G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001673
Gene symbol
PIP4K2A (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha
Orthologue
G00000424 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017810 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000150867 (Ensembl human gene)
5305 (Entrez Gene)
781 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PIP5K2A (GeneCards)
Literature
603140 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8997 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P48426 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • PIP5KIIA
  • PIP5KIIalpha

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Association study of NRG1, DTNBP1, RGS4, G72/G30, and PIP5K2A with schizophrenia and symptom severity in a Hungarian sample.

    Réthelyi JM, Bakker SC, Polgár P, Czobor P, Strengman E, Pásztor PI, Kahn RS and Bitter I

    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University, 1083 Balassa u. 6., Budapest, Hungary. rethelyi@psych.sote.hu

    Genetic association studies have yielded extensive but frequently inconclusive data about genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity are possible factors explaining the inconsistent findings. The objective of this study was to test the association of commonly incriminated candidate genes with two clinically divergent subgroups, non-deficit (SZ-ND) and deficit-schizophrenia (SZ-D), and symptom severity, in order to test for replication of previously reported results. A homogeneous sample of 280 schizophrenia patients and 230 healthy controls of Hungarian, Caucasian descent were genotyped for polymorphisms in schizophrenia candidate genes NRG1, DTNBP1, RGS4, G72/G30, and PIP5K2A. Patients were divided into the diagnostic subgroups of SZ-ND and SZ-D using the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS), and assessed clinically by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). SNP8NRG241930 in NRG1 and rs1011313 in DTNBP1 were associated with SZ-ND (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Polymorphisms in RGS4, G72/G30, and PIP5K2A were neither associated with SZ-ND nor with SZ-D. SNP8NRG241930 showed association with the PANSS cognitive and hostility/excitability factors, rs1011313 with the negative factor and SDS total score, and rs10917670 in RGS4 was associated with the depression factor. Although these results replicate earlier findings about the genetic background of SZ-ND and SZ-D only partially, our data seem to confirm previously reported association of NRG1 with schizophrenia without prominent negative symptoms. It was possible to detect associations of small-to-medium effect size between the investigated candidate genes and symptom severity. Such studies have the potential to unravel the possible connection between genetic and clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010;153B;3;792-801

  • Association analysis of the PIP4K2A gene on chromosome 10p12 and schizophrenia in the Irish study of high density schizophrenia families (ISHDSF) and the Irish case-control study of schizophrenia (ICCSS).

    Thiselton DL, Maher BS, Webb BT, Bigdeli TB, O'Neill FA, Walsh D, Kendler KS and Riley BP

    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0424, USA. dlthiselton@vcu.edu

    Molecular studies support pharmacological evidence that phosphoinositide signaling is perturbed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase type-II alpha (PIP4K2A) gene is located on chromosome 10p12. This region has been implicated in both diseases by linkage, and PIP4K2A directly by association. Given linkage evidence in the Irish Study of High Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) to a region including 10p12, we performed an association study between genetic variants at PIP4K2A and disease. No association was detected through single-marker or haplotype analysis of the whole sample. However, stratification into families positive and negative for the ISHDSF schizophrenia high-risk haplotype (HRH) in the DTNBP1 gene and re-analysis for linkage showed reduced amplitude of the 10p12 linkage peak in the DTNBP1 HRH positive families. Association analysis of the stratified sample showed a trend toward association of PIP4K2A SNPs rs1417374 and rs1409395 with schizophrenia in the DTNBP1 HRH positive families. Despite this apparent paradox, our data may therefore suggest involvement of PIP4K2A in schizophrenia in those families for whom genetic variation in DTNBP1 appears also to be a risk factor. This trend appears to arise from under-transmission of common alleles to female cases. Follow-up association analysis in a large Irish schizophrenia case-control sample (ICCSS) showed significant association with disease of a haplotype comprising these same SNPs rs1417374-rs1409395, again more so in affected females, and in cases with negative family history of the disease. This study supports a minor role for PIP4K2A in schizophrenia etiology in the Irish population.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH041953, R01 MH041953, R01 MH041953-08S1, R01 MH041953-09A2, R01 MH041953-10, R01 MH041953-11, R01 MH041953-12, R01 MH041953-13, R01 MH041953-14, R01 MH041953-15, R01 MH041953-16, R01 MH041953-17, R01 MH068881

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010;153B;1;323-31

  • PIP4KIIA and beta-globin: transcripts differentially expressed in reticulocytes and associated with high levels of Hb H in two siblings with Hb H disease.

