G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
glutamate dehydrogenase 1
G00000442 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018666 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000148672 (Ensembl human gene)
2746 (Entrez Gene)
818 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GLUD1 (GeneCards)
138130 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4335 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P00367 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • GDH

Literature (59)

Pubmed - other

  • Transgenic expression of Glud1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) in neurons: in vivo model of enhanced glutamate release, altered synaptic plasticity, and selective neuronal vulnerability.

    Bao X, Pal R, Hascup KN, Wang Y, Wang WT, Xu W, Hui D, Agbas A, Wang X, Michaelis ML, Choi IY, Belousov AB, Gerhardt GA and Michaelis EK

    Higuchi Biosciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, and Life Span Studies Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

    The effects of lifelong, moderate excess release of glutamate (Glu) in the CNS have not been previously characterized. We created a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release in the CNS by introducing the gene for glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (Glud1) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Glud1 is, potentially, an important enzyme in the pathway of Glu synthesis in nerve terminals. Increased levels of GLUD protein and activity in CNS neurons of hemizygous Tg mice were associated with increases in the in vivo release of Glu after neuronal depolarization in striatum and in the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Despite overexpression of Glud1 in all neurons of the CNS, the Tg mice suffered neuronal losses in select brain regions (e.g., the CA1 but not the CA3 region). In vulnerable regions, Tg mice had decreases in MAP2A labeling of dendrites and in synaptophysin labeling of presynaptic terminals; the decreases in neuronal numbers and dendrite and presynaptic terminal labeling increased with advancing age. In addition, the Tg mice exhibited decreases in long-term potentiation of synaptic activity and in spine density in dendrites of CA1 neurons. Behaviorally, the Tg mice were significantly more resistant than wild-type mice to induction and duration of anesthesia produced by anesthetics that suppress Glu neurotransmission. The Glud1 mouse might be a useful model for the effects of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release on CNS neurons and for age-associated neurodegenerative processes.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG12993, P01 AG012993, P01 AG012993-07, P01 AG012993-070009, P01 AG012993-11A20012; NIAAA NIH HHS: AA04732, AA11419, AA12276, R01 AA004732, R01 AA004732-19, R01 AA012276; NICHD NIH HHS: HD02528, P30 HD002528; NIDA NIH HHS: DA015088, DA017186, DA022738, R01 DA015088, R01 DA015088-07, R01 DA017186, R01 DA017186-01, T32 DA022738; NIMH NIH HHS: MH58414, R01 MH058414, R01 MH058414-02; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39787, P50 NS039787, P50 NS039787-01

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;44;13929-44

  • Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonaemia syndrome: novel mutations in the GLUD1 gene and genotype-phenotype correlations.

    Kapoor RR, Flanagan SE, Fulton P, Chakrapani A, Chadefaux B, Ben-Omran T, Banerjee I, Shield JP, Ellard S and Hussain K

    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Molecular Genetics Unit, London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, and The Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

    Background: Activating mutations in the GLUD1 gene (which encodes for the intra-mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) cause the hyperinsulinism-hyperammonaemia (HI/HA) syndrome. Patients present with HA and leucine-sensitive hypoglycaemia. GDH is regulated by another intra-mitochondrial enzyme sirtuin 4 (SIRT4). Sirt4 knockout mice demonstrate activation of GDH with increased amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Objectives: To study the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with GLUD1 mutations. To report the phenotype and functional analysis of a novel mutation (P436L) in the GLUD1 gene associated with the absence of HA. Patients and methods Twenty patients with HI from 16 families had mutational analysis of the GLUD1 gene in view of HA (n=19) or leucine sensitivity (n=1). Patients negative for a GLUD1 mutation had sequence analysis of the SIRT4 gene. Functional analysis of the novel P436L GLUD1 mutation was performed.

    Results: Heterozygous missense mutations were detected in 15 patients with HI/HA, 2 of which are novel (N410D and D451V). In addition, a patient with a normal serum ammonia concentration (21 micromol/l) was heterozygous for a novel missense mutation P436L. Functional analysis of this mutation confirms that it is associated with a loss of GTP inhibition. Seizure disorder was common (43%) in our cohort of patients with a GLUD1 mutation. No mutations in the SIRT4 gene were identified.

    Conclusion: Patients with HI due to mutations in the GLUD1 gene may have normal serum ammonia concentrations. Hence, GLUD1 mutational analysis may be indicated in patients with leucine sensitivity; even in the absence of HA. A high frequency of epilepsy (43%) was observed in our patients with GLUD1 mutations.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 081188/A/06/Z

    European journal of endocrinology 2009;161;5;731-5

  • Glioblastoma cells require glutamate dehydrogenase to survive impairments of glucose metabolism or Akt signaling.

    Yang C, Sudderth J, Dang T, Bachoo RM, Bachoo RG, McDonald JG and DeBerardinis RJ

    Department of Pediatrics, McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75390-9063, USA.

    Oncogenes influence nutrient metabolism and nutrient dependence. The oncogene c-Myc stimulates glutamine metabolism and renders cells dependent on glutamine to sustain viability ("glutamine addiction"), suggesting that treatments targeting glutamine metabolism might selectively kill c-Myc-transformed tumor cells. However, many current or proposed cancer therapies interfere with the metabolism of glucose, not glutamine. Here, we studied how c-Myc-transformed cells maintained viability when glucose metabolism was impaired. In SF188 glioblastoma cells, glucose deprivation did not affect net glutamine utilization but elicited a switch in the pathways used to deliver glutamine carbon to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with a large increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The effect on GDH resulted from the loss of glycolysis because it could be mimicked with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose and reversed with a pyruvate analogue. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt signaling, which facilitates glycolysis, increased GDH activity whereas overexpression of Akt suppressed it, suggesting that Akt indirectly regulates GDH through its effects on glucose metabolism. Suppression of GDH activity with RNA interference or an inhibitor showed that the enzyme is dispensable in cells able to metabolize glucose but is required for cells to survive impairments of glycolysis brought about by glucose deprivation, 2-deoxyglucose, or Akt inhibition. Thus, inhibition of GDH converted these glutamine-addicted cells to glucose-addicted cells. The findings emphasize the integration of glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism, and oncogenic signaling in glioblastoma cells and suggest that exploiting compensatory pathways of glutamine metabolism can improve the efficacy of cancer treatments that impair glucose utilization.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK072565, K08 DK072565, K08 DK072565-05

    Cancer research 2009;69;20;7986-93

  • Expression of enzymes regulating placental ammonia homeostasis in human fetal growth restricted pregnancies.

    Jozwik M, Pietrzycki B, Jozwik M and Anthony RV

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Biberach Teaching Hospital of Ulm University, 88400 Biberach, Germany.

    Functional placental insufficiency results in impaired feto-placental exchange, and subsequently in fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesized that reductions in placental amino acid transporter activities in FGR pregnancies may be accompanied by abnormal expression of placental ammonia-handling enzymes. Term placentas were obtained from growth restricted (N=11) and normal (N=17) human pregnancies, and examined for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutaminase (GA) mRNA and protein expression. Northern and Western blots were normalized on human actin mRNA and protein expression. For GA, the presence of mRNA coding the kidney isoform, and the absence of mRNA coding the liver isoform of the enzyme were demonstrated in the human placenta. In FGR pregnancies, placental expression of GDH mRNA was reduced (P<0.05) compared to normal pregnancies (1.576+/-0.144 vs. 2.092+/-0.177, respectively; mean+/-SE), whereas GS and GA mRNA expression was not different between the two types of pregnancy. GDH protein expression were also reduced (P<0.05) in FGR placentas compared to normal placentas (1.055+/-0.079 vs. 1.322+/-0.053, respectively; mean+/-SE). The GS and GA protein expression was not different in FGR pregnancies. Our data indicate that in cases of FGR, glutamate-to-oxoglutarate transformation in the placenta is limited, yet glutamine synthesis from and decomposition to glutamate seems to be preserved. This may reflect down-regulation of GDH in response to decreased fetal liver output and reduced umbilical artery glutamate concentrations in human FGR pregnancies.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD43089, R01 HD043089, R01 HD043089-04

    Placenta 2009;30;7;607-12

  • Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.

    Need AC, Keefe RS, Ge D, Grossman I, Dickson S, McEvoy JP and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics research, the very richness of the clinical data presents challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting association results for these trials one gene at a time, ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand, suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new hypotheses that can be tested through both replication efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate handling of these forms of data therefore requires dissemination of association statistics without undue emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769 polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21 pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is impossible to know which of these associations may be real, although in total they form a valuable resource that is immediately available to the scientific community.

    Funded by: WHI NIH HHS: N01 MH90001

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;7;946-57

  • Human GLUD1 and GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase localize to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.

