G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phosphofructokinase, muscle
G00000386 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000152556 (Ensembl human gene)
5213 (Entrez Gene)
776 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PFKM (GeneCards)
610681 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8877 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P08237 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PFK-1

Literature (36)

Pubmed - other

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone.

    Ruaño G, Bernene J, Windemuth A, Bower B, Wencker D, Seip RL, Kocherla M, Holford TR, Petit WA and Hanks S

    Genomas, Inc., 67 Jefferson St, Hartford, CT, United States. g.ruano@genomas.net

    Background: The thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve tissue sensitivity to insulin in patients with type II diabetes, resulting in reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. However, TZDs unpredictably demonstrate adverse effects of increased body weight, fluid retention, and edema. The balance of efficacy and safety of TZD varies widely from patient to patient. Genetic variability may reveal pathophysiological pathways underlying weight gain associated with TZD therapy and due to adiposity and/or edema.

    Methods: We analyzed 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 222 cardiovascular and metabolic genes in 87 outpatients with type 2 diabetes receiving thiazolidinedione therapy. Physiogenomic analysis was used to discover associations with body mass index (BMI) and edema.

    Results: The 5 most significant gene associations found between BMI and SNPs were ADORA1, adenosine A1 receptor (rs903361, p<0.0003), PKM2, pyruvate kinase-muscle (rs2856929, p<0.002); ADIPOR2, adiponectin receptor 2 (rs7975375, p<0.007); UCP2, uncoupling protein 2 (rs660339, p<0.008); and APOH, apolipoprotein H (rs8178847, p<0.010). For edema, the 5 most significant gene associations were NPY, neuropeptide Y (rs1468271, p<0.006); GYS1, glycogen synthase 1-muscle (rs2287754, p<0.013); CCL2, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (rs3760396, p<0.015); OLR1, oxidized LDL receptor 1 (rs2742115, p<0.015); and GHRH, growth hormone releasing hormone (rs6032470, p<0.023). After accounting for multiple comparisons, ADORA1 was significantly associated with BMI at a false discovery rate (FDR) of <10%.

    Conclusion: Physiogenomic associations were discovered suggesting mechanistic links between adenosine signaling and BMI, and between vascular permeability and drug-induced edema.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;400;1-2;48-55

  • Proteomic analysis reveals Hrs ubiquitin-interacting motif-mediated ubiquitin signaling in multiple cellular processes.

    Pridgeon JW, Webber EA, Sha D, Li L and Chin LS

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells recognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway. To gain insight into the role of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in cells, we performed a proteomic screen for Hrs UIM-interacting ubiquitinated proteins in human brain by using an in vitro expression cloning screening approach. We have identified 48 ubiquitinated proteins that are specifically recognized by the UIM domain of Hrs. Among them, 12 are membrane proteins that are likely to be Hrs cargo proteins, and four are membrane protein-associated adaptor proteins whose ubiquitination may act as a signal to target their associated membrane cargo for Hrs-mediated endosomal sorting. Other classes of the identified proteins include components of the vesicular trafficking machinery, cell signaling molecules, proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and enzymes involved in ubiquitination and metabolism, suggesting the involvement of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. We have characterized the ubiquitination of two identified proteins, Munc18-1 and Hsc70, and their interaction with Hrs UIM, and provided functional evidence supporting a role for Hsc70 in the regulation of Hrs-mediated endosome-to-lysosome trafficking.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM082828, R01 GM082828, R01 GM082828-01A1, R01 GM082828-02, R01 GM082828-02S1; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047575, NS050650, R01 NS047575, R01 NS047575-01, R01 NS047575-02, R01 NS047575-03, R01 NS047575-04, R01 NS050650, R01 NS050650-01A1, R01 NS050650-02, R01 NS050650-03, R01 NS050650-04, T32 NS007480, T32 NS007480-05, T32 NS007480-06, T32 NS007480-07, T32 NS007480-08, T32 NS007480-09, T32NS007480

    The FEBS journal 2009;276;1;118-31

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Chimeric phosphofructokinases involving exchange of the N- and C-terminal halves of mammalian isozymes: implications for ligand binding sites.

    Martínez-Costa OH, Sánchez-Martínez C, Sánchez V and Aragón JJ

    Departamento de Bioquímica de la UAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols UAM-CSIC, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

    Two phosphofructokinase (PFK) chimeras were constructed by exchanging the N- and C-terminal halves of the mammalian M- and C-type isozymes, to investigate the contribution of each terminus to the catalytic site and the fructose-2,6-P(2)/fructose-1,6-P(2) allosteric site. The homogeneously-purified chimeric enzymes organized into tetramers, and exhibited kinetic properties for fructose-6-P and MgATP similar to those of the native enzyme that furnished the N-terminal domain in each case, whereas their fructose-2,6-P(2) activatory characteristics coincided with those of the isozyme that provided the C-terminal half. This reflected the role of each domain in the formation of the corresponding binding site. Grafting the N-terminus of PFK-M onto the C-terminus of the fructose-1,6-P(2) insensitive PFK-C restored transduction of this signal to the catalytic site, which significance is also discussed.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;16;3033-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Novel testis- and embryo-specific isoforms of the phosphofructokinase-1 muscle type gene.

