G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001690
Gene symbol
DPYSL2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
dihydropyrimidinase-like 2
Orthologue
G00000441 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000092964 (Ensembl human gene)
1808 (Entrez Gene)
148 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DPYSL2 (GeneCards)
Literature
602463 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3014 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q16555 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CRMP2
  • DHPRP2
  • DRP-2
  • DRP2

Diseases (1)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y Y (16321170) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N

References

  • An investigation of the dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DPYSL2) gene in schizophrenia: genetic association study and expression analysis.

    Zhao X, Tang R, Xiao Z, Shi Y, Feng G, Gu N, Shi J, Xing Y, Yan L, Sang H, Zhu S, Liu H, Chen W, Liu J, Tang W, Zhang J and He L

    Bio-X Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

    Several linkage studies support a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 8p21-22. In this study, we investigated a gene mapping to 8p21, dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DPYSL2). DPYSL2 plays an important role in axonal formation and dysfunction of DPYSL2 may result in neurodevelopmental abnormalities. In previous studies, the expression of the gene has been shown to display alteration in the brain of schizophrenia patients compared with those of healthy controls. Recently, Nakata and colleagues found polymorphisms in the 3'-end of DPYSL2 to be associated with schizophrenia, especially the paranoid type, in a Japanese population. In this study, we genotyped four SNPs in DPYSL2 in 2552 Chinese Han specimens. Case-control and TDT analyses were performed to detect association of DPYSL2 with schizophrenia. However, no allele, genotype or haplotype association was found. We investigated the expression of DPYSL2 in 29 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy controls using quantitative real-time PCR and no difference was found between the two groups. In a comparative allele-specific expression test, we used two SNPs as markers. Only a small proportion of heterozygotes revealed a significant difference (>20%) in allele representation. The results indicated the mRNA level did not contribute mainly in the altered expression of the gene in schizophrenia patients. Although our results provided no evidence for DPYSL2 itself as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, recent findings have indicated that DPYSL2 may interact with other candidate genes for schizophrenia and be worthy of further studies.

    The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology 2006;9;6;705-12

Literature (44)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • An investigation of the dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DPYSL2) gene in schizophrenia: genetic association study and expression analysis.

    Zhao X, Tang R, Xiao Z, Shi Y, Feng G, Gu N, Shi J, Xing Y, Yan L, Sang H, Zhu S, Liu H, Chen W, Liu J, Tang W, Zhang J and He L

    Bio-X Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

    Several linkage studies support a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 8p21-22. In this study, we investigated a gene mapping to 8p21, dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DPYSL2). DPYSL2 plays an important role in axonal formation and dysfunction of DPYSL2 may result in neurodevelopmental abnormalities. In previous studies, the expression of the gene has been shown to display alteration in the brain of schizophrenia patients compared with those of healthy controls. Recently, Nakata and colleagues found polymorphisms in the 3'-end of DPYSL2 to be associated with schizophrenia, especially the paranoid type, in a Japanese population. In this study, we genotyped four SNPs in DPYSL2 in 2552 Chinese Han specimens. Case-control and TDT analyses were performed to detect association of DPYSL2 with schizophrenia. However, no allele, genotype or haplotype association was found. We investigated the expression of DPYSL2 in 29 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy controls using quantitative real-time PCR and no difference was found between the two groups. In a comparative allele-specific expression test, we used two SNPs as markers. Only a small proportion of heterozygotes revealed a significant difference (>20%) in allele representation. The results indicated the mRNA level did not contribute mainly in the altered expression of the gene in schizophrenia patients. Although our results provided no evidence for DPYSL2 itself as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, recent findings have indicated that DPYSL2 may interact with other candidate genes for schizophrenia and be worthy of further studies.

    The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology 2006;9;6;705-12

Pubmed - other

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-2 regulates neurite formation by modulating tubulin GTPase activity.

    Chae YC, Lee S, Heo K, Ha SH, Jung Y, Kim JH, Ihara Y, Suh PG and Ryu SH

    Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784, Republic of Korea.

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) plays a key role in axonal development by regulating microtubule dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that hCRMP-2, specifically amino acid residues 480-509, is essential for stimulating tubulin GTPase activity. We also found that the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity of hCRMP-2 was important for microtubule assembly and neurite formation in differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines. Mutant hCRMP-2, lacking arginine residues responsible for GAP activity, inhibited microtubule assembly and neurite formation. Interestingly, we found that the N-terminal region (amino acids150-299) of hCRMP-2 had an inhibitory role on GAP activity via a direct interaction with the C-terminal region (amino acids 480-509). Our results suggest that CRMP-2 as a tubulin direct binder may be a GAP of tubulin in neurite formation and that its GAP activity may be regulated by an intramolecular interaction with an N-terminal inhibitory region.

    Cellular signalling 2009;21;12;1818-26

  • CRMP-2 directly binds to cytoplasmic dynein and interferes with its activity.

    Arimura N, Hattori A, Kimura T, Nakamuta S, Funahashi Y, Hirotsune S, Furuta K, Urano T, Toyoshima YY and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa, Nagoya, Japan.

    The active transport of proteins and organelles is critical for cellular organization and function in eukaryotic cells. A substantial portion of long-distance transport depends on the opposite polarity of the kinesin and dynein family molecular motors to move cargo along microtubules. It is increasingly clear that many cargo molecules are moved bi-directionally by both sets of motors; however, the regulatory mechanism that determines the directionality of transport remains unclear. We previously reported that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) played key roles in axon elongation and neuronal polarization. CRMP-2 was also found to associate with the anterograde motor protein Kinesin-1 and was transported with other cargoes toward the axon terminal. In this study, we investigated the association of CRMP-2 with a retrograde motor protein, cytoplasmic dynein. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that CRMP-2 interacted with cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain. Dynein heavy chain directly bound to the N-terminus of CRMP-2, which is the distinct side of CRMP-2's kinesin light chain-binding region. Furthermore, over-expression of the dynein-binding fragments of CRMP-2 prevented dynein-driven microtubule transport in COS-7 cells. Given that CRMP-2 is a key regulator of axon elongation, this interference with cytoplasmic dynein function by CRMP-2 might have an important role in axon formation, and neuronal development.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2009;111;2;380-90

  • Case-control association study of 65 candidate genes revealed a possible association of a SNP of HTR5A to be a factor susceptible to bipolar disease in Bulgarian population.