    Mastorodemos V, Kotzamani D, Zaganas I, Arianoglou G, Latsoudis H and Plaitakis A

    Department of Neurology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 71003, Greece.

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme central to glutamate metabolism, is thought to localize to the mitochondrial matrix, although there are also suggestions for the extramitochondrial presence of this protein. Whereas GDH in mammals is encoded by the GLUD1 gene, humans and the great apes have, in addition, a GLUD2 gene showing a distinct expression pattern. The encoded hGDH1 and hGDH2 isoenzymes are highly homologous, but their leader sequences are more divergent. To explore their subcellular targeting, we constructed expression vectors in which hGDH1 or hGDH2 was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and used these to transfect COS 7, HeLa, CHO, HEK293, or neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells. Confocal microscopy revealed GDH-EGFP fluorescence in the cytoplasm within coarse structures. Cotransfection experiments using organelle-specific markers revealed that hGDH1 or hGDH2 colocalized with the mitochondrial marker DsRed2-Mito and to a lesser extent with the endoplasmic reticulum marker DsRed2-ER. Western blots detected two GDH-EGFP specific bands: a ~90 kDa band and a ~95 kDa band associated with the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum containing cytosol, respectively. Deletion of the signal sequence, while altering drastically the fluoresce distribution within the cell, prevented GDH from entering the mitochondria, with the ~90 kDa band being retained in the cytosol. In addition, the deletion eliminated the ~95 kDa band from cell lysates, thus confirming that it represents the full-length GDH. Hence, while most of the hGDHs translocate into the mitochondria (a process associated with cleavage of the signal sequence), part of the protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, probably serving additional functions.

    Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire 2009;87;3;505-16

  • Neurological aspects in hyperinsulinism-hyperammonaemia syndrome.

    Kelly A and Stanley CA

    Division of Endocrinology/Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

    Developmental medicine and child neurology 2008;50;12;888

  • Neurological aspects of hyperinsulinism-hyperammonaemia syndrome.

    Bahi-Buisson N, Roze E, Dionisi C, Escande F, Valayannopoulos V, Feillet F, Heinrichs C, Chadefaux-Vekemans B, Dan B and de Lonlay P

    Department of Paediatric Neurology and Metabolic Diseases, Necker Children's Hospital, Paris V University, Paris, France. nadia.bahi-buisson@nck.aphp.fr

    Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonaemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare cause of congenital hyperinsulinism, due to missense mutations in the GLUD1 gene, resulting in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) overactivity. The aim of this study was to document the spectrum of neurological disturbances associated with HHS and to identify possible phenotype-genotype correlations. We retrospectively analyzed the neurological outcomes of 22 consecutive patients (12 males, 10 females) aged from 18 months to 40 years and diagnosed with HHS. We analyzed demographic and clinical features and neuroradiological, biochemical, and genetic findings. Fourteen patients had childhood-onset epilepsy. Learning disability was found in 17 patients. Two patients had pyramidal involvement and one had generalized dystonia. Seizures were observed in 11 of 19 patients with documented GLUD1 mutations, and nine of these 11 patients had a mutation in the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding site. Our data demonstrate that neurological disorders in HHS are more frequent than previously thought and might suggest that mutations in the GTP binding site of GDH could be associated with more frequent epilepsy.

    Developmental medicine and child neurology 2008;50;12;945-9

  • Myoclonic absence epilepsy with photosensitivity and a gain of function mutation in glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Bahi-Buisson N, El Sabbagh S, Soufflet C, Escande F, Boddaert N, Valayannopoulos V, Bellané-Chantelot C, Lascelles K, Dulac O, Plouin P and de Lonlay P

    Service de Neurologie Pediatrique et Maladies Metaboliques, Departement de Pediatrie, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France. nadia.bahi-buisson@nck.ap-hop-paris.fr

    Activating mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), de novo or dominantly inherited, are responsible for the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome. Epilepsy has been frequently reported in association with mutations in GDH, but the epilepsy phenotype has not been clearly determined. Here, we describe a family with a dominantly inherited mutation in GDH. The mother, brother and both sisters had myoclonic absence seizures, but only the mother and one sister had the complete HI/HA pattern. For the two sisters with myoclonic absences, epilepsy started during the second year of life while the brother, it started at 6 years. All 3 children showed the same EEG pattern characterized by photosensitive generalized and irregular spike-wave discharges and runs of multiple spikes. The mother's EEG recordings were normal without photosensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were normal. A direct effect of the GDH mutation, perhaps in combination with recurrent hypoglycemia and chronic hyperammonemia could provide a pathophysiological explanation for the epilepsy observed in this syndrome and these are discussed.

    Seizure 2008;17;7;658-64

  • Mitochondrial targeting adaptation of the hominoid-specific glutamate dehydrogenase driven by positive Darwinian selection.

    Rosso L, Marques AC, Reichert AS and Kaessmann H

    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Many new gene copies emerged by gene duplication in hominoids, but little is known with respect to their functional evolution. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) is an enzyme central to the glutamate and energy metabolism of the cell. In addition to the single, GLUD-encoding gene present in all mammals (GLUD1), humans and apes acquired a second GLUD gene (GLUD2) through retroduplication of GLUD1, which codes for an enzyme with unique, potentially brain-adapted properties. Here we show that whereas the GLUD1 parental protein localizes to mitochondria and the cytoplasm, GLUD2 is specifically targeted to mitochondria. Using evolutionary analysis and resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that the enhanced mitochondrial targeting specificity of GLUD2 is due to a single positively selected glutamic acid-to-lysine substitution, which was fixed in the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of GLUD2 soon after the duplication event in the hominoid ancestor approximately 18-25 million years ago. This MTS substitution arose in parallel with two crucial adaptive amino acid changes in the enzyme and likely contributed to the functional adaptation of GLUD2 to the glutamate metabolism of the hominoid brain and other tissues. We suggest that rapid, selectively driven subcellular adaptation, as exemplified by GLUD2, represents a common route underlying the emergence of new gene functions.

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;8;e1000150

  • SIRT4 inhibits glutamate dehydrogenase and opposes the effects of calorie restriction in pancreatic beta cells.

    Haigis MC, Mostoslavsky R, Haigis KM, Fahie K, Christodoulou DC, Murphy AJ, Valenzuela DM, Yancopoulos GD, Karow M, Blander G, Wolberger C, Prolla TA, Weindruch R, Alt FW and Guarente L

    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

    Sir2 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that connects metabolism with longevity in yeast, flies, and worms. Mammals have seven Sir2 homologs (SIRT1-7). We show that SIRT4 is a mitochondrial enzyme that uses NAD to ADP-ribosylate and downregulate glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. GDH is known to promote the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine, generating ATP, which promotes insulin secretion. Loss of SIRT4 in insulinoma cells activates GDH, thereby upregulating amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion. A similar effect is observed in pancreatic beta cells from mice deficient in SIRT4 or on the dietary regimen of calorie restriction (CR). Furthermore, GDH from SIRT4-deficient or CR mice is insensitive to phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that cleaves ADP-ribose, suggesting the absence of ADP-ribosylation. These results indicate that SIRT4 functions in beta cell mitochondria to repress the activity of GDH by ADP-ribosylation, thereby downregulating insulin secretion in response to amino acids, effects that are alleviated during CR.

    Cell 2006;126;5;941-54

  • Unregulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells in hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome: role of glutamate dehydrogenase, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and nonselective cation channel.

    Kawajiri M, Okano Y, Kuno M, Tokuhara D, Hase Y, Inada H, Tashiro F, Miyazaki J and Yamano T

    Deparment of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicien, Osaka, Japan.

    The hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is caused by "gain of function" of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Several missense mutations have been found; however, cell behaviors triggered by the excessive GDH activity have not been fully demonstrated. This study was aimed to clarify electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the dysregulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells with GDH mutations. GDH kinetics and insulin secretion were measured in MIN6 cells overexpressing the G446D and L413V. Membrane potentials and channel activity were recorded under the perforated-patch configuration that preserved intracellular environments. In mutant MIN6 cells, sensitivity of GDH to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was reduced and insulin secretion at low glucose concentrations was enhanced. The basal GDH activity was elevated in L413V bearing a mutation in the antenna-like structure. The L413V cells were depolarized without glucose, often accompanying by repetitive Ca2+ firings. The depolarization was maintained in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and disappeared by depleting ATP, suggesting that the depolarization depended on intracellular ATP. In L413V cells, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP) channel) was suppressed and the nonselective cation channel (NSCC) was potentiated, while sensitivity of the channels to their specific blockers or agonists was not impaired. These data suggest that the L413V cells increase the intracellular ATP/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ratio, which in turn causes sustained depolarization not only by closure of the K(ATP) channel, but also by opening of the NSCC. The resultant activation of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel appears to induce hyperinsulinism. The present study provides evidence that multiple channels cooperate in unregulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells of the HI/HA syndrome.

