was to determine the three-dimensional structure of the inner lipoyl domain of human E2p.

    Methods: The domain was expressed in Escherichia coli; after purification, its structure was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Results: The structure of the lipoyl domain from human E2p was determined, and the implications of the structure for autoimmune recognition were assessed.

    Conclusions: Knowledge of the structure further defines the major epitope and may help in the design of antigen-specific immunotherapy for treatment of PBC.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Gastroenterology 1998;115;1;139-46

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Chromosome localization and RFLP analysis of PDC-E2: the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Leung PS, Watanabe Y, Munoz S, Teuber SS, Patel MS, Korenberg JR, Hara P, Coppel R and Gershwin ME

    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis 95616.

    Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis are well known for the presence of titer antibodies against dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We have taken advantage of a cDNA probe for dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase to explore the possibility of polymorphism of the E2 subunit by probing genomic DNA from 38 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and 26 healthy controls. To detect restriction fragment length polymorphism, DNA was digested with ten specific restriction enzymes that often detect polymorphism, including Bam HI, Bgl II, Eco RI, Hind III, Hinf I, Msp I, Pst I, Pvu II, Rsa I and Taq I. A Taq I polymorphism was found in 19 of 38 patients with PBC and 6 of 26 normal controls. In addition, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the gene for dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase was mapped on human chromosome 11 band q23.1. Interestingly, this region of the long arm of chromosome 11 is often associated with cytogenetic abnormalities, including translocations.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 1-DK-6-2774, DK 39588

    Autoimmunity 1993;14;4;335-40

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the lipoate acetyl transferase (E2) of human heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex differs from that of human placenta.

    Moehario LH, Smooker PM, Devenish RJ, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME and Marzuki S

    Department of Biochemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., Australia.

    Tissue specific isoforms of an enzyme autoantigen were sought in an attempt to explain a possible disease-associated translocation of the enzyme. A human heart cDNA clone (0.66 kb) coding for part of the lipoate acetyl transferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, recently identified as one of the major autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis was isolated. The cloned cDNA corresponded to nucleotides 1545-2201 of a previously published placental sequence, but showed some differences which give rise to differences in the inferred amino acid sequences of proteins. This may indicate the existence of tissue-specific isoforms of the lipoate acetyl transferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex coded for by a multi-gene family.

    Biochemistry international 1990;20;2;417-22

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Thekkumkara TJ, Ho L, Wexler ID, Pons G, Liu TC and Patel MS

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve, University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106.

    Deoxynucleotide sequencing of a cDNA for the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (PDC-E2) component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) revealed an open reading frame of 1848 base pairs corresponding to a leader sequence of 54 amino acids and a mature protein of 561 amino acids (59,551 Da). Both an amino-terminal lipoyl-bearing domain and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain are present in the deduced amino acid sequence. The lipoyl-bearing domain contains two repeating units of 127 amino acids, each harboring one lipoic acid-binding lysine. Thus, mammalian PDC-E2 differs as to the number of lipoic acid-binding sites from other dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 07319, AM 20478

    FEBS letters 1988;240;1-2;45-8

  • Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase.

    Coppel RL, McNeilage LJ, Surh CD, Van de Water J, Spithill TW, Whittingham S and Gershwin ME

    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency (greater than 95%) of autoantibodies to a Mr 70,000 mitochondrial antigen, a component of the M2 antigen complex. We have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (EC of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 39588

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;19;7317-21

  • Isolation of a cDNA clone for the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the human liver pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Thekkumkara TJ, Jesse BW, Ho L, Raefsky C, Pepin RA, Javed AA, Pons G and Patel MS

    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) forms the structural core of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A cDNA clone (lambda E2-1) for mammalian E2 was identified from a human liver lambda gt11 library using anti-E2 serum. Affinity-selected antibodies using the fusion protein from lambda E2-1 immuno-reacted specifically with E2 of purified pyruvate dehydrogenase complex on immuno-blot analysis. The cDNA insert was approximately 2.3 kb in length with an internal EcoR1 site generating 1.4 and 0.9 kb fragments. A synthetic 17-mer oligodeoxynucleotide mixture based on the amino acid sequence surrounding the lipoic acid-containing lysine residue in bovine kidney E2 hybridized with the 2.3 kb cDNA insert and the 1.4 kb fragment.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 07319, AM 20478

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1987;145;2;903-7

  • The glucose-lactic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis.

    Cori CF

    Current topics in cellular regulation 1981;18;377-87

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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