    Yamada S, Nakajima H and Kuehn MR

    Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

    We have identified novel transcriptional isoforms of the human and mouse genes encoding muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-M). These isoforms are expressed specifically in the testis and in the mid-gestation embryo, and have been termed TE-PFK-M (testis- and embryo-specific PFK-M). The 5'UTR of TE-PFK-M is composed of three newly identified exons that lie much farther upstream of the PFK-M coding region than the previously characterized 5'UTR. In addition, this upstream region encodes a series of small polyadenylated transcripts, some of which share the same exons found in the 5'UTR of TE-PFK-M, and which may play some role in regulating TE-PFK-M expression. These findings indicate an even more complex level of control of PFK-M expression than previously thought.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;316;2;580-7

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • The a-subunit of the V-type H+-ATPase interacts with phosphofructokinase-1 in humans.

    Su Y, Zhou A, Al-Lamki RS and Karet FE

    Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge University, United Kingdom.

    V-type or H+-ATPases are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps that move protons across the plasma membrane at specialized sites such as kidney epithelial cells and osteoclasts as well as acidifying intracellular compartments. The 100-kDa polytopic a-subunit of this group of ATPases is suggested to play an important role in coupling the two functions of the pump, ATP hydrolysis and proton transport. In man, different a-subunit isoforms are encoded by four genes. ATP6V0A4 encodes a4, which is expressed apically in alpha-intercalated cells in both human and mouse kidney. We sought binding partners for the C terminus of a4 in order to address its potential role in the H+-ATPase complex. Random peptide phage display analysis revealed a consensus motif (WLELRP) with almost complete homology to part of the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1). Activity of this enzyme is the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Specificity of a4 binding to this peptide was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein-protein interaction was further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of a4 with PFK-1 from solubilized human kidney membrane proteins. An in vitro bead-bound PFK-1 pull-down assay showed that this interaction was also true for the ubiquitously expressed a1 subunit. Finally, PFK-1 co-immunolocalized with a4 in alpha-intercalated cells in the collecting ducts of human kidney. These findings indicate a direct link between V-type H+-ATPases and glycolysis via the C-terminal region of the a-subunit of the pump and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism between H+-ATPase function and energy supply. This interaction between the a-subunit and PFK-1 also provides new evidence that the C terminus of this subunit lies cytoplasmically in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;22;20013-8

  • Subcellular targeting of metabolic enzymes to titin in heart muscle may be mediated by DRAL/FHL-2.

    Lange S, Auerbach D, McLoughlin P, Perriard E, Schäfer BW, Perriard JC and Ehler E

    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Hönggerberg, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

    During sarcomere contraction skeletal and cardiac muscle cells consume large amounts of energy. To satisfy this demand, metabolic enzymes are associated with distinct regions of the sarcomeres in the I-band and in the M-band, where they help to maintain high local concentrations of ATP. To date, the mechanism by which metabolic enzymes are coupled to the sarcomere has not been elucidated. Here, we show that the four and a half LIM-only protein DRAL/FHL-2 mediates targeting of the metabolic enzymes creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and phosphofructokinase by interaction with the elastic filament protein titin in cardiomyocytes. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, colocalisation experiments, co-immunoprecipitation and protein pull-down assays, we show that DRAL/FHL-2 is bound to two distinct sites on titin. One binding site is situated in the N2B region, a cardiac-specific insertion in the I-band part of titin, and the other is located in the is2 region of M-band titin. We also show that DRAL/FHL-2 binds to the metabolic enzymes creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and phosphofructokinase and might target these enzymes to the N2B and is2 regions in titin. We propose that DRAL/FHL-2 acts as a specific adaptor protein to couple metabolic enzymes to sites of high energy consumption in the cardiac sarcomere.

    Journal of cell science 2002;115;Pt 24;4925-36

  • Interaction of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase and phosphofructokinase-M.