    Pediatric research 2006;59;3;359-64

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • Identification and validation of novel ERBB2 (HER2, NEU) targets including genes involved in angiogenesis.

    Beckers J, Herrmann F, Rieger S, Drobyshev AL, Horsch M, Hrabé de Angelis M and Seliger B

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany. beckers@gsf.de

    V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2; synonyms HER2, NEU) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase-specific activity that acts as a major switch in different signal-transduction processes. ERBB2 amplification and overexpression have been found in a number of human cancers, including breast, ovary and kidney carcinoma. Our aim was to detect ERBB2-regulated target genes that contribute to its tumorigenic effect on a genomewide scale. The differential gene expression profile of ERBB2-transfected and wild-type mouse fibroblasts was monitored employing DNA microarrays. Regulated expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR and validated by Western blot analysis. Genome wide gene expression profiling identified (i) known targets of ERBB2 signaling, (ii) genes implicated in tumorigenesis but so far not associated with ERBB2 signaling as well as (iii) genes not yet associated with oncogenic transformation, including novel genes without functional annotation. We also found that at least a fraction of coexpressed genes are closely linked on the genome. ERBB2 overexpression suppresses the transcription of antiangiogenic factors (e.g., Sparc, Timp3, Serpinf1) but induces expression of angiogenic factors (e.g., Klf5, Tnfaip2, Sema3c). Profiling of ERBB2-dependent gene regulation revealed a compendium of potential diagnostic markers and putative therapeutic targets. Identification of coexpressed genes that colocalize in the genome may indicate gene regulatory mechanisms that require further study to evaluate functional coregulation. (Supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0020-7136/suppmat/index.html.)

    International journal of cancer 2005;114;4;590-7

  • Critical role of the cysteine 323 residue in the catalytic activity of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.

    Yang SJ, Cho EH, Choi MM, Lee HJ, Huh JW, Choi SY and Cho SW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, Korea.

    The role of residue C323 in catalysis by human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2) was examined by substituting Arg, Gly, Leu, Met, or Tyr at C323 by cassette mutagenesis using synthetic human GDH isozyme genes. As a result, the Km of the enzyme for NADH and alpha-ketoglutarate increased up to 1.6-fold and 1.1-fold, respectively. It seems likely that C323 is not responsible for substrate-binding or coenzyme-binding. The efficiency (kcat/Km) of the mutant enzymes was only 11-14% of that of the wild-type isozymes, mainly due to a decrease in kcat values. There was a linear relationship between incorporation of [14C]p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and loss of enzyme activity that extrapolated to a stoichiometry of one mol of [14C] incorporated per mol of monomer for wild type hGDHs. No incorporation of [14C]p-chloromer-curibenzoic acid was observed with the C323 mutants. ADP and GTP had no effect on the binding of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, suggesting that C323 is not directly involved in allosteric regulation. There were no differences between the two hGDH isozymes in sensitivities to mutagenesis at C323. Our results suggest that C323 plays an important role in catalysis by human GDH isozymes.

    Molecules and cells 2005;19;1;97-103

  • Molecular basis of human glutamate dehydrogenase regulation under changing energy demands.

    Mastorodemos V, Zaganas I, Spanaki C, Bessa M and Plaitakis A

    Department of Neurology, University of Crete, School of Health Sciences, Section of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme central to glutamate metabolism, is located in the mitochondria although there is evidence for extramitochondrial localization of GDH. In the human, housekeeping and nerve tissue-specific isoforms, encoded by the GLUD1 and GLUD2 genes, have been identified. The two isoenzymes differ markedly in their baseline activities, allosteric regulation, and thermal stability. GTP potently inhibits GLUD1-derived GDH (IC(50) = 0.2 muM), whereas the GLUD2-derived isoenzyme is resistant to this compound. The GLUD2-derived GDH shows low basal activity and has the capacity to be activated fully by ADP or L-leucine. We used molecular biological tools to study the subcellular localization of GLUD1-derived GDH in cultured cells and the molecular basis of its regulation. COS7 cells, transfected with a GLUD1-pEGFP-N3 vector, revealed a GFP fluorescence pattern nearly identical to that of the mitochondrial marker pDsRed2-Mito. Site-directed mutagenesis of GLUD1 gene showed that replacement of Gly456 by Ala made the enzyme resistant to GTP (IC(50) = 2.8 +/- 0.15 microM) without altering its regulation by ADP. Substitution of Ser for Arg443 rendered the enzyme virtually inactive at its basal state, but fully responsive to ADP activation. The Arg443Ser mutant was more active at pH 7.0 than at pH 8.0. The Gly456Ala change therefore dissociated GLUD2-derived GDH function from GTP, whereas the Arg443Ser change made enzyme regulation possible without this inhibitor. These properties may allow the brain isoenzyme to function well under conditions of intracellular acidification and increased turnover of ATP to ADP, as occurs in synaptic astrocytes during excitatory transmission.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2005;79;1-2;65-73

  • A case of hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome with reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-1 activity in liver: a pitfall in enzymatic diagnosis for hyperammonaemia.

    Ihara K, Miyako K, Ishimura M, Kuromaru R, Wang HY, Yasuda K and Hara T

    Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, Japan. k-ihara@pediatr.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    We report a patient who was first diagnosed as having congenital carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS-1) deficiency on the basis of significantly low CPS-1 activity in the liver at 1 year of age. We then started therapy against hyperammonaemia with little effect and, at the age of 15 years, we analysed the GLUD1 gene and found a previously reported gain-of-function mutation in the gene, resulting in a change of her diagnosis to hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia (HI/HA) syndrome. This case demonstrates that low CPS-1 activity in liver, however significant it might be, does not always come from a primary CPS-1 deficiency and that we have to take into consideration the possibility of a secondary CPS-1 deficiency, such as HI/HA syndrome.

    Journal of inherited metabolic disease 2005;28;5;681-7

  • A mechanism of sulfite neurotoxicity: direct inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Zhang X, Vincent AS, Halliwell B and Wong KP

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore.

    Exposure of Neuro-2a and PC12 cells to micromolar concentrations of sulfite caused an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in ATP. Likewise, the biosynthesis of ATP in intact rat brain mitochondria from the oxidation of glutamate was inhibited by micromolar sulfite. Glutamate-driven respiration increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and this was abolished by sulfite but the MMP generated by oxidation of malate and succinate was not affected. The increased rate of production of NADH from exogenous NAD+ and glutamate added to rat brain mitochondrial extracts was inhibited by sulfite, and mitochondria preincubated with sulfite failed to reduce NAD+. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in rat brain mitochondrial extract was inhibited dose-dependently by sulfite as was the activity of a purified enzyme. An increase in the Km (glutamate) and a decrease in Vmax resulting in an attenuation in Vmax/Km (glutamate) at 100 microm sulfite suggest a mixed type of inhibition. However, uncompetitive inhibition was noted with decreases in both Km (NAD+) and Vmax, whereas Vmax/Km (NAD+) remained relatively constant. We propose that GDH is one target of action of sulfite, leading to a decrease in alpha-ketoglutarate and a diminished flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle accompanied by a decrease in NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain, a decreased MMP, and a decrease in ATP synthesis. Because glutamate is a major metabolite in the brain, inhibition of GDH by sulfite could contribute to the severe phenotype of sulfite oxidase deficiency in human infants.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;41;43035-45

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Birth and adaptive evolution of a hominoid gene that supports high neurotransmitter flux.

    Burki F and Kaessmann H

    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, BEP, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    The enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission. Human GDH exists in housekeeping and brain-specific isotypes encoded by the genes GLUD1 and GLUD2, respectively. Here we show that GLUD2 originated by retroposition from GLUD1 in the hominoid ancestor less than 23 million years ago. The amino acid changes responsible for the unique brain-specific properties of the enzyme derived from GLUD2 occurred during a period of positive selection after the duplication event.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;10;1061-3

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Important role of Ser443 in different thermal stability of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.

    Yang SJ, Huh JW, Hong HN, Kim TU and Cho SW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, South Korea.

    Molecular biological studies confirmed that two glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2) of distinct genetic origin are expressed in human tissues. hGDH1 is heat-stable and expressed widely, whereas hGDH2 is heat-labile and specific for neural and testicular tissues. A selective deficiency of hGDH2 has been reported in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. We have identified an amino acid residue involved in the different thermal stability of human GDH isozymes. At 45 degrees C (pH 7.0), heat inactivation proceeded faster for hGDH2 (half life=45 min) than for hGDH1 (half-life=310 min) in the absence of allosteric regulators. Both hGDH1 and hGDH2, however, showed much slower heat inactivation processes in the presence of 1 mM ADP or 3 mM L-Leu. Virtually most of the enzyme activity remained up to 100 min at 45 degrees C after treatment with ADP and L-Leu in combination. In contrast to ADP and L-Leu, the thermal stabilities of the hGDH isozymes were not affected by addition of substrates or coenzymes. In human GDH isozymes, the 443 site is Arg in hGDH1 and Ser in hGDH2. Replacement of Ser by Arg at the 443 site by cassette mutagenesis abolished the heat lability of hGDH2 with a similar half-life of hGDH1. The mutagenesis at several other sites (L415M, A456G, and H470R) having differences in amino acid sequence between the two GDH isozymes did not show any change in the thermal stability. These results suggest that the Ser443 residue plays an important role in the different thermal stability of human GDH isozymes.