    Wenning MR, Mello MP, Andrade TG, Lanaro C, Albuquerque DM, Saad ST, Costa FF and Sonati MF

    Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

    We are reporting here the results of differential gene expression experiments comparing two siblings, a 21-yr-old male and a 19-yr-old female, with the same alpha-thalassemia genotype (-alpha(3.7)/(--SEA)) and quite different levels of Hb H in the peripheral blood (18.7 and 5%, respectively). By using mRNA differential-display reverse-transcription-PCR and suppression subtractive hybridization, two main transcripts were selected in both procedures and validated by qRT-PCR, one corresponding to the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 4-kinase type II-alpha (PIP4KIIA) gene and the other to the beta-globin gene, both over expressed in the patient with the higher percentage of Hb H. Type II PIP kinases produce phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate, a critical and pleiotropic regulatory molecule involved in diverse cellular activities, including gene expression. Our results suggest that PIP4KIIA may be one of the factors related to the regulation of the beta-globin gene expression and the different levels of Hb H in alpha-thalassemic patients.

    European journal of haematology 2009;83;5;490-3

  • PIP5K2A-dependent regulation of excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3.

    Fedorenko O, Tang C, Sopjani M, Föller M, Gehring EM, Strutz-Seebohm N, Ureche ON, Ivanova S, Semke A, Lang F, Seebohm G and Lang UE

    Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Gmelinstr. 5, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.

    Introduction: According to previous observations, the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase II alpha (PIP5K2A) is associated with schizophrenia. Specifically, the mutation (N251S)PIP5K2A has been discovered in schizophrenic patients but not in healthy individuals. A defect of the excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3 has similarly been implicated in the development of schizophrenia. The present study thus explored whether PIP5K2A is involved in the regulation of EAAT3 activity.

    EAAT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes either without or with PIP5K2A, and EAAT3 transporter activity was estimated from the glutamate (2-mM)-induced current (I(glu)) in dual electrode voltage clamp experiments. EAAT3 protein abundance in the cell membrane was estimated by Western blotting and confocal microscopy.

    Results: In EAAT3-expressing oocytes, I(glu) was enhanced by coexpression of wild type PIP5K2A. Coexpression of the schizophrenia-associated mutant (N251S)PIP5K2A significantly decreased I(glu) in oocytes expressing EAAT3 with or without additional expression of wild type PIP5K2A. Thus, (N251S)PIP5K2A exerts a dominant inhibitory effect.

    Discussion: Membrane abundance of EAAT3 was increased by wild type PIP5K2A and decreased by (N251S)PIP5K2A in both EAAT3-expressing oocytes and human embryonic kidney cells. The present observations disclose a novel mechanism of EAAT3 regulation, which may contribute to the deranged regulation of excitability in schizophrenic patients.

    Psychopharmacology 2009;206;3;429-35

  • Case-control association study of 65 candidate genes revealed a possible association of a SNP of HTR5A to be a factor susceptible to bipolar disease in Bulgarian population.

    Yosifova A, Mushiroda T, Stoianov D, Vazharova R, Dimova I, Karachanak S, Zaharieva I, Milanova V, Madjirova N, Gerdjikov I, Tolev T, Velkova S, Kirov G, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC, Toncheva D and Nakamura Y

    Laboratory for International Alliance, RIKEN Center for Genomic Medicine, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

    Background: Bipolar affective disorder (BAD) is a psychiatric illness characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although the etiology is not clear, epidemiological studies suggest it is a result of an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Despite of enormous efforts and abundant studies conducted, none has yet been identified definitively a gene susceptible to bipolar disorder.

