G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 1, mitochondrial
G00000457 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000104325 (Ensembl human gene)
1666 (Entrez Gene)
812 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DECR1 (GeneCards)
222745 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2753 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q16698 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • SDR18C1

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity.

    Hosgood HD, Zhang L, Shen M, Berndt SI, Vermeulen R, Li G, Yin S, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Rothman N, Chanock S, Smith M and Lan Q

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7240, USA. hosgoodd@mail.nih.gov

    Introduction: Benzene is an established human haematotoxin, with substantial interindividual variation in benzene-induced toxicity.

    Methods: To further examine if genetic variation contributes to benzene haematotoxicity, we analysed 1023 tagSNPs in 121 gene regions important for benzene metabolism, haematopoiesis, leukaemia and lymphoma among 250 workers exposed to benzene and 140 unexposed controls in a cross-sectional study carried out in China. Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and total white blood cell (WBC) count and its subtypes, adjusting for potential confounders and occupational exposure to benzene and toluene among exposed workers. The minp test assessed the association on the gene region level. The false discovery rate method was used to control for multiple comparisons.

    Results: VEGF (minp = 0.0030) and ERCC3 (minp = 0.0042) were the most significantly associated gene regions with altered WBC counts among benzene-exposed workers, after accounting for multiple comparisons. Highly significant changes were also found for WBC subtype counts, including granulocytes, CD4+ T cells and lymphocytes for VEGF and granulocytes and NK cells for ERCC3. Further, in workers exposed to <1 ppm, a SNP in VEGF was associated with changes in WBC and granulocyte counts, and SNPs in ERCC3 were associated with changes in WBC, NK cell and granulocyte counts.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in VEGF, which plays an important role in blood vessel growth, and ERCC3, which is a member of the DNA repair pathway and is responsible for repairing bulky DNA adducts formed by chemicals, may contribute to individual susceptibility to benzene-induced haematotoxicity at relatively low levels of benzene exposure.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 CA999999; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES001896, P30ES01896, P42 ES004705, P42ES04705, R01 ES006721, R01ES06721

    Occupational and environmental medicine 2009;66;12;848-53

  • The SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative.

    Persson B, Kallberg Y, Bray JE, Bruford E, Dellaporta SL, Favia AD, Duarte RG, Jörnvall H, Kavanagh KL, Kedishvili N, Kisiela M, Maser E, Mindnich R, Orchard S, Penning TM, Thornton JM, Adamski J and Oppermann U

    IFM Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. bpn@ifm.liu.se

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with presently over 46,000 members. In phylogenetic comparisons, members of this superfamily show early divergence where the majority have only low pairwise sequence identity, although sharing common structural properties. The SDR enzymes are present in virtually all genomes investigated, and in humans over 70 SDR genes have been identified. In humans, these enzymes are involved in the metabolism of a large variety of compounds, including steroid hormones, prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids and xenobiotics. It is now clear that SDRs represent one of the oldest protein families and contribute to essential functions and interactions of all forms of life. As this field continues to grow rapidly, a systematic nomenclature is essential for future annotation and reference purposes. A functional subdivision of the SDR superfamily into at least 200 SDR families based upon hidden Markov models forms a suitable foundation for such a nomenclature system, which we present in this paper using human SDRs as examples.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: P41 HG003345; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA012153; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM038148, R01 GM038148-19

    Chemico-biological interactions 2009;178;1-3;94-8

  • Proteomic analysis reveals Hrs ubiquitin-interacting motif-mediated ubiquitin signaling in multiple cellular processes.

