G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phosphofructokinase, liver
G00000385 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000141959 (Ensembl human gene)
5211 (Entrez Gene)
775 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PFKL (GeneCards)
171860 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8876 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P17858 (UniProt)

Literature (30)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone.

    Ruaño G, Bernene J, Windemuth A, Bower B, Wencker D, Seip RL, Kocherla M, Holford TR, Petit WA and Hanks S

    Genomas, Inc., 67 Jefferson St, Hartford, CT, United States. g.ruano@genomas.net

    Background: The thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve tissue sensitivity to insulin in patients with type II diabetes, resulting in reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. However, TZDs unpredictably demonstrate adverse effects of increased body weight, fluid retention, and edema. The balance of efficacy and safety of TZD varies widely from patient to patient. Genetic variability may reveal pathophysiological pathways underlying weight gain associated with TZD therapy and due to adiposity and/or edema.

    Methods: We analyzed 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 222 cardiovascular and metabolic genes in 87 outpatients with type 2 diabetes receiving thiazolidinedione therapy. Physiogenomic analysis was used to discover associations with body mass index (BMI) and edema.

    Results: The 5 most significant gene associations found between BMI and SNPs were ADORA1, adenosine A1 receptor (rs903361, p<0.0003), PKM2, pyruvate kinase-muscle (rs2856929, p<0.002); ADIPOR2, adiponectin receptor 2 (rs7975375, p<0.007); UCP2, uncoupling protein 2 (rs660339, p<0.008); and APOH, apolipoprotein H (rs8178847, p<0.010). For edema, the 5 most significant gene associations were NPY, neuropeptide Y (rs1468271, p<0.006); GYS1, glycogen synthase 1-muscle (rs2287754, p<0.013); CCL2, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (rs3760396, p<0.015); OLR1, oxidized LDL receptor 1 (rs2742115, p<0.015); and GHRH, growth hormone releasing hormone (rs6032470, p<0.023). After accounting for multiple comparisons, ADORA1 was significantly associated with BMI at a false discovery rate (FDR) of <10%.

    Conclusion: Physiogenomic associations were discovered suggesting mechanistic links between adenosine signaling and BMI, and between vascular permeability and drug-induced edema.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;400;1-2;48-55

  • Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat.

    Seip RL, Volek JS, Windemuth A, Kocherla M, Fernandez ML, Kraemer WJ and Ruaño G

    Genomas, Inc,, 67 Jefferson St, Hartford, Connecticut, USA. rseip@harthosp.org.

    Background: Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Delta%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets.

    Methods: We assessed Delta%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression.

    Results: Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 +/- 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 +/- 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Delta%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021).

    Conclusion: Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Delta%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets.

    Nutrition & metabolism 2008;5;4

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Cell array-based intracellular localization screening reveals novel functional features of human chromosome 21 proteins.

    Hu YH, Warnatz HJ, Vanhecke D, Wagner F, Fiebitz A, Thamm S, Kahlem P, Lehrach H, Yaspo ML and Janitz M

    Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin, Germany. yuhuihu@molgen.mpg.de

    Background: Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Chr21) results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins.

    Results: We chose 89 genes that were distributed over the majority of 21q, ranging from RBM11 (14.5 Mb) to MCM3AP (46.6 Mb), with part of them expressed aberrantly in the Down's syndrome mouse model. Open reading frames of these genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector with an amino-terminal His6 tag. All of the constructs were arrayed on glass slides and reverse transfected into HEK293T cells for protein expression. Co-localization detection using a set of organelle markers was carried out for each Chr21 protein. Here, we report the subcellular localization properties of 52 proteins. For 34 of these proteins, their localization is described for the first time. Furthermore, the alteration in cell morphology and growth as a result of protein over-expression for claudin-8 and claudin-14 genes has been characterized.

    Conclusion: The cell array-based protein expression and detection approach is a cost-effective platform for large-scale functional analyses, including protein subcellular localization and cell phenotype screening. The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should contribute to further understanding of the molecular pathology of Down's syndrome.

    BMC genomics 2006;7;155

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Nuclear coactivator-62 kDa/Ski-interacting protein is a nuclear matrix-associated coactivator that may couple vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and RNA splicing.