    Firestein BL and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA. bonfire@itsa.ucsf.edu

    Neurons that express neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) are resistant to NO-induced neurotoxicity; however, the mechanism by which these neurons are protected is not clear. To identify proteins possibly involved in this process, we performed affinity chromatography with the nNOS PDZ domain, a N-terminal motif that mediates protein interactions. Using this method to fractionate soluble tissue extracts, we identified the muscle isoform of phosphofructokinase (PFK-M) as a protein that binds to nNOS both in brain and skeletal muscle. PFK-M interacts with the PDZ domain of nNOS, and nNOS-PFK-M binding can be competed by peptides that bind to the PDZ domain of nNOS. We found that nNOS is significantly associated with PFK-M in skeletal muscle because nNOS can be immunodepleted from cytosolic skeletal muscle extracts using an antibody directed against PFK-M. In brain, nNOS and PFK-M are both enriched in synaptosomes, and specifically, in the synaptic vesicle fraction, where they can interact. At the cellular level, PFK-M is enriched in neurons that express nNOS protein. As fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate, the product of PFK activity, is neuroprotective, the interaction of nNOS and PFK may contribute to neuroprotection of nNOS positive cells.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS36017

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;15;10545-50

  • Combined defects of muscle phosphofructokinase and AMP deaminase in a child with myoglobinuria.

    Bruno C, Minetti C, Shanske S, Morreale G, Bado M, Cordone G and DiMauro S

    H. Houston Merritt Clinical Research Center for Muscular Dystrophy and Related Diseases, Department of Neurology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    A 14-year-old boy with exercise-related myalgia and cramps had several episodes of myoglobinuria since early childhood. An episode at 2 years of age caused acute renal failure. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of muscle showed a combined defect of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase. DNA analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for a G-to-C substitution at codon 39 of the PFK gene (previously described in an Italian patient) and for the common mutation found in AMP deaminase deficiency.

    Neurology 1998;50;1;296-8

  • Deficiency of phosphofructo-1-kinase/muscle subtype in humans impairs insulin secretion and causes insulin resistance.

    Ristow M, Vorgerd M, Möhlig M, Schatz H and Pfeiffer A

    Department of Internal Medicine, Ruhr-University of Bochum, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, D-44789 Bochum, Germany.

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is caused by peripheral insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function. Phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, and its muscle subtype (PFK1-M) deficiency leads to the autosomal recessively inherited glycogenosis type VII Tarui's disease. It was evaluated whether PFK1-M deficiency leads to alterations in insulin action or secretion in humans. A core family of four members was evaluated for PFK1-M deficiency by DNA and enzyme-activity analyses. All members underwent oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests (oGTT and ivGTT) and an insulin-sensitivity test (IST) using octreotide. Enzyme activity determinations in red blood cells showed that the father (46 yr, body mass index [BMI] 22. 4 kg/m2) and older son (19 yr, BMI 17.8 kg/m2) had a homozygous, while the mother (47 yr, BMI 28.4 kg/m2) and younger son (13 yr, BMI 16.5 kg/m2) had a heterozygous PFK1-M deficiency. DNA analyses revealed an exon 5 missense mutation causing missplicing of one allele in all four family members, and an exon 22 frameshift mutation of the other allele of the two homozygously affected individuals. The father showed impaired glucose tolerance, and the mother showed NIDDM. By ivGTT, both parents and the older son had decreased first-phase insulin secretion and a diminished glucose disappearance rate. The IST showed marked insulin resistance in both parents and the older, homozygous son, and moderate resistance in the younger son. PFK1-M deficiency causes impaired insulin secretion in response to glucose, demonstrating its participation in islet glucose metabolism, and peripheral insulin resistance. These combined metabolic sequelae of PFK-1 deficiency identify it as a candidate gene predisposing to NIDDM.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1997;100;11;2833-41

  • Association of phosphofructokinase-M with caveolin-3 in differentiated skeletal myotubes. Dynamic regulation by extracellular glucose and intracellular metabolites.

    Scherer PE and Lisanti MP

    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    Caveolin-3 is a member of the caveolin family of proteins that is primarily expressed in striated muscle cell types (skeletal and cardiac). Here, we show that an approximately 80-kDa protein specifically co-immunoprecipitates with caveolin-3 expressed in differentiated skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Microsequence analysis of this approximately 80-kDa polypeptide revealed its identity as a key regulatory enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, namely phosphofructokinase-M (PFK-M). Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that PFK-M associates with caveolin-3 with a significant time lag after the biosynthesis of PFK-M. In addition, we show that this interaction is (i) highly regulated by the extracellular concentration of glucose and (ii) can be stabilized by a number of relevant intracellular metabolites, such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, which are known allosteric activators of PFK. While the bulk of these experiments were performed in C2C12 cells, identical results were obtained using mouse skeletal muscle extracts. Taken together, our results suggest that glucose-dependent plasma membrane recruitment of activated PFK-M by caveolin-3 could have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that regulate energy metabolism in skeletal muscle fibers.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-50443

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;33;20698-705

  • Isozyme analysis of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte phosphofructokinase from insulin resistant individuals.