    Pridgeon JW, Webber EA, Sha D, Li L and Chin LS

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells recognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway. To gain insight into the role of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in cells, we performed a proteomic screen for Hrs UIM-interacting ubiquitinated proteins in human brain by using an in vitro expression cloning screening approach. We have identified 48 ubiquitinated proteins that are specifically recognized by the UIM domain of Hrs. Among them, 12 are membrane proteins that are likely to be Hrs cargo proteins, and four are membrane protein-associated adaptor proteins whose ubiquitination may act as a signal to target their associated membrane cargo for Hrs-mediated endosomal sorting. Other classes of the identified proteins include components of the vesicular trafficking machinery, cell signaling molecules, proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and enzymes involved in ubiquitination and metabolism, suggesting the involvement of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. We have characterized the ubiquitination of two identified proteins, Munc18-1 and Hsc70, and their interaction with Hrs UIM, and provided functional evidence supporting a role for Hsc70 in the regulation of Hrs-mediated endosome-to-lysosome trafficking.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM082828, R01 GM082828, R01 GM082828-01A1, R01 GM082828-02, R01 GM082828-02S1; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047575, NS050650, R01 NS047575, R01 NS047575-01, R01 NS047575-02, R01 NS047575-03, R01 NS047575-04, R01 NS050650, R01 NS050650-01A1, R01 NS050650-02, R01 NS050650-03, R01 NS050650-04, T32 NS007480, T32 NS007480-05, T32 NS007480-06, T32 NS007480-07, T32 NS007480-08, T32 NS007480-09, T32NS007480

    The FEBS journal 2009;276;1;118-31

  • Association of acute ischemic stroke with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism but not with NOS3 gene polymorphisms in a Singapore population.

    Moe KT, Woon FP, De Silva DA, Wong P, Koh TH, Kingwell B, Chin-Dusting J and Wong MC

    Research and Development Unit, National Heart Centre, Singapore. moe.kyaw.thu@nhc.com.sg

    The association of polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene (T-786C, variable number tandem repeats 4A/B/C, and G894T) and in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T) with acute ischemic stroke have been reported.

    Methods: First-time onset acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 120) and controls (n = 207) with no past history of stroke were compared. Allele specific gene amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were used to determine the genotype and allelic frequencies in both groups. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and nitrite levels were measured.

    Results: No significant association of NOS3 polymorphisms with ischemic stroke was noted. The TT genotype of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with ischemic stroke (P = 0.004). Elevated plasma Hcy levels were also significantly associated with ischemic stroke (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions: The TT genotype of C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene contributes to genetic susceptibility of acute ischemic stroke in a Singapore population.

    European journal of neurology 2008;15;12;1309-14

  • Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    Mizuta I, Tsunoda T, Satake W, Nakabayashi Y, Watanabe M, Takeda A, Hasegawa K, Nakashima K, Yamamoto M, Hattori N, Murata M and Toda T

    Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2-B9 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

    Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common human neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Our recent case-control association study of 268 SNPs in 121 candidate genes identified alpha-synuclein (SNCA) as a susceptibility gene for sporadic PD (P = 1.7 x 10(-11)). We also replicated the association of fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) with PD (P = 0.0089). To find other susceptibility genes, we added 34 SNPs to the previous screen. Of 302 SNPs in a total 137 genes, but excluding SNCA, SNPs in NDUFV2, FGF2, CALB1 and B2M showed significant association (P < 0.01; 882 cases and 938 control subjects). We replicated the association analysis for these SNPs in a second independent sample set (521 cases and 1,003 control subjects). One SNP, rs1805874 in calbindin 1 (CALB1), showed significance in both analyses (P = 7.1 x 10(-5); recessive model). When the analysis was stratified relative to the SNCA genotype, the odds ratio of CALB1 tended to increase according to the number of protective alleles in SNCA. In contrast, FGF20 was significant only in the subgroup of SNCA homozygote of risk allele. CALB1 is a calcium-binding protein that widely is expressed in neurons. A relative sparing of CALB1-positive dopaminergic neurons is observed in PD brains, compared with CALB1-negative neurons. Our genetic analysis suggests that CALB1 is associated with PD independently of SNCA, and that FGF20 is associated with PD synergistically with SNCA.

    Human genetics 2008;124;1;89-94

  • Maintenance of luminal NADPH in the endoplasmic reticulum promotes the survival of human neutrophil granulocytes.

    Kardon T, Senesi S, Marcolongo P, Legeza B, Bánhegyi G, Mandl J, Fulceri R and Benedetti A

    Semmelweis Egyetem Orvosi Vegytani, Molekuláris Biológiai és Patobiokémiai Intézete & MTA-SE Patobiokémiai Kutatócsoport, Budapest, Hungary.