    FEBS letters 2004;562;1-3;59-64

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Study of structure-function relationships in human glutamate dehydrogenases reveals novel molecular mechanisms for the regulation of the nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) isoenzyme.

    Plaitakis A, Spanaki C, Mastorodemos V and Zaganas I

    Department of Neurology, Section of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. plaitak@med.uoc.gr

    In mammalian brain, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is located predominantly in astrocytes, where is thought to play a role in transmitter glutamate's metabolism. Human GDH exists in GLUD1 (housekeeping) and GLUD2 (nerve tissue-specific) isoforms, which share all but 15 out of their 505 amino acids. The GLUD1 GDH is potently inhibited by GTP, whereas the GLUD2 enzyme is resistant to this compound. On the other hand, the GLUD2 isoform assumes in the absence of GTP a conformational state associated with little catalytic activity, but it remains amenable to full activation by ADP and/or L-leucine. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GLUD1 gene at sites that differ from the corresponding residues of the GLUD2 gene showed that replacement of Gly456 by Ala made the enzyme resistant to GTP (IC(50)=2.8+/-0.15 microM) compared to the wild-type GDH (IC(50)=0.19+/-0.01 microM). In addition, substitution of Ser for Arg443 virtually abolished basal activity and rendered the enzyme dependent on ADP for its function. These properties may permit the neural enzyme to be recruited under conditions of low energy charge (high ADP:ATP ratio), similar to those that prevail in synaptic astrocytes during intense glutamatergic transmission. Hence, substitution of Ser for Arg443 and Ala for Gly456 are the main evolutionary changes that led to the adaptation of the GLUD2 GDH to the unique metabolic needs of the nerve tissue.

    Neurochemistry international 2003;43;4-5;401-10

  • Structural studies on ADP activation of mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase and the evolution of regulation.

    Banerjee S, Schmidt T, Fang J, Stanley CA and Smith TJ

    Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63132, USA.

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all organisms and catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. Unlike GDH from bacteria, mammalian GDH exhibits negative cooperativity with respect to coenzyme, activation by ADP, and inhibition by GTP. Presented here are the structures of apo bovine GDH, bovine GDH complexed with ADP, and the R463A mutant form of human GDH (huGDH) that is insensitive to ADP activation. In the absence of active site ligands, the catalytic cleft is in the open conformation, and the hexamers form long polymers in the crystal cell with more interactions than found in the abortive complex crystals. This is consistent with the fact that ADP promotes aggregation in solution. ADP is shown to bind to the second, inhibitory, NADH site yet causes activation. The beta-phosphates of the bound ADP interact with R459 (R463 in huGDH) on the pivot helix. The structure of the ADP-resistant, R463A mutant of human GDH is identical to native GDH with the exception of the truncated side chain on the pivot helix. Together, these results strongly suggest that ADP activates by facilitating the opening of the catalytic cleft. From alignment of GDH from various sources, it is likely that the antenna evolved in the protista prior to the formation of purine regulatory sites. This suggests that there was some selective advantage of the antenna itself and that animals evolved new functions for GDH through the addition of allosteric regulation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM10704

    Biochemistry 2003;42;12;3446-56

  • Substitution of Ser for Arg-443 in the regulatory domain of human housekeeping (GLUD1) glutamate dehydrogenase virtually abolishes basal activity and markedly alters the activation of the enzyme by ADP and L-leucine.

    Zaganas I, Spanaki C, Karpusas M and Plaitakis A

    Departments of Neurology and Basic Sciences, University of Crete, School of Health Sciences, Section of Medicine, 71500 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) exists in GLUD1 (housekeeping) and in GLUD2-specified (brain-specific) isoforms, which differ markedly in their basal activity and allosteric regulation. To determine the structural basis of these functional differences, we mutagenized the GLUD1 GDH at four residues that differ from those of the GLUD2 isoenzyme. Functional analyses revealed that substitution of Ser for Arg-443 (but not substitution of Thr for Ser-331, Leu for Met-370, or Leu for Met-415) virtually abolished basal activity and totally abrogated the activation of the enzyme by l-leucine (1-10 mm) in the absence of other effectors. However, when ADP (0.025-0.1 mm) was present in the reaction mixture, l-leucine (0.3-6.0 mm) activated the mutant enzyme up to >2,000%. The R443S mutant was much less sensitive to ADP (SC(50) = 383.9 +/- 14.6 microm) than the GLUD1 GDH (SC(50) = 31.7 +/- 4.2 microm; p < 0.001); however, at 1 mm ADP the V(max) for the mutant (136.67 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)) was comparable with that of the GLUD1 GDH (152.95 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)). Varying the composition and the pH of the reaction buffer differentially affected the mutant and the wild-type GDH. Arg-443 lies in the "antenna" structure, in a helix that undergoes major conformational changes during catalysis and is involved in intersubunit communication. Its replacement by Ser is sufficient to impair both the catalytic and the allosteric function of human GDH.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;48;46552-8

  • Importance of glutamate 279 for the coenzyme binding of human glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Yoon HY, Cho EH, Kwon HY, Choi SY and Cho SW

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, Korea.

    Although the structure of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been reported from various sources including mammalian GDH, there are conflicting views regarding the location and mechanism of actions of the coenzyme binding. We have expanded these speculations by photoaffinity labeling and cassette mutagenesis. Photoaffinity labeling with a specific probe, [(32)P]nicotinamide 2-azidoadenosine dinucleotide, was used to identify the NAD(+) binding site within human GDH encoded by the synthetic human GDH gene and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. Photolabel-containing peptides generated with trypsin were isolated by immobilized boronate affinity chromatography. Photolabeling of these peptides was most effectively prevented by the presence of NAD(+) during photolysis, demonstrating a selectivity of the photoprobe for the NAD(+) binding site. Amino acid sequencing and compositional analysis identified Glu(279) as the site of photoinsertion into human GDH, suggesting that Glu(279) is located at or near the NAD(+) binding site. The importance of the Glu(279) residue in the binding of NAD(+) was further examined by cassette mutagenesis with mutant enzymes containing Arg, Gly, Leu, Met, or Tyr at position 279. The mutagenesis at Glu(279) has no effects on the expression or stability of the different mutants. The K(m) values for NAD(+) were 10-14-fold greater for the mutant GDHs than for wild-type GDH, whereas the V(max) values were similar for wild-type and mutant GDHs. The efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of the mutant GDH was reduced up to 18-fold. The decreased efficiency of the mutants results from the increase in K(m) values for NAD(+). In contrast to the K(m) values for NAD(+), wild-type and mutant GDHs show similar K(m) values for glutamate, indicating that substitution at position 279 had no appreciable effect on the affinity of enzyme for glutamate. There were no differences in sensitivities to ADP activation and GTP inhibition between wild-type and mutant GDH, suggesting that Glu(279) is not directly involved in allosteric regulation. The results with photoaffinity labeling and cassette mutagenesis studies suggest that Glu(279) plays an important role for efficient binding of NAD(+) to human GDH.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;44;41448-54

  • Single amino acid substitution (G456A) in the vicinity of the GTP binding domain of human housekeeping glutamate dehydrogenase markedly attenuates GTP inhibition and abolishes the cooperative behavior of the enzyme.

    Zaganas I and Plaitakis A

    Department of Neurology, University of Crete, School of Health Sciences, Section of Medicine, Heraklion, 71500 Crete, Greece.

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) exists in two isoforms encoded by the GLUD1 and GLUD2 genes, respectively. Although the two enzymes share in their mature form all but 15 of their 505 amino acids, they differ markedly in their allosteric regulation. To identify the structural basis for these allosteric characteristics, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the human GLUD1 gene at sites that differ from the GLUD2 gene using a cloned GLUD1 cDNA. Results showed that substitution of Ala for Gly-456, but not substitution of His for Arg-470 or Ser for Asn-498, renders the enzyme markedly resistant to GTP inhibition (IC(50) = 2.80 microm) as compared with the wild type GLUD1-derived GDH (IC(50) = 0.19 microm). The G456A mutation abolished the cooperative behavior of the enzyme, as revealed by the GTP inhibitory curves. The catalytic and kinetic properties of the G456A mutant and its activation by ADP were comparable with those of the wild type GDH. Gly-456 lies in a very tightly packed region of the GDH molecule, and its replacement by Ala may lead to steric clashes with neighboring amino acids. These, in turn, may affect the conformational state of the protein that is essential for the allosteric regulation of the enzyme by GTP.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;29;26422-8

  • Cassette mutagenesis and photoaffinity labeling of adenine binding domain of ADP regulatory site within human glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Yoon HY, Lee EY and Cho SW

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-Dong, Songpa-Ku, Seoul 138-736, South Korea.

