G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
creatine kinase, brain
G00000370 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000029741 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000166165 (Ensembl human gene)
1152 (Entrez Gene)
725 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CKB (GeneCards)
123280 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1991 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1254 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P12277 (UniProt)

Literature (41)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Structural studies of human brain-type creatine kinase complexed with the ADP-Mg2+-NO3- -creatine transition-state analogue complex.

    Bong SM, Moon JH, Nam KH, Lee KS, Chi YM and Hwang KY

    Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea.

    Creatine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family, which catalyzes the reversible phosphoryl transfer reaction that occurs between ATP and creatine to produce ADP and phosphocreatine. Here, three structural aspects of human-brain-type-creatine-kinase (hBB-CK) were identified by X-ray crystallography: the ligand-free-form at 2.2A; the ADP-Mg2+, nitrate, and creatine complex (transition-state-analogue complex; TSAC); and the ADP-Mg2+-complex at 2.0A. The structures of ligand-bound hBB-CK revealed two different monomeric states in a single homodimer. One monomer is a closed form, either bound to TSAC or the ADP-Mg2+-complex, and the second monomer is an unliganded open form. These structural studies provide a detailed mechanism indicating that the binding of ADP-Mg2+ alone may trigger conformational changes in hBB-CK that were not observed with muscle-type-CK.

    FEBS letters 2008;582;28;3959-65

  • High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of protein oxidations and resultant loss of function.

    Barnes S, Shonsey EM, Eliuk SM, Stella D, Barrett K, Srivastava OP, Kim H and Renfrow MB

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. sbarnes@uab.edu

    MS, with or without pre-analysis peptide fractionation, can be used to decipher the residues on proteins where oxidative modifications caused by peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen or electrophilic lipids have occurred. Peroxynitrite nitrates tyrosine and tryptophan residues on the surface of actin. Singlet oxygen, formed by the interaction of UVA light with tryptophan, can oxidize neighbouring cysteine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues. Dose-response inactivation by 4HNE (4-hydroxynonenal) of hBAT (human bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase) and CKBB (cytosolic brain isoform of creatine kinase) is associated with site-specific modifications. FT-ICR (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance)-MS using nanoLC (nano-liquid chromatography)-ESI (electrospray ionization)-MS or direct-infusion ESI-MS with gas-phase fractionation identified 14 4HNE adducts on hBAT and 17 on CKBB respectively. At 4HNE concentrations in the physiological range, one member of the catalytic triad of hBAT (His362) was modified; for CKBB, although all four residues in the active site that were modifiable by 4HNE were ultimately modified, only one, Cys283, occurred at physiological concentrations of 4HNE. These results suggest that future in vivo studies should carefully assess the critical sites that are modified rather than using antibodies that do not distinguish between different modified sites.

    Funded by: NCCIH NIH HHS: P50 AT000477, P50 AT000477-090006, P50 AT00477; NCI NIH HHS: U54 CA100949, U54 CA100949-05; NCRR NIH HHS: S10 RR017261, S10 RR017261-01, S10 RR17261; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK046390, R01 DK046390-09, R01 DK46390

    Biochemical Society transactions 2008;36;Pt 5;1037-44

  • HMSN/ACC truncation mutations disrupt brain-type creatine kinase-dependant activation of K+/Cl- co-transporter 3.

    Salin-Cantegrel A, Shekarabi M, Holbert S, Dion P, Rochefort D, Laganière J, Dacal S, Hince P, Karemera L, Gaspar C, Lapointe JY and Rouleau GA

    Department of Medicine, Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, CHUM Research Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

    The potassium-chloride co-transporter 3 (KCC3) is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC); however, the molecular mechanisms of HMSN/ACC pathogenesis and the exact role of KCC3 in the development of the nervous system remain poorly understood. The functional regulation of this transporter by protein partners is also largely unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we discovered that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of KCC3, which is lost in most HMSN/ACC-causing mutations, directly interacts with brain-specific creatine kinase (CK-B), an ATP-generating enzyme that is also a partner of KCC2. The interaction of KCC3 with CK-B was further confirmed by in vitro glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, followed by sequencing of the pulled-down complexes. In transfected cultured cells, immunofluorescence labeling showed that CK-B co-localizes with wild-type KCC3, whereas the kinase fails to interact with the inactive truncated KCC3. Finally, CK-B's inhibition by DNFB results in reduction of activity of KCC3 in functional assays using Xenopus laevis oocytes. This physical and functional association between the co-transporter and CK-B is, therefore, the first protein-protein interaction identified to be potentially involved in the pathophysiology of HMSN/ACC.

    Human molecular genetics 2008;17;17;2703-11

  • HIV-1 Tat-mediated protein transduction of human brain creatine kinase into PC12 cells.

    Jeong MS, Kim DW, Lee MJ, Lee YP, Kim SY, Lee SH, Jang SH, Lee KS, Park J, Kang TC, Cho SW, Kwon OS, Eum WS and Choi SY

    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702, Korea.

    Epilepsy is characterized by the presence of spontaneous episodes of abnormal neuronal discharges and its pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, we found that the expression of creatine kinase (CK) was markedly decreased in an epilepsy animal model using proteomic analysis. A human CK gene was fused with a HIV-1 Tat peptide to generate an in-frame Tat-CK fusion protein. The purified Tat-CK fusion protein was efficiently transduced into PC12 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when added exogenously to culture media. Once inside the cells, the transduced Tat-CK fusion protein was stable for 48 h. Moreover, the Tat-CK fusion protein markedly increased endogenous CK activity levels within the cells. These results suggest that Tat-CK provides a strategy for the therapeutic delivery of proteins in various human diseases including the delivery of CK for potential epilepsy treatment.

