G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
hexokinase 1
G00000445 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018380 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000156515 (Ensembl human gene)
3098 (Entrez Gene)
823 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HK1 (GeneCards)
142600 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4922 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P19367 (UniProt)

Literature (47)

Pubmed - other

  • A mutation in an alternative untranslated exon of hexokinase 1 associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR).

    Hantke J, Chandler D, King R, Wanders RJ, Angelicheva D, Tournev I, McNamara E, Kwa M, Guergueltcheva V, Kaneva R, Baas F and Kalaydjieva L

    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

    Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder, identified in the Gypsy population. Our previous studies mapped the gene to 10q22-q23 and refined the gene region to approximately 70 kb. Here we report the comprehensive sequencing analysis and fine mapping of this region, reducing it to approximately 26 kb of fully characterised sequence spanning the upstream exons of Hexokinase 1 (HK1). We identified two sequence variants in complete linkage disequilibrium, a G>C in a novel alternative untranslated exon (AltT2) and a G>A in the adjacent intron, segregating with the disease in affected families and present in the heterozygote state in only 5/790 population controls. Sequence conservation of the AltT2 exon in 16 species with invariable preservation of the G allele at the mutated site, strongly favour the exonic change as the pathogenic mutation. Analysis of the Hk1 upstream region in mouse mRNA from testis and neural tissues showed an abundance of AltT2-containing transcripts generated by extensive, developmentally regulated alternative splicing. Expression is very low compared with ubiquitous Hk1 and all transcripts skip exon1, which encodes the protein domain responsible for binding to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and regulation of energy production and apoptosis. Hexokinase activity measurement and immunohistochemistry of the peripheral nerve showed no difference between patients and controls. The mutational mechanism and functional effects remain unknown and could involve disrupted translational regulation leading to increased anti-apoptotic activity (suggested by the profuse regenerative activity in affected nerves), or impairment of an unknown HK1 function in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;12;1606-14

  • Genetic variant in HK1 is associated with a proanemic state and A1C but not other glycemic control-related traits.

    Bonnefond A, Vaxillaire M, Labrune Y, Lecoeur C, Chèvre JC, Bouatia-Naji N, Cauchi S, Balkau B, Marre M, Tichet J, Riveline JP, Hadjadj S, Gallois Y, Czernichow S, Hercberg S, Kaakinen M, Wiesner S, Charpentier G, Lévy-Marchal C, Elliott P, Jarvelin MR, Horber F, Dina C, Pedersen O, Sladek R, Meyre D and Froguel P

    CNRS-UMR-8090, Institute of Biology and Lille 2 University, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

    Objective: A1C is widely considered the gold standard for monitoring effective blood glucose levels. Recently, a genome-wide association study reported an association between A1C and rs7072268 within HK1 (encoding hexokinase 1), which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis. HK1 deficiency in erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) causes severe nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in both humans and mice.

    The contribution of rs7072268 to A1C and the RBC-related traits was assessed in 6,953 nondiabetic European participants. We additionally analyzed the association with hematologic traits in 5,229 nondiabetic European individuals (in whom A1C was not measured) and 1,924 diabetic patients. Glucose control-related markers other than A1C were analyzed in 18,694 nondiabetic European individuals. A type 2 diabetes case-control study included 7,447 French diabetic patients.

    Results: Our study confirms a strong association between the rs7072268-T allele and increased A1C (beta = 0.029%; P = 2.22 x 10(-7)). Surprisingly, despite adequate study power, rs7072268 showed no association with any other markers of glucose control (fasting- and 2-h post-OGTT-related parameters, n = 18,694). In contrast, rs7072268-T allele decreases hemoglobin levels (n = 13,416; beta = -0.054 g/dl; P = 3.74 x 10(-6)) and hematocrit (n = 11,492; beta = -0.13%; P = 2.26 x 10(-4)), suggesting a proanemic effect. The T allele also increases risk for anemia (836 cases; odds ratio 1.13; P = 0.018).

    Conclusions: HK1 variation, although strongly associated with A1C, does not seem to be involved in blood glucose control. Since HK1 rs7072268 is associated with reduced hemoglobin levels and favors anemia, we propose that HK1 may influence A1C levels through its anemic effect or its effect on glucose metabolism in RBCs. These findings may have implications for type 2 diabetes diagnosis and clinical management because anemia is a frequent complication of the diabetes state.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0600331, G0801056

    Diabetes 2009;58;11;2687-97

  • Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium.

    Ganesh SK, Zakai NA, van Rooij FJ, Soranzo N, Smith AV, Nalls MA, Chen MH, Kottgen A, Glazer NL, Dehghan A, Kuhnel B, Aspelund T, Yang Q, Tanaka T, Jaffe A, Bis JC, Verwoert GC, Teumer A, Fox CS, Guralnik JM, Ehret GB, Rice K, Felix JF, Rendon A, Eiriksdottir G, Levy D, Patel KV, Boerwinkle E, Rotter JI, Hofman A, Sambrook JG, Hernandez DG, Zheng G, Bandinelli S, Singleton AB, Coresh J, Lumley T, Uitterlinden AG, Vangils JM, Launer LJ, Cupples LA, Oostra BA, Zwaginga JJ, Ouwehand WH, Thein SL, Meisinger C, Deloukas P, Nauck M, Spector TD, Gieger C, Gudnason V, van Duijn CM, Psaty BM, Ferrucci L, Chakravarti A, Greinacher A, O'Donnell CJ, Witteman JC, Furth S, Cushman M, Harris TB and Lin JP

    National Human Genome Research Institute, Division of Intramural Research, Bethesda, MD, USA. ganeshs@mail.nih.gov

    Measurements of erythrocytes within the blood are important clinical traits and can indicate various hematological disorders. We report here genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six erythrocyte traits, including hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell count (RBC). We performed an initial GWAS in cohorts of the CHARGE Consortium totaling 24,167 individuals of European ancestry and replication in additional independent cohorts of the HaemGen Consortium totaling 9,456 individuals. We identified 23 loci significantly associated with these traits in a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts (combined P values ranging from 5 x 10(-8) to 7 x 10(-86)). Our findings include loci previously associated with these traits (HBS1L-MYB, HFE, TMPRSS6, TFR2, SPTA1) as well as new associations (EPO, TFRC, SH2B3 and 15 other loci). This study has identified new determinants of erythrocyte traits, offering insight into common variants underlying variation in erythrocyte measures.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000111; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL086694, R01 HL086694-01A1, R01 HL086694-02, R01 HL086694-03; NIDDK NIH HHS: K24 DK078737, P30 DK063491, P30 DK063491-019004, P30 DK063491-029004, P30 DK063491-039004, P30 DK063491-049004, P30 DK063491-05, U01 DK066174

    Nature genetics 2009;41;11;1191-8

  • First mutation in the red blood cell-specific promoter of hexokinase combined with a novel missense mutation causes hexokinase deficiency and mild chronic hemolysis.

    de Vooght KM, van Solinge WW, van Wesel AC, Kersting S and van Wijk R

    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, Laboratory for Red Blood Cell Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands. k.devooght@umcutrecht.nl

    Background: Hexokinase is one of the key enzymes of glycolysis and catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Red blood cell-specific hexokinase is transcribed from HK1 by use of an erythroid-specific promoter. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular basis for hexokinase deficiency in a patient with chronic hemolysis.