    Methods: Ninety-four Bulgarian patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 184 Bulgarian healthy individuals, were used for genotyping of 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan and/or Invader assays. Seventeen SNPs that revealed P value less than 0.05 in the first screening were genotyped using an additional independent set of samples, consisting of 78 BAD cases and 372 controls.

    Results: After applying the Bonferonni correction on genotyping results of 172 cases and 556 controls, only one SNP, rs1800883, in the HTR5A gene revealed a significant level of P value (P=0.000097; odds ratio=1.80 (95%CI, 1.27-2.54); corrected P=0.017).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HTR5A gene could play an important role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder in our population. However these findings should be viewed with caution and replication studies in other populations are necessary in support of these findings.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0800509

    Journal of affective disorders 2009;117;1-2;87-97

  • Association of PIP5K2A with schizophrenia: a study in an indonesian family sample.

    Saggers-Gray L, Heriani H, Handoko HY, Irmansyah I, Kusumawardhani AA, Widyawati I, Amir N, Nasrun MW, Schwab SG and Wildenauer DB

    Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

    PIP5K2A variants have been shown to be associated with schizophrenia in Caucasian populations. This study tested 12 PIP5K2A SNPs for association with schizophrenia in a sample of 152 sib-pair families of Indonesian descent. All SNPs had previously been tested for association with schizophrenia in a German family sample by Schwab et al. [2006; Mol Psychiatry] and seven SNPs were nominally associated with schizophrenia in this previous study. The purpose of the study was to examine whether previously implicated PIP5K2A variants influence susceptibility to schizophrenia in populations of non-European descent. No single markers showed nominal association with schizophrenia in this Indonesian family sample, however multi-marker haplotypes including a previously associated exonic SNP marker revealed nominally significant association (P = 0.03). Power to detect association was greater than 80% for all previously implicated variants except for rs11013052, where power was greatly reduced due to the low minor allele frequency of this marker in the Indonesian sample. An explorative study combining the results of this study with those of our previous study indicated that rs11013052 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the combined sample (P = 0.002). The results of this study suggest that any contribution of previously implicated DNA variants within the PIP5K2A gene to schizophrenia susceptibility in the Indonesian population is only minor.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008;147B;7;1310-3

  • A schizophrenia-linked mutation in PIP5K2A fails to activate neuronal M channels.

    Fedorenko O, Strutz-Seebohm N, Henrion U, Ureche ON, Lang F, Seebohm G and Lang UE

    Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Gmelinstr. 5, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

    Rationale: Evidence for an association between phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase II alpha (PIP5K2A) and schizophrenia was recently obtained and replicated in several samples. PIP5K2A controls the function of KCNQ channels via phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) synthesis. Interestingly, recent data suggest that KCNQ channels suppress basal activity of dopaminergic neurons and dopaminergic firing. Activation of KCNQ accordingly attenuates the central stimulating effects of dopamine, cocaine, methylphenidate, and phenylcyclidine.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the functional relevance of PIP5K2A, which might influence schizophrenic behavior.

    Here, we study the effects of the neuronal PIP5K2A on KCNQ2, KCNQ5, KCNQ2/KCNQ3, and KCNQ3/KCNQ5 in the Xenopus expression system.

    Results: We find that wild-type PIP5K2A but not the schizophrenia-associated mutant (N251S)-PIP5K2A activates heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 and KCNQ3/KCNQ5, the molecular correlate of neuronal M channels. Homomeric KCNQ2 and KCNQ5 channels were not activated by the kinase indicating that the presence of KCNQ3 in the channel complex is required for the kinase-mediated effects. Acute application of PI(4,5)P2 and a PIP2 scavenger indicates that the mutation N251S renders the kinase PIP5K2A inactive.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that the schizophrenia-linked mutation of the kinase results in reduced KCNQ channel function and thereby might explain the loss of dopaminergic control in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, the addictive potential of dopaminergic drugs often observed in schizophrenic patients might be explained by this mechanism. At least, the insufficiency of (N251S)-PIP5K2A to stimulate neuronal M channels may contribute to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia.

    Psychopharmacology 2008;199;1;47-54

  • Regulation of extranuclear PtdIns5P production by phosphatidylinositol phosphate 4-kinase 2alpha.

