G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phosphofructokinase, platelet
G00000368 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017556 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000067057 (Ensembl human gene)
5214 (Entrez Gene)
774 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PFKP (GeneCards)
171840 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8878 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q01813 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • PFK-C
  • PFKF

Literature (25)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone.

    Ruaño G, Bernene J, Windemuth A, Bower B, Wencker D, Seip RL, Kocherla M, Holford TR, Petit WA and Hanks S

    Genomas, Inc., 67 Jefferson St, Hartford, CT, United States. g.ruano@genomas.net

    Background: The thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve tissue sensitivity to insulin in patients with type II diabetes, resulting in reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. However, TZDs unpredictably demonstrate adverse effects of increased body weight, fluid retention, and edema. The balance of efficacy and safety of TZD varies widely from patient to patient. Genetic variability may reveal pathophysiological pathways underlying weight gain associated with TZD therapy and due to adiposity and/or edema.

    Methods: We analyzed 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 222 cardiovascular and metabolic genes in 87 outpatients with type 2 diabetes receiving thiazolidinedione therapy. Physiogenomic analysis was used to discover associations with body mass index (BMI) and edema.

    Results: The 5 most significant gene associations found between BMI and SNPs were ADORA1, adenosine A1 receptor (rs903361, p<0.0003), PKM2, pyruvate kinase-muscle (rs2856929, p<0.002); ADIPOR2, adiponectin receptor 2 (rs7975375, p<0.007); UCP2, uncoupling protein 2 (rs660339, p<0.008); and APOH, apolipoprotein H (rs8178847, p<0.010). For edema, the 5 most significant gene associations were NPY, neuropeptide Y (rs1468271, p<0.006); GYS1, glycogen synthase 1-muscle (rs2287754, p<0.013); CCL2, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (rs3760396, p<0.015); OLR1, oxidized LDL receptor 1 (rs2742115, p<0.015); and GHRH, growth hormone releasing hormone (rs6032470, p<0.023). After accounting for multiple comparisons, ADORA1 was significantly associated with BMI at a false discovery rate (FDR) of <10%.

    Conclusion: Physiogenomic associations were discovered suggesting mechanistic links between adenosine signaling and BMI, and between vascular permeability and drug-induced edema.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;400;1-2;48-55

  • Non-replication of genome-wide based associations between common variants in INSIG2 and PFKP and obesity in studies of 18,014 Danes.

    Andreasen CH, Mogensen MS, Borch-Johnsen K, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Sørensen TI, Hansen L, Almind K, Jørgensen T, Pedersen O and Hansen T

    Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Background: The INSIG2 rs7566605 and PFKP rs6602024 polymorphisms have been identified as obesity gene variants in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. However, replication has been contradictory for both variants. The aims of this study were to validate these obesity-associations through case-control studies and analyses of obesity-related quantitative traits. Moreover, since environmental and genetic factors may modulate the impact of a genetic variant, we wanted to perform such interaction analyses. We focused on physical activity as an environmental risk factor, and on the GWA identified obesity variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) as genetic risk factors.

    The four variants were genotyped in a combined study sample comprising a total of 18,014 subject ascertained from, the population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514), the ADDITION screening cohort (n = 8,662), a population-based study sample (n = 680) and a type 2 diabetic patient group (n = 2,158) from Steno Diabetes Center.

    Results: No association with overweight, obesity or obesity-related measures was shown for either the INSIG2 rs7566605 or the PFKP rs6602024 variants. However, an interaction between the INSIG2 rs7566605 variant and the level of self-reported physical activity (p(Int) = 0.004) was observed. A BMI difference of 0.53 (SE 0.42) kg/m(2) was found when comparing physically passive homozygous C-allele carriers with physically passive G-allele carriers. No interactions between the two variants and FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 were observed.

    Conclusions: The INSIG2 rs7566605 and PFKP rs6602024 polymorphisms play no apparent role in the development of common forms of obesity in the Danish population. However, if replicated, the INSIG2 rs7566605 may influence the level of BMI in combination with the level of physical activity.

    PloS one 2008;3;8;e2872

  • Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

    Scuteri A, Sanna S, Chen WM, Uda M, Albai G, Strait J, Najjar S, Nagaraja R, Orrú M, Usala G, Dei M, Lai S, Maschio A, Busonero F, Mulas A, Ehret GB, Fink AA, Weder AB, Cooper RS, Galan P, Chakravarti A, Schlessinger D, Cao A, Lakatta E and Abecasis GR

    Unità Operativa Geriatria, Istituto per la Patologia Endocrina e Metabolica, Rome, Italy.

