G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 1
G00000372 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000079785 (Ensembl human gene)
1653 (Entrez Gene)
734 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DDX1 (GeneCards)
601257 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2734 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q92499 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • DBP-RB

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Common variants in the trichohyalin gene are associated with straight hair in Europeans.

    Medland SE, Nyholt DR, Painter JN, McEvoy BP, McRae AF, Zhu G, Gordon SD, Ferreira MA, Wright MJ, Henders AK, Campbell MJ, Duffy DL, Hansell NK, Macgregor S, Slutske WS, Heath AC, Montgomery GW and Martin NG

    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane 4029, Australia. sarahme@qimr.edu.au

    Hair morphology is highly differentiated between populations and among people of European ancestry. Whereas hair morphology in East Asian populations has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the genetics of this trait in Europeans. We performed a genome-wide association scan for hair morphology (straight, wavy, curly) in three Australian samples of European descent. All three samples showed evidence of association implicating the Trichohyalin gene (TCHH), which is expressed in the developing inner root sheath of the hair follicle, and explaining approximately 6% of variance (p=1.5x10(-31)). These variants are at their highest frequency in Northern Europeans, paralleling the distribution of the straight-hair EDAR variant in Asian populations.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA10248, AA13320, AA13321, AA13326, AA14041, R01 AA007535, R01 AA013320, R01 AA013321, R01 AA013326, R01 AA014041; NIMH NIH HHS: MH66206, R01 MH066206

    American journal of human genetics 2009;85;5;750-5

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • DDX1 is required for testicular tumorigenesis, partially through the transcriptional activation of 12p stem cell genes.

    Tanaka K, Okamoto S, Ishikawa Y, Tamura H and Hara T

    Stem Cell Project Group, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan. tanaka-ky@igakuken.or.jp

    Cytogenetic analysis has identified 12p gain as the most frequent abnormality in human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). It has been suggested that amplification and overexpression of stem cell-associated genes, including cyclin-D2, on the human chromosome 12p region are involved in germ cell tumorigenesis. By subtractive cDNA analysis, we identified Ddx1, a member of the DEAD-box protein family, as a gene predominantly expressed in the primordial germ cells of mouse embryos. Knockdown of Ddx1 in a mouse spermatogonia-derived cell line, GC-1spg, by short interference RNA repressed the expression of cyclin-D2, CD9 and GDF3 genes. In the mouse cyclin-D2 gene, a genomic DNA region between -348 and -329 was responsible for transcriptional activation by DDX1 based on reporter and gel shift assays. Similarly, DDX1 knockdown in the human TGCT cell line NEC8 repressed the expression of stem cell-associated genes localized on chromosome 12p13.3, including cyclin-D2, CD9 and NANOG. DDX1-knocked-down TGCT cells could not form solid tumors in nude mice. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed that DDX1 mRNA was produced in both seminoma and nonseminoma types of human TGCT samples. We conclude that DDX1 is a critical factor for testicular tumorigenesis.

    Oncogene 2009;28;21;2142-51

  • The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1 interacts with RelA and enhances nuclear factor kappaB-mediated transcription.

    Ishaq M, Ma L, Wu X, Mu Y, Pan J, Hu J, Hu T, Fu Q and Guo D

    State Key Laboratory of Virology and Modern Virology Research Centre, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

    DEAD-box RNA helicases constitute the largest family of RNA helicases and are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism. In this study, we identified RelA (p65), a subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), as a cellular co-factor of DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1, through mammalian two hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, confocal microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed this interaction. In NF-kappaB dependent reporter gene assay, DDX1 acted as a co-activator to enhance NF-kappaB-mediated transcription activation. The functional domains involved were mapped to the carboxy terminal transactivation domain of RelA and the amino terminal ATPase/helicase domain of DDX1. The DDX1 trans-dominant negative mutant lacking ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity lost it transcriptional inducer activity. Moreover, depletion of endogenous DDX1 by specific small interfering RNAs significantly reduced NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Taken together, the results suggest that DDX1 may play an important role in NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation, and revelation of this regulatory pathway may help to explore the novel mechanisms for regulating NF-kappaB transcriptional activity.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;106;2;296-305

  • Nucleophosmin serves as a rate-limiting nuclear export chaperone for the Mammalian ribosome.