    Zhang C, Dowd DR, Staal A, Gu C, Lian JB, van Wijnen AJ, Stein GS and MacDonald PN

    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

    Nuclear coactivator-62 kDa/Ski-interacting protein (NCoA62/SKIP) is a putative vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear receptor coactivator protein that is unrelated to other VDR coactivators such as those in the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family. The mechanism through which NCoA62/SKIP functions in VDR-activated transcription is unknown. In the present study, we identified a nuclear localization sequence in the COOH terminus of NCoA62/SKIP and showed that NCoA62/SKIP was targeted to nuclear matrix subdomains. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that endogenous NCoA62/SKIP associated in a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent manner with VDR target genes in ROS17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. A cyclic pattern of promoter occupancy by VDR, SRC-1, and NCoA62/SKIP was observed, with NCoA62/SKIP entering these promoter complexes after SRC-1. These studies provide strong support for the proposed role of NCoA62/SKIP as a VDR transcriptional coactivator, and they indicate that key mechanistic differences probably exist between NCoA62/SKIP and SRC coactivators. To explore potential mechanisms, NCoA62/SKIP-interacting proteins were purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts and identified by mass spectrometry. The identified proteins represent components of the spliceosome as well as other nuclear matrix-associated proteins. Here, we show that a dominant negative inhibitor of NCoA62/SKIP (dnNCoA62/SKIP) interfered with appropriate splicing of transcripts derived from 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced expression of a growth hormone minigene cassette. Taken together, these data show that NCoA62/SKIP has properties that are consistent with those of nuclear receptor coactivators and with RNA spliceosome components, thus suggesting a potential role for NCoA62/SKIP in coupling VDR-mediated transcription to RNA splicing.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR049069; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53980

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;37;35325-36

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21.

    Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, Watanabe H, Yada T, Park HS, Toyoda A, Ishii K, Totoki Y, Choi DK, Groner Y, Soeda E, Ohki M, Takagi T, Sakaki Y, Taudien S, Blechschmidt K, Polley A, Menzel U, Delabar J, Kumpf K, Lehmann R, Patterson D, Reichwald K, Rump A, Schillhabel M, Schudy A, Zimmermann W, Rosenthal A, Kudoh J, Schibuya K, Kawasaki K, Asakawa S, Shintani A, Sasaki T, Nagamine K, Mitsuyama S, Antonarakis SE, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Nordsiek G, Hornischer K, Brant P, Scharfe M, Schon O, Desario A, Reichelt J, Kauer G, Blocker H, Ramser J, Beck A, Klages S, Hennig S, Riesselmann L, Dagand E, Haaf T, Wehrmeyer S, Borzym K, Gardiner K, Nizetic D, Francis F, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Yaspo ML and Chromosome 21 mapping and sequencing consortium

    RIKEN, Genomic Sciences Center, Sagamihara, Japan.

    Chromosome 21 is the smallest human autosome. An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic cause of significant mental retardation, which affects up to 1 in 700 live births. Several anonymous loci for monogenic disorders and predispositions for common complex disorders have also been mapped to this chromosome, and loss of heterozygosity has been observed in regions associated with solid tumours. Here we report the sequence and gene catalogue of the long arm of chromosome 21. We have sequenced 33,546,361 base pairs (bp) of DNA with very high accuracy, the largest contig being 25,491,867 bp. Only three small clone gaps and seven sequencing gaps remain, comprising about 100 kilobases. Thus, we achieved 99.7% coverage of 21q. We also sequenced 281,116 bp from the short arm. The structural features identified include duplications that are probably involved in chromosomal abnormalities and repeat structures in the telomeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the chromosome revealed 127 known genes, 98 predicted genes and 59 pseudogenes.

    Nature 2000;405;6784;311-9

  • Cellular distribution of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase isoenzymes in rat brain.

    Zeitschel U, Bigl M, Eschrich K and Bigl V

    Paul-Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, Leipzig, Germany.