    Wilcox A and Hinchliffe KA

    The University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester M13 9NT, UK.

    Cellular levels of the phosphoinositide PtdIns5P are regulated by agonist stimulation, but the mechanisms controlling turnover of this lipid, and the subcellular location of the regulated PtdIns5P pool(s), remain poorly understood. Here we show that enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation robustly increases cellular PtdIns5P levels. Moreover, unlike PtdIns5P production enhanced by cell stress, we show that this pool of PtdIns5P is specifically regulated by the inositol lipid kinase PIP4K2a.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    FEBS letters 2008;582;9;1391-4

  • The PIP5K2A gene and schizophrenia in the Chinese population--a case-control study.

    He Z, Li Z, Shi Y, Tang W, Huang K, Ma G, Zhou J, Meng J, Li H, Feng G and He L

    Bio-X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, PR China.

    Results from a number of molecular and pharmacological studies suggest that the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase IIalpha (PIP5K2A) gene may be involved in the development of schizophrenia. A recent family-based transmission disequilibrium test in the German and Israeli populations found that four single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1417374, rs10828317, rs746203 and rs8341 in this gene or nearby intergenic regions are significantly associated with schizophrenia. The objective of our study was to investigate whether these four SNPs are also associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Our study found that SNP rs8341 (p=0.0045, Odds Ratio=1.415, 95%CI=1.113-1.799 for the minor allele) and a haplotype (p=0.0039, Odds Ratio=1.440, 95%CI=1.123-1.845) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Our results confirm that the PIP5K2A gene merits further study as a susceptible gene for schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia research 2007;94;1-3;359-65

  • The PIP5K2A and RGS4 genes are differentially associated with deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia.

    Bakker SC, Hoogendoorn ML, Hendriks J, Verzijlbergen K, Caron S, Verduijn W, Selten JP, Pearson PL, Kahn RS and Sinke RJ

    Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands. s.c.bakker@med.uu.nl

    Several putative schizophrenia susceptibility genes have recently been reported, but it is not clear whether these genes are associated with schizophrenia in general or with specific disease subtypes. In a previous study, we found an association of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) gene with non-deficit schizophrenia only. We now report an association study of four schizophrenia candidate genes in patients with and without deficit schizophrenia, which is characterized by severe and enduring negative symptoms. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the DTNBP1 (dysbindin), G72/G30 and RGS4 genes, and the relatively unknown PIP5K2A gene, which is located in a region of linkage with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The sample consisted of 273 Dutch schizophrenia patients, 146 of whom were diagnosed with deficit schizophrenia and 580 controls. The strongest evidence for association was found for the A-allele of SNP rs10828317 in the PIP5K2A gene, which was associated with both clinical subtypes (P = 0.0004 in the entire group; non-deficit P = 0.016, deficit P = 0.002). Interestingly, this SNP leads to a change in protein composition. In RGS4, the G-allele of the previously reported SNP RGS4-1 (single and as part of haplotypes with SNP RGS4-18) was associated with non-deficit schizophrenia (P = 0.03) but not with deficit schizophrenia (P = 0.79). SNPs in the DTNBP1 and G72/G30 genes were not significantly associated in any group. In conclusion, our data provide further evidence that specific genes may be involved in different schizophrenia subtypes and suggest that the PIP5K2A gene deserves further study as a general susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    Genes, brain, and behavior 2007;6;2;113-9

  • Association study between genetic variants at the PIP5K2A gene locus and schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder.