    Durante P, Raleigh X, Gómez ME, Campos G and Ryder E

    Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was characterized by immunological titration with subunit specific antibodies and column chromatography on QAE-Sephadex in three different groups: control, type II diabetic, and obese individuals. It was found that PMN phosphofructokinase in the three groups consists mainly of a mixture of L4 and M4 homotetramers with possibly some hybrid forms. The predominant subunit was the L-type. A 24% decrease in the specific activity of the L-type isozyme was observed and an intermediate form (I-isozyme) having 23% of the total activity in diabetic individuals appeared. In obese individuals a 30% decrease was observed in the activity of M-type isozyme and 9% of the total activity corresponded to the intermediate form. Kinetic studies showed different regulatory properties among the isozymes from the three groups. The lower PFK activity found in diabetic and obese individuals can be associated with the decreased activity in the L-type isozyme (for diabetic individuals) and in the M-type isozyme (for obese individuals); the lower activity can also be associated with the four times lower affinity for F-6-P showed by the M-type isozyme, the decreased sensitivity to ATP inhibition (for both isozymes), and the appearance of an intermediate form with a different kinetic behaviour.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;225;3;975-82

  • Physical and genetic mapping of the muscle phosphofructokinase gene (PFKM): reassignment to human chromosome 12q.

    Howard TD, Akots G and Bowden DW

    Department of Biochemistry, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157, USA.

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis and represents a major control point in the metabolism of glucose. There are at least three known isoforms of PFK in humans, referred to as the muscle, platelet, and liver forms, each of which is differentially expressed in various tissues. The gene for muscle phosphofructokinase, PFKM, is mutated in Tarui disease and conceivably contributes to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Based on physical and genetic mapping, we have found that the gene for PFKM does not map to chromosome 1 as previously described, but instead maps to chromosome 12. PCR analysis with a somatic cell hybrid mapping panel using primers derived from intron 6 and exon 18 of the PFKM gene showed consistent amplification of cell lines containing chromosome 12 (concordance, 100%). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with CEPH YAC 762G4, isolated with exon 18 primers, indicated that this clone maps to 12q13, centromeric to the diacylglycerol kinase gene (DAGK) at 12q13. 3. A highly informative genetic marker isolated from YAC 762G4 was used to map PFKM genetically between the CHLC framework markers D12S1090 and D12S390. This placement for 762G4 was significantly proximal to the recently reported locus for a third gene for maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The PFKM-associated microsatellite will be a valuable tool in the evaluation of PFKM in diabetic populations as well as in linkage analysis in families with Tarui disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P30CA-12197-22; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK41269, R01 DK47480

    Genomics 1996;34;1;122-7

  • Novel missense mutation (W686C) of the phosphofructokinase-M gene in a Japanese patient with a mild form of glycogenosis VII.

    Hamaguchi T, Nakajima H, Noguchi T, Nakagawa C, Kuwajima M, Kono N, Tarui S and Matsuzawa Y

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    Human mutation 1996;8;3;273-5

  • Nonsense mutation in the phosphofructokinase muscle subunit gene associated with retention of intron 10 in one of the isolated transcripts in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with Tarui disease.

    Vasconcelos O, Sivakumar K, Dalakas MC, Quezado M, Nagle J, Leon-Monzon M, Dubnick M, Gajdusek DC and Goldfarb LG

    Clinical Neurogenetics Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Mutations in the human phosphofructokinase muscle subunit gene (PFKM) are known to cause myopathy classified as glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease). Previously described molecular defects include base substitutions altering encoded amino acids or resulting in abnormal splicing. We report a mutation resulting in phosphofructokinase deficiency in three patients from an Ashkenazi Jewish family. Using a reverse transcription PCR assay, PFKM subunit transcripts differing by length were detected in skeletal muscle tissue of all three affected subjects. In the longer transcript, an insertion of 252 nucleotides totally homologous to the structure of the 10th intron of the PFKM gene was found separating exon 10 from exon 11. In addition, two single base transitions were identified by direct sequencing: [exon 6; codon 95; CGA (Arg) to TGA (stop)] and [exon 7; codon 172; ACC (Thr) to ACT (Thr)] in either transcript. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism and restriction enzyme analyses confirmed the presence of these point substitutions in genomic DNA and strongly suggested homozygosity for the pathogenic allele. The nonsense mutation at codon 95 appeared solely responsible for the phenotype in these patients, further expanding genetic heterogeneity of Tarui disease. Transcripts with and without intron 10 arising from identical mutant alleles probably resulted from differential pre-mRNA processing and may represent a novel message from the PFKM gene.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;22;10322-6