    Yosifova A, Mushiroda T, Stoianov D, Vazharova R, Dimova I, Karachanak S, Zaharieva I, Milanova V, Madjirova N, Gerdjikov I, Tolev T, Velkova S, Kirov G, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC, Toncheva D and Nakamura Y

    Laboratory for International Alliance, RIKEN Center for Genomic Medicine, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

    Background: Bipolar affective disorder (BAD) is a psychiatric illness characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although the etiology is not clear, epidemiological studies suggest it is a result of an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Despite of enormous efforts and abundant studies conducted, none has yet been identified definitively a gene susceptible to bipolar disorder.

    Methods: Ninety-four Bulgarian patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 184 Bulgarian healthy individuals, were used for genotyping of 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan and/or Invader assays. Seventeen SNPs that revealed P value less than 0.05 in the first screening were genotyped using an additional independent set of samples, consisting of 78 BAD cases and 372 controls.

    Results: After applying the Bonferonni correction on genotyping results of 172 cases and 556 controls, only one SNP, rs1800883, in the HTR5A gene revealed a significant level of P value (P=0.000097; odds ratio=1.80 (95%CI, 1.27-2.54); corrected P=0.017).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HTR5A gene could play an important role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder in our population. However these findings should be viewed with caution and replication studies in other populations are necessary in support of these findings.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0800509

    Journal of affective disorders 2009;117;1-2;87-97

  • Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, SP, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease.

    Journal of psychiatric research 2009;43;11;978-86

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-2 is a calmodulin-binding protein.

    Zhang Z, Majava V, Greffier A, Hayes RL, Kursula P and Wang KK

    Center of Innovative Research, Banyan Biomarkers Inc, 12805 Research Drive, Alachua, FL 32615, USA. zqzhang@banyanbio.com

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) plays a crucial role in axonal guidance and neurite outgrowth during neural development and regeneration. We have studied the interaction between calmodulin (CaM) and CRMP-2 and how Ca(2+)/CaM binding modulates the biological functions of CRMP-2. We have shown that CRMP-2 binds to CaM directly in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The CaM binding site of CRMP-2 is proposed to reside in the last helix of the folded domain, and in line with this, a synthesized peptide representing this helix bound to CaM. In addition, CaM binding inhibits a homotetrameric assembly of CRMP-2 and attenuates calpainmediated CRMP-2 proteolysis. Furthermore, a CaM antagonist reduces the number and length of process induced by CRMP-2 overexpression in HEK293 cells. Take together, our data suggest that CRMP-2 is a novel CaM-binding protein and that CaM binding may play an important role in regulating CRMP-2 functions.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS049175, R01 NS049175-01-A1, R01 NS049175-05

    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2009;66;3;526-36

  • Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database.

    Allen NC, Bagade S, McQueen MB, Ioannidis JP, Kavvoura FK, Khoury MJ, Tanzi RE and Bertram L

    Genetics and Aging Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    In an effort to pinpoint potential genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, research groups worldwide have published over 1,000 genetic association studies with largely inconsistent results. To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a regularly updated online database of all published genetic association studies for schizophrenia ('SzGene'). For all polymorphisms having genotype data available in at least four independent case-control samples, we systematically carried out random-effects meta-analyses using allelic contrasts. Across 118 meta-analyses, a total of 24 genetic variants in 16 different genes (APOE, COMT, DAO, DRD1, DRD2, DRD4, DTNBP1, GABRB2, GRIN2B, HP, IL1B, MTHFR, PLXNA2, SLC6A4, TP53 and TPH1) showed nominally significant effects with average summary odds ratios of approximately 1.23. Seven of these variants had not been previously meta-analyzed. According to recently proposed criteria for the assessment of cumulative evidence in genetic association studies, four of the significant results can be characterized as showing 'strong' epidemiological credibility. Our project represents the first comprehensive online resource for systematically synthesized and graded evidence of genetic association studies in schizophrenia. As such, it could serve as a model for field synopses of genetic associations in other common and genetically complex disorders.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD060726

    Nature genetics 2008;40;7;827-34

  • Relative resistance of Cdk5-phosphorylated CRMP2 to dephosphorylation.

    Cole AR, Soutar MP, Rembutsu M, van Aalten L, Hastie CJ, McLauchlan H, Peggie M, Balastik M, Lu KP and Sutherland C

    Neurosciences Institute, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) binds to microtubules and regulates axon outgrowth in neurons. This action is regulated by sequential phosphorylation by the kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) at sites that are hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer disease. The increased phosphorylation in Alzheimer disease could be due to increases in Cdk5 and/or GSK3 activity or, alternatively, through decreased activity of a CRMP phosphatase. Here we establish that dephosphorylation of CRMP2 at the residues targeted by GSK3 (Ser-518/Thr-514/Thr-509) is carried out by a protein phosphatase 1 family member in vitro, in neuroblastoma cells, and primary cortical neurons. Inhibition of GSK3 activity using insulin-like growth factor-1 or the highly selective inhibitor CT99021 causes rapid dephosphorylation of CRMP2 at these sites. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 using purvalanol results in only a gradual and incomplete dephosphorylation of CRMP2 at the site targeted by Cdk5 (Ser-522), suggesting a distinct phosphatase targets this residue. A direct comparison of dephosphorylation at the Cdk5 versus GSK3 sites in vitro shows that the Cdk5 site is comparatively resistant to phosphatase treatment. The presence of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase enzyme, Pin1, does not affect dephosphorylation of Ser-522 in vitro, in cells, or in Pin1 transgenic mice. Instead, the relatively high resistance of this site to phosphatase treatment is at least in part due to the presence of basic residues located nearby. Similar sequences in Tau are also highly resistant to phosphatase treatment. We propose that relative resistance to phosphatases might be a common feature of Cdk5 substrates and could contribute to the hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 and Tau observed in Alzheimer disease.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C18727; Medical Research Council

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;26;18227-37

  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor, neurofibromin, regulates the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells via its associating protein, CRMP-2.