    BMB reports 2008;41;7;537-41

  • Proteomic surveillance of retinal autoantigens in endogenous uveitis: implication of esterase D and brain-type creatine kinase as novel autoantigens.

    Okunuki Y, Usui Y, Kezuka T, Hattori T, Masuko K, Nakamura H, Yudoh K, Goto H, Usui M, Nishioka K, Kato T and Takeuchi M

    Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

    Purpose: Various retinal proteins are newly exposed to immune system in a process of tissue destructive endogenous uveitis. Some of such proteins could be autoantigens that extend the ocular inflammation in human endogenous uveitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possibility of such spreading of autoantigens in endogenous uveoretinitis using a proteomic approach.

    Methods: Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) was induced in mice by inoculation with a peptide consisting of amino acids 1-20 (GPTHLFQPSLVLDMAKVLLP) of interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Six weeks after immunization, the presence of autoantibodies against the retinal proteins in mice with EAU were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blotting (2D-WB). Retinal proteins targeted by the autoantibodies were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and their autoantigenicity in patients with endogenous uveitis, such as Behcet's disease (BD, n=36), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH, n=16), and sarcoidosis (n=17) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Results: Six new candidate autoantigens, which were detected in mice with EAU using 2D-WD were identified by MS as beta-actin, esterase D (EsteD), tubulin beta-2, brain-type creatine kinase (BB-CK), voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. Among the patients with endogenous uveitis, 25% of BD and 25% of VKH patients were positive for anti-EsteD antibody, and 25% of VKH and 38.4% of sarcoidosis patients were positive for anti-BB-CK antibody.

    Conclusions: Autoantibodies to EsteD and BB-CK produced in EAU-induced mice were also detected in some endogenous uveitis patients, suggesting that these proteins might be autoantigens spreading in a process of endogenous uveoretinitis.

    Molecular vision 2008;14;1094-104

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Overexpression, purification, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human brain-type creatine kinase.

    Bong SM, Moon JH, Jang EH, Lee KS and Chi YM

    Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Korea.

    Creatine kinase (CK; E.C. is an important enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to creatine in energy homeostasis. The brain-type cytosolic isoform of creatine kinase (BB-CK), which is found mainly in the brain and retina, is a key enzyme in brain energy metabolism, because high-energy phosphates are transferred through the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine shuttle system. The recombinant human BB-CK protein was overexpressed as a soluble form in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 22 degrees C using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. Native X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212, with cell parameters of a=b=97.963, c= 164.312 A, and alpha=beta=gamma=90 degrees. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of CK, giving a crystal volume per protein mass (Vm) of 1.80 A3 Da-1 and a solvent content of 31.6%.

    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 2008;18;2;295-8

  • Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase.

    Bürklen TS, Hirschy A and Wallimann T

    Institute of Cell Biology, HPM D24, ETH ZURICH, Schafmattstr. 18, Zurich 8093, Switzerland.

    Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where CK is expressed. In brain and many non-muscle cells, ubiquitous cytosolic "brain-type" BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) act as components of a phosphocreatine shuttle to maintain cellular energy pools and distribute energy flux. To date, still relatively little is known about direct coupling of functional dimeric BB-CK with other partner proteins or enzymes that are important for cell function. Using a global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with monomeric B-CK as bait and a representative brain cDNA library to search for interaction partners of B-CK with proteins of the brain, we repeatedly identified the cis-Golgi Matrix protein (GM130) as recurrent interacting partner of B-CK. Since HeLa cells also express both BB-CK and GM130, we subsequently used this cellular model system to verify and characterize the BB-CK-GM130 complex by GST-pulldown experiments, as well as by in vivo co-localization studies with confocal microscopy. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2007;297;1-2;53-64

  • Exploring the role of the active site cysteine in human muscle creatine kinase.

    Wang PF, Flynn AJ, Naor MM, Jensen JH, Cui G, Merz KM, Kenyon GL and McLeish MJ

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, 428 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    All known guanidino kinases contain a conserved cysteine residue that interacts with the non-nucleophilic eta1-nitrogen of the guanidino substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have shown that this cysteine is important, but not essential for activity. In human muscle creatine kinase (HMCK) this residue, Cys283, forms part of a conserved cysteine-proline-serine (CPS) motif and has a pKa about 3 pH units below that of a regular cysteine residue. Here we employ a computational approach to predict the contribution of residues in this motif to the unusually low cysteine pKa. We calculate that hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl and to the backbone amide of Ser285 would both contribute approximately 1 pH unit, while the presence of Pro284 in the motif lowers the pKa of Cys283 by a further 1.2 pH units. Using UV difference spectroscopy the pKa of the active site cysteine in WT HMCK and in the P284A, S285A, and C283S/S285C mutants was determined experimentally. The pKa values, although consistently about 0.5 pH unit lower, were in broad agreement with those predicted. The effect of each of these mutations on the pH-rate profile was also examined. The results show conclusively that, contrary to a previous report (Wang et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 11698-11705), Cys283 is not responsible for the pKa of 5.4 observed in the WT V/K(creatine) pH profile. Finally we use molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that, in order to maintain the linear alignment necessary for associative inline transfer of a phosphoryl group, Cys283 needs to be ionized.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM44974, R01 GM044974, R01 GM044974-16, R01 GM066859

    Biochemistry 2006;45;38;11464-72

  • Altered expression and localization of creatine kinase B, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F, and high mobility group box 1 protein in the nuclear matrix associated with colon cancer.