    In the brain, all three isoenzyme types [muscle (M), liver (L), and brain (C)] of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK; EC occur, forming a complex mixture of homo- and heterotetramers. The PFK isoenzyme pattern of the different brain cell types is yet unknown. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of the PFK isoenzyme subunits in primary and secondary cell cultures and in bulk-isolated cells of rat brain by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. All three PFK isoenzymes are present in all cell types but in different proportions. The cellular distribution of the PFK isoenzymes in situ was studied immunohistochemically with different polyclonal antisera against purified rat PFKs. The monospecific antibody against M-type PFK stained preferentially the perinuclear areas of neurons and glial cells. The antibodies that in immunoblots detected mainly the L-type PFK showed a characteristic staining in only the cytoplasma and the processes of cells, whereas the C-type antibodies almost homogeneously stained whole cell bodies as well as large dendrites. Because the PFK isoenzymes differ with respect to their allosteric properties, their differential distribution in different brain cells might be of importance for the regulation of brain glycolysis in the different cellular compartments of the brain.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1996;67;6;2573-80

  • Isozyme analysis of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte phosphofructokinase from insulin resistant individuals.

    Durante P, Raleigh X, Gómez ME, Campos G and Ryder E

    Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was characterized by immunological titration with subunit specific antibodies and column chromatography on QAE-Sephadex in three different groups: control, type II diabetic, and obese individuals. It was found that PMN phosphofructokinase in the three groups consists mainly of a mixture of L4 and M4 homotetramers with possibly some hybrid forms. The predominant subunit was the L-type. A 24% decrease in the specific activity of the L-type isozyme was observed and an intermediate form (I-isozyme) having 23% of the total activity in diabetic individuals appeared. In obese individuals a 30% decrease was observed in the activity of M-type isozyme and 9% of the total activity corresponded to the intermediate form. Kinetic studies showed different regulatory properties among the isozymes from the three groups. The lower PFK activity found in diabetic and obese individuals can be associated with the decreased activity in the L-type isozyme (for diabetic individuals) and in the M-type isozyme (for obese individuals); the lower activity can also be associated with the four times lower affinity for F-6-P showed by the M-type isozyme, the decreased sensitivity to ATP inhibition (for both isozymes), and the appearance of an intermediate form with a different kinetic behaviour.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;225;3;975-82

  • A contiguous Not I restriction map of band q22.3 of human chromosome 21.

    Wang D, Fang H, Cantor CR and Smith CL

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley.

    A contiguous high-resolution NotI restriction map of the distal region of the long arm of human chromosome 21 was constructed by three strategies: linking clones to identify adjacent pieces of DNA, partial digestion to identify neighboring fragments, and cell line polymorphisms to prove identity or adjacency of DNA fragments. Twenty-nine single-copy DNA probes and five linking clone probes were used to determine the order of 30 Not I fragments, covering 10 megabases of DNA in band q22.3. Smaller Not I fragments occur preferentially in this region, suggesting that band q22.3 is unusually rich in genes, since Not I sites occur almost exclusively in CpG islands. Comparison of the physical map and genetic maps in this region reveals a 10-fold higher than average recombination frequency.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;8;3222-6

  • An estimate of the sequencing error frequency in the DNA sequence databases.

    Kristensen T, Lopez R and Prydz H

    Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Norway.

    We have examined vector sequences fortuitously present in the EMBL sequence database as contaminating parts of submitted sequences, and found a sequencing error frequency of 3.55% in this subset of release 27 of the database. We discuss the possibility that this value may be representative for corresponding errors in the database as a whole.

    DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 1992;2;6;343-6

  • The structure of the human liver-type phosphofructokinase gene.

    Elson A, Levanon D, Brandeis M, Dafni N, Bernstein Y, Danciger E and Groner Y

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Virology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

    We have isolated the gene for the human liver-type phosphofructokinase, from upstream to the 5' mRNA terminus to beyond the polyadenylation site. The gene is at least 28 kb long and is divided into 22 exons; it contains conventional splice-junction sequences and one polyadenylation signal. Exons and introns are quite rich in G and C residues; some 60% of all nucleotides are either G or C. Five possible sites of polymorphism have been found. The gene structure reveals no signs of internal similarities despite protein sequence evidence which suggests that the PFK molecule is divided into two similar halves. The structure and organization of the human liver-type PFK gene are shown to be extremely similar to those of the rabbit muscle-type PFK.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD21229

    Genomics 1990;7;1;47-56

  • The primary structure of human liver type phosphofructokinase and its comparison with other types of PFK.