  • Functional expression of human mutant phosphofructokinase in yeast: genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    Raben N, Exelbert R, Spiegel R, Sherman JB, Nakajima H, Plotz P and Heinisch J

    Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Human phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a tetrameric enzyme, encoded by muscle, liver, and platelet genes. Deficiency of muscle PFK (PFK-M), glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an exertional myopathy and hemolytic syndrome. Several disease-causing mutations have been identified in the PFK-M gene in Japanese, Ashkenazi Jewish, and Italian patients. We describe the genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with the disease, and we use a genetically well-defined yeast system devoid of endogenous PFK for structure-function studies of the mutant PFKs. A G-to-A transition at codon 209-in exon 8 of the PFK-M gene, changing an encoded Gly to Asp, is responsible for the disease in a homozygous French Canadian patient. Gly-209-mutated protein is completely inactive in the yeast system. The Swiss patient is a genetic compound, carrying a G-to-A transition at codon 100 in exon 6 (Arg to Gln) and a G-to-A transition at codon 696 in exon 22 (Arg to His). The mutants expressed in yeast generate functional enzyme with modest changes in thermal stability. The advantages and limitations of the yeast system for expression of human mutant PFKs are discussed.

    American journal of human genetics 1995;56;1;131-41

  • Mutations in muscle phosphofructokinase gene.

    Raben N and Sherman JB

    Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Mutations in the muscle phosphofructokinase gene (PFK-M) result in a metabolic myopathy characterized by exercise intolerance and compensated hemolysis. PFK deficiency, glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease) is a rare, autosomal, recessively inherited disorder. Multiple mutations, including splicing defects, frameshifts, and missense mutations, have recently been identified in patients from six different ethnic backgrounds establishing genetic heterogeneity of the disease. There is no obvious correlation between the genotype and phenotypic expression of the disease. PFK-M deficiency appears to be prevalent among people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Molecular diagnosis is now feasible for Ashkenazi patients who share two common mutations in the gene; the more frequent is an exon 5 splicing defect, which accounts for approximately 68% of mutant alleles in this population.

    Human mutation 1995;6;1;1-6

  • Identification of three novel mutations in non-Ashkenazi Italian patients with muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    Tsujino S, Servidei S, Tonin P, Shanske S, Azan G and DiMauro S

    H. Houston Merritt Clinical Research Center for Muscular Dystrophy and Related Disease, Department of Neurology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY.

    We have identified three novel mutations in four non-Ashkenazi Italian patients with muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK-M) deficiency (Tarui disease). Patient 1 was homozygous for an A-to-C substitution at the 3' end of intron 6 of the PFK-M gene, changing the consensus splice-junction sequence AG to CG. The mutation leads to activation of two cryptic splice sites in exon 7, resulting in one 5 bp- and one 12 bp-deleted transcript. An affected brother was also homozygous, and both parents were heterozygous, for the splice-junction mutation. Patient 2 was homozygous for a G-to-C substitution at codon 39, changing an encoded arginine (CGA) to proline (CCA). Patient 3 was heterozygous for an A-to-C substitution at codon 543, changing an encoded aspartate (GAC) to alanine (GCC); the PFK-M gene on the other allele was not expressed, but sequencing of the reported regulatory region of the gene did not reveal any mutation.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 11766

    American journal of human genetics 1994;54;5;812-9

  • A 5' splice junction mutation leading to exon deletion in an Ashkenazic Jewish family with phosphofructokinase deficiency (Tarui disease).

    Raben N, Sherman J, Miller F, Mena H and Plotz P

    Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

    A deficiency of the muscle isoform of the enzyme, phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC, leads to an illness (glycogenosis, Type VII) characterized by myopathy and hemolysis. A patient with this disease and an affected sister were found to have a G to A substitution at the 5' donor site of intron 5 of the PFK-M gene. This mutation led to a splicing defect: a complete deletion of the preceding exon in the patient's mRNA. The patient, an affected sister, and related and unrelated family members, who were of Ashkenazic Jewish background, were screened for the mutation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by allele specific hybridization of genomic DNA. The affected sisters are homozygous for the mutation, and their children, who are unaffected, are heterozygous. The only previously characterized genetic defect in this disease, found in a Japanese patient, was a G to T mutation at the beginning of intron 15 with splicing to a cryptic site within exon 15 (1). Both mutations lead to inframe deletions, but of different parts of the protein. The differences between the two aberrant proteins may account for clinical differences between our patients and the Japanese patient.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;7;4963-7

  • Structure of the entire human muscle phosphofructokinase-encoding gene: a two-promoter system.