    Jamra RA, Klein K, Villela AW, Becker T, Schulze TG, Schmael C, Deschner M, Klopp N, Illig T, Propping P, Cichon S, Rietschel M, Nöthen MM and Schumacher J

    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. rami.aboujamra@uni-bonn.de

    Results from molecular and pharmacological studies point to involvement of the gene coding for the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type II-alpha (PIP5K2A) in the development of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). The PIP5K2A gene locus, which is located on chromosomal region 10p12, has been implicated in the development of both disorders by independent linkage and association studies. On a cellular level, PIP5K2A is an enzyme component of the metabolism of inositol phosphate, which has been considered a potential target for the therapeutic action of lithium in BPAD patients. Given that the PIP5K2A gene is a promising candidate for the development of both disorders, we performed an association study between genetic variants at the PIP5K2A locus and 268 patients with schizophrenia, 260 patients with BPAD and 325 ethnically matched healthy controls. We failed to detect association to either disorder using PIP5K2A gene variants through single-marker and haplotype analysis. Therefore, our data does not support an involvement of the PIP5K2A locus in the etiology of either schizophrenia or BPAD in the German population.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2006;141B;6;663-5

  • Evidence for association of DNA sequence variants in the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase IIalpha gene (PIP5K2A) with schizophrenia.

    Schwab SG, Knapp M, Sklar P, Eckstein GN, Sewekow C, Borrmann-Hassenbach M, Albus M, Becker T, Hallmayer JF, Lerer B, Maier W and Wildenauer DB

    Western Australian Institute of Medical Research and Center for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

    Linkage studies in schizophrenia have identified a candidate region on chromosome 10p14-11 as reported for several independent samples. We investigated association of DNA sequence variants in a plausible candidate gene located in this region, the gene for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase IIalpha (PIP5K2A), in a sample of 65 sib-pair families for which linkage had been reported. Evidence for association was obtained for 15 polymorphisms spanning 73.6 kb in the genomic region of the gene between intron 4 and the 3' untranslated region, a region with high degree of linkage disequilibrium. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10828317 located in exon 7 and causing a non-synonymous amino-acid exchange (asparagine/serine) produced a P-value of 0.001 (experiment-wide significance level 0.00275) for over-transmission of the major allele coding for serine, analysed by transmission disequilibrium test using FAMHAP. Association of this SNP with schizophrenia has been also described in a sample of 273 Dutch schizophrenic patients and 580 controls (P=0.0004). PIP5K2A is involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), one of the key metabolic crossroads in phosphoinositide signalling. PI(4,5)P2 plays a role in membrane transduction of neurotransmitter signals as well as in intracellular signalling, pathways that may be impaired in schizophrenia.

    Molecular psychiatry 2006;11;9;837-46

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • Screening of PIP5K2A promoter region for mutations in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Stopkova P, Vevera J, Paclt I, Zukov I, Papolos DF, Saito T and Lachman HM

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Psychiatry Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    Objective: To analyze the promoter region of PIP5K2A, a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase that maps to 10p in a region linked to both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Methods: The promoter region was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. Allele frequencies were determined in a case-control study. Functional significance of a promoter variant was determined by electromobility gel shift assays.

    Results: Homozygosity for a rare putative promoter variant, -1007C-->T, was found in only two patients with schizophrenia and in no controls or bipolar patients. The variant forms a 7/8 base match for the binding site of Oct-1, a member of the POU homeodomain family. Electromobility gel shift assays revealed increased binding of a brain-specific nuclear protein to the -1007T allele compared with -1007C.

    Conclusion: The data suggest that homozygosity for -1007T could be a rare genetic factor in the development of schizophrenia.

    Psychiatric genetics 2005;15;3;223-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Btk-dependent regulation of phosphoinositide synthesis.

    Carpenter CL

    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, HIM Building, Room 1026, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, U.S.A. ccarpent@bidmc.harvard.edu

    Activation of the BCR (B cell antigen receptor) stimulates the production of both PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 and Ins(1,4,5) P3. PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 and Ins(1,4,5) P3 are generated from a common substrate, PtdIns(4,5) P2. In some systems, continuous PtdIns(4,5) P2 synthesis is necessary for maximal Ins(1,4,5) P3 production, but whether this is true for the BCR, and whether PtdIns(4,5) P2 synthesis is regulated following BCR activation, are not known. We found that Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase), a member of the Tec family of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases, is constitutively associated with PIP5Ks (phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases), the enzymes that synthesize PtdIns(4,5) P2. Btk functions as a shuttle to bring PIP5K to the plasma membrane as a means of stimulating PtdIns(4,5) P2 synthesis. The Btk-PIP5K complex appears to localize to lipid rafts. This complex provides a novel shuttling mechanism that allows Btk to regulate the production of the substrate required by both its upstream activator phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream target phospholipase Cgamma2.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 53590

    Biochemical Society transactions 2004;32;Pt 2;326-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Polymorphism screening of PIP5K2A: a candidate gene for chromosome 10p-linked psychiatric disorders.