    Maggi LB, Kuchenruether M, Dadey DY, Schwope RM, Grisendi S, Townsend RR, Pandolfi PP and Weber JD

    Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) (B23) is an essential protein in mouse development and cell growth; however, it has been assigned numerous roles in very diverse cellular processes. Here, we present a unified mechanism for NPM's role in cell growth; NPM directs the nuclear export of both 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. NPM interacts with rRNA and large and small ribosomal subunit proteins and also colocalizes with large and small ribosomal subunit proteins in the nucleolus, nucleus, and cytoplasm. The transduction of NPM shuttling-defective mutants or the loss of Npm1 inhibited the nuclear export of both the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, reduced the available pool of cytoplasmic polysomes, and diminished overall protein synthesis without affecting rRNA processing or ribosome assembly. While the inhibition of NPM shuttling can block cellular proliferation, the dramatic effects on ribosome export occur prior to cell cycle inhibition. Modest increases in NPM expression amplified the export of newly synthesized rRNAs, resulting in increased rates of protein synthesis and indicating that NPM is rate limiting in this pathway. These results support the idea that NPM-regulated ribosome export is a fundamental process in cell growth.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR000954, P41RR000954

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;23;7050-65

  • A role for DEAD box 1 at DNA double-strand breaks.

    Li L, Monckton EA and Godbout R

    Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

    DEAD box proteins are a family of putative RNA helicases associated with all aspects of cellular metabolism involving the modification of RNA secondary structure. DDX1 is a member of the DEAD box protein family that is overexpressed in a subset of retinoblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines and tumors. DDX1 is found primarily in the nucleus, where it forms two to four large aggregates called DDX1 bodies. Here, we report a rapid redistribution of DDX1 in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, resulting in the formation of numerous foci that colocalize with gamma-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM foci at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The formation of DDX1 ionizing-radiation-induced foci (IRIF) is dependent on ATM, which was shown to phosphorylate DDX1 both in vitro and in vivo. The treatment of cells with RNase H prevented the formation of DDX1 IRIF, suggesting that DDX1 is recruited to sites of DNA damage containing RNA-DNA structures. We have shown that DDX1 has RNase activity toward single-stranded RNA, as well as ADP-dependent RNA-DNA- and RNA-RNA-unwinding activities. We propose that DDX1 plays an RNA clearance role at DSB sites, thereby facilitating the template-guided repair of transcriptionally active regions of the genome.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;20;6413-25

  • MBNL1 associates with YB-1 in cytoplasmic stress granules.

    Onishi H, Kino Y, Morita T, Futai E, Sasagawa N and Ishiura S

    Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    The muscleblind-like (MBNL) protein family is thought to be involved in the molecular mechanism of myotonic dystrophy (DM). Although it has been shown to have splicing activity, a broader function in cellular RNA metabolism has been implicated. In this study, we attempted to find the binding proteins of MBNL1 in order to elucidate its physiological function. First, we performed a GST pull-down assay using GST-MBNL1-6xHis as bait. Several proteins were identified, including YB-1, a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein, and DDX1, a DEAD box RNA helicase. MBNL1 formed an RNP complex with YB-1 and DDX1 in binding assays. YB-1 also showed a weak but significant effect on alpha-actinin splice site selection. Interestingly, in response to stress, MBNL1 moved to cytoplasmic stress granules, where it colocalized with YB-1, which was previously reported to be a component of stress granules. We found that DDX1 also colocalized with MBNL1 at stress granules. These results provide new insight into the dynamics of MBNL1 in response to stress, and they suggest a role for MBNL1 in mRNA metabolism in the cytoplasm.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2008;86;9;1994-2002

  • Concomitant DDX1 and MYCN gain in neuroblastoma.