    Functional studies were performed using transient transfection of HK promoter constructs in human K562 erythroleukemia cells. The DNA-protein interaction at the promoter of hexokinase was studied using electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from K562 cells. DNA analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed according to standardized procedures.

    Results: On the paternal allele we identified two novel mutations in cis in the erythroid-specific promoter of HKI: -373A>C and -193A>G. Transfection of promoter reporter constructs showed that the -193A>G mutation reduced promoter activity to 8%. Hence, -193A>G is the first mutation reported to affect red blood cell-specific hexokinase specific transcription. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays we showed that in vitro binding of c-jun to an AP-1 binding site was disrupted by this mutation. Subsequent chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that c-jun binds this region of the promoter in vivo. On the maternal allele we identified a novel missense mutation in exon 3: c.278G>A, encoding an arginine to glutamine substitution at residue 93, affecting both hexokinase-1 and red cell specific-hexokinase. In addition, this missense mutation was shown to compromise normal pre-mRNA processing.

    Conclusions: We postulate that reduced erythroid transcription of HK1 together with aberrant splicing of both hexokinase-1 and red cell specific-hexokinase results in hexokinase deficiency and mild chronic hemolysis.

    Haematologica 2009;94;9;1203-10

  • Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Fonteyne P, Casneuf V, Pauwels P, Van Damme N, Peeters M, Dierckx R and Van de Wiele C

    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

    The aim of this study was to assess the expression pattern of the high glucose affinity glucose transporters GLUT 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 and of hexokinases I, II and III in newly diagnosed oesophageal adenocarcinoma by means of immunohistochemistry. Twenty patients eligible to undergo primary surgery and 18 patients with incomplete pathological response following induction radio chemotherapy, all suffering from oesophageal adenocarcinoma, were included in the study. The intensity and amount of positive tumour cells in the immuno-reaction (histology score (Hscore)) for GLUT 1, 3, 4, 8 and 9 as well as for hexokinase I, II and III were assessed independently by two experienced observers, blinded to the clinical results. In patients that underwent primary surgery, Hscores of GLUT8 (micro 6.7; sd3.3) and GLUT1 (micro 5.5; sd: 5.3) were significantly higher than Hscores of GLUT9 (micro 2.2; sd 1.5) and GLUT3 (micro 3.2, sd: 2.5). Hscores of hexokinase I (micro : 8.3; sd: 4.3), II (micro 5.5, sd: 4.0) and III (I 1.5, sd: 0.7) were all significantly different from each other (p<0.04). In patients that underwent radio-chemotherapy prior to surgical tumour resection, micro Hscores were 6.9 (sd: 4.4) for GLUT1, 6.8 (sd: 5.3) for GLUT3, 5.9 (sd: 4.2) for GLUT8, 3.4 for GLUT9 (sd: 2.7) and 2.3 (sd: 3.6) for GLUT 4. Hscores of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were significantly higher than Hscores of GLUT4. Finally, Hscores of patients with radio-chemotherapy for GLUT3, hexokinase II and III were significantly higher when compared to patients that underwent primary surgery.

    Histology and histopathology 2009;24;8;971-7

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Voltage-dependent anion channel 1-based peptides interact with hexokinase to prevent its anti-apoptotic activity.

    Arzoine L, Zilberberg N, Ben-Romano R and Shoshan-Barmatz V

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84105.

    In brain and tumor cells, the hexokinase isoforms, HK-I and HK-II, bind to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane. The VDAC domains interacting with these anti-apoptotic proteins were recently defined using site-directed mutagenesis. Now, we demonstrate that synthetic peptides corresponding to the VDAC1 N-terminal region and selected sequences bound specifically, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, to immobilized HK-I, as revealed by real time surface plasmon resonance technology. The same VDAC1-based peptides also detached HK bound to brain or tumor-derived mitochondria. Moreover, expression of the VDAC1-based peptides in cells overexpressing HK-I or HK-II prevented HK-mediated protection against staurosporine-induced release of cytochrome c and subsequent cell death. One loop-shaped VDAC1-based peptide corresponding to a selected sequence and fused to a cell-penetrating peptide entered the cell and prevented the anti-apoptotic effects of HK-I and HK-II. This peptide detached mitochondrial-bound HK better than did the same peptide in its linear form. Both cell-expressed and exogenously added cell-penetrating peptide detached mitochondrial-bound HK-I-GFP. These results point to HK-I and HK-II as promoting tumor cell survival through binding to VDAC1, thereby inhibiting cytochrome c release and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, VDAC1-based peptides interfering with HK-mediated anti-apoptotic activity may potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;6;3946-55

  • Novel association of HK1 with glycated hemoglobin in a non-diabetic population: a genome-wide evaluation of 14,618 participants in the Women's Genome Health Study.