    Stopkova P, Saito T, Fann CS, Papolos DF, Vevera J, Paclt I, Zukov I, Stryjer R, Strous RD and Lachman HM

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Psychiatry Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York 10461, USA.

    Lithium is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of inositol monophosphatases, enzymes involved in phosphoinositide (PI) and inositol phosphate metabolism. A critical component of the PI pathway is phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), which is hydrolyzed to second messengers and has a direct role in synaptic vesicle function. Interestingly, a number of genes involved in the synthesis and dephosphorylation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) are found in regions of the genome previously mapped in bipolar disorder (BD) including 10p12, 21q22, and 22q11, among others. Some of these regions overlap with loci mapped in schizophrenia (SZ). One gene involved in PI metabolism that maps to a region of interest is 10p12-linked PIP5K2A, a member of the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase family. Polymorphism screening revealed the existence of an imperfect CT repeat polymorphism located near the exon 9-intron 9 splice donor site. A modest difference was found in the distribution of alleles from this highly polymorphic variant when bipolar and schizophrenic subjects were compared with controls; relatively rare short repeat variants were found more commonly in patients and homozygosity for a common long repeat variant was found more commonly in controls. These data suggest that the imperfect CT repeat in PIP5K2A intron 9 should be further investigated as a possible candidate allele for 10p12-linked psychiatric disorders.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2003;123B;1;50-8

  • Branches of the B cell antigen receptor pathway are directed by protein conduits Bam32 and Carma1.

    Niiro H and Clark EA

    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    Adaptor proteins act as conduits to channel upstream signals into downstream effector branches. Two B cell-associated adaptors, Bam32 and Carma1, regulate the ERK, JNK, and NF-kappaB branches of the BCR signaling pathway. Recent studies of Bam32-/- and Carma1-/- mice suggest that each adaptor controls a distinct conduit regulating either only proliferation (Bam32) or both the proliferation and survival of B cells (Carma1).

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI44250, AI45088

    Immunity 2003;19;5;637-40

  • BTK regulates PtdIns-4,5-P2 synthesis: importance for calcium signaling and PI3K activity.

    Saito K, Tolias KF, Saci A, Koon HB, Humphries LA, Scharenberg A, Rawlings DJ, Kinet JP and Carpenter CL

    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    Intracellular signaling by most cell surface receptors requires the generation of two major second messengers, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The enzymes that produce these second messengers, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC), utilize a common substrate, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2). Until now, it has not been clear whether de novo PtdIns-4,5-P2 synthesis is necessary for PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 and IP3 production. Here we show that BTK, a member of the Tec family of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases, associates with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks), the enzymes that synthesize PtdIns-4,5-P2. Upon B cell receptor activation, BTK brings PIP5K to the plasma membrane as a means of generating local PtdIns-4,5-P2 synthesis. This enzyme-enzyme interaction provides a shuttling mechanism that allows BTK to stimulate the production of the substrate required by both its upstream activator, PI3K, and its downstream target, PLC-gamma2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81140; NIAID NIH HHS: AI33617, AI38348; NICHD NIH HHS: HD37091; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53590, GM54389

    Immunity 2003;19;5;669-78

  • Protein kinase C mediates translocation of type II phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase required for platelet alpha-granule secretion.