    Levanon D, Danciger E, Dafni N, Bernstein Y, Elson A, Moens W, Brandeis M and Groner Y

    Department of Virology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

    The complete mRNA sequence of the human liver-type phosphofructokinase (hPFKL) was determined. The sequence included 55 nucleotides of 5' and 515 of 3' noncoding regions, as well as 2,337 nucleotides encoding the 779 amino acids of the hPFKL. Extensive similarity (approximately 90%) in the coding region was observed between the hPFKL and the mouse PFKL, whereas the degree of similarity between different types of PFK, i.e., hPFKL and human muscle-type PFK (hPFKM), was merely 68%. Nevertheless, striking similarity between these different types of PFK was noticed when the amino acid residues creating the various active sites of the enzyme were compared. Human PFK L- and M-specific probes were constructed and used to quantitate the mRNA levels in fetal and adult brains and fetal liver. It was found that while relative amount of PFKL mRNA in adult brain was one-fourth of that detected in fetal brain the level of PFKM mRNA in adult brain was slightly higher than in fetal tissue, suggesting that PFK expression might be controlled at the transcriptional level.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD21229

    DNA (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.) 1989;8;10;733-43

  • Genomic clones of the human liver-type phosphofructokinase.

    Levanon D, Danciger E, Dafni N and Groner Y

    Genomic clones of human liver phosphofructokinase (PFK) were isolated by screening a gene bank enriched for chromosome 21 sequences with two synthetic oligonucleotide probes designed from peptide sequences of purified human liver PFK. A 3.3 Kb fragment derived from the genomic clones was sub-cloned and designated to pG-PFKL 3.3. It hybridized with a 3.5 Kb mRNA on Northern blots and was able to enrich selectively for liver PFK mRNA by hybrid-selection. These results demonstrated that the isolated clones contain sequences homologous to human PFKL mRNA. When hybridized to genomic DNA blots pG-PFKL 3.3 reacted with the same 3.3 Kb BamHI fragment in both human DNA and DNA of the mouse/human hybrid line WA17 which contains human chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome. These data confirm the assignment of the PFKL gene to chromosome 21.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 21229-01

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1986;141;1;374-80

  • Regional assignment of human liver-type 6-phosphofructokinase to chromosome 21q22.3 by using somatic cell hybrids and a monoclonal anti-L antibody.

    Van Keuren M, Drabkin H, Hart I, Harker D, Patterson D and Vora S

    The three structural loci encoding human phosphofructokinase, a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, are located on separate chromosomes. The gene coding for the liver-type subunit PFKL has previously been assigned to chromosome 21. We have used a subunit- and human-specific monoclonal antibody to liver PFK to detect the expression of human PFKL in hamster X human hybrid cell lines. A cell line carrying an 8;21 translocation which contains all of chromosome 21 except the band 21q22.3 was negative for the expression of PFKL whereas cell lines carrying the reciprocal 8;21 translocation were positive. In addition, a cell line with a ring chromosome 21 containing a breakpoint which excluded the distal part of the q22.3 band was negative for expression of PFKL. These results indicate that human PFKL is located on chromosome 21q22.3.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 33445; NICHD NIH HHS: F32HD06470-02, HD17449; ...

    Human genetics 1986;74;1;34-40

  • Heterogeneity of the molecular lesions in inherited phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    Vora S, Davidson M, Seaman C, Miranda AF, Noble NA, Tanaka KR, Frenkel EP and Dimauro S