    Paré G, Chasman DI, Parker AN, Nathan DM, Miletich JP, Zee RY and Ridker PM

    Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. gpare@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While genetic variants have been found to influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, relatively few studies have focused on genes associated with glycated hemoglobin, an index of the mean blood glucose concentration of the preceding 8-12 weeks. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials have documented the relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and the development of long-term complications in diabetes; moreover, higher glycated hemoglobin levels in the subdiabetic range have been shown to predict type 2 diabetes risk and cardiovascular disease. To examine the common genetic determinants of glycated hemoglobin levels, we performed a genome-wide association study that evaluated 337,343 SNPs in 14,618 apparently healthy Caucasian women. The results show that glycated hemoglobin levels are associated with genetic variation at the GCK (rs730497; P = 2.8 x 10(-12)), SLC30A8 (rs13266634; P = 9.8 x 10(-8)), G6PC2 (rs1402837; P = 6.8 x 10(-10)), and HK1 (rs7072268; P = 6.4 x 10(-9)) loci. While associations at the GCK, SLC30A8, and G6PC2 loci are confirmatory, the findings at HK1 are novel. We were able to replicate this novel association in an independent validation sample of 455 additional non-diabetic men and women. HK1 encodes the enzyme hexokinase, the first step in glycolysis and a likely candidate for the control of glucose metabolism. This observed genetic association between glycated hemoglobin levels and HK1 polymorphisms paves the way for further studies of the role of HK1 in hemoglobin glycation, glucose metabolism, and diabetes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA047988, R01 CA047988; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL080467, R01 HL043851, R01 HL080467

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;12;e1000312

  • Hexokinase-I protection against apoptotic cell death is mediated via interaction with the voltage-dependent anion channel-1: mapping the site of binding.

    Abu-Hamad S, Zaid H, Israelson A, Nahon E and Shoshan-Barmatz V

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel.

    In brain and tumor cells, the hexokinase isoforms HK-I and HK-II bind to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane. We have previously shown that HK-I decreases murine VDAC1 (mVDAC1) channel conductance, inhibits cytochrome c release, and protects against apoptotic cell death. Now, we define mVDAC1 residues, found in two cytoplasmic domains, involved in the interaction with HK-I. Protection against cell death by HK-I, as induced by overexpression of native or mutated mVDAC1, served to identify the mVDAC1 amino acids required for interaction with HK-I. HK-I binding to mVDAC1 either in isolated mitochondria or reconstituted in a bilayer was inhibited upon mutation of specific VDAC1 residues. HK-I anti-apoptotic activity was also diminished upon mutation of these amino acids. HK-I-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c release induced by staurosporine was also diminished in cells expressing VDAC1 mutants. Our results thus offer new insights into the mechanism by which HK-I promotes tumor cell survival via inhibition of cytochrome c release through HK-I binding to VDAC1. These results, moreover, point to VDAC1 as a key player in mitochondrially mediated apoptosis and implicate an HK-I-VDAC1 interaction in the regulation of apoptosis. Finally, these findings suggest that interference with the binding of HK-I to mitochondria by VDAC1-derived peptides may offer a novel strategy by which to potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;19;13482-90

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Genes in glucose metabolism and association with spina bifida.

    Davidson CM, Northrup H, King TM, Fletcher JM, Townsend I, Tyerman GH and Au KS

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    The authors test single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding sequences of 12 candidate genes involved in glucose metabolism and obesity for associations with spina bifida. Genotyping was performed on 507 children with spina bifida and their parents plus anonymous control DNAs from Hispanic and Caucasian individuals. The transmission disequilibrium test was performed to test for genetic associations between transmission of alleles and spina bifida in the offspring (P < .05). A statistically significant association between Lys481 of HK1 (G allele), Arg109Lys of LEPR (G allele), and Pro196 of GLUT1 (A allele) was found ( P = .019, .039, and .040, respectively). Three SNPs on 3 genes involved with glucose metabolism and obesity may be associated with increased susceptibility to spina bifida.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD035946, P01 HD035946-09, P01 HD035946-10, P01 HD35946

    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 2008;15;1;51-8

  • Function of interdomain alpha-helix in human brain hexokinase: covalent linkage and catalytic regulation between N- and C-terminal halves.

    Tsai HJ

    Pharmaceutical R & D laboratories, Development Center for Biotechnology, Hsi-Chih 221, Taipei County, 221, Taiwan, ROC. henrytsai@mail.dcb.org.tw

    Human brain relies on a steady supply of glucose as the source of fuel, and type I hexokinase is the major isozyme governing the introduction of glucose to glycolysis in the brain. One unique regulatory property associated with type I isozyme is the alleviation of product inhibition by inorganic phosphate which binds to the N-terminal half, and the conformational change induced by inorganic phosphate must be propagated to the active site in the C-terminal half. With a single interdomain alpha-helix as the only covalent connection between the N- and C-terminal halves, the question arises as what role the interdomain alpha-helix plays at the interdomain signal transduction. Two mutants were constructed in an attempt to answer this question. The first mutant, A464P/E465G, with a helix breaker embedded in the interdomain alpha-helix had a smaller magnitude of phosphate alleviation than the wild type. The second mutant, with an insertion of seven additional residues between Gln 466 and His 467, had this phosphate relief property further diminished. Neither mutant showed dramatic changes nor the other kinetic properties. It is speculated that the interdomain alpha-helix is important for keeping the proper non-covalent contact so that transmission of the conformational changes across the N- and C-terminal half boundary can be achieved.

    Journal of biomedical science 2007;14;2;195-202

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: MRC_G0300429, MRC_G0701075, MRC_G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Glucose 6-phosphate release of wild-type and mutant human brain hexokinases from mitochondria.

    Skaff DA, Kim CS, Tsai HJ, Honzatko RB and Fromm HJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.

    One molecule of glucose 6-phosphate inhibits brain hexokinase (HKI) with high affinity by binding to either one of two sites located in distinct halves of the enzyme. In addition to potent inhibition, glucose 6-phosphate releases HKI from the outer leaflet of mitochondria; however, the site of glucose 6-phosphate association responsible for the release of HKI is unclear. The incorporation of a C-terminal polyhistidine tag on HKI facilitates the rapid purification of recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli. The tagged construct has N-formyl methionine as its first residue and has mitochondrial association properties comparable with native brain hexokinases. Release of wild-type and mutant hexokinases from mitochondria by glucose 6-phosphate follow equilibrium models, which explain the release phenomenon as the repartitioning of ligand-bound HKI between solution and the membrane. Mutations that block the binding of glucose 6-phosphate to the C-terminal half of HKI have little or no effect on the glucose 6-phosphate release. In contrast, mutations that block glucose 6-phosphate binding to the N-terminal half require approximately 7-fold higher concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate for the release of HKI. Results here implicate a primary role for the glucose 6-phosphate binding site at the N-terminal half of HKI in the release mechanism.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS10546

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;46;38403-9

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • HK Utrecht: missense mutation in the active site of human hexokinase associated with hexokinase deficiency and severe nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

    van Wijk R, Rijksen G, Huizinga EG, Nieuwenhuis HK and van Solinge WW

    Department of Clinical Chemistry and the Department of Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Hexokinase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease with a clinical phenotype of severe hemolysis. We report a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 15 (c.2039C>G, HK [hexokinase] Utrecht) of HK1, the gene that encodes red blood cell-specific hexokinase-R, in a patient previously diagnosed with hexokinase deficiency. The Thr680Ser substitution predicted by this mutation affects a highly conserved residue in the enzyme's active site that interacts with phosphate moieties of adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and inhibitor glucose-6-phosphate. We correlated the molecular data to the severe clinical phenotype of the patient by means of altered enzymatic properties of partially purified hexokinase from the patient, notably with respect to Mg(2+)-ATP binding. These kinetic properties contradict those obtained from a recombinant mutant brain hexokinase-I with the same Thr680Ser substitution. This contradiction thereby stresses the valuable contribution of studying patients with hexokinase deficiency to achieve a better understanding of hexokinase's key role in glycolysis.

