G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001655
Gene symbol
AGK (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
acylglycerol kinase
Orthologue
G00000406 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023537 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000006530 (Ensembl human gene)
55750 (Entrez Gene)
749 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Literature
610345 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:21869 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q53H12 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • FLJ10842

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • Expression of autotaxin and acylglycerol kinase in prostate cancer: association with cancer development and progression.

    Nouh MA, Wu XX, Okazoe H, Tsunemori H, Haba R, Abou-Zeid AM, Saleem MD, Inui M, Sugimoto M, Aoki J and Kakehi Y

    Department of Urology, Kagawa University Faculty of Medicine, Miki-cho, Kagawa, Japan.

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) may enhance diverse biologic activities in prostate cancer. This study was conducted to analyze expression levels of LPA-producing enzymes, autotaxin (ATX) and acylglycerol kinase (AGK), in prostate cancer with relevance to clinicopathological parameters. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were performed for ATX and AGK in non-neoplastic prostate cells (PrECs and PrSCs) and prostate cancer cell-lines (DU-145, PC-3, LNCaP, and AILNCaP). Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted in tissue specimens of 132 localized prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2001 and 2007 (median observation period, 22 months). Both enzymes were negatively expressed in PrECs and PrSCs at mRNA and protein levels. ATX expression was higher than AGK in AILNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3 cell-lines, while AGK was mainly expressed in LNCaP cells. Immunohistochemically, ATX and AGK expressions were negative in non-neoplastic epithelia, while both were weakly expressed in the majority of high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN). In cancer foci, ATX and AGK expressions were strong in 49% and 62%, weak in 40% and 32%, and negative in 11% and 6%, respectively. Expressions of both enzymes were significantly correlated with primary Gleason grade of cancer foci (P < 0.0001) and capsular invasion (P = 0.03 and 0.003 respectively). ATX expression was significantly correlated with probability of prostate specific antigen (PSA)-failure after surgery (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, LPA-producing enzymes (ATX and AGK) were frequently expressed in prostate cancer cells and precancerous HG-PIN. In particular, high expression levels of ATX were associated with both malignant potentials and poor outcomes.

    Cancer science 2009;100;9;1631-8

  • Substrate chirality and specificity of diacylglycerol kinases and the multisubstrate lipid kinase.

    Epand RM, Shulga YV, Timmons HC, Perri AL, Belani JD, Perinpanathan K, Johnson-McIntire LB, Bajjalieh S, Dicu AO, Elias C, Rychnovsky SD and Topham MK

    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada. epand@mcmaster.ca

    The alpha, zeta, and epsilon isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase exhibit a high degree of stereospecificity in the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol. In comparison, a multiple lipid kinase, MuLK, shows much less stereospecificity, phosphorylating 1,2-dioleoylglycerol only approximately 2-3 times more rapidly than 2,3-dioleoylglycerol. The alpha and zeta isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase are inhibited by 2,3-dioleoylglycerol, but not the more substrate-selective epsilon isoform. The inhibition by 2,3-dioleoylglycerol is uncompetitive. This corresponds to a kinetic scheme in which the inhibitor can bind to the enzyme-substrate complex, but not to the free enzyme. Our data indicate that despite their similar structures, 1,2-dioleoylglycerol and 2,3-dioleoylglycerol do not compete for the active site of these three isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. We suggest that the 2,3-dioleoylglycerol binds to a site on the alpha and zeta isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase that is exposed as a consequence of the substrate binding to the active site. The chiral specificity of these enzymes thus mimics the substrate specificity, with MuLK being the least selective and the epsilon isoform of diacylglycerol kinase exhibiting the greatest selectivity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA95463, R01 CA095463; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM043854

    Biochemistry 2007;46;49;14225-31

  • Functions of the multifaceted family of sphingosine kinases and some close relatives.

    Spiegel S and Milstien S

    Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. sspiegel@vcu.edu

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: CA61774; NIAID NIH HHS: AI50094; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM43880

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;4;2125-9

  • Further characterization of mammalian ceramide kinase: substrate delivery and (stereo)specificity, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization studies.

    Van Overloop H, Gijsbers S and Van Veldhoven PP

    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Departement Moleculaire Celbiologie, Afdeling Farmacologie, Leuven, Belgium.