    Defferrari R, Tonini GP, Conte M, Papio F, Sementa AR, Valent A, Schena F, Perri P and Mazzocco K

    Laboratory of Neuroblastoma Research, Italian Neuroblastoma Foundation, National Institute for Cancer Research (IST), Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

    DDX1, a gene mapping to the 2p24 region, has been observed to be co-amplified with MYCN in neuroblastoma. Co-amplification of the DDX1 gene is a consequence of the short physical distance between the two genes. Recently, it has been found that neuroblastoma cells can show a low increase in MYCN gene copy number, defined as MYCN gain. We studied 13 neuroblastomas with MYCN gain to evaluate the status of the DDX1 gene. We investigated DDX1/MYCN gain by double-colour FISH on interphase nuclei. All cases showed concomitant low extra copy number of DDX1 and MYCN. Heterogeneous distribution of nuclei displaying DDX1/MYCN gain was observed in almost all tumours, suggesting a clonal evolution of cells with DDX1/MYCN gain. This is the first report that shows DDX1 co-gained with MYCN in neuroblastoma and indicates that DDX1 over-representation is closely associated with an increase in MYCN copy number in neuroblastoma cells. Since DDX1 has already been found co-amplified with MYCN, DDX1 gain seems to be a further rearrangement due to the physical proximity of the two genes. Moreover, all patients with DDX1/MYCN gain show a good overall survival but a high frequency of adverse events.

    Cancer letters 2007;256;1;56-63

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Relationship of DDX1 and NAG gene amplification/overexpression to the prognosis of patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

    Kaneko S, Ohira M, Nakamura Y, Isogai E, Nakagawara A and Kaneko M

    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan. mkaneko@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    Purpose: Amplification of the MYCN gene strongly correlates with advanced stage, rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB). Several genes in the MYCN amplicon, including the DEAD box polypeptide 1 (DDX1) gene, and neuroblastoma-amplified gene (NAG gene), have been found to be frequently co-amplified with MYCN in NB. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of the co-amplification or overexpression of DDX1 and NAG with MYCN.

    Procedure: The gene copy numbers and mRNA expression levels of MYCN, DDX1, and NAG in 113 primary NBs were determined by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction or quantitative reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction assay. The relationships between gene co-amplification/overexpression status and stage, age at diagnosis, and overall survival were analyzed.

    Results: For evaluating the frequency of DDX1 and NAG co-amplification, it proved appropriate to discriminate NBs with <40 copies of MYCN amplification from those with > or =40 copies of MYCN (DDX1, p = 0.00058; NAG, p = 0.0242, chi(2) for independence test). In patients with MYCN-amplified NB aged > or =18 months, those with tumor with enhanced DDX1 expression and low-NAG expression showed a significantly better outcome than those with low-DDX1 expression or enhanced NAG expression (p = 0.0245, log-rank test). None of the gene expression statuses had a significant relation to disease stage or survival for patients <18 months old. No relationship between any gene co-amplification status and disease stage, age at diagnosis, or overall survival was found.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there may be a subset of NB in which enhanced DDX1 and low-NAG expression consequent to DDX1 co-amplification without NAG amplification contributes to susceptibility to intensive therapy. A larger study using an age cut-off of 18 months will be required.

    Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2007;133;3;185-92

  • DDX1 promotes proliferation of the JC virus through transactivation of its promoter.

    Sunden Y, Semba S, Suzuki T, Okada Y, Orba Y, Nagashima K, Umemura T and Sawa H

    Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Hokkaido University School of Veterinary Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Recently, we demonstrated that the DEAD box protein 1 (DDX1), an RNA helicase, and the cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) form a complex that binds to the JC virus transcriptional control region (JCV-TCR). Here, we examined the function of DDX1, which is expressed at much higher levels in the JCV-susceptible cell line IMR-32 than in non-susceptible cell lines. DDX1 had no effect on the replication efficiency of JCV, but overexpression of DDX1 significantly increased transactivation of the JCV promoter. Furthermore, DDX1 enhanced the expression of JCV proteins in JCV infected cells, and knockdown of DDX1 using small interfering (si) RNA suppressed the expression of JCV proteins. Our results clearly demonstrate that DDX1 regulates proliferation of JCV in vitro through transcriptional activation.