    Patrakitkomjorn S, Kobayashi D, Morikawa T, Wilson MM, Tsubota N, Irie A, Ozawa T, Aoki M, Arimura N, Kaibuchi K, Saya H and Araki N

    Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan.

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene product, neurofibromin, functions in part as a Ras-GAP, a negative regulator of Ras. Neurofibromin is implicated in the neuronal abnormality of NF1 patients; however, the precise cellular function of neurofibromin has yet to be clarified. Using proteomic strategies, we identified a set of neurofibromin-associating cellular proteins, including axon regulator CRMP-2 (Collapsin response mediator protein-2). CRMP-2 directly bound to the C-terminal domain of neurofibromin, and this association was regulated by the manner of CRMP-2 phosphorylation. In nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells, neurofibromin and CRMP-2 co-localized particularly on the distal tips and branches of extended neurites. Suppression of neurofibromin using NF1 small interfering RNA significantly inhibited this neurite outgrowth and up-regulated a series of CRMP-2 phosphorylations by kinases identified as CDK5, GSK-3b, and Rho kinase. Overexpression of the NF1-RAS-GAP-related domain rescued these NF1 small interfering RNA-induced events. Our results suggest that neurofibromin regulates neuronal differentiation by performing one or more complementary roles. First, neurofibromin directly regulates CRMP-2 phosphorylation accessibility through the complex formation. Also, neurofibromin appears to indirectly regulate CRMP-2 activity by suppressing CRMP-2-phosphorylating kinase cascades via its Ras-GAP function. Our study demonstrates that the functional association of neurofibromin and CRMP-2 is essential for neuronal cell differentiation and that lack of expression or abnormal regulation of neurofibromin can result in impaired function of neuronal cells, which is likely a factor in NF1-related pathogenesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;14;9399-413

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Identification of collapsin response mediator protein-2 as a potential marker of colorectal carcinoma by comparative analysis of cancer cell secretomes.

    Wu CC, Chen HC, Chen SJ, Liu HP, Hsieh YY, Yu CJ, Tang R, Hsieh LL, Yu JS and Chang YS

    Proteomics Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

    The cancer cell secretome may contain many potentially useful biomarkers. We therefore sought to identify proteins in the conditioned media of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines but not in those from other cancer cell lines. The secretomes of 21 cancer cell lines derived from 12 cancer types were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS. Among the 325 proteins identified, collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) was chosen for evaluation as a potential CRC biomarker, since it was selectively detected in the CRC cell line secretome and has never been reported as a cancer biomarker. Immunohistochemical analysis of 169 CRC specimens showed that CRMP-2 was positively detected in 58.6% of the tumors, but weakly or not detected in >90% of the adjacent nontumor epithelial cells. Moreover, the CRMP-2-positive rate was significantly increased in earlier stage tumors and lymph node metastasis. Plasma CRMP-2 levels were significantly higher in CRC patients (N = 201) versus healthy controls (N = 201) (61.3 +/- 34.6 vs. 40.2 +/- 24.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Our results indicate that comparative analysis of cancer cell secretome is a feasible strategy for identifying potential cancer biomarkers, and that CRMP-2 may be a novel CRC biomarker.

    Proteomics 2008;8;2;316-32

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-2 hyperphosphorylation is an early event in Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Cole AR, Noble W, van Aalten L, Plattner F, Meimaridou R, Hogan D, Taylor M, LaFrancois J, Gunn-Moore F, Verkhratsky A, Oddo S, LaFerla F, Giese KP, Dineley KT, Duff K, Richardson JC, Yan SD, Hanger DP, Allan SM and Sutherland C

    Division of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is an abundant brain-enriched protein that can regulate microtubule assembly in neurons. This function of CRMP2 is regulated by phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Here, using novel phosphospecific antibodies, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of CRMP2 at Ser522 (Cdk5-mediated) is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, while CRMP2 expression and phosphorylation of the closely related isoform CRMP4 are not altered. In addition, CRMP2 phosphorylation at the Cdk5 and GSK3 sites is increased in cortex and hippocampus of the triple transgenic mouse [presenilin-1 (PS1)(M146V)KI; Thy1.2-amyloid precursor protein (APP)(swe); Thy1.2tau(P301L)] that develops AD-like plaques and tangles, as well as the double (PS1(M146V)KI; Thy1.2-APP(swe)) transgenic mouse. The hyperphosphorylation is similar in magnitude to that in human AD and is evident by 2 months of age, ahead of plaque or tangle formation. Meanwhile, there is no change in CRMP2 phosphorylation in two other transgenic mouse lines that display elevated amyloid beta peptide levels (Tg2576 and APP/amyloid beta-binding alcohol dehydrogenase). Similarly, CRMP2 phosphorylation is normal in hippocampus and cortex of Tau(P301L) mice that develop tangles but not plaques. These observations implicate hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 as an early event in the development of AD and suggest that it can be induced by a severe APP over-expression and/or processing defect.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C18727; Medical Research Council: G0400930, G0400983, G0700355

    Journal of neurochemistry 2007;103;3;1132-44

  • All-trans-retinoic acid inhibits collapsin response mediator protein-2 transcriptional activity during SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    Fontán-Gabás L, Oliemuller E, Martínez-Irujo JJ, de Miguel C and Rouzaut A

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

    Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, the axon and the dendrite. The establishment of this asymmetric structure is a tightly regulated process. In fact, alterations in the proteins involved in the configuration of the microtubule lattice are frequent in neuro-oncologic diseases. One of these cytoplasmic mediators is the protein known as collapsin response mediator protein-2, which interacts with and promotes tubulin polymerization. In this study, we investigated collapsin response mediator protein-2 transcriptional regulation during all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. All-trans-retinoic acid is considered to be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent, and has been extensively used to differentiate neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Therefore, we first demonstrated that collapsin response mediator protein-2 mRNA levels are downregulated during the differentiation process. After completion of deletion construct analysis and mutagenesis and mobility shift assays, we concluded that collapsin response mediator protein-2 basal promoter activity is regulated by the transcription factors AP-2 and Pax-3, whereas E2F, Sp1 and NeuroD1 seem not to participate in its regulation. Furthermore, we finally established that reduced expression of collapsin response mediator protein-2 after all-trans-retinoic acid exposure is associated with impaired Pax-3 and AP-2 binding to their consensus sequences in the collapsin response mediator protein-2 promoter. Decreased attachment of AP-2 is a consequence of its accumulation in the cytoplasm. On the other hand, Pax-3 shows lower binding due to all-trans-retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional repression. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind the action of all-trans-retinoic acid on neuroblastoma cells may well offer new perspectives for its clinical application.

