G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B
G00000428 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000008160 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000162407 (Ensembl human gene)
8613 (Entrez Gene)
784 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PPAP2B (GeneCards)
607125 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9229 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O14495 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • LPP3
  • PAP-2b

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Lipid phosphate phosphatases form homo- and hetero-oligomers: catalytic competency, subcellular distribution and function.

    Long JS, Pyne NJ and Pyne S

    Cell Biology Group, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland, UK.

    Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP1-LPP3) have been topographically modelled as monomers (molecular mass of 31-36 kDa) composed of six transmembrane domains and with the catalytic site facing the extracellular side of the plasma membrane or the luminal side of intracellular membranes. The catalytic motif has three conserved domains, termed C1, C2 and C3. The C1 domain may be involved in substrate recognition, whereas C2 and C3 domains appear to participate in the catalytic dephosphorylation of the substrate. We have obtained three lines of evidence to demonstrate that LPPs exist as functional oligomers. First, we have used recombinant expression and immunoprecipitation analysis to demonstrate that LPP1, LPP2 and LPP3 form both homo- and hetero-oligomers. Secondly, large LPP oligomeric complexes that are catalytically active were isolated using gel-exclusion chromatography. Thirdly, we demonstrate that catalytically deficient guinea-pig FLAG-tagged H223L LPP1 mutant can form an oligomer with wild-type LPP1 and that wild-type LPP1 activity is preserved in the oligomer. These findings suggest that, in an oligomeric arrangement, the catalytic site of the wild-type LPP can function independently of the catalytic site of the mutant LPP. Finally, we demonstrate that endogenous LPP2 and LPP3 form homo- and hetero-oligomers, which differ in their subcellular localization and which may confer differing spatial regulation of phosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling.

    The Biochemical journal 2008;411;2;371-7

  • FTY720-phosphate is dephosphorylated by lipid phosphate phosphatase 3.

    Mechtcheriakova D, Wlachos A, Sobanov J, Bornancin F, Zlabinger G, Baumruker T and Billich A

    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Vienna, Austria.

    FTY720 is a novel immunomodulatory drug efficacious in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The drug is converted in vivo to the monophosphate, FTY720-P, by sphingosine kinase 2. This conversion is incomplete, suggesting opposing actions of kinase and phosphatase activities. To address which of the known lipid phosphatases might dephosphorylate FTY720-P, we overexpressed the broad specificity lipid phosphatases LPP1-3, and the specific S1P phosphatases (SPP1 and 2) in HEK293 cells, and performed in vitro assays using lysates of transfected cells. Among LPPs, only LPP3 was able to dephosphorylate FTY720-P; among SPPs, only SPP1 showed activity against FTY720-P. On intact cells, LPP3 acted as an ecto-phosphatase or FTY720-P, thus representing the major phosphatase involved in the equilibrium between FTY720 and FTY720-P observed in vivo.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;16;3063-8

  • Lipid phosphate phosphatases 1 and 3 are localized in distinct lipid rafts.

    Kai M, Sakane F, Jia YJ, Imai S, Yasuda S and Kanoh H

    Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, West-17, South-1, Sapporo 060-8556.

    Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs), integral membrane proteins with six transmembrane domains, dephosphorylate a variety of extracellular lipid phosphates. Although LPP3 is already known to bind to Triton X-100-insoluble rafts, we here report that LPP1 is also associated with lipid rafts distinct from those harboring LPP3. We found that LPP1 was Triton X-100-soluble, but CHAPS-insoluble in LNCaP cells endogenously expressing LPP1 and several LPP1 cDNA-transfected cells including NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In addition to the non-ionic detergent insolubility, LPP1 further possessed several properties formulated for raft-localizing proteins as follows: first, the CHAPS-insolubility was resistant to the actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D; second, the CHAPS-insoluble LPP1 floated in an Optiprep density gradient; third, the CHAPS insolubility of LPP1 was lost by cholesterol depletion; and finally, the subcellular distribution pattern of LPP1 exclusively overlapped with that of a raft marker, cholera toxin B subunit. Interestingly, confocal microscopic analysis showed that LPP1 was distributed to membrane compartments distinct from those of LPP3. Analysis using various LPP1/LPP3 chimeras revealed that their first extracellular regions determine the different Triton X-100 solubilities. These results indicate that LPP1 and LPP3 are distributed in distinct lipid rafts that may provide unique microenvironments defining their non-redundant physiological functions.