    Microbiology and immunology 2007;51;3;339-47

  • Identification of DDX1 as a JC virus transcriptional control region-binding protein.

    Sunden Y, Semba S, Suzuki T, Okada Y, Orba Y, Nagashima K, Umemura T and Sawa H

    Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Hokkaido University School of Veterinary Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

    To investigate the mechanism behind JC virus (JCV) cell specificity we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using probes derived from the JCV transcriptional control region (JCV-TCR). Using nuclear extracts from the JCV-susceptible neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32, EMSA revealed a 670 kDa JCV-TCR-binding protein complex designated as #3-bp. This complex could not be detected in nuclear extracts from non-susceptible cell lines. Using column chromatographic purifi-cation and microsequencing, we identified cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) as a component of #3-bp. However, as CstF is present in many cell types, we speculated that the IMR-32-specific component(s) of #3-bp bind CstF. We performed a yeast two-hybrid assay using CstF-77 as the bait against a HeLa cDNA-subtracted IMR-32 cDNA library. This analysis detected binding between CstF-77 and the RNA helicase DDX1. Subsequently, biotinylated DNA affinity precipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also confirmed that DDX1 binds specifically to JCV-TCR. Our findings indicate that an association between DDX1 and the JCV-TCR may play a significant role in JCV infection in IMR-32 cells.

    Microbiology and immunology 2007;51;3;327-37

  • Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions.

    Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M and Zhao RY

    Department of Pathology, Institute of Human Virology,University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Active host-pathogen interactions take place during infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Outcomes of these interactions determine the efficiency of viral infection and subsequent disease progression. HIV-infected cells respond to viral invasion with various defensive strategies such as innate, cellular and humoral immune antiviral mechanisms. On the other hand, the virus has also developed various offensive tactics to suppress these host cellular responses. Among many of the viral offensive strategies, HIV-1 viral auxiliary proteins (Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr and Vpu) play important roles in the host-pathogen interaction and thus have significant impacts on the outcome of HIV infection. One of the best examples is the interaction of Vif with a host cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Although specific roles of other auxiliary proteins are not as well described as Vif-APOBEC3G interaction, it is the goal of this brief review to summarize some of the preliminary findings with the hope to stimulate further discussion and investigation in this exhilarating area of research.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI33776, AI63080; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM89630

    Cell research 2005;15;11-12;923-34

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The RNA helicase DDX1 is involved in restricted HIV-1 Rev function in human astrocytes.

    Fang J, Acheampong E, Dave R, Wang F, Mukhtar M and Pomerantz RJ

    The Dorrance H. Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large total number of astrocytic cells in the CNS, makes human astrocytes a critical part in the analyses of potential HIV-1 reservoirs in vivo. Investigations in astrocytic cell lines and primary human fetal astrocytes revealed that limited HIV-1 replication in these cells resulted from low-level viral entry, transcription, viral protein processing, and virion maturation. Of note, a low ratio of unspliced versus spliced HIV-1-specific RNA was also investigated, as Rev appeared to act aberrantly in astrocytes, via loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar localization and diminished Rev-mediated function. Host cellular machinery enabling Rev function has become critical for elucidation of diminished Rev activity, especially for those factors leading to RNA metabolism. We have recently identified a DEAD-box protein, DDX1, as a Rev cellular co-factor and now have explored its potential importance in astrocytes. Cells were infected with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for unspliced, singly-spliced, and multiply-spliced RNA clearly showed a lower ratio of unspliced/singly-spliced over multiply-spliced HIV-1-specific RNA in human astrocytes as compared to Rev-permissive, non-glial control cells. As well, the cellular localization of Rev in astrocytes was cytoplasmically dominant as compared to that of Rev-permissive, non-glial controls. This endogenous level of DDX1 expression in astrocytes was demonstrated directly to lead to a shift of Rev sub-cellular distribution dominance from nuclear and/or nucleolar to cytoplasmic, as input of exogenous DDX1 significantly altered both Rev sub-cellular localization from cytoplasmic to nuclear predominance and concomitantly increased HIV-1 viral production in these human astrocytes. We conclude that altered DDX1 expression in human astrocytes is, at least in part, responsible for the unfavorable cellular microenvironment for Rev function in these CNS-based cells. Thus, these data suggest a molecular mechanism(s) for restricted replication in astrocytes as a potential low-level site of residual HIV-1 in vivo.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI43876, AI46289; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27405, NS41864