    The present study demonstrates the expression of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human neutrophils, and the presence and activity of these enzymes in the microsomal fraction of the cells. Their concerted action together with the previously described glucose-6-phosphate transporter is responsible for cortisone-cortisol interconversion detected in human neutrophils. Furthermore, the results suggest that luminal NADPH generation by the cortisol dehydrogenase activity of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 prevents neutrophil apoptosis provoked by the inhibition of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter. In conclusion, the maintenance of the luminal NADPH pool is an important antiapoptotic factor in neutrophil granulocytes.

    FEBS letters 2008;582;13;1809-15

  • Inflammatory manifestations in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).

    Rosenzweig SD

    Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría J. P. Garrahan, Combate de los Pozos 1881, (1245) Buenos Aires, Argentina. srosenzweig@garrahan.gov.ar

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by recurrent life-threatening infections with bacteria and fungi as well as dysregulated inflammatory mechanisms. CGD is caused by defects in the NADPH oxidase, the enzyme complex responsible for generation of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In this review we will focus our attention on those particular inflammatory manifestations associated with CGD, their frequencies and the underlying immunologic mechanisms favoring it occurrence.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R01TW006644

    Journal of clinical immunology 2008;28 Suppl 1;S67-72

  • DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8.

    Nusbaum C, Mikkelsen TS, Zody MC, Asakawa S, Taudien S, Garber M, Kodira CD, Schueler MG, Shimizu A, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Allen NR, Anderson S, Asakawa T, Blechschmidt K, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Butler J, Cook A, Corum B, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dooley KT, Dorris L, Engels R, Glöckner G, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hall JL, Ishikawa SK, Jaffe DB, Kamat A, Kudoh J, Lehmann R, Lokitsang T, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews CD, Mauceli E, Menzel U, Mihalev AH, Minoshima S, Murayama Y, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Parker SC, Polley A, Raymond CK, Reichwald K, Rodriguez J, Sasaki T, Schilhabel M, Siddiqui R, Smith CL, Sneddon TP, Talamas JA, Tenzin P, Topham K, Venkataraman V, Wen G, Yamazaki S, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Rosenthal A, Birren BW, Platzer M, Shimizu N and Lander ES

    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 320 Charles St, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. chad@broad.mit.edu

    The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (IHGSC) recently completed a sequence of the human genome. As part of this project, we have focused on chromosome 8. Although some chromosomes exhibit extreme characteristics in terms of length, gene content, repeat content and fraction segmentally duplicated, chromosome 8 is distinctly typical in character, being very close to the genome median in each of these aspects. This work describes a finished sequence and gene catalogue for the chromosome, which represents just over 5% of the euchromatic human genome. A unique feature of the chromosome is a vast region of approximately 15 megabases on distal 8p that appears to have a strikingly high mutation rate, which has accelerated in the hominids relative to other sequenced mammals. This fast-evolving region contains a number of genes related to innate immunity and the nervous system, including loci that appear to be under positive selection--these include the major defensin (DEF) gene cluster and MCPH1, a gene that may have contributed to the evolution of expanded brain size in the great apes. The data from chromosome 8 should allow a better understanding of both normal and disease biology and genome evolution.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107

    Nature 2006;439;7074;331-5

  • Studies of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase.

    Yu W, Chu X, Chen G and Li D

    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

    Mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase is a key enzyme for the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Sequence alignment indicates that there are five highly conserved acidic residues, one of which might act as a proton donor. We constructed five mutant expression plasmids of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a nickel metal affinity column. Studies of these mutant proteins were carried out, and the proton donor is likely to be E276. Three substrate analogs were synthesized and characterized. Two analogs, 2-fluoro-2,4-octadienoyl-CoA and 5-methyl-2,4-hexadienoyl-CoA, were substrates of the enzyme. Another analog, 3-furan-2-yl-acrylyl-CoA, was not a substrate, but a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. These studies increased our understanding of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2005;434;1;195-200

  • Structure and reactivity of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase: enzyme-ligand interactions in a distinctive short-chain reductase active site.

    Alphey MS, Yu W, Byres E, Li D and Hunter WN

    Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, United Kingdom.