    Human phosphofructokinase (PFK; EC exists in tetrameric isozymic forms. Muscle and liver contain the homotetramers M4 and L4, whereas erythrocytes contain five isozymes composed of M (muscle) and L (liver) subunits, i.e., M4, M3L, M2L2, ML3, and L4. Inherited defects of erythrocyte PFK are usually partial and are described in association with heterogeneous clinical syndromes. To define the molecular basis and pathogenesis of this enzymopathy, we investigated four unrelated individuals manifesting myopathy and hemolysis (glycogenosis type VII), isolated hemolysis, or no symptoms at all. The three symptomatic patients showed high-normal hemoglobin levels, despite hemolysis and early-onset hyperuricemia. They showed total lack of muscle-type PFK and suffered from exertional myopathy of varying severity. In the erythrocytes, a metabolic crossover was evident at the PFK step: the levels of hexose monophosphates were elevated and those of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were depressed, causing strikingly increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. In all cases, the residual erythrocyte PFK consisted exclusively of L4 isozyme, indicating homozygosity for the deficiency of the catalytically active M subunit. However, presence of immunoreactive M subunit was shown in cultured fibroblasts by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal anti-M antibody. The fourth individual was completely asymptomatic, had normal erythrocyte metabolism, and had no evidence of hemolysis. His residual erythrocyte PFK showed a striking decrease of the L4, ML3, and M2L2 isozymes, secondary to a mutant unstable L subunit. Identical alterations of erythrocyte PFK were found in his asymptomatic son, indicating heterozygosity for the mutant unstable L subunit in this kindred. These studies show that, except for the varying severity of the myopathic symptoms, glycogenosis type VII has highly uniform clinical and biochemical features and results from homozygosity for mutant inactive M subunit(s). The absence of anemia despite hemolysis may be explained by the low 2,3-DPG levels. The hyperuricemia may result from hyperactivity of the hexose monophosphate shunt. In contrast, the clinically silent carrier state results from heterozygosity for mutant M or L subunit. Of the two, the M subunit appears to be more critical for adequate glycolytic flux in the erythrocyte, since its absence is correlated with hemolysis.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 26437, AM 26793, K04 AM 01053

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1983;72;6;1995-2006

  • Assignment of the human gene for liver-type 6-phosphofructokinase isozyme (PFKL) to chromosome 21 by using somatic cell hybrids and monoclonal anti-L antibody.

    Vora S and Francke U

    Human 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, EC is under the control of structural loci that code for muscle (M), liver (L), and platelet (P) subunits, which are variably expressed in different tissues; human diploid fibroblasts and leukocytes express all three genes. Random tetramerization of these subunits produces various isozymes, which can be distinguished from one another by ion exchange chromatography or by subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies. We have examined 17 somatic cell hybrids established between Chinese hamster cells and human diploid fibroblasts or leukocytes for the expression of L-type subunits of human PFK. As electrophoresis does not distinguish between Chinese hamster PFKs and human PFKs, we used an anti-human L-subunit-specific monoclonal antibody, which does not react with chinese hamster PFKs. The expression of human L subunits in the hybrids was detected by the enzyme-immunoprecipitation technique using staphylococci bearing protein A as an immunoadsorbent. Twelve out of 17 hybrids expressed human L subunits and retained chromosome 21, as determined by chromosome and isozyme marker analysis, whereas 5 did not express human PFKL and lacked chromosome 21. The mean erythrocyte PFK of seven individuals with trisomy 21 was found to be elevated (147% of normal). A specific increase in L subunits in trisomic erythrocytes was evident chromatographically by a striking increase in L4 species (50%; normal 10%) and immunologically by decreased precipitation with anti-M monoclonal antibody (50%; normal 80%). We conclude from these data that PFKL is located on chromosome 21 and that the previously noted elevation of erythrocyte PFK activity in individuals with trisomy 21 is due to a gene-dosage effect.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 26793-02, AM-26437-02; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 21110

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1981;78;6;3738-42

  • Isoenzymes of human phosphofructokinase.

    Koster JF, Slee RG and Van Berkel TJ

    Human liver phosphofructokinase has been isolated in order to obtain antibodies against human liver phosphofructokinase. With the antiserum it could be shown in human liver that two types of phosphofructokinase exist with no subunits in common. Leucocytes, erythrocytes and kidney also possess the liver (L-) type subunit and a small amount of L-type is present in brain. There is no L-type of phosphofructokinase present in muscle and heart tissue.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 1980;103;2;169-73

  • The molecular mechanism of the inherited phosphofructokinase deficiency associated with hemolysis and myopathy.