    The FEBS journal 2007;274;2;498-511

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Distinct priming kinases contribute to differential regulation of collapsin response mediator proteins by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in vivo.

    Cole AR, Causeret F, Yadirgi G, Hastie CJ, McLauchlan H, McManus EJ, Hernández F, Eickholt BJ, Nikolic M and Sutherland C

    Division of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland.

    Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are a family of neuron-enriched proteins that regulate neurite outgrowth and growth cone dynamics. Here, we show that Cdk5 phosphorylates CRMP1, CRMP2, and CRMP4, priming for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3 in vitro. In contrast, DYRK2 phosphorylates and primes CRMP4 only. The Cdk5 and DYRK2 inhibitor purvalanol decreases the phosphorylation of CRMP proteins in neurons, whereas CRMP1 and CRMP2, but not CRMP4, phosphorylation is decreased in Cdk5(-/-) cortices. Stimulation of neuroblastoma cells with IGF1 or TPA decreases GSK3 activity concomitantly with CRMP2 and CRMP4 phosphorylation. Conversely, increased GSK3 activity is not sufficient to increase CRMP phosphorylation. However, the growth cone collapse-inducing protein Sema3A increases Cdk5 activity and promotes phosphorylation of CRMP2 (but not CRMP4). Therefore, inhibition of GSK3 alters phosphorylation of all CRMP isoforms; however, individual isoforms can be differentially regulated by their respective priming kinase. This is the first GSK3 substrate found to be regulated in this manner and may explain the hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 observed in Alzheimer's disease.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C18727; Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;24;16591-8

  • Bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia: a 440-single-nucleotide polymorphism screen of 64 candidate genes among Ashkenazi Jewish case-parent trios.

    Fallin MD, Lasseter VK, Avramopoulos D, Nicodemus KK, Wolyniec PS, McGrath JA, Steel G, Nestadt G, Liang KY, Huganir RL, Valle D and Pulver AE

    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

    Bipolar, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorders are common, highly heritable psychiatric disorders, for which familial coaggregation, as well as epidemiological and genetic evidence, suggests overlapping etiologies. No definitive susceptibility genes have yet been identified for any of these disorders. Genetic heterogeneity, combined with phenotypic imprecision and poor marker coverage, has contributed to the difficulty in defining risk variants. We focused on families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, to reduce genetic heterogeneity, and, as a precursor to genomewide association studies, we undertook a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping screen of 64 candidate genes (440 SNPs) chosen on the basis of previous linkage or of association and/or biological relevance. We genotyped an average of 6.9 SNPs per gene, with an average density of 1 SNP per 11.9 kb in 323 bipolar I disorder and 274 schizophrenia or schizoaffective Ashkenazi case-parent trios. Using single-SNP and haplotype-based transmission/disequilibrium tests, we ranked genes on the basis of strength of association (P<.01). Six genes (DAO, GRM3, GRM4, GRIN2B, IL2RB, and TUBA8) met this criterion for bipolar I disorder; only DAO has been previously associated with bipolar disorder. Six genes (RGS4, SCA1, GRM4, DPYSL2, NOS1, and GRID1) met this criterion for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; five replicate previous associations, and one, GRID1, shows a novel association with schizophrenia. In addition, six genes (DPYSL2, DTNBP1, G30/G72, GRID1, GRM4, and NOS1) showed overlapping suggestive evidence of association in both disorders. These results may help to prioritize candidate genes for future study from among the many suspected/proposed for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. They provide further support for shared genetic susceptibility between these two disorders that involve glutamate-signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH058153, R01MH057314, R01MH58153

    American journal of human genetics 2005;77;6;918-36

  • CRMP-2 is involved in kinesin-1-dependent transport of the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex and axon formation.

    Kawano Y, Yoshimura T, Tsuboi D, Kawabata S, Kaneko-Kawano T, Shirataki H, Takenawa T and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

    A neuron has two types of highly polarized cell processes, the single axon and multiple dendrites. One of the fundamental questions of neurobiology is how neurons acquire such specific and polarized morphologies. During neuronal development, various actin-binding proteins regulate dynamics of actin cytoskeleton in the growth cones of developing axons. The regulation of actin cytoskeleton in the growth cones is thought to be involved in axon outgrowth and axon-dendrite specification. However, it is largely unknown which actin-binding proteins are involved in axon-dendrite specification and how they are transported into the developing axons. We have previously reported that collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) plays a critical role in axon outgrowth and axon-dendrite specification (N. Inagaki, K. Chihara, N. Arimura, C. Menager, Y. Kawano, N. Matsuo, T. Nishimura, M. Amano, and K. Kaibuchi, Nat. Neurosci. 4:781-782, 2001). Here, we found that CRMP-2 interacted with the specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (Sra-1)/WASP family verprolin-homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) complex, which is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton. The knockdown of Sra-1 and WAVE1 by RNA interference canceled CRMP-2-induced axon outgrowth and multiple-axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. We also found that CRMP-2 interacted with the light chain of kinesin-1 and linked kinesin-1 to the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex. The knockdown of CRMP-2 and kinesin-1 delocalized Sra-1 and WAVE1 from the growth cones of axons. These results suggest that CRMP-2 transports the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex to axons in a kinesin-1-dependent manner and thereby regulates axon outgrowth and formation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;22;9920-35

  • Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2) gene and association to deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.

