G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
IQ motif and Sec7 domain 2
G00000373 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000021608 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000124313 (Ensembl human gene)
23096 (Entrez Gene)
760 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
IQSEC2 (GeneCards)
300522 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:29059 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3973 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q5JU85 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA0522

Literature (10)

Pubmed - other

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Composition of the synaptic PSD-95 complex.

    Dosemeci A, Makusky AJ, Jankowska-Stephens E, Yang X, Slotta DJ and Markey SP

    Laboratory of Neurobiology, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), a specialized scaffold protein with multiple protein interaction domains, forms the backbone of an extensive postsynaptic protein complex that organizes receptors and signal transduction molecules at the synaptic contact zone. Large, detergent-insoluble PSD-95-based postsynaptic complexes can be affinity-purified from conventional PSD fractions using magnetic beads coated with a PSD-95 antibody. In the present study purified PSD-95 complexes were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. A semiquantitative measure of the relative abundances of proteins in the purified PSD-95 complexes and the parent PSD fraction was estimated based on the cumulative ion current intensities of corresponding peptides. The affinity-purified preparation was largely depleted of presynaptic proteins, spectrin, intermediate filaments, and other contaminants prominent in the parent PSD fraction. We identified 525 of the proteins previously reported in parent PSD fractions, but only 288 of these were detected after affinity purification. We discuss 26 proteins that are major components in the PSD-95 complex based upon abundance ranking and affinity co-purification with PSD-95. This subset represents a minimal list of constituent proteins of the PSD-95 complex and includes, in addition to the specialized scaffolds and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, an abundance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, small G-protein regulators, cell adhesion molecules, and hypothetical proteins. The identification of two Arf regulators, BRAG1 and BRAG2b, as co-purifying components of the complex implies pivotal functions in spine plasticity such as the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and insertion and retrieval of proteins to and from the plasma membrane. Another co-purifying protein (Q8BZM2) with two sterile alpha motif domains may represent a novel structural core element of the PSD.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279-25

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;10;1749-60

  • BRAG1, a Sec7 domain-containing protein, is a component of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses.

    Murphy JA, Jensen ON and Walikonis RS

    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, U-3156, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

    The postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses is a dynamic complex of glutamatergic receptors and associated proteins that governs synaptic structure and coordinates signal transduction. In this study, we report that BRAG1, a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Arf family of GTP-binding proteins, is a major component of the PSD. BRAG1 was identified in a 190 kDa band in the PSD fraction with the use of mass spectrometry coupled to searching of a protein sequence database. BRAG1 expression is abundant in the adult rat forebrain, and it is strongly enriched in the PSD fraction compared to forebrain homogenate and synaptosomes. Immunocytochemical localization of BRAG1 in dissociated hippocampal neurons shows that it forms discrete clusters that colocalize with the postsynaptic marker PSD-95 at sites along dendrites. BRAG1 contains a Sec7 domain, a domain that catalyzes exchange of GDP for GTP on the Arf family of small GTP-binding proteins. In their GTP-bound active state, Arfs regulate trafficking of vesicles and cytoskeletal structure. We demonstrate that the Sec7 domain of BRAG1 promotes binding of GTP to Arf in vitro. These data suggest that BRAG1 may modulate the functions of Arfs at synaptic sites.

    Brain research 2006;1120;1;35-45

  • The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

    Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glöckner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Müller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J and Bentley DR

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. mtr@sanger.ac.uk

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

    Nature 2005;434;7031;325-37

  • Boundaries between chromosomal domains of X inactivation and escape bind CTCF and lack CpG methylation during early development.