    The adenine binding domain of the ADP site within human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was identified by cassette mutagenesis at the Tyr187 position. The wild type GDH was activated 3-fold by ADP at a concentration of 1 mM at pH 8.0, whereas no significant activation by ADP was observed with the Tyr187 mutant GDH regardless of the size, hydrophobicity, and ionization of the side chains. Studies of the steady-state velocity of the mutant enzymes revealed essentially unchanged apparent K(m) values for 2-oxoglutarate and NADH, but an approximately 4-fold decrease in the respective apparent V(max) values. The binding of ADP to the wild type or mutant GDH was further examined by photoaffinity labeling with [alpha-(32)P]8-azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (8N(3)ADP). 8N(3)ADP, without photolysis, mimicked the stimulatory properties of ADP on GDH activity. Saturation of photoinsertion with 8N(3)ADP occurred with apparent K(d) values near 25 microM for the wild type GDH, and the photoinsertion of [alpha-(32)P]8N(3)ADP was decreased best by ADP in comparison to other nucleotides. Unlike the wild type GDH, essentially no photoinsertion was detected for the Tyr187 mutant GDH in the presence or absence of 1 mM ADP. For the wild type GDH, photolabel-containing peptide generated by tryptic digestion was identified in the region containing the sequence EMSWIADTYASTIG, and the photolabeling of this peptide was prevented >95% by the presence of 1 mM ADP during photolysis, whereas no such a peptide was detected for the Tyr187 mutant GDH in the presence or absence of ADP. These results with cassette mutagenesis and photoaffinity labeling demonstrate selectivity of the photoprobe for the ADP binding site and suggest that the photolabeled peptide is within the ADP binding domain of the human GDH and that Tyr187 is responsible for the efficient base binding of ADP to human GDH.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;21;6817-23

  • The structure of apo human glutamate dehydrogenase details subunit communication and allostery.

    Smith TJ, Schmidt T, Fang J, Wu J, Siuzdak G and Stanley CA

    Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA. tsmith@danforthcenter.org

    The structure of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been determined in the absence of active site and regulatory ligands. Compared to the structures of bovine GDH that were complexed with coenzyme and substrate, the NAD binding domain is rotated away from the glutamate-binding domain. The electron density of this domain is more disordered the further it is from the pivot helix. Mass spectrometry results suggest that this is likely due to the apo form being more dynamic than the closed form. The antenna undergoes significant conformational changes as the catalytic cleft opens. The ascending helix in the antenna moves in a clockwise manner and the helix in the descending strand contracts in a manner akin to the relaxation of an extended spring. A number of spontaneous mutations in this antenna region cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome by decreasing GDH sensitivity to the inhibitor, GTP. Since these residues do not directly contact the bound GTP, the conformational changes in the antenna are apparently crucial to GTP inhibition. In the open conformation, the GTP binding site is distorted such that it can no longer bind GTP. In contrast, ADP binding benefits by the opening of the catalytic cleft since R463 on the pivot helix is pushed into contact distance with the beta-phosphate of ADP. These results support the previous proposal that purines regulate GDH activity by altering the dynamics of the NAD binding domain. Finally, a possible structural mechanism for negative cooperativity is presented.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53012; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM10704

    Journal of molecular biology 2002;318;3;765-77

  • Expression, purification and characterization of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) allosteric regulatory mutations.

    Fang J, Hsu BY, MacMullen CM, Poncz M, Smith TJ and Stanley CA

    Division of Endocrinology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street & Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, this enzyme is highly regulated by allosteric effectors. The major allosteric activator and inhibitor are ADP and GTP, respectively; allosteric activation by leucine may play an important role in amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion. The physiological significance of this regulation has been highlighted by the identification of children with an unusual hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome associated with dominant mutations in GDH that cause a loss in GTP inhibition. In order to determine the effects of these mutations on the function of the human GDH homohexamer, we studied the expression, purification and characterization of two of these regulatory mutations (H454Y, which affects the putative GTP-binding site, and S448P, which affects the antenna region) and a mutation designed to alter the putative binding site for ADP (R463A). The sensitivity to GTP inhibition was impaired markedly in the purified H454Y (ED(50), 210 microM) and S448P (ED(50), 3.1 microM) human GDH mutants compared with the wild-type human GDH (ED(50), 42 nM) or GDH isolated from heterozygous patient cells (ED(50), 290 and 280 nM, respectively). Sensitivity to ADP or leucine stimulation was unaffected by these mutations, confirming that they interfere specifically with the inhibitory GTP-binding site. Conversely, the R463A mutation completely eliminated ADP activation of human GDH, but had little effect on either GTP inhibition or leucine activation. The effects of these three mutations on ATP regulation indicated that this nucleotide inhibits human GDH through binding of its triphosphate tail to the GTP site and, at higher concentrations, activates the enzyme through binding of the nucleotide to the ADP site. These data confirm the assignment of the GTP and ADP allosteric regulatory sites on GDH based on X-ray crystallography and provide insight into the structural mechanisms involved in positive and negative allosteric control and in inter-subunit co-operativity of human GDH.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 00240; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 53012, R01 DK 56268

    The Biochemical journal 2002;363;Pt 1;81-7

  • Unregulated elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity induces glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion: identification and characterization of a GLUD1 gene mutation and insulin secretion studies with MIN6 cells overexpressing the mutant glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Tanizawa Y, Nakai K, Sasaki T, Anno T, Ohta Y, Inoue H, Matsuo K, Koga M, Furukawa S and Oka Y

    Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Japan. tanizawa@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is important in normal glucose homeostasis. Mutations of GDH result in hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome. Using PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the gene encoding GDH in 12 Japanese patients with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), we found a mutation (Y266C) in one PHHI patient. This mutation was not found in any of the control or type 2 diabetic subjects. The activity of the mutant GDH (GDH266C), expressed in COS-7 cells, was constitutively elevated, and allosteric regulations by ADP and GTP were severely impaired. The effect of the unregulated increase in GDH activity on insulin secretion was examined by overexpressing GDH266C in an insulinoma cell line, MIN6. Although glutamine alone did not stimulate insulin secretion from control MIN6-lacZ, it remarkably stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6-GDH266C. This finding suggests that constitutively activated GDH enhances oxidation of glutamate, which is intracellularly converted from glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle substrate, which thereby stimulates insulin secretion. Interestingly, insulin secretion is also exaggerated significantly at low glucose concentrations (2 and 5 mmol/l) but not at higher glucose concentrations (8--25 mmol/l). Our results directly illustrate the importance of GDH in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells.

    Diabetes 2002;51;3;712-7

  • Molecular characterisation of glutamate dehydrogenase gene defects in Japanese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia.

    Fujioka H, Okano Y, Inada H, Asada M, Kawamura T, Hase Y and Yamano T

    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

    Congenital hyperinsulinism and hyperammonaemia (CHH) is caused by dysregulation of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We characterised the GDH gene in two Japanese patients with CHH. Patient 1 showed late-onset and mild hypoglycaemic episodes and mild hyperammonaemia, compared with patient 2. In GDH activity of lymphoblasts, patient 1 showed twofold higher basal GDH activity than control subjects and mild insensitivity for GTP inhibition. Patient 2 showed severe insensitivity for GTP inhibition, and similar allosteric stimulation by ADP in the controls. Genetic studies identified heterozygous and de novo L413V and G446D mutations in patients 1 and 2, respectively. COS cell expression study confirmed that both mutations were disease-causing gene. The insensitivity for GTP inhibition in L413V and G446D was emphasised in COS cell expression system as a result of the dosage effect of mutant GDH gene. L413V showed less impairment of GDH than G446D based on biochemical and genetic results, which was consistent with the clinical phenotype. Based on the structure of bovine GDH, G446D was located in GTP binding site of pivot helix and its surroundings, while L413V was located in alpha-helix of antenna-like structure. These different locations of mutations gave different effects on GDH enzyme. The antenna-like structure plays an important role in GDH activity.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2001;9;12;931-7

  • Acute insulin responses to leucine in children with the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome.