    Balasubramani M, Day BW, Schoen RE and Getzenberg RH

    Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

    Identification of biomarkers could lead to the development of effective screening tests for colorectal cancer. A previous study from our laboratory showed specific alterations of nuclear structure in colon cancer. In an effort to characterize these biomarkers, protein spots were selected from separations made by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The sequences obtained from the isolated spots revealed that they have close similarity to creatine kinase B (CKB) isoforms, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) isoforms. To determine the expression of these proteins in colon cancer, expression was studied in 9 tumor and matched adjacent normal pairs, 5 donor colons, 16 polyps, 4 metastatic liver lesions and matched adjacent normal pairs, and 3 liver donors. CKB and hnRNP F were expressed in 78% and 89% of colon tumors, respectively. hnRNP F had a higher frequency of expression than CKB in premalignant polyps. With the establishment of differential expression of the proteins in colon cancer, their subcellular localization was analyzed. The subcellular fractions studied both showed high protein levels of hnRNP F in colon tumors compared with normal colon tissues. Surprisingly, subcellular levels of CKB were decreased in colon tumors, suggesting that the observed high CKB levels in nuclear matrix extracts are caused by the enhanced localization of CKB to the nuclear matrix during colon tumorigenesis. These results suggest an involvement of hnRNP F and CKB in colorectal cancer. Additionally, they suggest that hnRNP F is a potential marker for colorectal cancer progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: U01 CA 084968-06

    Cancer research 2006;66;2;763-9

  • Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6.

    Haines JL, Schnetz-Boutaud N, Schmidt S, Scott WK, Agarwal A, Postel EA, Olson L, Kenealy SJ, Hauser M, Gilbert JR and Pericak-Vance MA

    Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. jonathan@chgr.mc.vanderbilt.edu

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the leading cause of blindness worldwide for individuals over the age of 60. Although the etiology of AMD remains largely unknown, numerous studies have suggested that both genes and environmental risk factors significantly influence the risk of developing AMD. Identification of the underlying genes has been difficult, with both genomic screen (locational) and candidate gene (functional) approaches being used. The present study tested candidate genes for association with AMD.

    Methods: Eight genes (alpha-2-macroglobulin [A2M], creatine kinase [CKB], angiotensin-converting enzyme [DCP1], interleukin-1alpha [IL1A], low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 [LRP6], microsomal glutathione-S-transferase 1 [MGST1], vascular entothelial growth factor [VEGF], and very low density lipoprotein receptor [VLDLR]) were tested for genetic linkage and allelic association, using two independent datasets: a family-based association dataset including 162 families and an independent case-control dataset with 399 cases and 159 fully evaluated controls.

    Results: Test results suggested that genetic variation in five of these genes (IL1A, CKB, A2M, MGST1, and DCP1) is unlikely to explain a significant fraction of the risk of developing AMD in this population. LRP6 showed evidence both for linkage (heterogeneity lod [HLOD] = 1.14) in the family-based dataset and for association (P = 0.004) in the case-control dataset. VEGF showed evidence of linkage (HLOD = 1.32) and demonstrated significant independent allelic association in both the family-based (P = 0.001) and case-control (P = 0.02) datasets. VLDLR showed evidence of association in both the family based (P = 0.03) and case-control (P = 0.01) datasets.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that LRP6, VEGF, and VLDLR may play a role in the risk of developing AMD.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 00095; NEI NIH HHS: EY015216, EY12118; NIA NIH HHS: AG11268

    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2006;47;1;329-35

  • Increased creatine kinase BB activity and CKB mRNA expression in patients with hematologic disorders: relation to methylation status of the CKB promoter.

    Ishikawa J, Taniguchi T, Takeshita A and Maekawa M

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan.

    Background: We encountered 2 patients with increased activities of the creatine kinase (CK)-BB isoenzyme in their sera. Here we examined the relation among CK-BB activity, expression of CKB mRNA in peripheral blood, and hypermethylation of the CKB.

    Methods: The 2 patients and other 26 patients with hematologic malignancies, and some cancer cell lines were subjected to measurement of serum CK activity, CK isoenzyme analysis, CKB mRNA expression analysis by RT-PCR, and methylation analysis of the CKB promoter region.

    Results: CK-BB activity and proportion of leukemia blasts were correlated in the 2 patients. CKB mRNA was increased in peripheral blood during an increase in leukemia blast numbers. In contrast, none of the other 26 patients showed CK-BB activity or expression of CKB mRNA. In all of the patients with hematologic disorders, the analyzed region of CKB promoter was mostly unmethylated. However, some of cancer cell lines showed the methylated pattern. CKB mRNA was expressed at higher levels in cells with an unmethylated CKB promoter than in cells with a methylated promoter.

    Conclusions: Expression of CKB mRNA and CK-B sometimes occurred in blastic transformation of the hematopoietic system. A relation between CKB mRNA expression and methylation of the CKB promoter was suggested.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2005;361;1-2;135-40

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1.