    Journal of biochemistry 2006;140;5;677-86

  • Murine lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-3 acts as a cell-associated integrin ligand.

    Humtsoe JO, Bowling RA, Feng S and Wary KK

    Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-3 (LPP3) is a cell surface protein that exhibits ectoenzyme activity. Previously, we identified human LPP3 in a functional assay of angiogenesis and showed that the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the proposed second extracellular domain interacts with a subset of integrins to mediate cell-cell adhesion. In contrast to the RGD domain of human LPP3, murine Lpp3 contains a variant sequence, Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE). Whether the RGE motif of murine Lpp3 mediates cell-cell interaction has not been studied. In this report, we test the hypothesis that the cell adhesion function of the LPP3 protein is conserved across mouse and human. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein of the proposed second extracellular loop of the murine Lpp3 sequence (GST-mLpp3-RGE) promoted attachment of cells in a long-term cell adhesion assay. GST-mLpp3-RGE interacted with alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins in a solid-phase ELISA, while a mutant control, GST-hLPP3-RAD, did not. Long-term adhesion of endothelial cells to GST-mLpp3-RGE induced phosphorylation of FAK, SHC, and CAS, whereas adhesion to GST-hLPP3-RAD failed to do so. Upon long-term adhesion both the GST-hLPP3-RGD and GST-mLpp3-RGE substrates bound to the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin of FRT-alpha(5)(+) cells, an interaction that was inhibited by an anti-alpha(5) integrin antibody. In addition, a cell aggregation assay showed that the intact mLpp3-RGE protein interacts with alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins expressed by adjacent cells, an interaction that can be blocked by GRGDSP peptides and anti-LPP3-RGD antibodies. These data, together with the known importance of integrins in angiogenesis, provide a mechanism for the function of LPP3 in cell-cell interactions in both human and mouse.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;335;3;906-19

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Lipid phosphate phosphatases dimerise, but this interaction is not required for in vivo activity.

    Burnett C, Makridou P, Hewlett L and Howard K

    Department of Physiology, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK. c.burnett@ucl.ac.uk

    Background: Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) are integral membrane proteins believed to dephosphorylate bioactive lipid messengers, so modifying or attenuating their activities. Wunen, a Drosophila LPP homologue, has been shown to play a pivotal role in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival during embryogenesis. It has been hypothesised that LPPs may form oligomeric complexes, and may even function as hexamers. We were interested in exploring this possibility, to confirm whether LPPs can oligomerise, and if they do, whether oligomerisation is required for either in vitro or in vivo activity.

    Results: We present evidence that Wunen dimerises, that these associations require the last thirty-five C-terminal amino-acids and depend upon the presence of an intact catalytic site. Expression of a truncated, monomeric form of Wunen in Drosophila embryos results in perturbation of germ cell migration and germ cell loss, as observed for full-length Wunen. We also observed that murine LPP-1 and human LPP-3 can also form associations, but do not form interactions with Wunen or each other. Furthermore, Wunen does not form dimers with its closely related counterpart Wunen-2. Finally we discovered that addition of a trimeric myc tag to the C-terminus of Wunen does not prevent dimerisation or in vitro activity, but does prevent activity in vivo.

    Conclusion: LPPs do form complexes, but these do not seem to be specifically required for activity either in vitro or in vivo. Since neither dimerisation nor the C-terminus seem to be involved in substrate recognition, they may instead confer structural or functional stability through dimerisation. The results indicate that the associations we see are highly specific and occur only between monomers of the same protein.

    BMC biochemistry 2004;5;2

  • Fly and mammalian lipid phosphate phosphatase isoforms differ in activity both in vitro and in vivo.

    Burnett C and Howard K

    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, and Department of Physiology, University College London, UK.

    Wunen (Wun), a homologue of a lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP), has a crucial function in the migration and survival of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during Drosophila embryogenesis. Past work has indicated that the LPP isoforms may show functional redundancy in certain systems, and that they have broad-range lipid phosphatase activities in vitro, with little apparent specificity between them. We show here that there are marked differences in biochemical activity between fly Wun and mammalian LPPs, with Wun having a narrower activity range than has been reported for the mammalian LPPs. Furthermore, although it is active on a range of substrates in vitro, mouse Lpp1 has no activity on an endogenous Drosophila germ-cell-specific factor in vivo. Conversely, human LPP3 is active, resulting in aberrant migration and PGC death. These results show an absolute difference in bioactivity among LPP isoforms for the first time in a model organism and may point towards an underlying signalling system that is conserved between flies and humans.