    Virology 2005;336;2;299-307

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • A DEAD box protein facilitates HIV-1 replication as a cellular co-factor of Rev.

    Fang J, Kubota S, Yang B, Zhou N, Zhang H, Godbout R and Pomerantz RJ

    Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Dorrance H. Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    HIV-1 Rev escorts unspliced viral mRNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells, which allows formation of infectious HIV-1 virions. We have identified a putative DEAD box (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) RNA helicase, DDX1, as a cellular co-factor of Rev, through yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems using the N-terminal motif of Rev as "bait". DDX1 is not a functional homolog of HIV-1 Rev, but down-regulation of DDX1 resulted in an alternative splicing pattern of Rev-responsive element (RRE)-containing mRNA, and attenuation of Gag p24 antigen production from HLfb rev- cells rescued by exogenous Rev. Co-transfection of a DDX1 expression vector with HIV-1 significantly increased viral production. DDX1 binding to Rev, as well as to the RRE, strongly suggest that DDX1 affects Rev function through the Rev-RRE axis. Moreover, down-regulation of DDX1 altered the steady state subcellular distribution of Rev, from nuclear/nucleolar to cytoplasmic dominance. These findings indicate that DDX1 is a critical cellular co-factor for Rev function, which maintains the proper subcellular distribution of this lentiviral regulatory protein. Therefore, alterations in DDX1-Rev interactions could induce HIV-1 persistence and targeting DDX1 may lead to rationally designed and novel anti-HIV-1 strategies and therapeutics.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI43289, AI43876; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27405, NS41864

    Virology 2004;330;2;471-80

  • Alterations in the expression of DEAD-box and other RNA binding proteins during HIV-1 replication.

    Krishnan V and Zeichner SL

    HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 10S255 MSC1868, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. vkrishna@mail.nih.gov

    Recent results showed that certain DEAD box protein RNA helicases, DDX3 and DDX1, play an important role in the HIV infection cycle by facilitating the export of long, singly spliced or unspliced HIV RNAs from the nucleus via the CRM1-Rev pathway. Close examination of an extensive microarray expression profiling dataset obtained from cells latently infected with HIV induced to undergo lytic viral replication indicated that additional DEAD box proteins, beyond DDX3 and DDX1, exhibit differential expression during lytic HIV replication, and in latently infected cells prior to induction into active replication. This finding provides additional evidence that the involvement of DEAD box proteins and other RNA-binding proteins may play roles in active HIV replication and in the control of viral latency. Agents targeting these functions may offer new approaches to antiretroviral therapy and the therapeutic manipulation of HIV latency.

    Retrovirology 2004;1;42

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • An RNA helicase, DDX1, interacting with poly(A) RNA and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K.

    Chen HC, Lin WC, Tsay YG, Lee SC and Chang CJ

    Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Academia Sinica, No. 1 Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in the regulation of transcription, translation, nuclear transport, and signal transduction. To systematically obtain insight into mechanisms of hnRNP K activities, we set out to identify protein factors that interact with hnRNP K by using glutathione S-transferase-hnRNP K affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. Several partner proteins in the K562 cell lysates were identified through this method. One of them is a DEAD box-containing putative RNA helicase, DDX1. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the protein-protein interaction between hnRNP K with DDX1, and the region spanning amino acids 1-276 of hnRNP K is apparently responsible for its physical interaction with DDX1. Interestingly, their interaction was disrupted by the addition of poly(C), poly(A), and poly(U) RNA substrates. We found that DDX1 was a homopolymeric poly(A) RNA-binding protein. On the other hand, the ATPase activity of the purified recombinant DDX1 protein was stimulated by these homopolymeric RNAs and yeast total RNA but not by DNA. Moreover, the immunoprecipitated DDX1 complex but not purified DDX1 can unwind double-stranded RNA having single-stranded poly(A) overhangs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40403-9

  • Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.

    Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, Denmark.

    Background: The nucleolus is a subnuclear organelle containing the ribosomal RNA gene clusters and ribosome biogenesis factors. Recent studies suggest it may also have roles in RNA transport, RNA modification, and cell cycle regulation. Despite over 150 years of research into nucleoli, many aspects of their structure and function remain uncharacterized.

    Results: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar proteins were encoded by novel or uncharacterized genes, while the known proteins included several unexpected factors with no previously known nucleolar functions. MS analysis of nucleoli isolated from HeLa cells in which transcription had been inhibited showed that a subset of proteins was enriched. These data highlight the dynamic nature of the nucleolar proteome and show that proteins can either associate with nucleoli transiently or accumulate only under specific metabolic conditions.

    Conclusions: This extensive proteomic analysis shows that nucleoli have a surprisingly large protein complexity. The many novel factors and separate classes of proteins identified support the view that the nucleolus may perform additional functions beyond its known role in ribosome subunit biogenesis. The data also show that the protein composition of nucleoli is not static and can alter significantly in response to the metabolic state of the cell.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;1;1-11

  • Association of human DEAD box protein DDX1 with a cleavage stimulation factor involved in 3'-end processing of pre-MRNA.

    Bléoo S, Sun X, Hendzel MJ, Rowe JM, Packer M and Godbout R

    Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 Canada.

    DEAD box proteins are putative RNA helicases that function in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including translation, ribosome biogenesis, and pre-mRNA splicing. Because many processes involving RNA metabolism are spatially organized within the cell, we examined the subcellular distribution of a human DEAD box protein, DDX1, to identify possible biological functions. Immunofluorescence labeling of DDX1 demonstrated that in addition to widespread punctate nucleoplasmic labeling, DDX1 is found in discrete nuclear foci approximately 0.5 microm in diameter. Costaining with anti-Sm and anti-promyelocytic leukemia (PML) antibodies indicates that DDX1 foci are frequently located next to Cajal (coiled) bodies and less frequently, to PML bodies. Most importantly, costaining with anti-CstF-64 antibody indicates that DDX1 foci colocalize with cleavage bodies. By microscopic fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that labeled DDX1 resides within a Förster distance of 10 nm of labeled CstF-64 protein in both the nucleoplasm and within cleavage bodies. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis indicates that a proportion of CstF-64 protein resides in the same complex as DDX1. These studies are the first to identify a DEAD box protein associating with factors involved in 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;10;3046-59

  • Clonal evolution in a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma revealed by single cell analysis in sequential biopsies.

    Golembowski S, Gellrich S, von Zimmermann M, Rutz S, Lippert S, Audring H, Lorenz P, Sterry W and Jahn S

    Department of Dermatology, Medical Faculty (Charité), Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.

    B cell neoplasias descending from germinal center cells harbor the hallmark of intraclonal diversity resulting from ongoing mutation in the variable parts of their immunoglobulin-encoding genes. To characterize a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma in more detail, we analyzed the respective VH and VL genes in single cells mobilized from four sequential biopsies, three taken from the skin and one obtained after internal dissemination from a retrobulbar infiltrate. The lymphoma cells were found to contain V5-51/D6-12/JH5b (heavy chain) and A27/Jkappa2 (light chain) gene rearrangements detected on both the genomic and the transcriptional level. To provide an accurate mutation analysis, the specific VH gene counterpart (V5-51UK) was cloned from the patient's germline. Analyzing 226 single cells, we found: (i) complete nucleotide identity when VH and VL genes of lymphoma cells from one particular biopsy were compared among each other; (ii) intraclonal diversity due to ongoing mutation comparing the sequences obtained from sequential biopsies; (iii) both VH and VL genes to be highly mutated. Deducing from the sequence data, we propose a scenario of the clonal evolution of the B cell tumor in this patient. From the molecular-biological point of view, this primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma shows the features of a germinal center cell lymphoma. To draw this conclusion from single cell PCR data, however, a sample of sequential biopsies had to be analyzed.