    Castegna A, Aksenov M, Aksenova M, Thongboonkerd V, Klein JB, Pierce WM, Booze R, Markesbery WR and Butterfield DA

    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0055, USA.

    Oxidative alterations of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein carbonyls, a marker of protein oxidation, are increased in AD brain, indicating that oxidative modification of proteins is relevant in AD. Oxidative damage can lead to several events such as loss in specific protein function, abnormal protein clearance, depletion of the cellular redox-balance and interference with the cell cycle, and, ultimately, to neuronal death. Identification of specific targets of protein oxidation represents a crucial step in establishing a relationship between oxidative modification and neuronal death in AD, and was partially achieved previously in our laboratory through immunochemical detection of creatine kinase BB and beta-actin as specifically oxidized proteins in AD brain versus control brain. However, this process is laborious, requires the availability of specific antibodies, and, most importantly, requires a reasonable guess as to the identity of the protein in the first place. In this study, we present the first proteomics approach to identify specifically oxidized proteins in AD, by coupling 2D fingerprinting with immunological detection of carbonyls and identification of proteins by mass spectrometry. The powerful techniques, emerging from application of proteomics to neurodegenerative disease, reveal the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1. These results are discussed with reference to potential involvement of these oxidatively modified proteins in neurodegeneration in AD brain. Proteomics offers a rapid means of identifying oxidatively modified proteins in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders without the limitations of the immunochemical detection method.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL66358-01; NIA NIH HHS: 5 P30 AG-05144, AG-05119, AG-10836, AG-12423

    Free radical biology & medicine 2002;33;4;562-71

  • Myocardial creatine kinase expression after left ventricular assist device support.

    Park SJ, Zhang J, Ye Y, Ormaza S, Liang P, Bank AJ, Miller LW and Bache RJ

    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

    Objectives: We examined whether unloading of the left ventricle with a ventricular assist device (LVAD) can result in normalization of the creatine kinase (CK) abnormalities in the failing human heart.

    Background: Left ventricular failure is associated with a decrease of myocardial total CK activity and a fetal shift in CK isoform expression that results in an increase in the cytosolic brain type homodimeric-creatine kinase (CK-B) subunit and decreases of the cytosolic muscle-creatine kinase (CK-M) and CK-mitochondrial (CK-Mt) isoforms. The mechanisms of this abnormality are not known.

    Methods: Total CK activity and CK protein isoform expression (Western blotting) were examined in 11 patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy. In 7 patients, myocardial tissue was also obtained after 4.1 +/- 1.1 months of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support.

    Results: Left ventricular unloading produced by LVAD implantation resulted in a 270% +/- 114% increase in total CK activity (p < 0.01) that was associated with a 69% +/- 18% increase in CK-M protein expression (p < 0.01) and a 121% +/- 69% increase in CK-Mt protein expression (p < 0.01), but no significant change in CK-B expression.

    Conclusions: Systolic and diastolic unloading provided by the LVAD resulted in increases of total CK activity as well as CK-Mt and CK-M protein expression. The failure of CK-B expression to decrease suggests that abnormalities other than increased loading are responsible for the increase in CK-B expression in the failing heart.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 21872, HL 50470, HL 61353

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002;39;11;1773-9

  • Creatine and creatinine metabolism.

    Wyss M and Kaddurah-Daouk R

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Basel, Switzerland. markus.wyss@roche.com

    The goal of this review is to present a comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology. Very recently, a series of new discoveries have been made that are bound to have distinguished implications for bioenergetics, physiology, human pathology, and clinical diagnosis and that suggest that deregulation of the creatine kinase (CK) system is associated with a variety of diseases. Disturbances of the CK system have been observed in muscle, brain, cardiac, and renal diseases as well as in cancer. On the other hand, Cr and Cr analogs such as cyclocreatine were found to have antitumor, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects and to protect tissues from hypoxic, ischemic, neurodegenerative, or muscle damage. Oral Cr ingestion is used in sports as an ergogenic aid, and some data suggest that Cr and creatinine may be precursors of food mutagens and uremic toxins. These findings are discussed in depth, the interrelationships are outlined, and all is put into a broader context to provide a more detailed understanding of the biological functions of Cr and of the CK system.

    Physiological reviews 2000;80;3;1107-213

  • Subunit conformation and dynamics in a heterodimeric protein: studies of the hybrid isozyme of creatine kinase.

    Grossman SH and Sellers DS

    Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. stgr@chuma.cas.usf.edu

    Several physical properties of creatine kinase (EC isozymes MM (CK-MM, muscle-type) and BB (CK-BB, brain-type), both homodimers, and isozyme MB (CK-MB), a heterodimer, were compared to determine how formation of the hybrid modifies subunit conformation and dynamics. Circular dichroic spectra revealed additional alpha-helical content for the hybrid isozyme. Double-beam absorption difference spectra between CK-MB and a stoichiometric mixture of CK-MM and CK-BB revealed decreased exposure of intrinsic chromophores in the hybrid. The relative intensity of the intrinsic fluorescence of CK-MB was between the two homodimers, but was 16% closer to the less fluorescent CK-MM. Steady state anisotropy spectra and decay of the anisotropy of CK derivatized on a single subunit with the fluorescent sulfhydryl reagent 5-[2-(iodoacetyl)amino-ethyl]aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate indicated that the derivatized sites are more flexible in the heterodimer. The slow component in the anisotropy decay suggests that hybridization results in a small increase in the packing density or contraction of overall conformation of the B-subunit. The KM for MgATP with singly derivatized CK-MB was the same as the KM for the native enzyme. However, derivatization of a single subunit caused the Vmax to decrease by greater than 50%, which indicates that subunit-subunit interactions may modulate the activity of CK. A model for assembly of CK-MB is proposed which includes subunit characteristics more similar to those found in the muscle-type homodimer than in the brain-type homodimer and increased flexibility of the active site domain of both subunits.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1998;1387;1-2;447-53

  • Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase and creatine kinase activity and isoenzymes in human brain tumours.