    Yamasaki T, Nakajima H, Kono N, Hotta K, Yamada K, Imai E, Kuwajima M, Noguchi T, Tanaka T and Tarui S

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    We have recently shown that three types (A,B, and C) of mRNA species are transcribed from a single gene encoding human muscle phosphofructokinase (hPFK-M) through alternative splicing [Nakajima et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166 (1990) 637-641]. To determine its complete structure and elucidate the mechanism of alternative RNA splicing, we isolated the hPFK-M gene, which spans about 30 kb, and contains 24 exons. Transcription start points were observed for both exon 1 and exon 2 by S1 nuclease protection assay and primer extension. Motifs of an Sp1-binding site were observed in the upstream region of exon 1 (promoter 1). A TATA-box-like sequence and a CAAT-box-like sequence were identified in the upstream region of exon 2 (promoter 2). Reporter assay revealed that the promoter 1 region was functional both in HeLa cells and myoblastic clonal cells, and that the promoter 2 region was active only in myoblastic cells. Motifs of M-CAT known as a muscle-specific enhancer, were observed in the promoter 2 region. These results indicated that the hPFK-M gene contains at least two promoter regions, facilitating the expression of the heterogeneous gene transcripts in a cell-type-specific manner.

    Gene 1991;104;2;277-82

  • Protein-induced inactivation and phosphorylation of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase.

    Zhao ZZ, Malencik DA and Anderson SR

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331.

    Several previously untested proteins promote the reversible inactivation of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphofructokinase. Grouped in decreasing order of effectiveness, they include the following: skeletal muscle troponin C greater than troponin, the two smooth muscle myosin light chains, alpha-actinin, and S-100 much greater than parvalbumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor. The efficiency of troponin C in this process may even exceed that previously reported for calmodulin. Sequences near calcium binding site III are apparently involved in the troponin C-phosphofructokinase interaction. Troponin C and calmodulin exert calcium-dependent effects on the physical and chemical properties of muscle phosphofructokinase. When calcium is present, comigration with either protein allows the enzyme to enter the stacking gel during urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both enhance the phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with phosphate incorporations approaching 2 mol of P/mol of protomer. Reaction occurs at Ser774 and at Ser376--a novel site whose phosphorylation is highly sensitive to troponin C and less so to calmodulin. Maximum phosphorylation has slight effect on the catalytic activity of the enzyme under standard assay conditions. The troponin C induced or calmodulin-induced phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase requires calcium and is strongly inhibited by either fructose 2,6-bisphosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Inactivation occurs in the presence or absence of calcium, with generally higher concentrations of effectors required for protection in the latter case. Liver and yeast phosphofructokinases shows little activity loss in the presence of either calmodulin or troponin C. We have developed and tested a general mathematical model for the protein-induced inactivation of phosphofructokinase which may find application to other systems.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK13912

    Biochemistry 1991;30;8;2204-16

  • Alternative splicing of the transcript encoding the human muscle isoenzyme of phosphofructokinase.

    Sharma PM, Reddy GR, Babior BM and McLachlan A

    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037.

    The genomic DNA encoding human muscle phosphofructokinase (HPFK-M) exons VII to X has been cloned and the coding regions have been sequenced. The intron/exon boundaries are located at the same positions as those identified for the rabbit phosphofructokinase-M gene (Lee, C. -P., Kao, M. -C., French, B. A., Putney, S. D., and Chang, S. H. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4195-4199). A HPFK-M cDNA clone lacking the sequences corresponding to exon IX was isolated from a human fibroblast (IMR-90) library, suggesting that the HPFK-M transcript may be alternatively spliced. Exon IX is 93 nucleotides in length, and the absence of this sequence from the HPFK-M transcript would generate an RNA coding for a HPFK-M-related polypeptide lacking 31 amino acids compared with the HPFK-M polypeptide. HPFK-M transcripts approximately 3.0 kilobases in length are expressed in a tissue-specific manner with high levels in cell lines and skeltal muscle tissue and very low levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and liver tissue. Characterization of the structure of these HPFK-M transcripts by nuclease S1 and polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that all the cell lines and tissues examined expressed the alternatively spliced transcript in addition to the transcript coding for the enzymatically functional HPFK-M polypeptide.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00833; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07022, DK33445

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;16;9006-10

  • Genetic defect in muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency. Abnormal splicing of the muscle phosphofructokinase gene due to a point mutation at the 5'-splice site.

