G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial)
G00000446 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023827 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000146701 (Ensembl human gene)
4191 (Entrez Gene)
829 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MDH2 (GeneCards)
154100 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6971 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P40926 (UniProt)

Literature (27)

Pubmed - other

  • L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair.

    Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E and Veiga-da-Cunha M

    de Duve Institute, Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 75, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium.

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic disorder in which L-2-hydroxyglutarate accumulates as a result of a deficiency in FAD-linked L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial enzyme converting L-2-hydroxyglutarate to alpha-ketoglutarate. The origin of the L-2-hydroxyglutarate, which accumulates in this disorder, is presently unknown. The oxidation-reduction potential of the 2-hydroxyglutarate/alpha-ketoglutarate couple is such that L-2-hydroxyglutarate could potentially be produced through the reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate by a NAD- or NADP-linked oxidoreductase. In fractions of rat liver cytosolic extracts that had been chromatographed on an anion exchanger we detected an enzyme reducing alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADH. This enzyme co-purified with cytosolic L-malate dehydrogenase (cMDH) upon further chromatography on Blue Sepharose. Mitochondrial fractions also contained an NADH-linked, 'alpha-ketoglutarate reductase', which similarly co-purified with mitochondrial L-malate dehydrogenase (mMDH). Purified mMDH catalysed the reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate to L-2-hydroxyglutarate with a catalytic efficiency that was about 10(7)-fold lower than that observed with oxaloacetate. For the cytosolic enzyme, this ratio amounted to 10(8), indicating that this enzyme is more specific. Both cMDH and mMDH are highly active in tissues and alpha-ketoglutarate is much more abundant than oxaloacetate and more concentrated in mitochondria than in the cytosol. As a result of this, the weak activity of mMDH on alpha-ketoglutarate is sufficient to account for the amount of L-2-hydroxyglutarate that is excreted by patients deficient in FAD-linked L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. The latter enzyme appears, therefore, to be responsible for a 'metabolite repair' phenomenon and to belong to the expanding class of 'house-cleaning' enzymes.

    Journal of inherited metabolic disease 2007;30;5;681-9

  • An NADH-tetrazolium-coupled sensitive assay for malate dehydrogenase in mitochondria and crude tissue homogenates.

    Luo C, Wang X, Long J and Liu J

    Institute for Nutritional Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, PR China.

    A sensitive spectrophotometric assay for determining mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity is described. The assay measures NADH production by coupling it to the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT). Via an intermediate electron carrier, either phenazine methosulfate or lipoamide dehydrogenase, INT accepts electrons and is reduced to a red-colored formazan, which can be quantified by spectrophotometer at 500 nm. This assay uses only commercial reagents but gives a 2-5 fold (with lipoamide dehydrogenase) or 5-20 fold (with phenazine methosulfate) activity increase over currently available assays for pure enzyme in mitochondria isolated from human neuroblastoma cells, rat brain and liver, and crude homogenates of rat brain and liver. The assay can be easily performed with 96-well plate and less than 2.5 microg protein of isolated mitochondria or crude tissue homogenate. These results suggest that this assay is a simple, sensitive, stable and inexpensive method with wide application.

    Journal of biochemical and biophysical methods 2006;68;2;101-11

  • Housekeeping genes for phylogenetic analysis of eutherian relationships.

    Kullberg M, Nilsson MA, Arnason U, Harley EH and Janke A

    Division of Evolutionary Molecular Systematics, Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.

    The molecular relationship of placental mammals has attracted great interest in recent years. However, 2 crucial and conflicting hypotheses remain, one with respect to the position of the root of the eutherian tree and the other the relationship between the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares), and Primates. Although most mitochondrial (mt) analyses have suggested that rodents have a basal position in the eutherian tree, some nuclear data in combination with mt-rRNA genes have placed the root on the so-called African clade or on a branch that includes this clade and the Xenarthra (e.g., anteater and armadillo). In order to generate a new and independent set of molecular data for phylogenetic analysis, we have established cDNA sequences from different tissues of various mammalian species. With this in mind, we have identified and sequenced 8 housekeeping genes with moderately fast rate of evolution from 22 placental mammals, representing 11 orders. In order to determine the root of the eutherian tree, the same genes were also sequenced for 3 marsupial species, which were used as outgroup. Inconsistent with the analyses of nuclear + mt-rRNA gene data, the current data set did not favor a basal position of the African clade or Xenarthra in the eutherian tree. Similarly, by joining rodents and lagomorphs on the same basal branch (Glires hypothesis), the data set is also inconsistent with the tree commonly favored in mtDNA analyses. The analyses of the currently established sequences have helped examination of problematic parts in the eutherian tree at the same time as they caution against suggestions that have claimed that basal eutherian relationships have been conclusively settled.