    Durany N, Joseph J, Cruz-Sánchez FF and Carreras J

    Unit of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Spain.

    The distribution of phosphoglycerate mutase (EC, PGM), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (EC, BPGP) and creatine kinase (EC, CK) activity and isoenzymes in various regions of adult human brain and in brain tumours (astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas and meningiomas) has been determined using electrophoresis. PGM and cytosolic CK exist in mammalian tissues as three isoenzymes that result from the homodimeric and heterodimeric combinations of two subunits [types M (muscle) and B (brain)] coded by separated genes. In addition, a dimeric form and an octameric form of mitochondrial CK exist in mammals. Type BB-PGM was the major PGM isoenzyme found in normal brain, although type MB-PGM and type MM-PGM were also detected. All brain tumours possessed lower PGM activity than normal brain, and meningiomas showed higher BPGP activity. In astrocytic tumours, the proportion of type MB- and type MM-PGM decreased, and in meningiomas these isoenzymes were not detected. Type BB-CK and mitochondrial CK were the only CK isoenzymes detected in normal brain. Astrocytomas possessed lower CK activity than anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas and, in addition, tended to possess lower CK content than normal brain. No qualitative changes of the normal CK isoenzyme pattern were observed in the tumours.

    British journal of cancer 1997;76;9;1139-49

  • Determination of the catalytic site of creatine kinase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Lin L, Perryman MB, Friedman D, Roberts R and Ma TS

    Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter the amino-acid residues at the presumed catalytic site Cys-283 and ATP binding site Asp-340 of human creatine kinase B cDNA. In addition, a highly conserved arginine residue, Arg-292, was also mutated. Transfection of 0.1 to 1 microgram of recombinant plasmid into COS cells produced increasing creatine kinase activity in the cell lysate. The expression of mutant Cys283-Tyr and Cys283-Ser resulted in complete abolition of homodimer BB isoform enzymatic activity without alteration of the capacity for dimerization. Expression of mutants Arg292-His, Arg292-Leu, and Arg292-Gln produced non-functional homodimers, whereas expression of mutant Arg292-Lys produced a homodimer with enzymatic activity that was 42% of the enzymatic activity of the wild type. Expression of the Asp340-Glu mutant creatine kinase did not alter enzyme activity as compared to the wild type. Following heterodimerization, there was inhibition of the normal subunit by the mutant subunit, for both the BB and the MB dimer. The results showed residues Cys-283 and Arg-292 are essential for enzyme catalysis. The best fit model for the dimer is one in which there is close apposition of the two catalytic sites. The interaction of the individual subunits during dimerization provides a molecular approach for dominant negative modulation of the creatine kinase isozyme system in future genetic manipulative experiments.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50-HL42267-01

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1994;1206;1;97-104

  • Creatine kinase in non-muscle tissues and cells.

    Wallimann T and Hemmer W

    Institute for Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich.

    Over the past years, a concept for creatine kinase function, the 'PCr-circuit' model, has evolved. Based on this concept, multiple functions for the CK/PCr-system have been proposed, such as an energy buffering function, regulatory functions, as well as an energy transport function, mostly based on studies with muscle. While the temporal energy buffering and metabolic regulatory roles of CK are widely accepted, the spatial buffering or energy transport function, that is, the shuttling of PCr and Cr between sites of energy utilization and energy demand, is still being debated. There is, however, much circumstantial evidence, that supports the latter role of CK including the distinct, isoenzyme-specific subcellular localization of CK isoenzymes, the isolation and characterization of functionally coupled in vitro microcompartments of CK with a variety of cellular ATPases, and the observed functional coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with mitochondrial CK. New insight concerning the functions of the CK/PCr-system has been gained from recent M-CK null-mutant transgenic mice and by the investigation of CK localization and function in certain highly specialized non-muscle tissues and cells, such as electrocytes, retina photoreceptor cells, brain cells, kidney, salt glands, myometrium, placenta, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, intestinal brush-border epithelial cells, endothelial cells, cartilage and bone cells, macrophages, blood platelets, tumor and cancer cells. Studies with electric organ, including in vivo 31P-NMR, clearly reveal the buffer function of the CK/PCr-system in electrocytes and additionally corroborate a direct functional coupling of membrane-bound CK to the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. On the other hand, experiments with live sperm and recent in vivo 31P-NMR measurements on brain provide convincing evidence for the transport function of the CK/PCr-system. We report on new findings concerning the isoenzyme-specific cellular localization and subcellular compartmentation of CK isoenzymes in photoreceptor cells, in glial and neuronal cells of the cerebellum and in spermatozoa. Finally, the regulation of CK expression by hormones is discussed, and new developments concerning a connection of CK with malignancy and cancer are illuminated. Most interesting in this respect is the observed upregulation of CK expression by adenoviral oncogenes.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1994;133-134;193-220

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Expression of the gene encoding human brain creatine kinase depends on sequences immediately following the transcription start point.