    Rozenvayn N and Flaumenhaft R

    Center for Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of platelet granule secretion, we have evaluated the role of type II phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 5-phosphate 4-kinase in agonist-induced platelet alpha-granule secretion. SFLLRN-stimulated alpha-granule secretion from SL-O-permeabilized platelets was inhibited by either antibodies directed at type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase or by a kinase-impaired point mutant of type IIbeta PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase. In contrast, recombinant type IIbeta PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase augmented SFLLRN-stimulated alpha-granule secretion from SL-O-permeabilized platelets. SFLLRN-stimulated alpha-granule secretion was inhibited by a protein kinase C-specific inhibitor peptide or bisindolylmaleimide I. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated alpha-granule secretion was inhibited by anti-type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase antibodies or the kinase-impaired point mutant of type IIbeta PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase and augmented by recombinant type IIbeta PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase remained associated with SL-O-permeabilized platelets when incubated in the presence, but not the absence, of SFLLRN. This SFLLRN-induced translocation of type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase was blocked by either the protein kinase C-specific inhibitor peptide or bisindolylmaleimide I. In addition to stimulating alpha-granule secretion, both SFLLRN and PMA enhanced the association of a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide derived from the PtdIns (4,5)P(2)-binding domain of gelsolin to permeabilized platelets. Agonist-induced recruitment of the PtdIns (4,5)P(2)-binding domain was inhibited by neomycin, bisindolylmaleimide I, and anti-type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase antibody. These results suggest a mechanism whereby protein kinase C-mediated translocation of type II PtdIns 5-phosphate 4-kinase leads to the recruitment of PtdIns (4,5)P(2)-binding proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL63250

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8126-34

  • A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate.

    Rameh LE, Tolias KF, Duckworth BC and Cantley LC

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. lrameh@bidmc.harvard.edu

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2), a key molecule in the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, was thought to be synthesized exclusively by phosphorylation of PtdIns-4-P at the D-5 position of the inositol ring. The enzymes that produce PtdIns-4,5-P2 in vitro fall into two related subfamilies (type I and type II PtdInsP-5-OH kinases, or PIP(5)Ks) based on their enzymatic properties and sequence similarities'. Here we have reinvestigated the substrate specificities of these enzymes. As expected, the type I enzyme phosphorylates PtdIns-4-P at the D-5 position of the inositol ring. Surprisingly, the type II enzyme, which is abundant in some tissues, phosphorylates PtdIns-5-P at the D-4 position, and thus should be considered as a 4-OH kinase, or PIP(4)K. The earlier error in characterizing the activity of the type II enzyme is due to the presence of contaminating PtdIns-5-P in commercial preparations of PtdIns-4-P. Although PtdIns-5-P was previously thought not to exist in vivo, we find evidence for the presence of this lipid in mammalian fibroblasts, establishing a new pathway for PtdIns-4,5-P2 synthesis.

    Nature 1997;390;6656;192-6

  • The phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase family.

    Loijens JC, Boronenkov IV, Parker GJ and Anderson RA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706, USA.

    The existence of a PIP5K family of enzymes has been suggested by Western blotting and purification of numerous PIP5Ks from various tissues and cell types. The erythrocyte has at least two PIP5Ks, named PIP5KI and PIP5KII, while the brain appears to have even more isoforms. The cloning of the first PIP5K, the PIP5KII alpha, is just the beginning of the molecular classification of this protein family. The PIP5KII alpha sequence has shown that these enzymes lack obvious homology to protein, sugar and other lipid kinases. The identification of two S. cerevisiae homologues, Mss4p and Fab1p, confirms that this family of kinases is widely distributed in eukaryotes. Not surprisingly, cloning experiments have identified additional isoforms. By cloning additional isoforms, insights into the structure and functions of this family of enzymes will be gained. One reason for a large family of PIP5Ks is that many forms of regulation and cellular functions have been ascribed to PIP5Ks, as summarized in Figure 10. Some of these functional links result from PtdIns[4,5]P2 being required for a given process, but the direct involvement of specific PIP5Ks is not well defined. Which PIP5K isoforms are regulated by a specific mechanism or are involved in a cellular process often is not clear. For example, which PIP5Ks produce PtdIns[4,5]P2 that is hydrolyzed by PLC or phosphorylated by the PI 3-kinase is not known. A few exceptions are PIP5KII not being able to phosphorylate PtdIns[4,5]P2 in native membranes, and PIP5KIs being stimulated by PtdA, required for secretion, and possibly regulated by G proteins of the Rho subfamily. The multiplicity of regulation and functions of each PIP5K isoform remains to be elucidated. Another factor governing the number of isoforms may be presence of multiple pools of polyphosphoinositides and the localizing of PIP5K function within cells. The polyphosphoinositides appear to be compartmentalized within cells and each pool appears to be sensitive to specific signals. These polyphosphoinositide pools may include those in the plasma membrane that are used by PLC, nuclear pools that appear to turn over separately from cytoplasmic pools and a small pool at sites of vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Each pool may be controlled by a specific PIP5K isoform. This would explain the diversity of PIP5K cellular roles. Another possibility is that the PIP5Ks are localized to certain areas of the cell by being part of a protein or proteolipid complex. Furthermore, the presence of PITP or PLC in the complex would potentially impart specificity and speed on the use of PtdIns[4]P and PtdIns[4,5]P2 because these lipids could be channeled quickly from one enzyme to the next. The concept of localized complexes containing particular PIP5K isoforms that control the composition of different polyphosphoinositide pools will likely be important as the family of PIP5K isoforms grows.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38906, GM51968