    Molecular biology and evolution 2006;23;8;1493-503

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Tom20-mediated mitochondrial protein import in muscle cells during differentiation.

    Grey JY, Connor MK, Gordon JW, Yano M, Mori M and Hood DA

    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3.

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is accompanied by an increased expression of components of the protein import machinery, as well as increased import of proteins destined for the matrix. We evaluated the role of the outer membrane receptor Tom20 by varying its expression and measuring changes in the import of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells. Cells transfected with Tom20 had levels that were twofold higher than in control cells. Labeling of cells followed by immunoprecipitation of MDH revealed equivalent increases in MDH import. This parallelism between import rate and Tom20 levels was also evident as a result of thyroid hormone treatment. Using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, we inhibited Tom20 expression by 40%, resulting in 40-60% reductions in MDH import. In vitro assays also revealed that import into the matrix was more sensitive to Tom20 inhibition than import into the outer membrane. These data indicate a close relationship between induced changes in Tom20 and the import of a matrix protein, suggesting that Tom20 is involved in determining the kinetics of import. However, this relationship was dissociated during normal differentiation, since the expression of Tom20 remained relatively constant, whereas imported MDH increased 12-fold. Thus Tom20 is important in determining import during organelle biogenesis, but other mechanisms (e.g., intramitochondrial protein degradation or nuclear transcription) likely also play a role in establishing the final mitochondrial phenotype during normal muscle differentiation.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2000;279;5;C1393-400

  • Structural basis of substrate specificity in malate dehydrogenases: crystal structure of a ternary complex of porcine cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketomalonate and tetrahydoNAD.

    Chapman AD, Cortés A, Dafforn TR, Clarke AR and Brady RL

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Briston, BS8 1TD, UK.

    The structural basis for the extreme discrimination achieved by malate dehydrogenases between a variety of closely related substrates encountered within the cell has been difficult to assess because of the lack of an appropriate catalytically competent structure of the enzyme. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of a ternary complex of porcine cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase with the alternative substrate alpha-ketomalonate and the coenzyme analogue 1,4,5,6-tetrahydronicotinamide. Both subunits of the dimeric porcine heart, and from the prokaryotes Escherichia coli and Thermus flavus. However, large changes are noted around the active site, where a mobile loop now closes to bring key residues into contact with the substrate. This observation substantiates a postulated mechanism in which the enzyme achieves high levels of substrate discrimination through charge balancing in the active site. As the activated cofactor/substrate complex has a net negative charge, a positive counter-charge is provided by a conserved arginine in the active site loop. The enzyme must, however, also discriminate against smaller substrates, such as pyruvate. The structure shows in the closed (loop down) catalytically competent complex two arginine residues (91 and 97) are driven into close proximity. Without the complimentary, negative charge of the substrate side-chain of oxaloacetate or alpha-ketomalonate, charge repulsion would resist formation production of this catalytically productive conformation, hence minimising the effectiveness of pyruvate as a substrate. By this mechanism, malate dehydrogenase uses charge balancing to achieve fivefold orders of magnitude in discrimination between potential substrates.

    Journal of molecular biology 1999;285;2;703-12

  • Interaction between citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Substrate channeling of oxaloacetate.

    Morgunov I and Srere PA

    Research Service of the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75216, USA.

    The interactions between pig heart citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or cytosolic malate dehydrogenase were studied using the frontal analysis method of gel filtration and by precipitation in polyethylene glycol. This method showed that an interaction between citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase occurred but no interaction between citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Channeling of oxaloacetate in the malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase-coupled systems was tested using polyethylene glycol precipitates of citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. The effectiveness of large amounts of aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase, as competing enzymes for the intermediate oxaloacetate, was examined. Aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase were less effective competitors for oxaloacetate when precipitated citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol was used at low ionic strength compared with free enzymes in the absence of polyethylene glycol or with a co-precipitate of citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Substrate channeling of oxaloacetate with citrate synthase-mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase precipitate was inefficient at high ionic strength. These effects could be explained through electrostatic interactions of mitochondrial but not cytosolic malate dehydrogenase with citrate synthase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;45;29540-4

  • Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    Sánchez SA, Hazlett TL, Brunet JE and Jameson DM

    Instituto de Química, Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.