    Blood 2003;101;1;345-7

  • Gene expression and biological significance of hexokinase in erythroid cells.

    Murakami K, Kanno H, Tancabelic J and Fujii H

    Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

    Red blood cells (RBCs) express two hexokinase (HK) isoforms, HK-I and HK-R. Both isozymes are generated from the HK-I gene by use of an alternate promoter. Gene structure and exon-intron organization of the HK-I gene have been elucidated from a sequence of three contiguous genomic clones localized at human chromosome 10. The sequence spans about 131 kb, and consists of 25 exons, which include 6 testis- and 1 erythroid-specific exons. HK-R has been shown as an erythroid-specific isozyme whose expression is turned on in the early erythroid-progenitors and is significantly induced during their differentiation. HK-R unfolds major HK activity in immature RBCs and is rapidly degraded during the maturation process. HK-I has a porin-binding domain in its N-terminus. Recent studies have shown that HK isozymes with a porin-binding domain play a role in mitochondrial integrity, suggesting that HK-I-deficient erythroid cells might be eliminated by apoptosis. It is most likely that RBCs are most labile as a result of HK-I/R deficiency since the HK-I gene but not the other isozyme genes are expressed in fetal and adult RBCs.

    Acta haematologica 2002;108;4;204-9

  • Structure of the 5' region of the human hexokinase type I (HKI) gene and identification of an additional testis-specific HKI mRNA.

    Andreoni F, Ruzzo A and Magnani M

    'G. Fornaini' Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Urbino, Via Saffi 2, 61029, Urbino, Italy.

    We previously reported the structure of the human hexokinase type I (HKI) gene and provided direct evidence of an alternative red blood cell-specific exon 1 located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Three unique HKI mRNA species have also been described in human spermatogenic cells. These mRNAs contain a testis-specific sequence not present in somatic cell HKI, but lack the sequence for the porin-binding domain necessary for HKI to bind to porin on the outer mitochondrial membrane. The present study reports a new mRNA isoform, hHKI-td, isolated from human sperm. hHKI-td mRNA contains both a testis-specific sequence at the 5' end common to the three other mRNA isoforms and an additional unique sequence. Screening of a cosmid library and analysis of the cosmids containing the HKI gene revealed that testis-specific sequences are encoded by six different exons. Five of these exons are located upstream from the somatic exon 1 (5.6-30 kb) and one within intron 1. This study shows that a single human HKI gene spanning at least 100 kb encodes multiple transcripts that are generated by alternative splicing of different 5' exons. Testis-specific transcripts are probably produced by a separate promoter that induces the expression of the HKI gene in spermatogenic cells.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1493;1-2;19-26

  • Crystal structures of mutant monomeric hexokinase I reveal multiple ADP binding sites and conformational changes relevant to allosteric regulation.

    Aleshin AE, Kirby C, Liu X, Bourenkov GP, Bartunik HD, Fromm HJ and Honzatko RB

    Department of Biochemistry Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

    Hexokinase I, the pacemaker of glycolysis in brain tissue, is composed of two structurally similar halves connected by an alpha-helix. The enzyme dimerizes at elevated protein concentrations in solution and in crystal structures; however, almost all published data reflect the properties of a hexokinase I monomer in solution. Crystal structures of mutant forms of recombinant human hexokinase I, presented here, reveal the enzyme monomer for the first time. The mutant hexokinases bind both glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with high affinity to their N and C-terminal halves, and ADP, also with high affinity, to a site near the N terminus of the polypeptide chain. Exposure of the monomer crystals to ADP in the complete absence of glucose 6-phosphate reveals a second binding site for adenine nucleotides at the putative active site (C-half), with conformational changes extending 15 A to the contact interface between the N and C-halves. The structures reveal distinct conformational states for the C-half and a rigid-body rotation of the N-half, as possible elements of a structure-based mechanism for allosteric regulation of catalysis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 10546

    Journal of molecular biology 2000;296;4;1001-15

  • Binding of non-catalytic ATP to human hexokinase I highlights the structural components for enzyme-membrane association control.

    Rosano C, Sabini E, Rizzi M, Deriu D, Murshudov G, Bianchi M, Serafini G, Magnani M and Bolognesi M

    Dipartimento di Fisica - INFM, Centro Biotecnologie Avanzate - IST, Universita' di Genova, Genova, 10. I-16132, Italy.

    Background: Hexokinase I sets the pace of glycolysis in the brain, catalyzing the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose. The catalytic properties of hexokinase I are dependent on product inhibition as well as on the action of phosphate. In vivo, a large fraction of hexokinase I is bound to the mitochondrial outer membrane, where the enzyme adopts a tetrameric assembly. The mitochondrion-bound hexokinase I is believed to optimize the ATP/ADP exchange between glucose phosphorylation and the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reactions.

    Results: The crystal structure of human hexokinase I has been determined at 2.25 A resolution. The overall structure of the enzyme is in keeping with the closed conformation previously observed in yeast hexokinase. One molecule of the ATP analogue AMP-PNP is bound to each N-terminal domain of the dimeric enzyme in a surface cleft, showing specific interactions with the nucleotide, and localized positive electrostatic potential. The molecular symmetry brings the two bound AMP-PNP molecules, at the centre of two extended surface regions, to a common side of the dimeric hexokinase I molecule.

    Conclusions: The binding of AMP-PNP to a protein site separated from the catalytic centre of human hexokinase I can be related to the role played by some nucleotides in dissociating the enzyme from the mitochondrial membrane, and helps in defining the molecular regions of hexokinase I that are expected to be in contact with the mitochondrion. The structural information presented here is in keeping with monoclonal antibody mapping of the free and mitochondrion-bound forms of the enzyme, and with sequence analysis of hexokinases that differ in their mitochondria binding properties.