    EMBO reports 2003;4;8;793-9

  • Regulation of cell-cell interactions by phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2b/VCIP.

    Humtsoe JO, Feng S, Thakker GD, Yang J, Hong J and Wary KK

    Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    We identified vascular endothelial growth factor and type I collagen inducible protein (VCIP), also known as phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2b (PAP2b), in a functional assay of angiogenesis. VCIP/PAP2b exhibits an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion sequence. Immunoprecipitation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses demonstrated that VCIP-RGD is exposed to the outside of the cell surface. Retroviral transduction of VCIP induced cell aggregation/cell- cell interactions, modestly increased p120 catenin expression and promoted activation of the Fak, Akt and GSK3beta protein kinases. Furthermore, expression of recombinant VCIP promoted adhesion, spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation of Fak, Shc, Cas and paxillin in endothelial cells. GST-VCIP-RGD, but not GST-VCIP-RGE, specifically interacted with a subset of integrins, and these interactions were effectively blocked by anti-alpha(v)beta(3) and anti-alpha(5)beta(1) integrin antibodies, and by PAP2b/VCIP-derived peptides. Interestingly, PAP2b/VCIP is expressed in close proximity to vascular endothelial growth factor, von Willebrand factor and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in tumor vasculatures. These findings demonstrate an unexpected function of PAP2b/VCIP, and represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which PAP2b/VCIP-induced cell-cell interactions regulate specific intracellular signaling pathways.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;7;1539-54

  • Pulmonary phosphatidic acid phosphatase and lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase.

    Nanjundan M and Possmayer F

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Canadian Institutes of Health Research Group in Fetal and Neonatal Health and Development, The University of Western Ontario, 339 Windermere Road, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5A5.

    The lung contains two distinct forms of phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP). PAP1 is a cytosolic enzyme that is activated through fatty acid-induced translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it converts phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DAG) for the biosynthesis of phospholipids and neutral lipids. PAP1 is Mg(2+) dependent and sulfhydryl reagent sensitive. PAP2 is a six-transmembrane-domain integral protein localized to the plasma membrane. Because PAP2 degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate in addition to PA and lyso-PA, it has been renamed lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP). LPP is Mg(2+) independent and sulfhydryl reagent insensitive. This review describes LPP isoforms found in the lung and their location in signaling platforms (rafts/caveolae). Pulmonary LPPs likely function in the phospholipase D pathway, thereby controlling surfactant secretion. Through lowering the levels of lyso-PA and S1P, which serve as agonists for endothelial differentiation gene receptors, LPPs regulate cell division, differentiation, apoptosis, and mobility. LPP activity could also influence transdifferentiation of alveolar type II to type I cells. It is considered likely that these lipid phosphohydrolases have critical roles in lung morphogenesis and in acute lung injury and repair.

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2003;284;1;L1-23

  • Cell surface activities of the human type 2b phosphatidic acid phosphatase.

    Ishikawa T, Kai M, Wada I and Kanoh H

    Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Several isozymes of mammalian type 2, Mg(2+)-independent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP-2) have recently been cloned, and they are predicted to have their catalytic sites exposed at the cell surface membranes. We investigated the mode of utilization of extracellular lipid substrates by the human PAP-2b expressed in HEK293 cells as a green fluorescent fusion protein. We first confirmed the plasma membrane localization of the expressed PAP-2b. PAP-2b actively hydrolyzed exogenously added lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. In the case of dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidic acid, the reaction products, including inorganic phosphate and monoacylglycerol, were recovered exclusively in the extracellular medium. Interestingly, PAP-2b exhibited negligible activities toward long-chain phosphatidic acid either exogenously when added or generated within the membranes by treating the cells with bacterial phospholipase D. These findings indicate that PAP-2b acts at the outer leaflet of cell surface bilayers and can account for the ecto-PAP activities previously described for various types of cells.

    Journal of biochemistry 2000;127;4;645-51

  • Sequential actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 2b generate diglyceride in mammalian cells.

    Sciorra VA and Morris AJ

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA.