    Hong LE, Wonodi I, Avila MT, Buchanan RW, McMahon RP, Mitchell BD, Stine OC, Carpenter WT and Thaker GK

    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, 21228, USA. ehong@mprc.umaryland.edu

    A previous study has shown an association between the *2236T > C allele polymorphism of the dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample [Nakata et al. (2003); Biological Psychiatry 53:571-576]. DRP-2 is an important molecule in guiding neuronal development and its gene is located in 8p21, a chromosomal region that was previously shown to have significant linkage to schizophrenia and to several deficit symptoms of schizophrenia. We compared the frequency of the DRP-2 *2236T > C polymorphism between subjects with (n = 117) and without (n = 72) schizophrenia, and then further evaluated whether the association was specific for the deficit (n = 24) and nondeficit (n = 93) forms of schizophrenia. In both Caucasians and African-Americans, the C allele occurred more frequently in schizophrenia cases than controls, with this difference achieving statistical significance in Caucasians (C allele frequency: 42.0% in cases vs. 25.0% in controls, P = 0.014) but not African Americans (52.6% in cases vs. 50.0% in controls, P = 0.93). In Caucasians, the frequency of the C allele was significantly higher in both the deficit (allele frequency 53.3%, P = 0.009) and nondeficit (39.2%, P =0.050) forms of schizophrenia compared to controls (allele frequency 25.0%). We conclude that the DRP-2 *2236 C allele may mark another polymorphism in DRP-2, or in a nearby gene, that may influence susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR16500; NIMH NIH HHS: MH49826, MH67014, MH68282, MH68580, MH70644, R01 MH085646

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;136B;1;8-11

  • GSK-3beta regulates phosphorylation of CRMP-2 and neuronal polarity.

    Yoshimura T, Kawano Y, Arimura N, Kawabata S, Kikuchi A and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

    Neurons are highly polarized and comprised of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, an axon and dendrites. We previously showed that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is critical for specifying axon/dendrite fate, possibly by promoting neurite elongation via microtubule assembly. Here, we showed that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylated CRMP-2 at Thr-514 and inactivated it. The expression of the nonphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 or inhibition of GSK-3beta induced the formation of multiple axon-like neurites in hippocampal neurons. The expression of constitutively active GSK-3beta impaired neuronal polarization, whereas the nonphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 counteracted the inhibitory effects of GSK-3beta, indicating that GSK-3beta regulates neuronal polarity through the phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Treatment of hippocampal neurons with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induced inactivation of GSK-3beta and dephosphorylation of CRMP-2. Knockdown of CRMP-2 inhibited NT-3-induced axon outgrowth. These results suggest that NT-3 decreases phosphorylated CRMP-2 and increases nonphosphorylated active CRMP-2, thereby promoting axon outgrowth.

    Cell 2005;120;1;137-49

  • Reduction of hippocampal collapsin response mediated protein-2 in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Czech T, Yang JW, Csaszar E, Kappler J, Baumgartner C and Lubec G

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

    Although the syndrome of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis has been elaborated in recent years, pathogenesis and pathomechanisms are still elusive. Performing protein hunting in hippocampus of patients with MTLE we detected derangement of collapsin response mediated protein-2 (CRMP-2). Hippocampal tissue from controls and MTLEs was taken and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent MALDI-MS-characterisation was applied. The proteomic approach identified 13 spots unambiguously assigned to CRMP-2. Three spots at molecular weight 55 kDa showed a significant decrease in MTLE and other 3 spots at 65 kDa showed deranged in MTLE. Immunoblotting revealed two bands at 65 and 55 kDa in the control group whereas the 55 kDa band was extremely low expressed in MTLE. CRMP-2 is required to induce axonal outgrowth and maintaining neuronal polarity in hippocampal neurons and the significant decrease of this protein may represent or underlie impaired neuronal plasticity, neurodegeneration, wiring of the brain in MTLE and may explain abnormal migration. Therefore, the decrease of CRMP-2 may well contribute to the understanding of the still unclear pathomechanisms involved in MTLE.

    Neurochemical research 2004;29;12;2189-96

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Induction of CRMP-2 by GDNF and analysis of the CRMP-2 promoter region.

    Kodama Y, Murakumo Y, Ichihara M, Kawai K, Shimono Y and Takahashi M

    Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is a mammalian homologue of UNC-33 of Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations of CRMP-2 result in abnormal axon termination. Recently, it was demonstrated that CRMP-2 binds to tubulin heterodimers to promote microtubule assembly that is critical for axonal differentiation and growth during development. Here we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances CRMP-2 expression in TGW human neuroblastoma cells via activation of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. GDNF-mediated CRMP-2 expression was regulated mainly by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, but was independent of activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Src family kinases. Analysis of the promoter region of the CRMP-2 gene revealed that the region 214-48 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site is important for CRMP-2 expression. The SP1, E2F, and GATA1/2 binding sites appeared to play some roles in regulation of CRMP-2 expression. As expected, the CRMP-2 protein accumulated in extended neurites of TGW cells treated with GDNF. However, neuritogenesis of TGW cells was mostly dependent on Src family kinase activity and not ERK activity, indicating that the increased expression of CRMP-2 alone was not sufficient for neuritogenesis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;320;1;108-15

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • No association between the dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2) gene and bipolar disorder in humans.

    Nakata K, Ujike H, Tanaka Y, Takaki M, Sakai A, Nomura A, Katsu T, Uchida N, Imamura T, Fujiwara Y, Hamamura T and Kuroda S

    Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Shikata-cho 2-5-1, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    Several susceptibility loci for both of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BPD) have been found to overlap on several chromosomes including 8p21. Expression of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2), which gene is located on 8p21, was found to be reduced in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia and BPD. Recently, we demonstrated a significant association between the DRP-2 gene and schizophrenia. Based on the rationale, we investigated the genetic association of the DRP-2 gene with BPD using a case-control study in the Japanese population. However, no significant associations were found between five polymorphisms of the DRP-2 gene (-975C>G, 352G>A, 426C>T, 1506T>C, and *2236T>C), and BPD, nor were associations detected between either of the polymorphisms and any subtype of BPD, bipolars I and II. The present study did not provide any evidence for a contribution of the DRP-2 gene to susceptibility to BPD.