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 1999;7;11;1427-37

  • Human HKR isozyme: organization of the hexokinase I gene, the erythroid-specific promoter, and transcription initiation site.

    Murakami K, Kanno H, Miwa S and Piomelli S

    Division of Pediatric Hematology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA.

    We previously described a cDNA for the human HKR isozyme, whose sequence is identical to that of the ubiquitous HKI isozyme, except for a unique 5' end sequence. Screening a human genomic library with a DNA fragment containing an erythroid-specific sequence we found one clone including 5' ends for both HKR and HKI genes. The first HKR exon was located 3 kb 5' of the first HKI exon. These results confirmed that HKR is produced from the HKI gene by alternate promoter and splicing. The HKI gene consisted of 19 exons. All exon-intron boundaries are conserved among the genes for hexokinase and glucokinase. The HKI gene length was estimated at over 67 kb. The initiation site for the HKR was identified by primer extension. Its promoter did not have a canonical TATA box, but an inverted GATA at nt -177 (i.e., 36 nt 5' to the transcription initiation site). In the HKR promoter a DNA fragment spanning nt -275 to nt -107 exhibited erythroid-specific activity. However, this was absent in shorter promoter fragments (nt -206 to -107 or nt -229 to -107). The sequence nt -275 to -229, which appeared critical for the erythroid-specific expression of the HKR gene, contained a consensus motif for Sp-1 and GATA, CCAAT, and GGAA motifs. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) suggested erythroid-specific cooperative protein-protein interaction in this region. Deletion of the GATA sequence as well as reaction with a specific antibody identified GATA-1 as one of the interacting proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL48996

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 1999;67;2;118-30

  • Regulation of hexokinase I: crystal structure of recombinant human brain hexokinase complexed with glucose and phosphate.

    Aleshin AE, Zeng C, Bartunik HD, Fromm HJ and Honzatko RB

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

    Hexokinase I, the pacemaker of glycolysis in brain tissue and red blood cells, is comprised of two similar domains fused into a single polypeptide chain. The C-terminal half of hexokinase I is catalytically active, whereas the N-terminal half is necessary for the relief of product inhibition by phosphate. A crystalline complex of recombinant human hexokinase I with glucose and phosphate (2.8 A resolution) reveals a single binding site for phosphate and glucose at the N-terminal half of the enzyme. Glucose and phosphate stabilize the N-terminal half in a closed conformation. Unexpectedly, glucose binds weakly to the C-terminal half of the enzyme and does not by itself stabilize a closed conformation. Evidently a stable, closed C-terminal half requires either ATP or glucose 6-phosphate along with glucose. The crystal structure here, in conjunction with other studies in crystallography and directed mutation, puts the phosphate regulatory site at the N-terminal half, the site of potent product inhibition at the C-terminal half, and a secondary site for the weak interaction of glucose 6-phosphate at the N-terminal half of the enzyme. The relevance of crystal structures of hexokinase I to the properties of monomeric hexokinase I and oligomers of hexokinase I bound to the surface of mitochondria is discussed.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 10546

    Journal of molecular biology 1998;282;2;345-57

  • Structure of the human hexokinase type I gene and nucleotide sequence of the 5' flanking region.

    Ruzzo A, Andreoni F and Magnani M

    'G.Fornaini' Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Urbino, Via Saffi 2, 61029 Urbino, Italy.

    This study reports the precise intron/exon boundaries and intron/exon composition of the human hexokinase type I gene. A yeast artificial chromosome containing the hexokinase type I gene was isolated from the yeast artificial chromosome library of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine. A cosmid sublibrary was created and direct sequencing of the individual cosmids was used to provide the exon/intron organization. The human hexokinase type I gene was found to be composed of 18 exons ranging in size from 63 to 305 bp. Intron 1 is at least 15 kb in length, whereas intron 2 spans at least 10 kb. Overall, the length of the 17 introns ranges from 104 to greater than 15 kb. The entire coding region is contained in at least 75 kb of the gene. The structure of the gene reveals a remarkable conservation of the size of the exons compared with glucokinase and hexokinase type II. Isolation of the 5' flanking region of the gene revealed a 75-90% identity with the rat sequence. Direct evidence of an alternative red-blood-cell-specific exon 1 located upstream of the 5' flanking region of the gene is also provided.

    The Biochemical journal 1998;331 ( Pt 2);607-13

  • Targeting of a germ cell-specific type 1 hexokinase lacking a porin-binding domain to the mitochondria as well as to the head and fibrous sheath of murine spermatozoa.

    Travis AJ, Foster JA, Rosenbaum NA, Visconti PE, Gerton GL, Kopf GS and Moss SB

    Center for Research on Reproduction and Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6080, USA.

    Multiple isoforms of type 1 hexokinase (HK1) are transcribed during spermatogenesis in the mouse, including at least three that are presumably germ cell specific: HK1-sa, HK1-sb, and HK1-sc. Each of these predicted proteins contains a common, germ cell-specific sequence that replaces the porin-binding domain found in somatic HK1. Although HK1 protein is present in mature sperm and is tyrosine phosphorylated, it is not known whether the various potential isoforms are differentially translated and localized within the developing germ cells and mature sperm. Using antipeptide antisera against unique regions of HK1-sa and HK1-sb, it was demonstrated that these isoforms were not found in pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids, condensing spermatids, or sperm, suggesting that HK1-sa and HK1-sb are not translated during spermatogenesis. Immunoreactivity was detected in protein from round spermatids, condensing spermatids, and mature sperm using an antipeptide antiserum against the common, germ cell-specific region, suggesting that HK1-sc was the only germ cell-specific isoform present in these cells. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE suggested that all of the sperm HK1-sc was tyrosine phosphorylated, and that the somatic HK1 isoform was not present. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that HK1-sc was associated with the mitochondria and with the fibrous sheath of the flagellum and was found in discrete clusters in the region of the membranes of the sperm head. The unusual distribution of HK1-sc in sperm suggests novel functions, such as extramitochondrial energy production, and also demonstrates that a hexokinase without a classical porin-binding domain can localize to mitochondria.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: F32 HD007792, HD-07792, HD-33052, P01 HD006274, R01 HD022732; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32GM0-7170

    Molecular biology of the cell 1998;9;2;263-76

  • The mechanism of regulation of hexokinase: new insights from the crystal structure of recombinant human brain hexokinase complexed with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate.