    Kelly A, Ng D, Ferry RJ, Grimberg A, Koo-McCoy S, Thornton PS and Stanley CA

    Division of Endocrinology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Mutations of glutamate dehydrogenase cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome by desensitizing glutamate dehydrogenase to allosteric inhibition by GTP. Normal allosteric activation of glutamate dehydrogenase by leucine is thus uninhibited, leading us to propose that children with hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome will have exaggerated acute insulin responses to leucine in the postabsorptive state. As hyperglycemia increases beta-cell GTP, we also postulated that high glucose concentrations would extinguish abnormal responsiveness to leucine in hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome patients. After an overnight fast, seven hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome patients (aged 9 months to 29 yr) had acute insulin responses to leucine performed using an iv bolus of L-leucine (15 mg/kg) administered over 1 min and plasma insulin measurements obtained at -10, -5, 0, 1, 3, and 5 min. The acute insulin response to leucine was defined as the mean increase in insulin from baseline at 1 and 3 min after an iv leucine bolus. The hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome group had excessively increased insulin responses to leucine (mean +/- SEM, 73 +/- 21 microIU/ml) compared with the control children and adults (n = 17) who had no response to leucine (1.9 +/- 2.7 microU/ml; P < 0.05). Four hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome patients then had acute insulin responses to leucine repeated at hyperglycemia (blood glucose, 150-180 mg/dl). High blood glucose suppressed their abnormal baseline acute insulin responses to leucine of 180, 98, 47, and 28 microU/ml to 73, 0, 6, and 19 microU/ml, respectively. This suppression suggests that protein-induced hypoglycemia in hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome patients may be prevented by carbohydrate loading before protein consumption.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000240, M01-RR-00240; NIDDK NIH HHS: F32 DK009985, F32 DK009985-02, R01 DK056268, R01-DK-56268, T32 DK007314, T32-DK-07314; PHS HHS: R01-53012

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2001;86;8;3724-8

  • Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome in children with regulatory mutations in the inhibitory guanosine triphosphate-binding domain of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    MacMullen C, Fang J, Hsu BY, Kelly A, de Lonlay-Debeney P, Saudubray JM, Ganguly A, Smith TJ, Stanley CA and Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia Contributing Investigators

    Division of Endocrinology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    The hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is a form of congenital hyperinsulinism in which affected children have recurrent symptomatic hypoglycemia together with asymptomatic, persistent elevations of plasma ammonium levels. We have shown that the disorder is caused by dominant mutations of the mitochondrial enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), that impair sensitivity to the allosteric inhibitor, GTP. In 65 HI/HA probands screened for GDH mutations, we identified 19 (29%) who had mutations in a new domain, encoded by exons 6 and 7. Six new mutations were found: Ser(217)Cys, Arg(221)Cys, Arg(265)Thr, Tyr(266)Cys, Arg(269)Cys, and Arg(269)HIS: In all five mutations tested, lymphoblast GDH showed reduced sensitivity to allosteric inhibition by GTP (IC(50), 60--250 vs. 20--50 nmol/L in normal subjects), consistent with a gain of enzyme function. Studies of ATP allosteric effects on GDH showed a triphasic response with a decrease in high affinity inhibition of enzyme activity in HI/HA lymphoblasts. All of the residues altered by exons 6 and 7 HI/HA mutations lie in the GTP-binding domain of the enzyme. These data confirm the importance of allosteric regulation of GDH as a control site for amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion and indicate that the GTP-binding site is essential for regulation of GDH activity by both GTP and ATP.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: MO1-RR-00240; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30-DK-19525, R01-DK-53012, R01-DK-56268

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2001;86;4;1782-7

  • Structures of bovine glutamate dehydrogenase complexes elucidate the mechanism of purine regulation.

    Smith TJ, Peterson PE, Schmidt T, Fang J and Stanley CA

    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. tom@bragg.bio.purdue.edu

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is found in all organisms and catalyses the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. However, only animal GDH utilizes both NAD(H) or NADP(H) with comparable efficacy and exhibits a complex pattern of allosteric inhibition by a wide variety of small molecules. The major allosteric inhibitors are GTP and NADH and the two main allosteric activators are ADP and NAD(+). The structures presented here have refined and modified the previous structural model of allosteric regulation inferred from the original boGDH.NADH.GLU.GTP complex. The boGDH.NAD(+).alpha-KG complex structure clearly demonstrates that the second coenzyme-binding site lies directly under the "pivot helix" of the NAD(+) binding domain. In this complex, phosphates are observed to occupy the inhibitory GTP site and may be responsible for the previously observed structural stabilization by polyanions. The boGDH.NADPH.GLU.GTP complex shows the location of the additional phosphate on the active site coenzyme molecule and the GTP molecule bound to the GTP inhibitory site. As expected, since NADPH does not bind well to the second coenzyme site, no evidence of a bound molecule is observed at the second coenzyme site under the pivot helix. Therefore, these results suggest that the inhibitory GTP site is as previously identified. However, ADP, NAD(+), and NADH all bind under the pivot helix, but a second GTP molecule does not. Kinetic analysis of a hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia mutant strongly suggests that ATP can inhibit the reaction by binding to the GTP site. Finally, the fact that NADH, NAD(+), and ADP all bind to the same site requires a re-analysis of the previous models for NADH inhibition.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM10704

    Journal of molecular biology 2001;307;2;707-20

  • Novel missense mutations outside the allosteric domain of glutamate dehydrogenase are prevalent in European patients with the congenital hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome.

    Santer R, Kinner M, Passarge M, Superti-Furga A, Mayatepek E, Meissner T, Schneppenheim R and Schaub J

    Department of Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Kiel, Germany. santer@pediatrics.uni-kiel.de

    The hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS) has been shown to result from 'gain-of-function' mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GlDH) gene, GLUD1. In the original report, all mutations were found in a narrow range of 27 base pairs within exons 11 and 12 which predicted an effect on the presumed allosteric domain of the enzyme and all these mutations were associated by a diminished inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on GlDH activity. We have investigated 14 patients from seven European families with mild hyperinsulinism. In four families, more than one member was affected. In eight cases hyperammonemia was documented, and eight cases had signs of significant leucine sensitivity. In one of the families, a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 6 [c.833C>T (R221C)] was detected, and in all other cases from six unrelated families the novel heterozygous missense mutation c.978G>A (R269H) was found in exon 7. When GIDH activity was measured in lymphocytes isolated from affected patients, both mutations were shown to result in a normal basal activity but a diminished sensitivity to GTP. It is the first time that this effect is reported for mutations located in the presumed catalytic site and outside the GTP allosteric domain of the enzyme. The observation of the high prevalence of the exon 7 mutation both in familial and sporadic cases of HHS suggests a mutation hot spot and justifies a mutation screening for this novel mutation by mismatch PCR-based restriction enzyme digestion in patients with hyperinsulinism.

    Human genetics 2001;108;1;66-71

  • Nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) and housekeeping (GLUD1) human glutamate dehydrogenases are regulated by distinct allosteric mechanisms: implications for biologic function.

    Plaitakis A, Metaxari M and Shashidharan P

    Department of Neurology, University of Crete, School of Health Sciences, Section of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. plaitakis@med.uoc.gr

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme central to the metabolism of glutamate, is known to exist in housekeeping and nerve tissue-specific isoforms encoded by the GLUD1 and GLUD2 genes, respectively. As there is evidence that GDH function in vivo is regulated, and that regulatory mutations of human GDH are associated with metabolic abnormalities, we sought here to characterize further the functional properties of the two human isoenzymes. Each was obtained in recombinant form by expressing the corresponding cDNAs in Sf9 cells and studied with respect to its regulation by endogenous allosteric effectors, such as purine nucleotides and branched chain amino acids. Results showed that L-leucine, at 1.0 mM:, enhanced the activity of the nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2-derived) enzyme by approximately 1,600% and that of the GLUD1-derived GDH by approximately 75%. Concentrations of L-leucine similar to those present in human tissues ( approximately 0.1 mM:) had little effect on either isoenzyme. However, the presence of ADP (10-50 microM:) sensitized the two isoenzymes to L-leucine, permitting substantial enzyme activation at physiologically relevant concentrations of this amino acid. Nonactivated GLUD1 GDH was markedly inhibited by GTP (IC(50) = 0.20 microM:), whereas nonactivated GLUD2 GDH was totally insensitive to this compound (IC(50) > 5,000 microM:). In contrast, GLUD2 GDH activated by ADP and/or L-leucine was amenable to this inhibition, although at substantially higher GTP concentrations than the GLUD1 enzyme. ADP and L-leucine, acting synergistically, modified the cooperativity curves of the two isoenzymes. Kinetic studies revealed significant differences in the K:(m) values obtained for alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate for the GLUD1- and the GLUD2-derived GDH, with the allosteric activators differentially altering these values. Hence, the activity of the two human GDH is regulated by distinct allosteric mechanisms, and these findings may have implications for the biologic functions of these isoenzymes.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;75;5;1862-9

  • Novel missense mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in the congenital hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome.