    The oligomeric state of fluorescein-labeled mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (L-malate NAD+ oxidoreductase; mMDH; EC, as a function of protein concentration, has been examined using steady-state and dynamic polarization methodologies. A "global" rotational relaxation time of 103 +/- 7 ns was found for micromolar concentrations of mMDH-fluorescein, which is consistent with the reported size and shape of mMDH. Dilution of the mMDH-fluorescein conjugates, prepared using a phosphate buffer protocol, to nanomolar concentrations had no significant effect on the rotational relaxation time of the adduct, indicating that the dimer-monomer dissociation constant for mMDH is below 10(-9) M. In contrast to reports in the literature suggesting a pH-dependent dissociation of mMDH, the oligomeric state of this mMDH-fluorescein preparation remained unchanged between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Application of hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 kilobars was ineffective in dissociating the mMDH dimer. However, the mMDH dimer was completely dissociated in 1.5 M guanidinium hydrochloride. Dilution of a mMDH-fluorescein conjugate, prepared using a Tris buffer protocol, did show dissociation, which can be attributed to aggregates present in these preparations. These results are considered in light of the disparities in the literature concerning the properties of the mMDH dimer-monomer equilibrium.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR03155

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 1998;7;10;2184-9

  • Mor2, supernatant malate dehydrogenase, is linked to wa2 and Hba on mouse chromosome 11 in a region of homology with human chromosome 2p.

    Ball ST, Moseley HJ and Peters J

    MRC Radiobiology Unit, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom.

    Genomics 1994;24;2;399-400

  • Interactions between pyruvate carboxylase and other mitochondrial enzymes.

    Fahien LA, Davis JW and Laboy J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706.

    Although pyruvate carboxylase associated with both mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase, it had a higher affinity for the amino-transferase. Furthermore, the aminotransferase enhanced dissociation of malate dehydrogenase from pyruvate carboxylase. Glutamate dehydrogenase did not associate with pyruvate carboxylase alone, but it apparently associated with the pyruvate carboxylase-aminotransferase complex, and malate dehydrogenase associated with the resulting ternary complex. Citrate synthase and other proteins tested did not associate with pyruvate carboxylase. However, citrate synthase associated with the pyruvate carboxylase-malate dehydrogenase complex. Apparently as a consequence of these heteroenzyme interactions, the rate of the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was slightly greater when coupled with malate dehydrogenase or both malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase than when coupled with citrate synthase alone. In addition, in the presence of both coupling enzymes, the rate of conversion of pyruvate to citrate was higher than predicted on the basis of the Michaelis-Menten relationship of the two coupling enzymes. Therefore, binding of malate dehydrogenase to pyruvate carboxylase enhances pyruvate carboxylase activity. Association of citrate synthase with the malate dehydrogenase-pyruvate carboxylase binary complex does not alter activation of pyruvate carboxylase but results in citrate synthase being more reactive than free citrate synthase with oxalacetate.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40445

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;24;17935-42

  • Rapid cDNA sequencing (expressed sequence tags) from a directionally cloned human infant brain cDNA library.

    Adams MD, Soares MB, Kerlavage AR, Fields C and Venter JC

    Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    A human infant brain cDNA library, made specifically for production of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was evaluated by partial sequencing of over 1,600 clones. Advantages of this library, constructed for EST sequencing, include the use of directional cloning, size selection, very low numbers of mitochondrial and ribosomal transcripts, short polyA tails, few non-recombinants and a broad representation of transcripts. 37% of the clones were identified, based on matches to over 320 different genes in the public databases. Of these, two proteins similar to the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein were identified.

    Nature genetics 1993;4;4;373-80

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Sublocalization of an invasion-inducing locus and other genes on human chromosome 7.

    Habets GG, van der Kammen RA, Willemsen V, Balemans M, Wiegant J and Collard JG

    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Cell Biology, Amsterdam.

    By somatic cell fusion studies between noninvasive mouse T-lymphoma cells and invasive human activated normal T-cells we have previously shown that the genetic information responsible for the induction of invasive and metastatic potential in interspecies T-cell hybrids is located on human chromosome 7. Apparently, genes derived from normal activated T-cells are dominantly expressed in the hybrids and control the invasive and, as a consequence, metastatic potential of these T-lymphoma cells. To sublocalize the invasion-inducing locus on chromosome 7 we have generated hybrids that harbor only specific regions of human chromosome 7 with or without a small fragment of human chromosome 21. Analysis of these hybrids revealed that the invasion-inducing locus maps to 7p12----cen. The human DNA complement of the hybrids was confirmed by Southern blot analysis using a large panel of chromosome 7-specific DNA probes. Several of these genes could be further sublocalized. These included: ARAF2 to 7p12----cen, D7S21 to 7pter----p12, ACTB to 7p15----p12, EGFR to 7p12, MDH2 to 7cen----q22, and PDGFA to 7pter----p15.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1992;60;3-4;200-5

  • The visualization by affinity electrophoresis of a specific association between the consecutive citric acid cycle enzymes fumarase and malate dehydrogenase.