    Fatty acid catabolism by beta-oxidation mainly occurs in mitochondria and to a lesser degree in peroxisomes. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids are problematic for beta-oxidation, because the enzymes directly involved are unable to process all the different double bond conformations and combinations that occur naturally. In mammals, three accessory proteins circumvent this problem by catalyzing specific isomerization and reduction reactions. Central to this process is the NADPH-dependent 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase. We present high resolution crystal structures of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase in binary complex with cofactor, and the ternary complex with NADP(+) and substrate trans-2,trans-4-dienoyl-CoA at 2.1 and 1.75 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme, a homotetramer, is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase with a distinctive catalytic center. Close structural similarity between the binary and ternary complexes suggests an absence of large conformational changes during binding and processing of substrate. The site of catalysis is relatively open and placed beside a flexible loop thereby allowing the enzyme to accommodate and process a wide range of fatty acids. Seven single mutants were constructed, by site-directed mutagenesis, to investigate the function of selected residues in the active site thought likely to either contribute to the architecture of the active site or to catalysis. The mutant proteins were overexpressed, purified to homogeneity, and then characterized. The structural and kinetic data are consistent and support a mechanism that derives one reducing equivalent from the cofactor, and one from solvent. Key to the acquisition of a solvent-derived proton is the orientation of substrate and stabilization of a dienolate intermediate by Tyr-199, Asn-148, and the oxidized nicotinamide.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;4;3068-77

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Metabolic functions of the two pathways of oleate beta-oxidation double bond metabolism during the beta-oxidation of oleic acid in rat heart mitochondria.

    Ren Y and Schulz H

    Department of Chemistry, City College and Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031, USA.

    Unsaturated fatty acids with odd-numbered double bonds, e.g. oleic acid, can be degraded by beta-oxidation via the isomerase-dependent pathway or the reductase-dependent pathway that differ with respect to the metabolism of the double bond. In an attempt to elucidate the metabolic functions of the two pathways and to determine their contributions to the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, the degradation of 2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA, a metabolite of oleic acid, was studied with rat heart mitochondria. Kinetic measurements of metabolite and cofactor formation demonstrated that more than 80% of oleate beta-oxidation occurs via the classical isomerase-dependent pathway whereas the more recently discovered reductase-dependent pathway is the minor pathway. However, the reductase-dependent pathway is indispensable for the degradation of 3,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA, which is formed from 2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA by delta(3),delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, the auxiliary enzyme that is essential for the operation of the major pathway of oleate beta-oxidation. The degradation of 3,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA is limited by the capacity of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase to reduce 2-trans,4-trans-tetradecadienoyl-CoA, which is rapidly formed from its 3,5 isomer by delta(3,5),delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. It is concluded that both pathways are essential for the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids with odd-numbered double bonds inasmuch as the isomerase-dependent pathway facilitates the major flux through beta-oxidation and the reductase-dependent pathway prevents the accumulation of an otherwise undegradable metabolite.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR03060; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL30847

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;1;111-6

  • The mechanism of dienoyl-CoA reduction by 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase is stepwise: observation of a dienolate intermediate.

    Fillgrove KL and Anderson VE

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4935, USA.

    The chemical mechanism of the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC from rat liver mitochondria has been investigated. This enzyme catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2,4-dienoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thiolesters to the resulting trans-3-enoyl-CoA. Steady-state kinetic parameters for trans-2,trans-4-hexadienoyl-CoA and 5-phenyl-trans-2,trans-4-pentadienoyl-CoA were determined and demonstrated that the dienoyl-CoA and NADPH bind to the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase via a sequential kinetic mechanism. Kinetic isotope effect studies and the transient kinetics of substrate binding support a random order of nucleotide and dienoyl-CoA addition. The large normal solvent isotope effects on V/K ((D)(2)(O)V/K) and V ((D)(2)(O)V) for trans-2,trans-4-hexadienoyl-CoA reduction indicate that a proton transfer step is rate limiting for this substrate. The stability gained by conjugating the phenyl ring to the diene in PPD-CoA results in the reversal of the rate-determining step, as evidenced by the normal isotope effects on V/K(CoA) ((D)V/K(CoA)) and V/K(NADPH) ((D)V/K(NADPH)). The reversal of the rate-determining step was supported by transient kinetics where a burst was observed for the reduction of trans-2,trans-4-hexadienoyl-CoA but not for 5-phenyl-trans-2,trans-4-pentadienoyl-CoA reduction. The chemical mechanism is stepwise where hydride transfer from NADPH occurs followed by protonation of the observable dienolate intermediate, which has an absorbance maximum at 286 nm. The exchange of the C alpha protons of trans-3-decenoyl-CoA, catalyzed by the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, in the presence of NADP(+) suggests that formation of the dienolate is catalyzed by the enzyme active site.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 07319; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36562