    Mariman E and Wieringa B

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    To localize sequences that are important for regulation of the gene (CK-B) encoding human brain creatine kinase (CK-B), we have functionally dissected the region comprising 1.8 kb of DNA upstream from the main transcription start point (tsp) and the first exon and intron, and made a detailed comparison with the situation in the rat CK-B gene. Upon using the transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay in human HeLa and mouse neuroblastoma cells, we have delimited the basal promoter in the human CK-B gene to a segment of 150 nucleotides (nt) immediately preceding the major mRNA cap site. No other essential regulatory sequence is located further upstream. Both from tsp mapping and from mutational inactivation studies, we conclude that of the two T + A-rich motifs in the promoter region, the TTAA motif between nt positions -28 to -25 is of major importance for transcriptional activity. Moreover, and most notably, a region spanning 22 nt of the first exon has a strong stimulatory effect on CK-B/CAT synthesis.

    Gene 1991;102;2;205-12

  • Developmental expression of creatine kinase isozymes in mammalian lens.

    Friedman DL, Hejtmancik JF, Hope JN and Perryman MB

    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

    Four different isoforms are thought to comprise the creatine kinase of enzymes which regulate energy metabolism through the interconversion of ADP and creatine phosphate. In addition to these well characterized isoforms, MM, MB, BB and mitochondrial creatine kinase, several uncharacterized variants with atypical electrophoretic mobility have been described. In mammalian lens, creatine kinase isoforms exhibit both a regional and developmental pattern of expression. In neonatal rat and human lens, the only isoform expressed is a variant cathodic creatine kinase. Near the time of sexual maturation (11-13 yr) there is a dramatic increase in the expression of BB creatine kinase in human lens. In rat lens, a similar pattern of isoenzyme expression is also seen near the time of sexual maturation (5-6 weeks). In the mature rat lens, in addition to the cathodic variant, there is expression of BB and, to a lesser extent, MM creatine kinase. Using a polyclonal antisera, we have localized BB creatine kinase to the cuboidal epithelial cells of the adult rat lens. This unique pattern of isoenzyme expression and developmental regulation suggests a more complex scheme for the regulation of creatine kinase gene expression than previously postulated.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 36277

    Experimental eye research 1989;49;3;445-57

  • Complete nucleotide sequence of the human creatine kinase B gene.

    Mariman EC, Schepens JT and Wieringa B

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Nucleic acids research 1989;17;15;6385

  • Isolation and characterization of the gene and cDNA encoding human mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    Haas RC, Korenfeld C, Zhang ZF, Perryman B, Roman D and Strauss AW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    Creatine kinase (CK; EC isoenzymes play prominent roles in energy metabolism. Nuclear genes encode three known CK subunits: cytoplasmic muscle (MCK), cytoplasmic brain (BCK), and mitochondrial (MtCK). We have isolated the gene and cDNA encoding human placental MtCK. By using a dog heart MCK cDNA-derived probe, the 7.0-kb EcoRI fragment from one cross-hybridizing genomic clone was isolated and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. A region of this clone encoded predicted amino acid sequence identical to residues 15-26 of the human heart MtCK NH2-terminal protein sequence. The human placental MtCK cDNA was isolated by hybridization to a genomic fragment encoding this region. The human placental MtCK gene contains 9 exons encoding 416 amino acids, including a 38-amino acid transit peptide, presumably essential for mitochondrial import. Residues 1-14 of human placental MtCK cDNA-derived NH2-terminal sequence differ from the human heart MtCK protein sequence, suggesting that tissue-specific MtCK mRNAs are derived from multiple MtCK genes. RNA blot analysis demonstrated abundant MtCK mRNA in adult human ventricle and skeletal muscle, low amounts in placenta and small intestine, and a dramatic increase during in vitro differentiation induced by serum-deprivation in the non-fusing mouse smooth muscle cell line, BC3H1. These findings demonstrate coordinate regulation of MtCK and cytosolic CK gene expression and support the phosphocreatine shuttle hypothesis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 17646

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;5;2890-7

  • Isolation of a functional human gene for brain creatine kinase.

    Daouk GH, Kaddurah-Daouk R, Putney S, Kingston R and Schimmel P

    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.

    There is evidence that the gene for the B isozyme of creatine kinase is regulated during cell differentiation, is under hormonal control, and is activated in a small cell lung carcinoma. In order to investigate further the mechanisms of these processes, the human gene was isolated and the structure of the promoter region was determined. A human DNA fragment of 8 kilobase pairs was shown to encompass the entire coding region and 850 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-flanking sequence. This fragment was transfected into three cell lines and shown to express functional enzyme. The 5'-end of the gene is split by a 230-bp intron that is located 12 bp upstream of the initiator ATG codon. Transcription initiation occurs at a site that is approximately 69 bp upstream of the 5'-end of this intron. The DNA sequence in the region upstream of the 5'-end of the mRNA is suggestive of two superimposed promoters that contain additional sequence elements that are known to regulate expression of other eukaryote genes. The 5'-region also has a remarkable homology to the overlapping promoters of the adenovirus EIIaE gene. These elements collectively form the basis for initial investigations of how this gene is controlled.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34366

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;5;2442-6

  • Structure and expression of the human creatine kinase B gene.

    Mariman EC, Broers CA, Claesen CA, Tesser GI and Wieringa B

    Department of Human Genetics, University Nijmegen, Radboud Hospital, The Netherlands.