    Beeckmans S, Van Driessche E and Kanarek L

    Laboratorium voor Chemie der Proteinen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.

    Evidence is growing that the citric acid cycle, like many other metabolic pathways, might exist in vivo as a more or less tightly organized multi-enzyme cluster. The term 'metabolon' [Robinson, J. B. & Srere, P. A. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 10800-10805] was recently introduced to describe such a complex of sequential metabolic enzymes. We adopted the technique of affinity electrophoresis for the study of interactions between the cycle enzymes fumarase and malate dehydrogenase. This approach offers several advantages over our previously described affinity chromatographic technique [Beeckmans, S. & Kanarek, L. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 117, 527-535], one of which is the fact that the interaction can be directly visualized. The observed association is specific since both metabolically unrelated proteins and the cytoplasmic isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase do not interact with fumarase. Several metabolites (citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate, Pi, AMP, ADP, NAD+, NADH) were found not to affect the association between fumarase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Both ATP, Mg2+ -ATP and GTP disrupt the association when they are present at 1 mM concentrations. Lower non-physiological ATP concentrations do not, however, disturb the interaction. The presence of 1 mM ADP was found to abolish the disrupting effect of 1 mM ATP. The latter findings are suggestive of an interruption of the citric acid cycle at the level of fumarase under conditions of high energy load (i.e. high ATP/ADP ratios).

    European journal of biochemistry 1989;183;2;449-54

  • Regulation of malate dehydrogenase activity by glutamate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and multienzyme interaction.

    Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, MacDonald MJ, Fibich B and Mandic M

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706.

    Binding experiments indicate that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can associate with the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and that mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase can associate with this binary complex to form a ternary complex. Formation of this ternary complex enables low levels of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, in the presence of the aminotransferase, to reverse inhibition of malate oxidation by glutamate. Thus, glutamate can react with the aminotransferase in this complex without glutamate inhibiting production of oxalacetate by the malate dehydrogenase in the complex. The conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate could also be facilitated because in the trienzyme complex, oxalacetate might be directly transferred from malate dehydrogenase to the aminotransferase. In addition, association of malate dehydrogenase with these other two enzymes enhances malate dehydrogenase activity due to a marked decrease in the Km of malate. The potential ability of the aminotransferase to transfer directly alpha-ketoglutarate to the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in this multienzyme system plus the ability of succinyl-CoA, a product of this transfer, to inhibit citrate synthase could play a role in preventing alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate from accumulating in high levels. This would maintain the catalytic activity of the multienzyme system because alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate allosterically inhibit malate dehydrogenase and dissociate this enzyme from the multienzyme system. In addition, citrate also competitively inhibits fumarase. Consequently, when the levels of alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate are high and the multienzyme system is not required to convert glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, it is inactive. However, control by citrate would be expected to be absent in rapidly dividing tumors which characteristically have low mitochondrial levels of citrate.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40445; NIADDK NIH HHS: AM28348

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;22;10687-97

  • Enzyme levels of the NADH shuttle systems: measurements in isolated muscle fibres from humans of differing physical activity.

    Schantz PG and Henriksson J

    The aim of the present study was to investigate enzyme levels of the malate-aspartate and alpha-glycerophosphate shuttles in type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast-twitch) fibres of human skeletal muscle. The influence of endurance training on these levels was also elucidated. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the lateral part of the quadriceps femoris muscle of six untrained and six endurance-trained subjects. Type I vs. type II. In both groups the type I fibres exhibited higher levels of the TCA cycle marker enzyme citrate synthase (CS), as well as of the malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes (cytoplasmic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (cMDH, mMDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (cASAT, mASAT]. A more pronounced difference between type I and type II fibres was noted for cMDH (58%) than for mMDH (16%), cASAT (20%), mASAT (18%) and CS (25%). In contrast to these enzymes, the levels of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (cGPDH), the enzyme representative of the alpha-glycerophosphate shuttle, were higher (25%) in the type II fibres. Endurance-trained vs. untrained. In the endurance-trained group, both fibre types were characterized by higher levels of CS (mean for both fibre types: 48%) as well as of mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes (mMDH: 47%, mASAT: 48%) than in the corresponding fibre types in the untrained group, while the differences in the levels of cytoplasmic malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes (cMDH: 13%, cASAT: 16%) were not statistically significant. Nor were the differences in cGPDH levels (8%) between the untrained and endurance-trained groups statistically significant. It is concluded that in human skeletal muscle, malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes are expressed to a higher degree in type I (slow) fibres than in type II (fast) fibres, with cMDH exhibiting the most marked difference. The single fibre analysis indicated that the muscle's activity level might exert a greater influence on the mitochondrial isoenzymes than on the cytoplasmic ones. In contrast to the malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes, the alpha-glycerophosphate shuttle is expressed to a higher degree in type II fibres and its capacity appears to not be influenced by endurance training. The present studies demanded considerable methodological investigations which also are presented in this paper.

    Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1987;129;4;505-15

  • Complex I binds several mitochondrial NAD-coupled dehydrogenases.

    Sumegi B and Srere PA

    NADH:ubiquinone reductase (complex I) of the mitochondrial inner membrane respiratory chain binds a number of mitochondrial matrix NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These include pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No binding was detected between complex I and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, lipoamide dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, or fumarase. The dehydrogenases that bound to complex I did not bind to a preparation of complex II and III, nor did they bind to liposomes. The binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase to complex I is a saturable process. Based upon the amount of binding observed in these in vitro studies, there is enough inner membrane present in the mitochondria to bind the dehydrogenases in the matrix space. The possible metabolic significance of these interactions is discussed.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: 5-R01-AM11313-17

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1984;259;24;15040-5

  • Studies on mitochondrial and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Muchi H and Yamamoto Y

    Three cases of uncommon childhood hematologic disorders are reported. At presentation, one patient had refractory anemia with an excess of blasts (RAEB) with partial 7-monosomy and was reclassified into RAEB "in transformation" thereafter. Another case was diagnosed as acute myelogenous leukemia with complete 7-monosomy. The other case was diagnosed as RAEB "in transformation" without chromosome aberrations. The cytogenetic studies of the patients with 7-monosomy revealed abnormal karyotypes on bone marrow cells, but normal karyotypes on peripheral blood cells. Polymorphonuclear cells from the two patients with 7-monosomy revealed reduced mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity, but those from the patient with RAEB "in transformation" without chromosome aberrations did not. Cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase activity, having been defined as located on chromosome 2, was within the normal range in those three patients. The decreased mitochondrial enzyme activity in the two patients with 7-monosomy would be a dosage effect of the chromosome aberration, but not caused by their hematologic disorders. The level of mitochondrial enzyme activity in the patients with 7-monosomy was reduced in polymorphonuclear cells, but not in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. This fact would indicate that such chromosome evolution had involved myeloid cells only, but not lymphoid cells. Both enzymes from leukemic cells of four patients with active disease revealed much higher activities than controls, an expression of partially enhanced oxidative phosphorylation.

    Blood 1983;62;4;808-14

  • Demonstration of physical interactions between consecutive enzymes of the citric acid cycle and of the aspartate-malate shuttle. A study involving fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthesis and aspartate aminotransferase.

    Beeckmans S and Kanarek L

    By means of covalently immobilized fumarase and mitochondrial or cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase we were able to detect physical interactions between different enzymes of the citric acid cycle (fumarase with malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase with citrate synthase and fumarase with citrate synthase) and between the enzymes of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic halves of the aspartate-malate shuttle (aspartate amino-transferase and malate dehydrogenase). The interactions between fumarase and malate dehydrogenase were also investigated by immobilizing one enzyme indirectly through antibodies bound to Sepharose-protein A. Our results are consistent with a model in which maximally four molecules of malate dehydrogenase are bound to one fumarase molecule. This complex is able to bind either citrate synthase or aspartate aminotransferase. We propose that these enzymes bind alternatively, in order to allow the cell to perform citric acid cycle or shuttle reactions, according to its needs. The physiological meaning and implications on the regulation of metabolism of the existence of a large citric acid cycle/malate-aspartate shuttle multienzyme complex are discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1981;117;3;527-35

  • Assignment of the genes for human beta-glucuronidase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase to the region pter leads to q22 of chromosome 7.

    Benn P, Chern CJ, Bruns G, Craig IW and Croce CM

    In human fibroblast cultures derived from adults, clones of cells with a common chromosome rearrangement have been widely reported. Cells derived from one of these clones have been used in hybridization experiments using mouse cells to localize the genes for beta-glucuronidase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase on human chromosome 7. The results of this study indicate that the genes for these isozymes are located on the region pter leads to q22 of human chromosome 7.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1977;19;5;273-80

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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