    Miki Y, Taki T, Ohura T, Kato H, Yanagisawa M and Hayashi Y

    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to clarify the involvement of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in congenital hyperinsulinemia-hyperammonemia syndrome (CHHS) and the relationships between the mutation of the gene and clinical severity.

    Five unrelated Japanese patients (3 girls and 2 boys) with CHHS were investigated. All patients had convulsions or loss of consciousness resulting from hypoglycemia at less than 1 year of age. We examined mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene using genomic or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions, followed by direct sequencing.

    Results: We identified heterozygous missense mutations in all patients. Three patients had a previously identified mutation (C-->T at nt 1506) at codon 445 in the allosteric domain. Two novel missense mutations were identified in the other patients. These mutations included a change of A-->C at nt 1059 and a change of G-->A at nt 966, within the catalytic domain of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. The locus of the mutations was not associated with the severity of hypoglycemia.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that structural aberrations of not only the allosteric domain but also the catalytic domain of the glutamate dehydrogenase protein, caused by missense mutations, can result in the development of CHHS.

    The Journal of pediatrics 2000;136;1;69-72

  • Congenital hyperinsulinism: molecular basis of a heterogeneous disease.

    Meissner T, Beinbrech B and Mayatepek E

    Division of Metabolic Diseases, University Children's Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a disease phenotype characterized by increased, usually irregular, insulin secretion leading to hypoglycemia, coma, and severe brain damage, left untreated. Hyperinsulinism may be caused by a range of biochemical disturbances and molecular defects. In pancreatic beta cells, insulin secretion is stimulated by closure of the ATP-dependent potassium channel (K(ATP) channel). K(ATP) channel is a complex composed of at least two subunits: the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and Kir6.2, an inward rectifier K+ channel member. Mutations in both subunits have been identified in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyperinsulinism, including 28 different mutations in the SUR1 gene and two mutations in the Kir6.2 gene. These mutations co-segregated with disease phenotype, also known as persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), and with attenuated K(ATP) channel function. Inadequately high insulin secretion in one family with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is caused by a mutation in the glucokinase gene, resulting in increased affinity of the enzyme for glucose. Five different mutations have been identified in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene, resulting in overactivity of this enzyme and causing a syndrome of hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia. In 13 cases, hyperinsulinism was caused by one or more focal pancreatic lesions with specific loss of maternal alleles of the imprinted chromosome region 11p15. In five patients, this loss of heterozygosity unmasked a paternally inherited recessive SUR1 mutation. The new molecular approaches in PHHI give further insight into the mechanism of pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion. The heterogeneous group of patients with CHI may now be classified according to their basic defects in the four different genes, with potential implications for a more specific treatment.

    Human mutation 1999;13;5;351-61

  • Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia in infants with regulatory mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

    Stanley CA, Lieu YK, Hsu BY, Burlina AB, Greenberg CR, Hopwood NJ, Perlman K, Rich BH, Zammarchi E and Poncz M

    Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 19104, USA.

    Background: A new form of congenital hyperinsulinism characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia was described recently. We hypothesized that this syndrome of hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia was caused by excessive activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which oxidizes glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate and which is a potential regulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and of ureagenesis in the liver.

    Methods: We measured glutamate dehydrogenase activity in lymphoblasts from eight unrelated children with the hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome: six with sporadic cases and two with familial cases. We identified mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene by sequencing glutamate dehydrogenase complementary DNA prepared from lymphoblast messenger RNA. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to express the mutations in COS-7 cells.

    Results: The sensitivity of glutamate dehydrogenase to inhibition by guanosine 5'-triphosphate was a quarter of the normal level in the patients with sporadic hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome and half the normal level in patients with familial cases and their affected relatives, findings consistent with overactivity of the enzyme. These differences in enzyme insensitivity correlated with differences in the severity of hypoglycemia in the two groups. All eight children were heterozygous for the wild-type allele and had a mutation in the proposed allosteric domain of the enzyme. Four different mutations were identified in the six patients with sporadic cases; the two patients with familial cases shared a fifth mutation. In two clones of COS-7 cells transfected with the mutant sequence from one patient, the sensitivity of the enzyme to guanosine 5'-triphosphate was reduced, findings similar to those in the child's lymphoblasts.

    Conclusions: The hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome is caused by mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene that impair the control of enzyme activity.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR-00240

    The New England journal of medicine 1998;338;19;1352-7

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Three human glutamate dehydrogenase genes (GLUD1, GLUDP2, and GLUDP3) are located on chromosome 10q, but are not closely physically linked.

    Deloukas P, Dauwerse JG, Moschonas NK, van Ommen GJ and van Loon AP

    Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) of 340 and 370 kb that contain the functional human glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD1) and the pseudogene GLUDP2, respectively, were isolated. These genes were not physically linked to each other nor to any other sequences homologous to the exons of GLUD1. No additional GLUD sequences were found within at least 70 kb of the 5' and 175 kb of the 3' end of GLUD1 or 150 kb of either end of GLUDP2. By in situ hybridization, GLUD1 was located at 10q23.3, GLUDP2 at 10q11.2, and another pseudogene of the GLUD gene family, GLUDP3, at 10q22.1. DNA fragments of these three genes showed cross-hybridization to the loci assigned to the other two genes, but not to any other chromosomal locus. Thus, these three genes are located at distinct positions on chromosome 10q.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-16871

    Genomics 1993;17;3;676-81

  • Structure and expression analysis of a member of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family mapped to chromosome 10p11.2.

    Tzimagiorgis G, Leversha MA, Chroniary K, Goulielmos G, Sargent CA, Ferguson-Smith M and Moschonas NK

    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Crete, Greece.

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) is a key metabolic enzyme of the mitochondrion, playing an important role in mammalian neuronal transmission. GLUD deficiency has been associated with certain forms of neurodegeneration in the human cerebellum. Genomic DNA blot hybridization analysis and identification of a large number of GLUD-specific genomic clones have suggested that human GLUD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of at least six members. A functional GLUD gene, GLUD1, has been mapped to chromosome 10q22.3-23 and a full-length "processed" GLUD gene, GLUDP1, to chromosome Xq22-23. In the context of studing the structure, the role, and the chromosomal organization of the other family members, we have analysed in detail, a cosmid clone solely reactive with the 3' region of the GLUD cDNA. Structure and expression analysis of its GLUD-specific region suggests that it represents a truncated "processed" GLUD pseudogene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the entire cosmid as a probe, mapped this GLUD gene locus, termed GLUDP5, to chromosome 10p11.2.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-16871

    Human genetics 1993;91;5;433-8

  • The human glutamate dehydrogenase gene family: gene organization and structural characterization.

    Michaelidis TM, Tzimagiorgis G, Moschonas NK and Papamatheakis J

    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology, Crete, Greece.

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is a mitochondrially located, key metabolic enzyme. In addition to its general metabolic role, GLUD is important in neurotransmission. Significant alterations in GLUD enzymatic activity have been associated with certain neurodegenerative human disorders. Although a single species of human GLUD cDNA molecule has been identified so far, both genomic DNA Southern and cytogenetic analyses have indicated the presence of a GLUD gene family. Screening of a human genomic lambda-phage library with the GLUD cDNA, led us to the isolation of several clones divided into five structurally distinct contigs. We have confirmed the presence of all GLUD-specific sequences in the human genome by detailed genomic Southern analysis. This study allowed the identification of the entire functional GLUD gene, named GLUD1. The GLUD1 gene is about 45 kb long and it is organized into 13 exons. Its nucleotide sequence, exon-intron boundaries, and transcription start sites were determined. Potential binding sites for various regulatory factors such as Sp1, AP-1, and AP-2 were recognized at the promoter region of the gene. The members of the other contigs showed an organization clearly different from GLUD1. Two distinct GLUD-specific gene loci, termed GLUDP2 and GLUDP3, possibly represent truncated pseudogenes. Their high degree of similarity to GLUD1 is limited to the region surrounding exons 2, 3, and 4. Finally, two additional GLUD-specific genomic sequences, termed GLUDP4 and GLUDP5, are structurally similar with the 3' part of the GLUD cDNA sequence. These loci probably represent truncated GLUD pseudogenes generated by retrotransposition. The data presented here suggest that all human GLUD pseudogenes have diverged recently in evolution.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-16871

    Genomics 1993;16;1;150-60

  • Human liver protein map: a reference database established by microsequencing and gel comparison.

    Hochstrasser DF, Frutiger S, Paquet N, Bairoch A, Ravier F, Pasquali C, Sanchez JC, Tissot JD, Bjellqvist B, Vargas R et al.

    Medicine Department, Geneva University, Switzerland.