    Vora S, Corash L, Engel WK, Durham S, Seaman C and Piomelli S

    Normal human erythrocyte phosphofructokinase (ATP: D-fructose-6, P-1-phosphotransferase, EC; PFK) has recently been shown to consist of a heterogeneous mixture of five tetrameric isozymes: M4, M3L, M2L2, ML3, and L4 (M, muscle type; L, liver type). In the light of these findings, we have investigated the molecular basis of the inherited erythrocyte PFK deficiency associated with myopathy and hemolysis (Tarui disease). The propositus, a 31-yr-old male, suffered from muscle weakness and myoglobinuria on exertion. He showed mild erythrocytosis despite laboratory evidence of hemolysis. In his erythrocytes a metabolic crossover point was found at the level of PFK; 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was also significantly reduced. The PFK from the patient's erythrocytes consisted exclusively of the L4 isozyme, and there was a complete absence of the other four. The leukocyte and platelet PFKs from the patient showed normal activities, chromatographic profiles, and precipitation with anti-M4 antibody. These studies provide direct evidence that in Tarui disease the M-type subunits are absent; but the liver- and platelet-type subunits of PFK are unaffected. The paradox of mild erythrocytosis despite hemolysis reflects the decreased production of 2,3-DPG.

    Blood 1980;55;4;629-35

  • Isozymes of human phosphofructokinase: identification and subunit structural characterization of a new system.

    Vora S, Seaman C, Durham S and Piomelli S

    The existence of a five-membered isozyme system for human phosphofructokinase (PFK; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, EC has been demonstrated. These multimolecular forms result from the random polymerization of two distinct subunits, M (muscle type) and L (liver type), to form all possible tetrameters-i.e., M(4), M(3)L, M(2)L(2), ML(3), and L(4). Partially purified muscle and liver PFKs were hybridized by dissociation at low pH and then recombination at neutrality. Three hybrid species were generated in addition to the two parental isozymes, to yield an entire five-membered set. The various species could be consistently and reproducibly separated from one another by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography at pH 8.0 with a concave elution gradient of salt. Under similar experimental conditions, erythrocyte PFK from hemolysates was also resolved into five species chromatographically indistinguishable from those produced in the above experiment. Immunological and kinetic studies of the isozymes provided corroborative evidence to support the proposed subunit structures. Erythrocyte PFK was found to have kinetic properties intermediate between those of muscle and liver PFK and was neutralized only 50% by an antiserum against muscle PFK that completely neutralized muscle PFK. These data demonstrate that muscle and liver PFKs are distinct homotetramers-i.e., M(4) and L(4), respectively-whereas erythrocyte PFK is a heterogeneous mixture of all five isozymes. The structural heterogeneity of erythrocyte PFK provides a molecular genetic basis for the differential organ involvement observed in some inherited PFK deficiency states in which myopathy or hemolysis or both can occur.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1980;77;1;62-6

  • Phosphofructokinase (PFK) isozymes in man. I. Studies of adult human tissues.

    Kahn A, Meienhofer MC, Cottreau D, Lagrange JL and Dreyfus JC

    Isozymic heterogeneity of human phosphofructokinase was investigated by means of ATP inhibition, immunoneutralization by antihuman muscle-type and antiliver-type phosphofructokinase antisera, solubility in (NH4)2SO4 solutions, and starch gel and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. The enzymes studied by these methods were purified from various normal and malignant human adult tissues by chromatography on blue Dextran Sepharose 4 B columns. From the results of these studied we suggest that three basic phosphofructokinase isozymes could exist: muscle-type, fibroblast-type, and liver-type isozymes. Muscle-type isozyme is the single form found in adult muscle, and is involved in the enzymes from heart, brain, red cell, and testis. Fibroblast-type isozyme is found mainly in the placenta, fibroblasts kidney, and some malignant tissues. Liver-type phosphofructokinase seems to be very definitely the predominant form in mature polymorphonuclear cells, platelets, and liver. Testis and red cell phosphofructokinase enzymes definitely include msucle-type aand liver-type subunits, associated in various hybrid forms.

    Human genetics 1979;48;1;93-108

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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