    Neuroscience letters 2003;349;3;171-4

  • CRMP-2 regulates polarized Numb-mediated endocytosis for axon growth.

    Nishimura T, Fukata Y, Kato K, Yamaguchi T, Matsuura Y, Kamiguchi H and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

    Axon growth during neural development is highly dependent on both cytoskeletal re-organization and polarized membrane trafficking. Previously, we demonstrated that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is critical for specifying axon/dendrite fate and axon growth in cultured hippocampal neurons, possibly by interacting with tubulin heterodimers and promoting microtubule assembly. Here, we identify Numb as a CRMP-2-interacting protein. Numb has been shown to interact with alpha-adaptin and to be involved in endocytosis. We found that Numb was associated with L1, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule that is endocytosed and recycled at the growth cone, where CRMP-2 and Numb were colocalized. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative CRMP-2 mutants or knockdown of CRMP-2 message with small-interfering (si) RNA inhibited endocytosis of L1 at axonal growth cones and suppressed axon growth. These results suggest that in addition to regulating microtubule assembly, CRMP-2 is involved in polarized Numb-mediated endocytosis of proteins such as L1.

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;9;819-26

  • p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA-induced neuronal morphology.

    Leung T, Ng Y, Cheong A, Ng CH, Tan I, Hall C and Lim L

    Glaxo-IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 30 Medical Drive, 117609, Singapore. mcbthoml@imcb.nus.edu.sg

    Using antibody against the Rho binding domain of ROKalpha, two neuronal phosphoproteins of 62 and 80 kDa were co-immunoprecipitated from brain extracts. Peptide analysis revealed their identity as collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs); p62 was CRMP-2 whereas p80 was a novel splice form of CRMP-1 with an extended N-terminus. p80 CRMP-1 was able to complex with CRMP-2, suggesting that p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 form oligomers. CRMP-2 was the major substrate of ROK. p80 CRMP-1 interacted with the kinase domain of ROKalpha, resulting in inhibition of the catalytic activity towards other substrates. Over-expression of p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 together counteracted the effects of RhoA on neurite retraction, an effect enhanced by mutation of the ROK phosphorylation site in CRMP-2. p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 may be modulators of RhoA-dependent signaling, through interaction with and regulation of ROKalpha.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;3;445-9

  • CRMP-2 binds to tubulin heterodimers to promote microtubule assembly.

    Fukata Y, Itoh TJ, Kimura T, Ménager C, Nishimura T, Shiromizu T, Watanabe H, Inagaki N, Iwamatsu A, Hotani H and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

    Regulated increase in the formation of microtubule arrays is thought to be important for axonal growth. Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is a mammalian homologue of UNC-33, mutations in which result in abnormal axon termination. We recently demonstrated that CRMP-2 is critical for axonal differentiation. Here, we identify two activities of CRMP-2: tubulin-heterodimer binding and the promotion of microtubule assembly. CRMP-2 bound tubulin dimers with higher affinity than it bound microtubules. Association of CRMP-2 with microtubules was enhanced by tubulin polymerization in the presence of CRMP-2. The binding property of CRMP-2 with tubulin was apparently distinct from that of Tau, which preferentially bound microtubules. In neurons, overexpression of CRMP-2 promoted axonal growth and branching. A mutant of CRMP-2, lacking the region responsible for microtubule assembly, inhibited axonal growth and branching in a dominant-negative manner. Taken together, our results suggest that CRMP-2 regulates axonal growth and branching as a partner of the tubulin heterodimer, in a different fashion from traditional MAPs.

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;8;583-91

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-2 inhibits neuronal phospholipase D(2) activity by direct interaction.

    Lee S, Kim JH, Lee CS, Kim JH, Kim Y, Heo K, Ihara Y, Goshima Y, Suh PG and Ryu SH

    Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea.

    Although the functional significance of neuronal phospholipase D (PLD) is being recognized, little is known about its regulatory role in neuronal cells. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of neuronal PLD, we investigated PLD(2)-binding neuronal protein from rat brain cytosol. During the fractionation of rat brain cytosol by four-column chromatography, a 62-kDa PLD(2)-interacting protein was detected by PLD(2) overlay assay and identified as collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), which controls neuronal axon guidance and outgrowth. Using bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, we found that two regions (amino acids 65-192 (the phagocytic oxidase domain) and 724-825) of PLD(2) and a single region (amino acids 243-300) of CRMP-2 are required for the direct binding of both proteins. A co-immunoprecipitation study in COS-7 cells also showed an in vivo interaction between CRMP-2 and PLD(2). Interestingly, CRMP-2 was found to potently inhibit PLD(2) activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 30 nm). Overexpression studies also showed that CRMP-2 is an in vivo inhibitor of PLD(2) in PC12 cells. Moreover, increasing the concentration of semaphorin 3A, one of the repulsive axon guidance cues, showed that PLD(2) activity can be inhibited in PC12 cells. Immunocytochemistry further revealed that PLD(2) is co-localized with CRMP-2 in the distal tips of neurites, its possible action site, in differentiated PC12 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that CRMP-2 may interact directly with and inhibit neuronal PLD(2), suggesting that this inhibitory mode of regulation may play a role in neuronal pathfinding during the developmental stage.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;8;6542-9

  • Aberrant expression of dihydropyrimidinase related proteins-2,-3 and -4 in fetal Down syndrome brain.

    Weitzdoerfer R, Fountoulakis M and Lubec G

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, Austria.

    Pathfinding of growing axons to reach their target during brain development is a subtle process needed to build up contacts between neurons. Abnormalities in brain development in Down Syndrome (DS) are described in a couple of morphological reports but the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal wiring in fetal DS brain are not yet elucidated. We therefore performed a study using the proteomic approach to show differences in protein levels involved in the guidance of axons between control and DS brain in early prenatal life. Proteins obtained from autopsy of human fetal abortus were applied on 2-dimensional gel, identified and quantified. We quantified 5 members of the semaphorin/collapsin family, the dihydropyrimidinase related proteins 1-4 and the collapsin response mediator protein-5 (CRMP-5) in 8 DS and 7 control cortex samples. DRP-1 and CRMP-5 levels were comparable in the control and DS samples. Evaluation of DRP-2, DRP-3 and DRP-4 revealed significantly decreased levels of 2 of the 15 spots assigned to DRP-2 and increased levels of one spot assigned to DRP-3 and increased DRP-4 in DS brain. We conclude that as early as from the 19th week of gestation pathfinding cues of the outgrowing axons are impaired in DS. These findings may help to elucidate mechanisms leading to abnormalities in neural migration of DS brain.

    Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum 2001;61;95-107

  • Numb is an endocytic protein.

    Santolini E, Puri C, Salcini AE, Gagliani MC, Pelicci PG, Tacchetti C and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

    Numb is a protein that in Drosophila determines cell fate as a result of its asymmetric partitioning at mitosis. The function of Numb has been linked to its ability to bind and to biologically antagonize Notch, a membrane receptor that also specifies cell fate. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the action of Numb, however, are still largely unknown. The wide pattern of expression of Numb suggests a general function in cellular homeostasis that could be additional to, or part of, its action in fate determination. Such a function could be endocytosis, as suggested by the interaction of Numb with Eps15, a component of the endocytic machinery. Here, we demonstrate that Numb is an endocytic protein. We found that Numb localizes to endocytic organelles and is cotrafficked with internalizing receptors. Moreover, it associates with the appendage domain of alpha adaptin, a subunit of AP2, a major component of clathrin-coated pits. Finally, fragments of Numb act as dominant negatives on both constitutive and ligand-regulated receptor-mediated internalization, suggesting a general role for Numb in the endocytic process.

    Funded by: Telethon: D.090, E.0942

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;6;1345-52

  • Molecular characterization of CRMP5, a novel member of the collapsin response mediator protein family.

    Fukada M, Watakabe I, Yuasa-Kawada J, Kawachi H, Kuroiwa A, Matsuda Y and Noda M

    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, National Institute for Basic Biology, and Department of Molecular Biomechanics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan.

    The CRMP (collapsin response mediator protein) family is thought to play key roles in growth cone guidance during neural development. The four members (CRMP1-4) identified to date have been demonstrated to form hetero-multimeric structures through mutual associations. In this study, we cloned a novel member of this family, which we call CRMP5, by the yeast two-hybrid method. This protein shares relatively low amino acid identity with the other CRMP members (49-50%) and also with dihydropyrimidinase (51%), whereas CRMP1-4 exhibit higher identity with each other (68-75%), suggesting that CRMP5 might be categorized into a third subfamily. The mouse CRMP5 gene was located at chromosome 5 B1. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicated that CRMP5 is expressed throughout the nervous system similarly to the other members (especially CRMP1 and CRMP4) with the expression peak in the first postnatal week. Association experiments using the yeast two-hybrid method and co-immunoprecipitation showed that CRMP5 interacts with dihydropyrimidinase and all the CRMPs including itself, except for CRMP1, although the expression profile almost overlaps with that of CRMP1 during development. These results suggest that CRMP complexes in the developing nervous system are classifiable into two populations that contain either CRMP1 or CRMP5. This indicates that different complexes may have distinct functions in shaping the neural networks.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;48;37957-65

  • Phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 by Rho-kinase. Evidence for two separate signaling pathways for growth cone collapse.

    Arimura N, Inagaki N, Chihara K, Ménager C, Nakamura N, Amano M, Iwamatsu A, Goshima Y and Kaibuchi K

    Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma 630-0101, Japan.

    We previously identified Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho-kinase) as a specific effector of Rho. In this study, we identified collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), as a novel Rho-kinase substrate in the brain. CRMP-2 is a neuronal protein whose expression is up-regulated during development. Rho-kinase phosphorylated CRMP-2 at Thr-555 in vitro. We produced an antibody that specifically recognizes CRMP-2 phosphorylated at Thr-555. Using this antibody, we found that Rho-kinase phosphorylated CRMP-2 downstream of Rho in COS7 cells. Phosphorylation of CRMP-2 was observed in chick dorsal root ganglion neurons during lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced growth cone collapse, whereas the phosphorylation was not detected during semaphorin-3A-induced growth cone collapse. Both LPA-induced CRMP-2 phosphorylation and LPA-induced growth cone collapse were inhibited by Rho-kinase inhibitor HA1077 or Y-32885. LPA-induced growth cone collapse was also blocked by a dominant negative form of Rho-kinase. On the other hand, semaphorin-3A-induced growth cone collapse was not inhibited by a dominant negative form of Rho-kinase. Furthermore, overexpression of a mutant CRMP-2 in which Thr-555 was replaced by Ala significantly inhibited LPA-induced growth cone collapse. These results demonstrate the existence of Rho-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways for growth cone collapse and suggest that CRMP-2 phosphorylation by Rho-kinase is involved in the former pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;31;23973-80

  • Evidence that collapsin response mediator protein-2 is involved in the dynamics of microtubules.

    Gu Y and Ihara Y

    Department of Neuropathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is a member of the CRMP/TOAD/Ulip/DRP family of cytosolic phosphoproteins involved in neuronal differentiation and axonal guidance. CRMP-2 mediates the intracellular response to collapsin 1/semaphorin 3A, a repulsive extracellular guidance cue for axonal outgrowth. The mutation of UNC-33, a Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of CRMP-2, results in abnormality of microtubules in neurites, but the mechanism of CRMP-2 action remains to be clarified. Here, we report that overexpression of human CRMP-2 in Neuro2a cells, a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, results in blebbing of the cytoplasm. Furthermore, some cells exhibited intranuclear inclusions, which were labeled with antibodies to CRMP-2 and tubulin. CRMP-2 was found to be associated with microtubule bundles in the spindles at the metaphase and in the midbodies at the late telophase in mitotic cells. Thus, it is most likely that failure of complete disassembly of the spindle microtubules during mitosis is responsible for the formation of these intranuclear inclusions. We suggest that CRMP-2 functions by regulating the dynamics of microtubules.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;24;17917-20

  • Neurofibrillary tangle-associated collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is highly phosphorylated on Thr-509, Ser-518, and Ser-522.