    Biochemistry 2001;40;41;12412-21

  • Cloning, expression, and purification of the functional 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase from rat liver mitochondria.

    Fillgrove KL, Anderson VE and Mizugaki M

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4935, USA.

    The mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC is an auxiliary enzyme for the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Import of this enzyme into the mitochondria requires a mitochondrial signal sequence at the amino terminus of the polypeptide chain which is processed/removed once inside the mitochondria. The cDNA of the full-length 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase was previously cloned as pRDR181. PCR methodologies were used to subclone the gene encoding the functional 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase from pRDR181. The PCR product was inserted into a pET15b expression vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble expressed protein can be separated into high- and low-activity fractions. The low-activity fraction can be converted to the high specific activity form by thermal annealing, suggesting it is a metastable misfolded form of the enzyme. Using ion-exchange and affinity chromatography, the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and exhibits a single band on Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE. The molecular mass of 32,413 Da determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry indicates that the amino-terminal methionine had been removed. The Michaelis constants for trans-2, trans-4-hexadienoyl-CoA and NADPH were determined to be 0.46 and 2.5 microM, respectively; a turnover number of 2.1 s(-1) was calculated.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 07319; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36562

    Protein expression and purification 1999;17;1;57-63

  • Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, a novel enzyme that functions in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds.

    Liang X, Zhu D and Schulz H

    Department of Chemistry, City College, City University of New York, New York, New York 10031, USA.

    The mitochondrial metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds at odd-numbered positions, e.g. 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, was investigated. These fatty acids are substrates of beta-oxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria and hence are expected to yield 5,7-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. 5, 7-Decadienoyl-CoA was used to study the degradation of these intermediates. After introduction of a 2-trans-double bond by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase or acyl-CoA oxidase, the resultant 2,5, 7-decatrienoyl-CoA can either continue its pass through the beta-oxidation cycle or be converted by Delta3,Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase to 3,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA. The latter compound was isomerized by a novel enzyme, named Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4, 6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, to 2,4,6-decatrienoyl-CoA, which is a substrate of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Wang, H.-Y. and Schulz, H. (1989) Biochem. J. 264, 47-52) and hence can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation. Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-Trienoyl-CoA isomerase was purified from pig heart to apparent homogeneity and found to be a component enzyme of Delta3,5,Delta2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Although the direct beta-oxidation of 2,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA seems to be the major pathway, the degradation via 2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA makes a significant contribution to the total beta-oxidation of this intermediate.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR 03060; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 30847

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;20;13830-5

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of the human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase gene (DECR).

    Helander HM, Koivuranta KT, Horelli-Kuitunen N, Palvimo JJ, Palotie A and Hiltunen JK

    Biocenter Oulu, Finland.

    2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC is an auxiliary enzyme of beta-oxidation, and it participates in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters having double bonds in both even- and odd-numbered positions. In this article we describe the molecular cloning of the human gene for the 120-kDa isoform of mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR). The gene is approximately 30 kb and comprises 10 exons varying in size from 79 to 203 bp and 9 introns whose sizes vary from 95 bp to about 10 kb. The 5' UTR and 3' UTR are included in exons 1 and 10, respectively. The promoter region contains putative binding sites for several transcription factors, e.g., Sp1, AP-2, AP-4, and C/EBP, but no TATA box was found. Primer extension analysis and 5' RACE-PCR revealed variability in the length of the 5'-UTR, the longest being 72 bp. Through the use of FISH analysis on metaphase chromosomes with a genomic fragment of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, the gene was assigned to the chromosomal band 8q21.3.