    Recombinant human ceramide kinase (HsCERK) was analyzed with regard to dependence on divalent cations and to substrate delivery, spectrum, specificity, and stereoselectivity. Depending on the chain length of the ceramide, either albumin for short-chain ceramide or a mixed micellar form (octylglucoside/cardiolipin) for long-chain ceramide was preferred for the substrate delivery, the former resulting in higher activities. Bacterially expressed HsCERK was highly dependent on Mg2+ ions, much less on Ca2+ ions. A clear preference for the d-erythro isomer was seen. Various N-acylated amino alcohols were no substrate, but N-hexanoyl-1-O-hexadecyl-2-desoxy-2-amino-sn-glycerol and N-tetradecanoyl-2S-amino-1-butanol were phosphorylated, suggesting that the secondary hydroxy group is not required for recognition. The properties of HsCERK, expressed in CHO cells, were similar to those of the bacterially expressed protein, including the Mg2+ dependence. In mouse, the highest activities were found in testis and cerebellum, and upon subcellular fractionation the activity was recovered mainly in the microsomal fraction. This fits with the plasma membrane localization in CHO cells, which was mediated by the N-terminal putative pleckstrin domain. No evidence for phosphorylation of ceramide by the recently described multiple lipid kinase was found. The latter kinase is localized in the mitochondria, but no firm conclusions with regard to its substrate could be drawn.

    Journal of lipid research 2006;47;2;268-83

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • A novel acylglycerol kinase that produces lysophosphatidic acid modulates cross talk with EGFR in prostate cancer cells.

    Bektas M, Payne SG, Liu H, Goparaju S, Milstien S and Spiegel S

    Department of Biochemistry and the Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

    The bioactive phospholipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate pivotal processes related to the pathogenesis of cancer. Here, we report characterization of a novel lipid kinase, designated acylglycerol kinase (AGK), that phosphorylates monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to form LPA and PA, respectively. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation suggest that AGK is localized to the mitochondria. AGK expression was up-regulated in prostate cancers compared with normal prostate tissues from the same patient. Expression of AGK in PC-3 prostate cancer cells markedly increased formation and secretion of LPA. This increase resulted in concomitant transactivation of the EGF receptor and sustained activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) 1/2, culminating in enhanced cell proliferation. AGK expression also increased migratory responses. Conversely, down-regulating expression of endogenous AGK inhibited EGF- but not LPA-induced ERK1/2 activation and progression through the S phase of the cell cycle. Hence, AGK can amplify EGF signaling pathways and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA061774, R01CA61774

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;169;5;801-11

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • MuLK, a eukaryotic multi-substrate lipid kinase.

    Waggoner DW, Johnson LB, Mann PC, Morris V, Guastella J and Bajjalieh SM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    We report the identification and characterization of a novel lipid kinase that phosphorylates multiple substrates. This enzyme, which we term MuLK for multi-substrate lipid kinase, does not belong to a previously described lipid kinase family. MuLK has orthologs in many organisms and is broadly expressed in human tissues. Although predicted to be a soluble protein, MuLK co-fractionates with membranes and localizes to an internal membrane compartment. Recombinant MuLK phosphorylates diacylglycerol, ceramide, and 1-acylglycerol but not sphingosine. Although its affinity for diacylglycerol and ceramide are similar, MuLK exhibits a higher V(max) toward diacylglycerol in vitro, consistent with it acting primarily as a diacylglycerol kinase. MuLK activity was inhibited by sphingosine and enhanced by cardiolipin. It was stimulated by calcium when magnesium concentrations were low and inhibited by calcium when magnesium concentrations were high. The effects of charged lipids and cations on MuLK activity in vitro suggest that its activity in vivo is tightly regulated by cellular conditions.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: R21 DA14954; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM07750

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;37;38228-35

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.

    Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, Osborne LR, Nakabayashi K, Herbrick JA, Carson AR, Parker-Katiraee L, Skaug J, Khaja R, Zhang J, Hudek AK, Li M, Haddad M, Duggan GE, Fernandez BA, Kanematsu E, Gentles S, Christopoulos CC, Choufani S, Kwasnicka D, Zheng XH, Lai Z, Nusskern D, Zhang Q, Gu Z, Lu F, Zeesman S, Nowaczyk MJ, Teshima I, Chitayat D, Shuman C, Weksberg R, Zackai EH, Grebe TA, Cox SR, Kirkpatrick SJ, Rahman N, Friedman JM, Heng HH, Pelicci PG, Lo-Coco F, Belloni E, Shaffer LG, Pober B, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Bruns GA, Korf BR, Quade BJ, Ligon AH, Ferguson H, Higgins AW, Leach NT, Herrick SR, Lemyre E, Farra CG, Kim HG, Summers AM, Gripp KW, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Winsor EJ, Grzeschik KH, Teebi A, Minassian BA, Kere J, Armengol L, Pujana MA, Estivill X, Wilson MD, Koop BF, Tosi S, Moore GE, Boright AP, Zlotorynski E, Kerem B, Kroisel PM, Petek E, Oscier DG, Mould SJ, Döhner H, Döhner K, Rommens JM, Vincent JB, Venter JC, Li PW, Mural RJ, Adams MD and Tsui LC

    Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca

    DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 38103; NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM061354

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5620;767-72

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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