    Advances in enzyme regulation 1996;36;115-40

  • The cloning and sequence of the C isoform of PtdIns4P 5-kinase.

    Divecha N, Truong O, Hsuan JJ, Hinchliffe KA and Irvine RF

    Department of Cell Signalling and Development, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, U.K.

    In this study we describe the purification and sequencing of the C isoform of platelet PtdIns4P 5-kinase. Subsequently a cDNA was isolated from a human circulating-leucocyte library, which when sequenced was shown to contain all of the peptides identified in the purified protein. In addition, expression of this cDNA in bacteria led to the production of a protein which was recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies raised to the bovine brain enzyme [Brooksbank, Hutchings, Butcher, Irvine and Divecha (1993) Biochem. J. 291, 77-82] and also led to the appearance of PtdIns4P 5-kinase activity in the bacterial lysates. Interestingly, the cDNA showed no similarity to any of the previously cloned inositide kinases. A search of the DNA databases showed that two proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae shared close similarity to this enzyme, one of which, the mss4 gene product, has been implicated in the yeast inositol lipid pathway. These data suggest that the PtdIns4P 5-kinases are a new family of inositide kinases unrelated to the previously cloned phosphoinositide 3/4-kinases.

    The Biochemical journal 1995;309 ( Pt 3);715-9

  • Rho family GTPases bind to phosphoinositide kinases.

    Tolias KF, Cantley LC and Carpenter CL

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Rho family GTPases appear to play an important role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, but the mechanism of regulation is unknown. Since phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate have also been implicated in actin reorganization, we investigated the possibility that Rho family members interact with phosphoinositide kinases. We found that both GTP- and GDP-bound Rac1 associate with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase in vitro and in vivo. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase also bound to Rac1 and Cdc42Hs, and these interactions were GTP-dependent. Stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells with platelet-derived growth factor induced the association of PI 3-kinase with Rac in immunoprecipitates. PI 3-kinase activity was also detected in Cdc42 immunoprecipitates from COS7 cells. These results suggest that phosphoinositide kinases are involved in Rho family signal transduction pathways and raise the possibility that the effects of Rho family members on the actin cytoskeleton are mediated in part by phosphoinositide kinases.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM36624

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;30;17656-9

  • The sequence of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase defines a novel family of lipid kinases.

    Boronenkov IV and Anderson RA

    Department of Pharmacology and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706.

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) occupies an essential position in the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascades as the precursor to second messengers and is thought to regulate many cellular proteins directly. The final step in the synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is the phosphorylation of PtdIns(4)P- by PtdIns(4)P 5-kinase (PIP5K). Using peptide sequences from a purified PIP5K, a cDNA for a human placental PIP5K was isolated and sequenced. Expression of this cDNA in Escherichia coli produced an active PIP5K. Surprisingly, the sequence of this PIP5K has no homology to known PtdIns kinases or protein kinases. However, the PIP5K is homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Fab1p and Mss4p.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38906, GM51966

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;7;2881-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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