    Aleshin AE, Zeng C, Bourenkov GP, Bartunik HD, Fromm HJ and Honzatko RB

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA.

    Background: Hexokinase I is the pacemaker of glycolysis in brain tissue. The type I isozyme exhibits unique regulatory properties in that physiological levels of phosphate relieve potent inhibition by the product, glucose-6-phosphate (Gluc-6-P). The 100 kDa polypeptide chain of hexokinase I consists of a C-terminal (catalytic) domain and an N-terminal (regulatory) domain. Structures of ligated hexokinase I should provide a basis for understanding mechanisms of catalysis and regulation at an atomic level.

    Results: The complex of human hexokinase I with glucose and Gluc-6-P (determined to 2.8 A resolution) is a dimer with twofold molecular symmetry. The N- and C-terminal domains of one monomer interact with the C- and N-terminal domains, respectively, of the symmetry-related monomer. The two domains of a monomer are connected by a single alpha helix and each have the fold of yeast hexokinase. Salt links between a possible cation-binding loop of the N-terminal domain and a loop of the C-terminal domain may be important to regulation. Each domain binds single glucose and Gluc-6-P molecules in proximity to each other. The 6-phosphoryl group of bound Gluc-6-P at the C-terminal domain occupies the putative binding site for ATP, whereas the 6-phosphoryl group at the N-terminal domain may overlap the binding site for phosphate.

    Conclusions: The binding synergism of glucose and Gluc-6-P probably arises out of the mutual stabilization of a common (glucose-bound) conformation of hexokinase I. Conformational changes in the N-terminal domain in response to glucose, phosphate, and/or Gluc-6-P may influence the binding of ATP to the C-terminal domain.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 10546

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 1998;6;1;39-50

  • An erythroid-specific exon is present in the human hexokinase gene.

    Ruzzo A, Andreoni F and Magnani M

    Blood 1998;91;1;363-4

  • Identification of the cDNA for human red blood cell-specific hexokinase isozyme.

    Murakami K and Piomelli S

    Division of Pediatric Hematology, College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University, New York 10032, USA.

    A unique cDNA for hexokinase (HK) was identified from poly(A)+ RNA of human reticulocytes by anchored polymerase chain reaction. This appeared to represent the cDNA for the red blood cell (RBC)-specific HK isozyme (HKR) described in our previous study (Murakami et al: Blood 75:770, 1990). Its nucleotide sequence was identical to HKI cDNA except for the 5' extreme end. It lacked the first 62 nucleotides of the HKI coding region: instead, it contained a unique sequence of 60 nucleotides at the beginning of the coding sequence as well as another unique sequence upstream of the putative translation initiation site. It lacked the porin-binding domain which facilitates binding to the mitochondria, thus explaining the exclusive cytoplasmic localization of HKR. It was the major cDNA derived from reticulocytes, consistent with the observation that HKR activity is predominant in reticulocytes. Northern blot analysis showed that it was expressed in the reticulocytes and in the K562 erythroleukemic cell line, but not in a lymphocytic cell line. In the extract of K562 cells, HKR activity co-eluted with the HKR of human RBCs on a MonoQ column (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) chromatography, using a salt gradient elution. The separate genetic control of the RBC-specific HK isozyme explains the clinical reports of two types of HK deficiency, one in which the HK activity was reduced exclusively in the RBC (HKR defect) and another with general decrease of HK activity in several tissues (HKI defect).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL48996-15

    Blood 1997;89;3;762-6

  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human brain hexokinase.

    Aleshin AE, Zeng C, Fromm HJ and Honzatko RB

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA.

    Human brain hexokinase type I, expressed in Escherichia coli, has been crystallized from polyethylene glycol 8000 in the presence of inorganic phosphate. The crystals are hexagonal needles of diameter 0.25 mm, diffracting to a resolution of 3.5 A on a rotating-anode/area-detector system. The crystals belong to the space group P3(1)21/P3(2)21 with cell dimensions a = b = 171.5 A and c = 99.4 A. The specific volume of the crystal is 4.2 A3/Da, suggesting an asymmetric unit with a single 100 kDa molecule and a solvent content of 71% by volume or two molecules of hexokinase with a solvent content of 41%. The complex of hexokinase with glucose crystallizes under similar conditions, giving crystals of the same morphology.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 10546

    FEBS letters 1996;391;1-2;9-10

  • Testis-specific expression of mRNAs for a unique human type 1 hexokinase lacking the porin-binding domain.

    Mori C, Nakamura N, Welch JE, Shiota K and Eddy EM

    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.

    Several enzymes in the glycolytic pathway are reported to have spermatogenic cell-specific isozymes. We reported recently the cloning of cDNAs representing three unique type 1 hexokinase mRNAs (mHk1-sa, mHk1-sb, and mHk1-sc) present only in mouse spermatogenic cells and the patterns of expression of these mRNAs (Mori et al., 1993: Biol Reprod 49:191-203). The mRNAs contain a spermatogenic cell-specific sequence, but lack the sequence for the porin-binding domain that somatic cell hexokinases use to bind to a pore-forming protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. We now report the cloning of cDNAs representing three unique human type 1 hexokinase mRNAs (hHK1-ta, hHK1-tb, and hHK1-tc) expressed in testis, but not detected by Northern analysis in other human tissues. These mRNAs also contain a testis-specific sequence not present in somatic cell type 1 hexokinase, but lack the sequence for the porin-binding domain. The hHK1-tb and hHK1-tc mRNAs each contain an additional unique sequence. The testis-specific sequence of the human mRNAs is similar to the spermatogenic cell-specific sequence of the mouse mRNAs. Furthermore, Northern analysis of RNA from mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, ram, human, and rat demonstrated expression of type 1 hexokinase mRNAs lacking the porin-binding domain in the testes of these mammals. These results suggest that hexokinase may have unique structural or functional features in spermatogenic cells and support a model proposed by others for hexokinase gene evolution in mammals.

    Molecular reproduction and development 1996;44;1;14-22

  • Properties and localization of a tyrosine phosphorylated form of hexokinase in mouse sperm.

    Visconti PE, Olds-Clarke P, Moss SB, Kalab P, Travis AJ, de las Heras M and Kopf GS

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6080, USA.