    Nakajima H, Kono N, Yamasaki T, Hotta K, Kawachi M, Kuwajima M, Noguchi T, Tanaka T and Tarui S

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    The genetic defect in muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency (type VII glycogenosis, Tarui disease) was investigated. Six cDNAs for muscle phosphofructokinase, including a full-length clone, were isolated from a non-amplified library of muscle from a patient. By sequence analysis of these clones, a 75-base in-frame deletion was identified. The rest of the sequence was identical to that of the normal cDNA, except for a silent base transition at position 516 (ACT (Thr) to ACC (Thr]. The deletion was located in the 3'-terminal region of exon 13 (numbered with reference to the rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase gene (Lee, C.-P., Kao, M.-C., French, B.A., Putney, S.D., and Chang, S.H. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4195-4199]. Genomic DNA of the patient was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the amplified DNA revealed a point mutation from G to T at the 5'-end of intron 13. This mutation changed the normal 5'-splice site of CAG:GTATGG to CAG:TTATGG. A cryptic splice site of ACT:GTGAGG located 75 bases upstream from the normal splice site was recognized and spliced in the patient.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;16;9392-5

  • Cloning and expression of a human muscle phosphofructokinase cDNA.

    Sharma PM, Reddy GR, Vora S, Babior BM and McLachlan A

    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA 92037.

    The nucleotide sequence of a 2.86-kb cDNA clone containing the complete human muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK) protein-coding region was determined. It comprises 76 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence, 2340 bp encoding human muscle PFK polypeptide, and 399 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence plus a poly(A) tract. A retroviral vector was utilized to express the product of this coding sequence in mouse fibroblasts. The PFK-coding cDNA was shown to code for an enzymatically active polypeptide by immunoprecipitation analysis and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatography.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07022, DK33445

    Gene 1989;77;1;177-83

  • Human 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase gene has an additional intron upstream of start codon.

    Valdez BC, Chen Z, Sosa MG, Younathan ES and Chang SH

    Department of Biochemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803.

    A 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase-coding gene (pfk) has been purified from a human genomic library cloned in the lambda EMBL4 phage vector. This clone contains the nontranslated 5' flanking region of the human muscle pfk gene. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence determined by us with that of the human muscle pfk cDNA [Nakajima et al., FEBS Lett. 223 (1987) 113-116] indicates the presence of an additional intron extending from nucleotide (nt) -97 to -9 upstream of the ATG start codon. Furthermore, the human muscle pfk gene is more AT-rich than the rabbit gene. The available sequence of the two cDNAs shows 256 nt differences. Surprisingly, 71% of these sites are A's and T's in the human cDNA and C's and G's in the rabbit gene.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 31676

    Gene 1989;76;1;167-9

  • Cloning of human muscle phosphofructokinase cDNA.

    Nakajima H, Noguchi T, Yamasaki T, Kono N, Tanaka T and Tarui S

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    Three overlapping cDNA clones for human muscle phosphofructokinase (HMPFK) covering the complete coding sequence were isolated. The sequence included a poly(A) tail, a 399 bp 3'-untranslated region, a 2337 bp coding region for 779 amino acid residues and a part of the 5'-untranslated region. Homologies between HMPFK and rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase (RMPFK) were 96% of the amino acids and 89% of the nucleotides in the coding region. Like RMPFK, HMPFK also possessed the internal homology between C- and N-halves in its primary structure. Cloning of HMPFK cDNA will help to identify the molecular defect in patients with glycogenosis type VII (HMPFK deficiency).

    FEBS letters 1987;223;1;113-6

  • Muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency in man: expression of the defect in blood cells and cultured fibroblasts.

    Kahn A, Weil D, Cottreau D and Dreyfus JC

    Using specific immunoprecipitation of M-type phosphofructokinase and assay of immunoprecipitate enzyme activity, it was possible to detect some M-type enzyme in normal blood cells and fibroblasts, although this isoenzyme represents a very small part of total phosphofructokinase. White blood cells and cultured fibroblasts from a patient with hereditary muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency showed normal phosphofructokinase activity and electrophoretic pattern; direct immunoneutralization results were also normal. Nevertheless, it was possible to prove the defect in these cells using the immunoprecipitation method: no active immunoprecipitates could be obtained with anti M-type antibody. The patient's red blood cells had a reduced phosphofructokinase activity which was only neutralized by anti L-type antiserum. The purification of partially deficient red cell phosphofructokinase confirmed that this enzyme only consisted of L-type subunits while, under normal conditions, both L- and M-type subunits are observed. The possibility of detecting specific enzyme defects in apparently non-affected cells could be of practical importance, especially in prenatal diagnosis.

    Annals of human genetics 1981;45;1;5-14

  • The molecular mechanism of the inherited phosphofructokinase deficiency associated with hemolysis and myopathy.