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major source of lipid-derived second messenger molecules that function as both intracellular and extracellular signals. PC-specific phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) are two pivotal enzymes in this signaling system, and they act in series to generate the biologically active lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and diglyceride. The identity of the PAP enzyme involved in PLD-mediated signal transduction is unclear. We provide the first evidence for a functional role of a type 2 PAP, PAP2b, in the metabolism of PLD-generated PA. Our data indicate that PAP2b localizes to regions of the cell in which PC hydrolysis by PLD is taking place. Using a newly developed PAP2b-specific antibody, we have characterized the expression, posttranslational modification, and localization of endogenous PAP2b. Glycosylation and localization of PAP2b appear to be cell type and tissue specific. Biochemical fractionation and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that PAP2b and PLD2 activities are present in caveolin-1-enriched detergent-resistant membrane microdomains. We found that PLD2 and PAP2b act sequentially to generate diglyceride within this specialized membrane compartment. The unique lipid composition of these membranes may provide a selective environment for the regulation and actions of enzymes involved in signaling through PC hydrolysis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-54388

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;11;3863-76

  • Human type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolases. Substrate specificity of the type 2a, 2b, and 2c enzymes and cell surface activity of the 2a isoform.

    Roberts R, Sciorra VA and Morris AJ

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences and the Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology, Stony Brook Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA.

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidic acid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are lipid mediators generated by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and lipid kinases. The major pathway for degradation of these lipids is dephosphorylation catalyzed by members of two classes (types 1 and 2) of phosphohydrolase activities (PAPs). cDNAs encoding two type 2 PAPs, PAP-2a and -2b, have been expressed by transient transfection and shown to catalyze hydrolysis of PA, C1P, and S1P (Kai, M., Wada, I., Imai, S., Sakane, F. and Kanoh, H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 24572-24578). We report the cloning and expression of a third type 2 PAP enzyme (288 amino acids, predicted molecular mass of 32.6 kDa), PAP-2c, which exhibits 54 and 43% sequence homology to PAPs 2a and 2b. Expression of HA epitope-tagged PAP-2a, -2b, and 2c in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins and increased membrane-associated PAP activity. Sf9 insect cells contain very low endogenous PAP activity. Recombinant expression of the three PAP enzymes using baculovirus vectors produces dramatic increases in membrane-associated Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive PAP activity. Expression of PAP-2a but not PAP-2b or -2c resulted in high levels of cell surface PAP activity in intact insect cells. Kinetic analysis of PAP-2a, -2b, and -2c activity against PA, lysophosphatidic acid, C1P, and S1P presented in mixed micelles of Triton X-100 revealed differences in substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibition by sphingosine, Zn2+, and propranol.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50388

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;34;22059-67

  • Cloning and characterization of two human isozymes of Mg2+-independent phosphatidic acid phosphatase.

    Kai M, Wada I, Imai Si, Sakane F and Kanoh H

    Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, West-17, South-1, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo 060, Japan.

    We obtained two human cDNA clones encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) isozymes named PAP-2a (Mr = 32,158) and -2b (Mr = 35, 119), both of which contained six putative transmembrane domains. Both enzymes were glycosylated and cleaved by N-glycanase and endo-beta-galactosidase, thus suggesting their post-Golgi localization. PAP-2a and -2b shared 47% identical sequence and were judged to be the human counterparts of the previously sequenced mouse 35-kDa PAP(83% identity) and rat Dri42 protein (94% identity), respectively. Furthermore, the sequences of both PAPs were 34-39% identical to that of Drosophila Wunen protein. In view of the functions ascribed to Wunen and Dri42 in germ cell migration and epithelial differentiation, respectively, these findings unexpectedly suggest critical roles of PAP isoforms in cell growth and differentiation. Although the two PAPs hydrolyzed lysophosphatidate and ceramide-1-phosphate in addition to phosphatidate, the hydrolysis of sphingosine-1-phosphate was detected only for PAP-2b. PAP-2b was expressed almost ubiquitously in all human tissues examined, whereas the expression of PAP-2a was relatively variable, being extremely low in the placenta and thymus. In HeLa cells, the transcription of PAP-2a was not affected by different stimuli, whereas PAP-2b was induced (up to 3-fold) by epidermal growth factor. These findings indicate that despite structural similarities, the two PAP isozymes may play distinct functions through their different patterns of substrate utilization and transcriptional regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;39;24572-8

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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