    This publication establishes a reference human liver protein map obtained with immobilized pH gradients. By microsequencing, 57 spots or 42 polypeptide chains were identified. By protein map comparison and matching (liver, red blood cell and plasma sample maps), 8 additional proteins were identified. The new polypeptides and previously known proteins are listed in a table and/or labeled on the protein map, thus providing a human liver two-dimensional gel database. This reference map can be used to identify protein spots on other samples such as rectal cancer biopsies.

    Electrophoresis 1992;13;12;992-1001

  • Assignment of the GDH loci to human chromosomes 10q23 and Xq24 by in situ hybridization.

    Jung KY, Warter S and Rumpler Y

    Faculté de Médecine, Institut d'Embryologie, Strasbourg.

    More precise localisations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD) to chromosome 10q23 and of the pseudogene GLUDP1 to X q24 are proposed.

    Annales de genetique 1989;32;2;109-10

  • Complete nucleotide sequence of human glutamate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Nakatani Y, Schneider M, Banner C and Freese E

    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, NINCDS, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Nucleic acids research 1988;16;13;6237

  • Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the cDNA for human liver glutamate dehydrogenase precursor.

    Amuro N, Yamaura M, Goto Y and Okazaki T

    Department of Biochemistry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

    Two cDNA clones (lambda GDHh1 and lambda GDHn61) for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were isolated from a human liver cDNA library in lambda gt11. The clone, lambda GDHh1, was isolated from the library using a synthetic 45mer oligodeoxy-ribonucleotide, the sequence of which was derived from the known amino acid sequence near the NH2-terminus of human liver GDH. Subsequently, lambda GDHn61 was isolated from the same library using lambda GDHh1 as a probe. The inserts of both clones contained an overlapping cDNA sequence for human liver GDH, consisting of a 5'-untranslated region of 70 bp, an open reading frame of 1677 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 1262 bp and a 15 base poly(A) tract. The predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the human liver GDH precursor consisted of a total of 558 amino acid residues including the NH2-terminal presequence of 53 amino acids. The sequence deduced for the mature enzyme showed 94% homology to the previously reported amino acid sequence of human liver GDH.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;152;3;1395-400

  • Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding human liver glutamate dehydrogenase: evidence for a small gene family.

    Mavrothalassitis G, Tzimagiorgis G, Mitsialis A, Zannis V, Plaitakis A, Papamatheakis J and Moschonas N

    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Research Center of Crete, Greece.

    We have isolated a series of human liver cDNA clones encoding glutamate dehydrogenase. The cDNA-derived protein sequence specifies a single 558-amino acid long polypeptide including a cleavable signal sequence of 53 amino acids. Blotting analysis of RNA from human, monkey, and rabbit showed that glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA is present in various amounts in all tissues tested. Glutamate dehydrogenase mRNAs are of four sizes and are found in different ratios in different tissues; the predominant ones are approximately 3.5 and approximately 2.9 kilobases. Blot hybridization of human genomic DNA to nonoverlapping cDNA fragments revealed multiple bands, many of which hybridize with two or more probes in a manner inconsistent with the existence of a single GLUD gene. Moreover, two separate 36-base synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to the coding region hybridize to multiple genomic fragments, confirming the existence of more than one GLUD-related gene in human.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-16871

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;10;3494-8

  • Comparison of human brain and liver glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAS.

    Nakatani Y, Banner C, von Herrath M, Schneider ME, Smith HH and Freese E

    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, NINCDS, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    In order to investigate suggestions that more than one glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene may be active in humans, seven human brain and seventeen human liver GDH cDNAs were isolated by probing with a 590 base cDNA from the coding region of human brain GDH. No sequence heterogeneity was revealed among any of the cDNAs by an oligonucleotide binding assay, nor did any cDNA appear to encode a hexapeptide contained in a published amino acid sequence of human liver GDH. Homologous regions of three liver and three brain cDNAs had identical sequences over more than 2 kb, including 3' nontranslated regions. This suggests that identical GDH mRNAs are present in human brain and human liver. Although only one gene appears to be expressed, human genomic DNA blots show a pattern of hybridization consistent with the existence of more than one GDH gene.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1987;149;2;405-10

  • Isolation of a human brain cDNA for glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Banner C, Silverman S, Thomas JW, Lampel KA, Vitkovic L, Huie D and Wenthold RJ

    A cDNA has been isolated from a human brain expression library using anti-bovine glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antibodies. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides, which codes for 258 amino acids. The 258-amino-acid sequence is 95% homologous to the carboxy terminus of human liver GDH. This high degree of homology indicates that the cDNA codes for brain GDH. Fourteen differences between the amino acid sequence deduced from this cDNA and the sequence reported for human liver GDH suggest that there may be two active human GDH genes. A cRNA probe synthesized from the cDNA detects a 3.7-kilobase (kb) mRNA from human brain. Rat liver and kidney each contain two GDH mRNAs, 3.5 and 2.8 kb, respectively. The 3.5-kb transcript is prominent in rat brain, whereas the 2.8-kb transcript is barely detectable, a result suggesting that GDH gene expression is differentially controlled in rat brain.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1987;49;1;246-52

  • Regulation of aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase interactions by carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, Mg2+ plus leucine versus citrate and malate.

    Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, Woldegiorgis G, Evenson M, Shrago E and Marshall M

    Citrate, malate, and high levels of ATP dissociate the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase complex and have an inhibitory effect on the latter enzyme. These effects are opposed by Mg2+, leucine, Mg2+ plus ATP, and carbamyl phosphate synthase-I. In addition, Mg2+ directly facilitates formation of a complex between glutamate dehydrogenase and the aminotransferase and displaces the aminotransferase from the inner mitochondrial membrane which could enable it to interact with glutamate dehydrogenase in the matrix. Zn2+ also favors an aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase complex. It, however, is a potent inhibitor of and has a high affinity for glutamate dehydrogenase. Leucine, however, enhances binding of Mg2+ and decreases binding of and the effect of Zn2+ on the enzyme. Thus, since both metal ions enhance enzyme-enzyme interaction and Zn2+ is a more potent inhibitor, the addition of leucine in the presence of both metal ions results in activation of glutamate dehydrogenase without disruption of the enzyme-enzyme complex. Furthermore, the combination of leucine plus Mg2+ produces slightly more activation than leucine alone. These results indicate that leucine, carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, and its substrate and cofactor, ATP and Mg2+, operate synergistically to facilitate glutamate dehydrogenase activity and interaction between this enzyme and the aminotransferase. Alternatively, Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and malate, have opposing effects.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 17587

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1985;260;10;6069-79

  • Abnormal glutamate metabolism in an adult-onset degenerative neurological disorder.

    Plaitakis A, Berl S and Yahr MD

    In patients with recessive, adult-onset olivopontocerebellar degeneration associated with a partial deficiency of glutamate dehydrogenase, the concentration of glutamate in plasma was significantly higher than that in controls. Plasma alpha-ketoglutarate was significantly lower. Oral administration of monosodium glutamate resulted in excessive accumulation of this amino acid in plasma and lack of increase in the ratio of plasma lactate to pyruvate in the glutamate dehydrogenase-deficient patients. Decreased glutamate catabolism may result in an excess of glutamate in the nervous system and cause neuronal degeneration.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR-171; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-11631, NS-16871

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1982;216;4542;193-6

  • Partial amino acid sequence of the glutamate dehydrogenase of human liver and a revision of the sequence of the bovine enzyme.

    Julliard JH and Smith EL

    The glutamate dehydrogenase from a single human liver has been studied. The subunit size was found to be 55,200 +/- 1,500 by sedimentation equilibrium. The partial specific volume is 0.732 as calculated from the amino acid composition. The sequence was determined by isolation of peptides after cyanogen bromide (CNBr) cleavage; the fraction containing the largest peptides was hydrolyzed by trypsin after maleylation. Studies on these peptides accounted for 454 residues of the 505 residues that are presumably present in the protein. For the 51 residues that were not represented in isolated peptides, we have tentatively assumed that the sequence is the same as that of the bovine enzyme. Methionine and arginine residues in these peptides could be placed on the basis of the specificity of cleavage by CNBr or trypsin. In all, 349 residues were placed in sequence, and were aligned by homology with the corresponding peptides of the bovine and chicken enzymes. From the present information, there are 24 known differences in sequence between the human and bovine enzymes and 41 between the human and chicken enzymes. In addition, the human enzyme contains 4 additional residues at the NH2 terminus as compared to the bovine enzyme. In a peptide from the human enzyme, an additional residue, isoleucine 385, was detected by automated Edman degradation. Reinvestigation of the bovine sequence demonstrated that this residue is also present in the bovine enzyme (and presumably in the chicken enzyme also). Residue 384 of the bovine enzyme, previously reported as Glx has now been shown to be glutamine.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1979;254;9;3427-38

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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