    Vora S, Corash L, Engel WK, Durham S, Seaman C and Piomelli S

    Normal human erythrocyte phosphofructokinase (ATP: D-fructose-6, P-1-phosphotransferase, EC; PFK) has recently been shown to consist of a heterogeneous mixture of five tetrameric isozymes: M4, M3L, M2L2, ML3, and L4 (M, muscle type; L, liver type). In the light of these findings, we have investigated the molecular basis of the inherited erythrocyte PFK deficiency associated with myopathy and hemolysis (Tarui disease). The propositus, a 31-yr-old male, suffered from muscle weakness and myoglobinuria on exertion. He showed mild erythrocytosis despite laboratory evidence of hemolysis. In his erythrocytes a metabolic crossover point was found at the level of PFK; 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was also significantly reduced. The PFK from the patient's erythrocytes consisted exclusively of the L4 isozyme, and there was a complete absence of the other four. The leukocyte and platelet PFKs from the patient showed normal activities, chromatographic profiles, and precipitation with anti-M4 antibody. These studies provide direct evidence that in Tarui disease the M-type subunits are absent; but the liver- and platelet-type subunits of PFK are unaffected. The paradox of mild erythrocytosis despite hemolysis reflects the decreased production of 2,3-DPG.

    Blood 1980;55;4;629-35

  • Isozymes of human phosphofructokinase: identification and subunit structural characterization of a new system.

    Vora S, Seaman C, Durham S and Piomelli S

    The existence of a five-membered isozyme system for human phosphofructokinase (PFK; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, EC has been demonstrated. These multimolecular forms result from the random polymerization of two distinct subunits, M (muscle type) and L (liver type), to form all possible tetrameters-i.e., M(4), M(3)L, M(2)L(2), ML(3), and L(4). Partially purified muscle and liver PFKs were hybridized by dissociation at low pH and then recombination at neutrality. Three hybrid species were generated in addition to the two parental isozymes, to yield an entire five-membered set. The various species could be consistently and reproducibly separated from one another by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography at pH 8.0 with a concave elution gradient of salt. Under similar experimental conditions, erythrocyte PFK from hemolysates was also resolved into five species chromatographically indistinguishable from those produced in the above experiment. Immunological and kinetic studies of the isozymes provided corroborative evidence to support the proposed subunit structures. Erythrocyte PFK was found to have kinetic properties intermediate between those of muscle and liver PFK and was neutralized only 50% by an antiserum against muscle PFK that completely neutralized muscle PFK. These data demonstrate that muscle and liver PFKs are distinct homotetramers-i.e., M(4) and L(4), respectively-whereas erythrocyte PFK is a heterogeneous mixture of all five isozymes. The structural heterogeneity of erythrocyte PFK provides a molecular genetic basis for the differential organ involvement observed in some inherited PFK deficiency states in which myopathy or hemolysis or both can occur.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1980;77;1;62-6

  • Phosphofructokinase (PFK) isozymes in man. I. Studies of adult human tissues.

    Kahn A, Meienhofer MC, Cottreau D, Lagrange JL and Dreyfus JC

    Isozymic heterogeneity of human phosphofructokinase was investigated by means of ATP inhibition, immunoneutralization by antihuman muscle-type and antiliver-type phosphofructokinase antisera, solubility in (NH4)2SO4 solutions, and starch gel and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. The enzymes studied by these methods were purified from various normal and malignant human adult tissues by chromatography on blue Dextran Sepharose 4 B columns. From the results of these studied we suggest that three basic phosphofructokinase isozymes could exist: muscle-type, fibroblast-type, and liver-type isozymes. Muscle-type isozyme is the single form found in adult muscle, and is involved in the enzymes from heart, brain, red cell, and testis. Fibroblast-type isozyme is found mainly in the placenta, fibroblasts kidney, and some malignant tissues. Liver-type phosphofructokinase seems to be very definitely the predominant form in mature polymorphonuclear cells, platelets, and liver. Testis and red cell phosphofructokinase enzymes definitely include msucle-type aand liver-type subunits, associated in various hybrid forms.

    Human genetics 1979;48;1;93-108

  • Erythrocyte phosphofructokinase deficiency associated with an unstable variant of muscle phosphofructokinase.

    Kahn A, Etiemble J, Meienhofer MC and Bovin P

    A case of chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia due to partial erythrocyte phosphofructokinase deficiency (61% of normal) is reported. Immunological studies in hemolystates, using anti-muscle and anti-leukocyte phosphofructokinase antisera, seemed to indicate that an isozyme of the muscle type was deficient in the patient. This hypothesis was confirmed by the studies of muscle phosphofructokinase; this enzyme was an unstable and fast variant. There was no deficiency in muscle because of the active synthesis of proteins by this tissue, but the deficiency could be detected in erythrocytes, old cells which are no longer able to synthesize proteins.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 1975;61;3;415-9

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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