    Gu Y, Hamajima N and Ihara Y

    Department of Neuropathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    3F4, a monoclonal antibody raised against partially purified paired helical filaments (PHFs), strongly labeled neurofibrillary tangles and some plaque neurites but barely labeled neuropil threads. The levels of the 65-kDa antigen were significantly increased in the soluble fraction of the brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), as compared with that in the case of control brains. The antigen was previously identified as human collapsin response mediator protein-2 (hCRMP-2) by sequencing the immunoaffinity-purified 65-kDa antigen [Yoshida, H., Watanabe, A., and Ihara, Y. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 9761-9768]. Here, we show that the 3F4 antigen represents a highly phosphorylated form of CRMP-2. The 3F4-reactive phosphoepitope was localized to the carboxyl-terminal portion of hCRMP-2, and was created by a novel 45-50-kDa protein kinase in rat brain extract. Site-directed mutagenesis of this portion showed that multiple sites of CRMP-2 are differentially phosphorylated within residues 507-522, and that phosphorylation of three sites, Thr-509, Ser-518, and Ser-522, is required for full 3F4 binding. The phosphorylation of this particular portion carboxyl-terminal to the basic region of CRMP-2 may play an important role in regulating its activity, and may be involved in the formation of degenerating neurites in AD brain.

    Biochemistry 2000;39;15;4267-75

  • Characterization of the human dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2) gene.

    Kitamura K, Takayama M, Hamajima N, Nakanishi M, Sasaki M, Endo Y, Takemoto T, Kimura H, Iwaki M and Nonaka M

    Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya City University Medical School, Nagoya, Japan.

    The genes within the dihydropyrimidinase-related protein (DRP) family, were originally identified in humans by their homology to dihydropyrimidinase (DHP). Four members of this gene family, DRP-1, -2, -3 and -4, are expressed mainly in the fetal and neonatal brains of mammals and chickens, and have been implicated as intracellular signal transducers in the development of the nervous system. We isolated the human DRP-2 gene, and determined its transcriptional start site and exon/intron organization. The gene spanned more than 62 kb, and contained 14 exons with lengths ranging from 62 bp to 2606 bp. The transcriptional start site was determined by an RNase protection assay and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and a highly GC-rich promoter was identified that contained possible regulatory elements such as a TATA box, CAAT box and three GC boxes. Comparison of the phase and position of intron insertions within the human DRP-2 gene with those within DRP-1, DHP and two Caenorhabditis elegans DRP/DHP homologs, indicated that DRPs are more conserved in their exon/intron organization than DHP.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;5;291-7

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue distribution.

    Hamajima N, Matsuda K, Sakata S, Tamaki N, Sasaki M and Nonaka M

    Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya City University Medical School, Japan.

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding dihydropyrimidinase (DHPase) from human liver and its three homologues from human fetal brain. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of human DHPase showed 90% identity with that of rat DHPase, and the three homologues showed 57-59% aa identity with human DHPase, and 74-77% aa identity with each other. We tentatively termed these homologues human DHPase related protein (DRP)-1, DRP-2 and DRP-3. Human DRP-2 showed 98% aa identity with chicken CRMP-62 (collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass of 62 kDa) which is involved in neuronal growth cone collapse. Human DRP-3 showed 94-100% aa identity with two partial peptide sequences of rat TOAD-64 (turned on after division, 64 kDa) which is specifically expressed in postmitotic neurons. Human DHPase and DRPs showed a lower degree of aa sequence identity with Bacillus stearothermophilus hydantoinase (39-42%) and Caenorhabditis elegans unc-33 (32-34%). Thus we describe a novel gene family which displays differential tissue distribution: i.e., human DHPase, in liver and kidney; human DRP-1, in brain; human DRP-2, ubiquitously expressed except for liver; human DRP-3, mainly in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Gene 1996;180;1-2;157-63

  • Characterization of DRP2, a novel human dystrophin homologue.

    Roberts RG, Freeman TC, Kendall E, Vetrie DL, Dixon AK, Shaw-Smith C, Bone Q and Bobrow M

    Division of Medical and Molecular Genetics, UMDS, London, UK.

    The currently recognised dystrophin protein family comprises the archetype, dystrophin, its close relative, utrophin or dystrophin-related protein (DRP), and a distantly related protein known as the 87K tyrosine kinase substrate. During the course of a phylogenetic study of sequences encoding the characteristic C-terminal domains of dystrophin-related proteins, we identified an unexpected novel class of vertebrate dystrophin-related sequences. We term this class dystrophin-related protein 2 (DRP2), and suggest that utrophin/DRP be renamed DRP1 to simplify future nomenclature. DRP2 is a relatively small protein, encoded in man by a 45 kb gene localized to Xq22. It is expressed principally in the brain and spinal cord, and is similar in overall structure to the Dp116 dystrophin isoform. The discovery of a novel relative of dystrophin substantially broadens the scope for study of this interesting group of proteins and their associated glycoprotein complexes.

    Nature genetics 1996;13;2;223-6

  • Collapsin-induced growth cone collapse mediated by an intracellular protein related to UNC-33.

    Goshima Y, Nakamura F, Strittmatter P and Strittmatter SM

    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    Collapsin, a member of the newly recognized semaphorin family, contributes to axonal pathfinding during neural development by inhibiting growth cone extension. The mechanism of collapsin action is poorly understood. Here we use a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system to identify molecules involved in collapsin signalling, because several experiments have raised the possibility that heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins might participate in these events. A collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass (M(r)) 62K (CRMP-62) required for collapsin-induced inward currents in X. laevis oocytes is isolated. CRMP-62 shares homology with UNC-33, a nematode neuronal protein required for appropriately directed axonal extension. CRMP-62 is localized exclusively in the developing chick nervous system. Introduction of anti-CRMP-62 antibodies into dorsal root ganglion neurons blocks collapsin-induced growth cone collapse. CRMP-62 appears to be an intracellular component of a signalling cascade initiated by an unidentified transmembrane collapsin-binding protein.

    Nature 1995;376;6540;509-14

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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