    Mouse sperm possess a phosphotyrosine-containing hexokinase type 1 (HK1) that is associated with the plasma membrane fraction of these cells (Kalab et al., 1994; J. Biol Chem 269:3810-3817). This apparent plasma membrane association appears unique, since somatic HK1 is normally cytoplasmic or bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane via contact sites with a voltage-dependent anion channel (porin) through a porin-binding domain. In male germ cells, three cDNA clones have been described that encode unique HK1 isoforms (HK1-sa, HK1-sb, HK1-sc) that do not contain porin binding domains (Mori et al., 1993: Biol Reprod 49:191-203). This suggests that these proteins might not be localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane and could have alternative functions in germ cells and/or sperm. We demonstrate in the mouse that male germ cells and sperm could potentially express four HK1 isoforms (HK1-sa, HK1-sb, HK1-sc, and the somatic HK1). At the protein level, at least one of the HK1 isoforms becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues during spermatogenesis. Treatment of sperm membrane fractions to dissociate the phosphotyrosine-containing HK1 (pY-mHK1) yields results demonstrating that pY-mHK1 has properties of an integral membrane protein. Indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody to HK1 demonstrates specific staining both in the head and tail regions of sperm. Surface biotinylation of intact sperm followed by precipitation with either polyclonal HK1 antiserum or with avidin-Sepharose suggests that pY-mHK1 possesses an extracellular domain. These results suggest that mouse sperm contain at least one HK1 isoform that is present on the sperm head, has an extracellular domain, and behaves as an integral membrane protein.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 06274, HD15045, HD22732; ...

    Molecular reproduction and development 1996;43;1;82-93

  • Hexokinase mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

    Bianchi M and Magnani M

    Institute of Biological Chemistry G. Fornaini, University of Urbino, Italy.

    Among glycolytic enzyme defects, hexokinase (ATP: D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC; HK) deficiency is a very rare disease where the predominant clinical effect is nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Here we report the characterization at molecular level of the HK type I cDNA from a patient with hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency. PCR amplification and sequence of the cDNA revealed the presence of a deletion and of a single nucleotide substitution, both in heterozygous form. In particular, the deletion, 96 bp long, concerns nucleotides 577 to 672 in the HK cDNA sequence and was never found in the cDNAs of 14 unrelated normal subjects. The sequence of the HK allele without deletion showed a single nucleotide substitution from T to C at position 1667 which causes the amino acid change from Leu529 to Ser. This heterozygous mutation at nt 1667 was confirmed by direct sequencing of the patient genomic DNA, but when DNAs from 10 normal controls were examined by this technique the substitution at nt 1667 was never found. From these results we concluded that the patient is carrying a point mutation at nt 1667 of one HK allele and a 96 nt deletion in the other allele. In normal subjects two differences from the published cDNA sequence were documented.

    Blood cells, molecules & diseases 1995;21;1;2-8

  • Cloning and functional expression in yeast of two human isoforms of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, the voltage-dependent anion channel.

    Blachly-Dyson E, Zambronicz EB, Yu WH, Adams V, McCabe ER, Adelman J, Colombini M and Forte M

    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Portland, Oregon.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane is a small abundant protein found in all eukaryotic kingdoms which forms a voltage-gated pore when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. VDAC is also the site of binding of the metabolic enzymes hexokinase and glycerol kinase to the mitochondrion in what may be a significant metabolic regulatory interaction. Recently, there has been speculation that there may be multiple forms of VDAC in mammals which differ in their localization in the outer mitochondrial membrane and in their physiological function. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of two human cDNAs encoding VDAC homologs (HVDAC1 and HVDAC2). To confirm VDAC function, each human protein has been expressed in yeast lacking the endogenous VDAC gene. Human proteins isolated from yeast mitochondria formed channels with the characteristics expected of VDAC when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. In addition, expression of the human proteins in such strains can complement phenotypic defects associated with elimination of the endogenous yeast VDAC gene. Since VDAC is the site of binding of hexokinase to the outer mitochondrial membrane, the binding capacity of each VDAC isoform expressed in yeast mitochondria was assessed. When compared with the binding of hexokinase to mitochondria lacking VDAC, the results show that mitochondria expressing HVDAC1 are capable of specifically binding hexokinase, whereas mitochondria expressing HVDAC2 only bind hexokinase at background levels. The expression of each human cDNA has been assessed by Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction techniques. With one exception, each is expressed in all human cell lines and tissues examined.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;3;1835-41

  • A recombinant human 'mini'-hexokinase is catalytically active and regulated by hexose 6-phosphates.

    Magnani M, Bianchi M, Casabianca A, Stocchi V, Daniele A, Altruda F, Ferrone M and Silengo L

    Istituto di Chimica Biologica Giorgio Fornaini, Università degli Studi di Urbino, Italy.

    Mammalian hexokinase type I is a 100 kDa enzyme that has been considered to be evolved from an ancestral 50 kDa yeast-type hexokinase, insensitive to product inhibition, by gene duplication and fusion. According to this model, and based on many experimental data, the catalytic site is associated with the C-terminal half of the enzyme, although an allosteric site for the binding of glucose 6-phosphate could be present on the N-terminal half of the molecule. We have isolated a cDNA clone of hexokinase from a lambda gt11 human placenta library comprising 2658 bp, containing a single open reading frame of 1893 nucleotides, which encodes a truncate form of hexokinase starting from asparagine-287 to the terminal serine-917. This clone was further digested with restriction enzyme NcoI to obtain almost only the C-terminal half of human hexokinase starting from methionine-455 to the terminal amino acid and was overexpressed in active form in Escherichia coli and purified by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. The overexpressed 'mini'-hexokinase was found not only to catalyse glucose phosphorylation, but also to be inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate and other mono- and bis-phosphate sugars exactly like the complete mammalian enzyme. These results suggest that the C-terminal half of human hexokinase, in addition to the catalytic site, also contains the regulatory site and that the evolutionary relationship between the hexokinases should be reconsidered by including the appearance of a regulatory site before the gene duplication.

    The Biochemical journal 1992;285 ( Pt 1);193-9

  • Mapping of human hexokinase 1 gene to 10q11----qter.

    Daniele A, Altruda F, Ferrone M, Silengo L, Romeo G, Archidiacono N and Rocchi M

    Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia, Università di Torino, Italia.

    Two partial-length cDNAs encoding the type 1 human hexokinase (ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase) were isolated from a placenta cDNA library using a 50-bp oligonucleotide synthesized according to the known sequence of human HK1. Using the larger (1.8 kb) cDNA insert as a probe and a panel of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids, we were able to assign the HK1 gene to the long arm of chromosome 10.

    Human heredity 1992;42;2;107-10

  • Protein kinase activity of rat brain hexokinase.