    Various cDNAs for creatine kinase type B (CK-B) were isolated from human cDNA libraries using a 26-oligonucleotide guess-mer probe. One of the cDNAs appeared to be almost full-length and contained an open reading frame coding for the 381 amino acid residues of the human CK-B polypeptide. The nucleotide sequences of the translated region as well as the primary protein structure show a high degree of homology with known CK-B and CK-M sequences of other vertebrates. The level of CK-B RNA as a measure of CK-B gene activity was determined in various human tissues and cultured cells. Our results confirm that CK-B is expressed in a tissue-specific manner and give support to the previously proposed relation between CK-B gene activity and cell proliferation. Screening of genomic DNA with various cDNA regions as probes revealed that there is only one CK-B gene per haploid genome. Gene cloning and sequencing indicated that CK-B is coded for by a relatively small gene of 3.2 kb in size, which is partially overlapped by an HTF island (A. P. Bird (1986) Nature (London) 321, 557-558) with an extremely high G + C content at its 5' end.

    Genomics 1987;1;2;126-37

  • Human creatine kinase: isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones for the B subunit, development of subunit specific probes and determination of gene copy number.

    Villarreal-Levy G, Ma TS, Kerner SA, Roberts R and Perryman MB

    cDNA clones for human B creatine kinase were isolated from human brain and placenta libraries. The entire coding and 3' untranslated regions, as well as 23 bp of the 5' untranslated region were sequenced. Complete sequence identity was found among the clones, with the exception of an area of heterogeneity among the 3' untranslated region of the brain and placenta clones. A 77.7% nucleotide sequence identity was found between the coding region of human B creatine kinase and our previously reported human M creatine kinase. In contrast, no homology was found in the 3' untranslated regions. Probes were constructed from the nonconserved 3' untranslated regions of human M and B creatine kinase and were shown to be highly specific. Southern transfers of total genomic DNA derived from human placenta and digested to completion with several restriction enzymes were probed with the MCK and BCK specific probes producing single hybridization bands. These results suggest that creatine kinase M and B are single copy genes in the human genome.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1987;144;3;1116-27

  • Human creatine kinase-B complementary DNA. Nucleotide sequence, gene expression in lung cancer, and chromosomal assignment to two distinct loci.

    Kaye FJ, McBride OW, Battey JF, Gazdar AF and Sausville EA

    Using a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cDNA library, we obtained clones for the creatine kinase-B (CK-B) gene and determined the nucleotide sequence for the protein coding and 3' untranslated region (3' UT). The human translated protein spans 381 residues and the amino acid homology with rabbit CK-B is greater than 98%. We have demonstrated that a nucleic acid probe encompassing the protein coding region will also hybridize to CK-M sequences while a probe derived from the 3' UT region is CK-B specific. When a B-isoenzyme specific sequence is hybridized to Eco RI cut genomic DNA, two independent restriction fragment polymorphisms are detected. We have subsequently localized these two CK-B homologous sequences to chromosomes 14q32 and 16. Finally, we show that increased levels of CK-B seen in SCLC are not accompanied by gene amplification or rearrangement, but reflect a greatly enhanced level of CK-B specific mRNA that is not seen in non-SCLC lines thus far examined.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1987;79;5;1412-20

  • Creatine kinase isoenzymes in spermatozoa.

    Wallimann T, Moser H, Zurbriggen B, Wegmann G and Eppenberger HM

    Two isoforms of creatine kinase (CK, E.C., the brain type BB-CK and the mitochondrial-bound MiMi-CK, as well as adenylate kinase (myokinase, E.C. were identified in washed spermatozoa from chicken and man by cellulose polyacetate electrophoresis and immunoblots. BB-CK was localized by indirect immunofluorescence staining within the sperm tail but not in the head portion. MiMi-CK is confined to the midpiece region rich in mitochondria and has been localized directly by immunogold staining within the mitochondria. In contrast to chicken, seminal plasma from man was also found to contain considerable amounts of BB-CK. Total creatine content of spermatozoa (8-15 mM) and seminal plasma (3.8 +/- 0.4 mM) as well as preliminary experiments with metabolic blockers indicate a dependence of sperm motility on CK and phosphoryl creatine (CP). The presence of two CK isoforms located in different 'compartments' of spermatozoa suggests a CP-shuttle in sperm similar to that described for cross-striated muscle.

    Journal of muscle research and cell motility 1986;7;1;25-34

  • Highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay for human creatine kinase BB isozyme.

    Kato K, Shimizu A, Ishiguro Y, Mokuno K, Ariyoshi Y and Nakajima T

    A sensitive sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay method for measurement of brain-type isozyme of human creatine kinase (CK-BB) was developed using purified antibodies specific to the B subunit. The assay system consisted of polystyrene balls with immobilized antibody F(ab')2 fragments and the same antibody Fab' fragments labelled with beta-D-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The assay was highly sensitive and 1 pg of CK-BB was measurable. The assay was specific to the B subunit of creatine kinase (CK-B), and it cross-reacted about 25% with CK-MB, the heart-type isozyme. However, the assay showed no cross-reactivity with CK-MM, the muscle type-isozyme or with neuron-specific gamma gamma enolase. Coefficients of variation in within-run and between-run precision studies for serum CK-B were less than 8%. Serum CK-B levels in healthy adults of various ages (16-59 yr old) ranged from 0.25-1.44 ng/ml, whereas the CK-B concentrations in children (less than 10 yr old) were relatively high, ranging from 1.3-7.4 ng/ml. The CK-B levels in the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) could be determined by the present method, and they ranged from 0.10-0.76 ng/ml in the samples from patients with non-neuronal disorders. Determination of immunoreactive CK-B in the extracts of various human tissues confirmed previous reports that CK-B was distributed at high concentrations in the central nervous tissue, prostate, uterus, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and heart muscle.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 1985;150;1;31-40

  • Creatine kinase activity in human endometrium: relative distribution in isolated glands and stroma.