    Genomics 1997;46;1;112-9

  • Peroxisomal beta-oxidation and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Hiltunen JK, Filppula SA, Koivuranta KT, Siivari K, Qin YM and Häyrinen HM

    Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Finland.

    Peroxisomes are capable of oxidizing a variety of substrates including (poly)unsaturated enoyl-CoA esters. The beta-oxidation of unsaturated enoyl-CoA esters in peroxisomes, and also in mitochondria, is not just chain-shortening but also involves the metabolizing of pre-existing carbon-to-carbon double bonds. In addition to the enzymes of the beta-oxidation spiral itself, this metabolism requires the participation of auxiliary enzymes: delta 3, delta 2-enoyl-CoA isomerase; 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase; 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 or 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA epimerase; and delta 3,5 delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Many of these enzymes are present as isoforms, and can be found located in multiple subcellular compartments, for example, peroxisomes, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum, while some of the activities are integral parts of multifunctional enzymes of beta-oxidation systems.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1996;804;116-28

  • Isolation and characterization of cDNA for human 120 kDa mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-coenzyme A reductase.

    Koivuranta KT, Hakkola EH and Hiltunen JK

    Biocenter Oulu, Finland.

    2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC participates in beta-oxidation of (poly)unsaturated enoyl-CoAs and it appears in mammalian mitochondria as two isoforms with molecular masses of 120 and 60 kDa [Hakkola and Hiltunen (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 199-204]. The 120 kDa isomer is a homotetrameric enzyme, and here we report cDNA cloning of its subunit from human. cDNA clones were isolated by reverse transcriptase-PCR from a fibrosarcoma cell line and by screening from a human liver lambda gt11 cDNA library. The 1128 bp clone contained an open reading frame of 1008 bp encoding a polypeptide of 335 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 36066 Da. This polypeptide represents the immature monomer of the 120 kDa enzyme, and it contains a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal. The amino acid (nucleotide) sequence of human 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase shows 82.7% (81.7%) similarity (identity) to the corresponding sequence from the rat. Northern-blot analysis gave a single mRNA species of 1.2 kb in several human tissues, the amounts present in the tissues tested ranking as follows: heart approximately liver approximately pancreas > kidney > skeletal muscle approximately lung. Immunoblotting of human and rat liver samples with an antibody to the subunit of the rat 120 kDa isoform indicates that the mature human enzyme is larger than its counterpart in the rat. The comparison of amino acid sequences for rat and human enzymes proposes that the difference in the size is 10 amino acid residues. The results show that the rat and human reductases are similar in many characteristics and that the reductase is expressed in human tissues capable of beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

    The Biochemical journal 1994;304 ( Pt 3);787-92

  • Delta 3,5, delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase from rat liver mitochondria. Purification and characterization of a new enzyme involved in the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Luo MJ, Smeland TE, Shoukry K and Schulz H

    Department of Chemistry, City College, City University of New York, New York 10031.

    Mitochondrial delta 3,5, delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase, which catalyzes the conversion of 3,5-octadienoyl-CoA to 2,4-octadienoyl-CoA, was purified from rat liver 370-fold at almost 30% yield by a six-step purification procedure. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous as judged by gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and its subunit(s) were estimated to be 126,000 and 32,000, respectively. The purification of delta 3,5, delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase completes the characterization of the enzymes functioning in the NADPH-dependent pathway for the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds extending from odd-numbered carbon atoms. This novel pathway may not be operative in peroxisomes because delta 3,5, delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase was only detected in mitochondria. Substrates of this pathway are 2,5-dienoyl-CoAs formed from 5-enoyl-CoAs by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Two sequential isomerization reactions catalyzed by delta 3, delta 2-enoyl-CoAs isomerase and delta 3,5, delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase, respectively, convert 2,5-dienoyl-CoAs to 2,4-dienoyl-CoAs, which are reduced by NADPH-dependent 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC before reentering the beta-oxidation spiral.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR 03060; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 18089, HL 30847

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;4;2384-8

  • NADPH-dependent beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds extending from odd-numbered carbon atoms.