    Adams V, Griffin LD, Gelb BD and McCabe ER

    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

    Hexokinase 1 (HK1) purified from rat brain exhibits protein kinase activity, including autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of histone H2A. This protein kinase activity is observed only in the absence of the HK1 carbohydrate substrate, glucose. Analysis of the ATP-binding domains of the mammalian HK1 protein sequences shows significant homology with other mammalian protein kinases.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1991;177;3;1101-6

  • Human hexokinase type I microheterogeneity is due to different amino-terminal sequences.

    Magnani M, Serafini G, Bianchi M, Casabianca A and Stocchi V

    Istituto di Chimica Biologica G. Fornaini, Università degli Studi, Urbino, Italy.

    Human placenta hexokinase type I was previously shown to be present in two subtypes with similar isoelectric points but different molecular masses of 112 and 103 kDa, respectively. In order to exclude that these subtypes arise by artifact(s) occurring during the protein purification, we have developed a single-step immunoaffinity chromatography for the isolation of microgram quantities of hexokinase. The results obtained confirmed the presence of both hexokinase subtypes in human placenta. By Northern blot analysis a single mRNA species that hybridized with a hexokinase-I cDNA was found to be present in human placenta. Furthermore, in vitro translation of placenta mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by hexokinase immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography showed that only one hexokinase with apparent molecular mass of about 112 kDa is expressed in this tissue and suggests a post-translational modification as a probable cause of hexokinase I microheterogeneity. To further investigate this point we have purified the high and low Mr hexokinase and determined their NH2-terminal sequences. The results obtained show that when compared with the amino acid sequence deduced from a cDNA the high Mr hexokinase starts at amino acid 11 while the low Mr hexokinase starts at amino acid 103. Since the first 10 amino acids are involved in the binding of hexokinase to mitochondrial porin these data provide an explanation both for the inability of these hexokinases to bind to mitochondria and for their differences in Mr.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;1;502-5

  • An isozyme of hexokinase specific for the human red blood cell (HKR)

    Murakami K, Blei F, Tilton W, Seaman C and Piomelli S

    Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032.

    The hexokinase (HK) of the human red blood cell (RBC) was separated into two distinct major isozymes by fast protein liquid chromatography using a linear salt gradient on a MonoQ column. The first isozyme (HKI) eluted as a sharp peak at the same position as HKI of human liver. The second isozyme eluted between HKI and HKII of human white blood cells, and it appeared to be unique to the RBC (it was designated HKR). From a gel filtration column, HKR eluted before HKI, suggesting that it was larger than HKI by several kilodaltons. In a mitochondria-enriched fraction from human reticulocytes, no HKR was found; thus, HKR was not a mitochondrial enzyme. Despite these differences in chromatographic behavior, size, and mitochondrial binding, both forms behaved kinetically as HKI. RBC from normal blood contained HKI and HKR at an equal activity, but in reticulocyte-rich RBC, HKR dominated. When RBC of increasing age was separated by buoyant density ultracentrifugation, the total HK activity decayed in a biphasic manner, with half-lives respectively of approximately 15 and approximately 51 days. When isolated by MonoQ column from each age-separated fraction, HKR was the major form in the youngest RBC, and decreased rapidly with cell age, with a t 1/2 of approximately 10 days, representing a negligible activity in the oldest RBC. Instead, HKI was relatively stable through the entire life span of the RBC, with a t 1/2 of approximately 66 days. Thus, HKR appears to be an RBC-specific isozyme that is predominant in the reticulocyte and is then rapidly degraded. During maturation of the RBC, the fast decay of HKR contributes to the early sharp decline of HK activity and the slow decay of HKI to the later gradual decline.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM26793

    Blood 1990;75;3;770-5

  • Human hexokinase: sequences of amino- and carboxyl-terminal halves are homologous.

    Nishi S, Seino S and Bell GI

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, IL 60637.

    cDNA clones encoding human hexokinase have been isolated from an adult kidney library. Analysis of this 917 amino acid protein (Mr = 102,519) indicates that the sequences of the NH2- and COOH-terminal halves, corresponding to the regulatory and catalytic domains, respectively, are homologous; and that eukaryotic hexokinases evolved by duplication of a gene encoding a protein of 450 amino acids. The COOH-terminal half of the protein created by this gene duplication retained the glucose binding site and glucose phosphorylating activity while the substrate binding sites of the NH2-terminal half evolved into a new allosteric effector site.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;157;3;937-43

  • Generalized hexokinase deficiency in the blood cells of a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

    Rijksen G, Akkerman, van den Wall Bake AW, Hofstede DP and Staal GE

    In a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, a hexokinase deficiency was detected in the red cells (residual activity about 25% of normal) and in blood platelets (20%-35% of normal activity). Although the total hexokinase activity in lymphocytes was normal, the amount of hexokinase type I was decreased to about 50% of normal. However, the deficiency was compensated for by the appearance of type III hexokinase. Compartmentation studies with controlled digitonin-induced cell lysis showed that this type III enzyme was localized in the cytosol, while almost all hexokinase activity in normal lymphocytes is particulate. No abnormal lymphocyte functions could be detected. The patient was homozygous for the defect. The parents and three of five sibs of the patient were apparently heterozygous with residual activities of 50%-67% of normal in their red cells, but did not show any clinical signs of hexokinase deficiency. The variant enzyme had a slightly decreased affinity for MgATP2- and a strongly increased inhibition constant for glucose-1,6-P2. Affinity for glucose, heat stability, and pH optimum were normal. In the electrophoretic pattern of red cell hexokinase, only one subtype of hexokinase I could be detected, while in normal red cells, at least three subtypes are present. In the heterozygous individuals, no enzymatic abnormalities could be detected, except for an aberration in the electropherogram of one sib.

    Blood 1983;61;1;12-8

  • Localization of the structural genes for hexokinase-1 and inorganic pyrophosphatase on region (pter-->q24) of human chromosome 10.

    Chern CJ

    The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Concordant expression of human hexokinase-1 and inorganic pyrophosphatase was established in somatic cell hybrids between thymidine kinase-deficient Chinese hamster cells and human fibroblasts carrying a translocation of the distal third of the long arm of chromosome 10 to chromosome 17. Neither human hexokinase-1 nor human inorganic pyrophosphatase expression segregated concordantly with human cytoplasmic glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase expression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA10815, CA16685; NCRR NIH HHS: RR05540; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20700

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1976;17;6;338-42

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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