    Immunobiology 2000;201;5;631-44

  • Expression of two dead box genes (DDX1 and DDX6) is independent of that of MYCN in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Akiyama K, Akao Y, Yokoyama M, Nakagawa Y, Noguchi T, Yagi K and Nishi Y

    Pharmaceutical Frontiers Research Laboratories, Japan Tobacco, Inc., Yokohama.

    To examine whether two DEAD box genes, DDX1 and DDX6, would have some roles in the progression of tumors, we investigated the correlation of the expression of these genes with that of MYCN in neuroblastomas either with or without MYCN amplification. The mRNA of MYCN was observed only in the cell lines with amplification of MYCN. The mRNAs of DDX1 and DDX6 were found in all the cell lines examined, but the correlation between the mRNA levels of DDX1 or DDX6 and MYCN was poor. These findings suggest that the expression of neither DEAD box gene is correlated with the gene expression of MYCN.

    Biochemistry and molecular biology international 1999;47;4;563-8

  • A novel human homologue of a dead-box RNA helicase family.

    Kitajima Y, Yatsuki H, Zhang R, Matsuhashi S and Hori K

    Department of Biochemistry, Saga Medical School, Japan.

    Putative cDNA clones for a nuclear antigen that cross-reacts with anti-human aldolase A monoclonal antibody MAb1A2 were isolated from the HeLa lambda gt11 cDNA library and a candidate clone (clone 3) was analyzed. The cDNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,317 bp encoding a novel RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD RNA helicase family. The ORF also contains a nuclear targeting signal and the epitope for MAb1A2. The putative RNA helicase has sequence similarity to Escherichia coli RNA helicase DEAD, mouse translation factor eIF-4A, and human p68 and p54.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;199;2;748-54

  • Amplification of a DEAD box protein gene in retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Godbout R and Squire J

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Canada.

    DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp, are putative RNA helicases implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. Here, we report that the mRNA encoding a DEAD box protein, designated HuDBP-RB, is present at elevated levels in two of six retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines tested and is preferentially expressed in fetal tissues of neuroectodermal origin. It is not possible to classify HuDBP-RB as a member of any of the DEAD box protein subgroups identified to date since the regions of amino acid similarity between HuDBP-RB and other DEAD box proteins are restricted to the conserved motifs found in all members of this family. The HuDBP-RB gene, which has been mapped to chromosome band 2p24, is amplified in the RB cell lines that overexpress HuDBP-RB RNA. Furthermore, the MYCN gene is also present in multiple copies in these two cell lines, suggesting coamplification of the two genes.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;16;7578-82

  • D-E-A-D protein family of putative RNA helicases.

    Schmid SR and Linder P

    Department of Microbiology, Biozentrum, Basel, Switzerland.

    RNA metabolism plays a central role in cell growth. It is essential to regulate RNA synthesis, processing, stability and degradation. Conformational changes in RNA are key elements in regulating cellular processes. Recently, an increasing number of putative RNA helicases from different organisms ranging from Escherichia coli to humans and viruses have been identified. They are involved in diverse cellular functions such as RNA splicing, ribosome assembly, initiation of translation, spermatogenesis, embryogenesis, and cell growth and division. Based on sequence homologies these proteins were grouped in a family, the D-E-A-D box protein family (D-E-A-D = Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). Some of the better characterized members have been shown to possess ATP-binding and hydrolysing activities as well as ATP-dependent RNA helicase activities. Most of the genes encoding such proteins have been isolated from yeast, on which we will focus in this review. From sequence data, three of the members form a subfamily, the D-E-A-H subfamily.

    Molecular microbiology 1992;6;3;283-91

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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