    Smeland TE, Nada M, Cuebas D and Schulz H

    Department of Chemistry, City College, City University of New York, New York 10031.

    The mitochondrial metabolism of 5-enoyl-CoAs, which are formed during the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds extending from odd-numbered carbon atoms, was studied with mitochondrial extracts and purified enzymes of beta-oxidation. Metabolites were identified spectrophotometrically and by high performance liquid chromatography. 5-cis-Octenoyl-CoA, a putative metabolite of linolenic acid, was efficiently dehydrogenated by medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC to 2-trans-5-cis-octadienoyl-CoA, which was isomerized to 3,5-octadienoyl-CoA either by mitochondrial delta 3,delta 2-enoyl-CoA isomerase (EC or by peroxisomal trifunctional enzyme. Further isomerization of 3,5-octadienoyl-CoA to 2-trans-4-trans-octadienoyl-CoA in the presence of soluble extracts of either rat liver or rat heart mitochondria was observed and attributed to a delta 3,5,delta 2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with 2-trans-5-trans-octadienoyl-CoA formed by dehydrogenation of 5-trans-octenoyl-CoA. 2-trans-4-trans-Octadienoyl-CoA was a substrate for NADPH-dependent 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC A soluble extract of rat liver mitochondria catalyzed the isomerization of 2-trans-5-cis-octadienoyl-CoA to 2-trans-4-trans-octadienoyl-CoA, which upon addition of NADPH, NAD+, and CoA was chain-shortened to hexanoyl-CoA, butyryl-CoA, and acetyl-CoA. Thus we conclude that odd-numbered double bonds, like even-numbered double bonds, can be reductively removed during the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR03060; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL18089, HL30847

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;15;6673-7

  • Effect of sorbic acid feeding on peroxisomes and sorboyl-CoA metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver. Selective induction of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA hydratase.

    Nishimaki-Mogami T, Tanaka A, Minegishi K and Takahashi A

    National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

    On the basis of the finding that sorbic acid (SA)-induced hepatoma was correlated with the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) in mouse liver (Tsuchiya et al., Mutation Res 130: 267-262, 1984), the possible conversion of SA to a metabolite which is reactive with SH-compounds was studied. Sorboyl-CoA was hydrated and then reduced to 3-keto-4-hexenoyl-CoA by the combined actions of mitochondrial hydratase (crotonase) and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Upon the addition of GSH or coenzyme A, 3-keto-4-hexenoyl-CoA was nonenzymatically converted to another 3-ketoacyl-CoA derivative, possibly a Michael type adduct, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Alternatively, sorboyl-CoA can be reduced by 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and completely beta-oxidized without the generation of 3-keto-4-hexenoyl-CoA. Two-week feeding of mice of 15% SA caused a 2.0-fold induction of peroxisome beta-oxidation in the liver. SA caused a marked induction (3.6-fold) of hydratase toward sorboyl-CoA but a less pronounced induction (1.3-fold) of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, leading to about a 3-fold elevation in the hydratase: reductase ratio. The elevated ratio was sustained throughout the period of SA feeding up to 12 weeks. Thus, a large amount of SA could be converted to 3-keto-4-hexenoyl-CoA during this period. Oxidative stress caused by a depleted cellular SH-pool together with the induction of peroxisome proliferation by SA-feeding may implicate the mechanism by which non-mutagenic SA caused hepatoma.

    Biochemical pharmacology 1991;42;2;239-46

  • Degradation of unsaturated fatty acids in peroxisomes. Existence of a 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase pathway.

    Dommes V, Baumgart C and Kunau WH

    1. There are two 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductases (EC 1.3.1.-) (formerly called 4-enoyl-CoA reductase, Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) 91, 533-544) in rat liver, one in mitochondria and another one in peroxisomes. 2. Treatment of rats with clofibrate increases the activities of the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductases in both cell organelles. 3. Isolated peroxisomes metabolize 4-cis-decenoyl-CoA, a metabolite of linoleic acid, via the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase pathway. 4. From these results it is concluded that peroxisomes have the enzymatic apparatus necessary for the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1981;256;16;8259-62

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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