    Satyaswaroop PG and Mortel R

    Creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured in human endometrium as a function of the normal menstrual cycle. The specific activity of CK was consistently higher in the secretory endometrium than in the proliferative tissue (proliferative, 0.9 U/mg of protein; secretory, 3.3 U/mg of protein). The relative distribution of CK activity in isolated glands and stromal cells was determined following collagenase digestion of the endometrial specimen according to our previously described procedure. These studies show an enrichment of CK activity in the glands that is greater than fivefold that present in the stromal cells. Electrophoretic mobility of CK activity on cellulose acetate further indicates that the endometrial enzyme is a BB (brain type) isoenzyme. In the rat uterus, CK has been shown to be an estrogen-induced protein. In contrast, the activity of this enzyme may be modulated by progesterone in human endometrium.

    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 1983;146;2;159-62

  • Creatine kinase activity in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy fibroblasts.

    Davis MH, Cappel R, Vester JW, Samaha FJ and Gruenstein E

    Cultured human skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 8 normal age- and sex-matched controls were examined for creatine kinase (CK) activity. Both the normal and the DMD fibroblasts were found to have significant levels of CK activity (approximately 10 x 10(-3) IU per milligram of fibroblast protein). The control cells had slightly higher CK activity than the DMD lines, but this difference was not significant (0.2 less than P less than 0.1). The MM (muscle) isozyme, the BB (brain) isozyme, and the MB (hybrid) isozyme, of CK were found to be present in fibroblasts. The isozymes were separated by electrophoresis and the relative amount of each was determined for both normal and DMD cells. In normal fibroblasts, approximately 48% of the total CK activity was of the MM type, 40% was of the BB type, and 12% was of the MB type with no significant differences apparent between normal and DMD groups. The presence in human fibroblasts of significant levels of CK activity with a characteristic isozyme profile is an important consideration for studies of this "marker" enzyme in the pseudohypertrophic muscle of DMD.

    Muscle & nerve 1982;5;1;1-6

  • Immunohistochemical localization of creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme to astrocytes in human brain.

    Thompson RJ, Kynoch PA and Sarjant J

    Indirect immunoperoxidase labelling at the light microscope level using a specific antisera to brain type creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme has localized the protein to astrocytes in the white matter of human cerebrum. No specific staining of neurones or of other glial elements was detected.

    Brain research 1980;201;2;423-6

  • Bioluminescence assay of creatine kinase and its isoenzymes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Tarkkanen P, Komor S, Cornely C, Hacke W and Greiling H

    We examined the sensitivity of bioluminescence for the determination of very low concentrations of creatine kinase brain-type subunit (CK-BB) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid. To optimize the sensitivity of CK-isoenzyme assays and eliminate possible sources of error, we separated the isoenzyme fractions by using inhibiting anti-MM and precipitating anti-MM and anti-BB antibodies. The results with the bioluminescence assay correlated with spectrophotometric values such that r = 0.97 for the total CK activity and r = 0.98 for the CK-B activity. The reproducibility of the present method was comparable with the spectrophotometric method and was even better at low enzyme activities. The within-series precision for assay of total CK activity at 2 U/L corresponded to a CV of 9%; at 13 U/L the CV was 5.8%. All the assays were carried out at 25 degrees C. Even at this low temperature, CK activities as low as 0.2 U/L could be determined. In eight patients without any evidence of cerebral cell damage, total CK activity in cerebrospinal fluid was x = 1.05 +/- 0.6 U/L, and CK-BB activity was x = 0.7 +/- 0.4 U/L. In sera of these patients CK-BB activity was x = 0.6 +/- 0.5 U/L. Differences in CK and CK-BB activities in four patients with transient or progressive brain-cell damage are discussed.

    Clinical chemistry 1979;25;9;1644-8

  • Changes in creatine kinase and its isoenzymes in human fetal muscle during development.

    Foxall CD and Emery AE

    The total creatine kinase activity and its isoenzyme patterns were investigated in the skeletal muscle of 87 fetuses, of which 80 were presumed normal, 5 were anencephalic and 2 were "at risk" for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). No differences, either in total enzyme activity or in the isoenzyme distributions, were found between the anencephalic fetuses or those at risk for DMD, when compared to normal fetuses of similar gestation. Creatine kinase activity was found to rise steadily throughout embryonic life. During fetal development, the isoenzyme pattern in skeletal muscle was observed to change from the initial prevalence of the brain (BB) type, to the predominance of the muscle (MM) form. The most pronounced change occurred between the 6th and the 16th week of gestation, a period characterized by the rapid fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes and the concomitant production of myofibrils. It is proposed that there is a close association between the creatine kinase isoenzymes spectrum and the stage of muscle development.

    Journal of the neurological sciences 1975;24;4;483-92

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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