    Filippova GN, Cheng MK, Moore JM, Truong JP, Hu YJ, Nguyen DK, Tsuchiya KD and Disteche CM

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. gfilippo@fhcrc.org

    Escape from X inactivation results in expression of genes embedded within inactive chromatin, suggesting the existence of boundary elements between domains. We report that the 5' end of Jarid1c, a mouse escape gene adjacent to an inactivated gene, binds CTCF, displays high levels of histone H3 acetylation, and functions as a CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator. CpG island methylation at Jarid1c was very low during development and virtually absent at the CTCF sites, signifying that CTCF may influence DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. CTCF binding sites were also present at the 5' end of two other escape genes, mouse Eif2s3x and human EIF2S3, each adjacent to an inactivated gene, but not at genes embedded within large escape domains. Thus, CTCF was specifically bound to transition regions, suggesting a role in maintaining both X inactivation and escape domains. Furthermore, the evolution of X chromosome domains appears to be associated with repositioning of chromatin boundary elements.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA68360; NIA NIH HHS: AG00057; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01177; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46883, GM61948

    Developmental cell 2005;8;1;31-42

  • Comparative sequence and x-inactivation analyses of a domain of escape in human xp11.2 and the conserved segment in mouse.

    Tsuchiya KD, Greally JM, Yi Y, Noel KP, Truong JP and Disteche CM

    Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. karen.tsuchiya@seattlechildrens.org

    We have performed X-inactivation and sequence analyses on 350 kb of sequence from human Xp11.2, a region shown previously to contain a cluster of genes that escape X inactivation, and we compared this region with the region of conserved synteny in mouse. We identified several new transcripts from this region in human and in mouse, which defined the full extent of the domain escaping X inactivation in both species. In human, escape from X inactivation involves an uninterrupted 235-kb domain of multiple genes. Despite highly conserved gene content and order between the two species, Smcx is the only mouse gene from the conserved segment that escapes inactivation. As repetitive sequences are believed to facilitate spreading of X inactivation along the chromosome, we compared the repetitive sequence composition of this region between the two species. We found that long terminal repeats (LTRs) were decreased in the human domain of escape, but not in the majority of the conserved mouse region adjacent to Smcx in which genes were subject to X inactivation, suggesting that these repeats might be excluded from escape domains to prevent spreading of silencing. Our findings indicate that genomic context, as well as gene-specific regulatory elements, interact to determine expression of a gene from the inactive X-chromosome.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD01177; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46883, GM61948, R01 GM046883, R01 GM061948

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1275-84

  • Phylogenetic analysis of Sec7-domain-containing Arf nucleotide exchangers.

    Cox R, Mason-Gamer RJ, Jackson CL and Segev N

    Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Molecular Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

    The eukaryotic family of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases plays a key role in the regulation of protein trafficking, and guanine-nucleotide exchange is crucial for Arf function. Exchange is stimulated by members of another family of proteins characterized by a 200-amino acid Sec7 domain, which alone is sufficient to catalyze exchange on Arf. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny of Sec7-domain-containing proteins in seven model organisms, representing fungi, plants, and animals. The phylogenetic tree has seven main groups, of which two include members from all seven model systems. Three groups are specific for animals, whereas two are specific for fungi. Based on this grouping, we propose a phylogenetically consistent set of names for members of the Sec7-domain family. Each group, except for one, contains proteins with known Arf exchange activity, implying that all members of this family have this activity. Contrary to the current convention, the sensitivity of Arf exchange activity to the inhibitor brefeldin A probably cannot be predicted by group membership. Multiple alignment reveals group-specific domains outside the Sec7 domain and a set of highly conserved amino acids within it. Determination of the importance of these conserved elements in Arf exchange activity and other cellular functions is now possible.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-45444, R01 GM045444

    Molecular biology of the cell 2004;15;4;1487-505

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of a series of projects for sequencing human cDNA clones derived from relatively long transcripts, we herein report the entire sequences of 100 newly determined cDNA clones with the potential of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries with insert sizes between 4.5 and 8.3 kb. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and of their open reading frames was 5.3 kb and 2.8 kb (930 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology search against public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 86 clones exhibited significant similarities to known genes; 51 of them (59%) were related to those for cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. All the clones characterized in this study are accompanied by their expression profiles in 14 human tissues examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal mapping data.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;1;31-9

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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