    The obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial economic burden in developed countries and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The disease is the result not only of several environmental risk factors, but also of genetic predisposition. To take advantage of recent advances in gene-mapping technology, we executed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with obesity-related quantitative traits in the genetically isolated population of Sardinia. Initial analysis suggested that several SNPs in the FTO and PFKP genes were associated with increased BMI, hip circumference, and weight. Within the FTO gene, rs9930506 showed the strongest association with BMI (p = 8.6 x10(-7)), hip circumference (p = 3.4 x 10(-8)), and weight (p = 9.1 x 10(-7)). In Sardinia, homozygotes for the rare "G" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.46) were 1.3 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "A" allele. Within the PFKP gene, rs6602024 showed very strong association with BMI (p = 4.9 x 10(-6)). Homozygotes for the rare "A" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.12) were 1.8 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "G" allele. To replicate our findings, we genotyped these two SNPs in the GenNet study. In European Americans (N = 1,496) and in Hispanic Americans (N = 839), we replicated significant association between rs9930506 in the FTO gene and BMI (p-value for meta-analysis of European American and Hispanic American follow-up samples, p = 0.001), weight (p = 0.001), and hip circumference (p = 0.0005). We did not replicate association between rs6602024 and obesity-related traits in the GenNet sample, although we found that in European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans, homozygotes for the rare "A" allele were, on average, 1.0-3.0 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the more common "G" allele. In summary, we have completed a whole genome-association scan for three obesity-related quantitative traits and report that common genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with substantial changes in BMI, hip circumference, and body weight. These changes could have a significant impact on the risk of obesity-related morbidity in the general population.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NHGRI NIH HHS: HG02651, R01 HG002651; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL084729, U01 HL084729; NIA NIH HHS: N01-AG-1-2109; PHS HHS: 263-MA-410953

    PLoS genetics 2007;3;7;e115

  • Chimeric phosphofructokinases involving exchange of the N- and C-terminal halves of mammalian isozymes: implications for ligand binding sites.

    Martínez-Costa OH, Sánchez-Martínez C, Sánchez V and Aragón JJ

    Departamento de Bioquímica de la UAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols UAM-CSIC, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

    Two phosphofructokinase (PFK) chimeras were constructed by exchanging the N- and C-terminal halves of the mammalian M- and C-type isozymes, to investigate the contribution of each terminus to the catalytic site and the fructose-2,6-P(2)/fructose-1,6-P(2) allosteric site. The homogeneously-purified chimeric enzymes organized into tetramers, and exhibited kinetic properties for fructose-6-P and MgATP similar to those of the native enzyme that furnished the N-terminal domain in each case, whereas their fructose-2,6-P(2) activatory characteristics coincided with those of the isozyme that provided the C-terminal half. This reflected the role of each domain in the formation of the corresponding binding site. Grafting the N-terminus of PFK-M onto the C-terminus of the fructose-1,6-P(2) insensitive PFK-C restored transduction of this signal to the catalytic site, which significance is also discussed.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;16;3033-8

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • Characterization of the human P-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase gene promoter in neural cell lines.

    Hannemann A, Jandrig B, Gaunitz F, Eschrich K and Bigl M

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig (Medical Faculty), Liebigstrasse 16, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

    In humans three isoforms of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) exist. Among them platelet-type PFK (PFKP) is highly abundant in the brain. With its distinct allosteric properties PFKP is regarded to be the key enzyme for the regulation of glycolysis in this organ. We cloned 1.7 kb of the 5' upstream promoter of the human PFKP gene and analyzed the promoter activity by deletion and mutation analysis using a luciferase reporter. The transcription start point was determined at 48 bp upstream of the start codon. In deletion studies the region -65 to +48 turned out to be sufficient for promoter activity while fragment -153 to +48 showed the highest promoter activity. Sequence analysis of the region from -153 to +48 revealed a stretch of eight adjacent putative transcription factor binding sites, seven of which are Sp-family specific sites. Sp1 and Sp3 were shown to bind to most if not all of them. Additionally, an NF-Y binding site was identified. Results of deletion and mutation analysis suggest that all of these transcription factors contribute positively to promoter activity. The methylation status of the promoter region was analyzed in different neural tumor cell lines and compared with that in human leukocytes and muscle.

    Gene 2005;345;2;237-47

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cloning and chromosomal characterization of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 gene (PFKFB3, iPFK2).

    Mahlknecht U, Chesney J, Hoelzer D and Bucala R

    Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Frankfurt Medical Center, D-60590 Frankfurt, Germany. mahlknecht@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    PFKFB (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase) is a bifunctional enzyme that regulates the steady-state concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which is a potent activator of the key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, phosphofructokinase. PFKFB3 (iPFK2) is one of four tissue-specific PFKFB isozymes that have been identified to date. PFKFB3 also has been implicated in the high glycolytic rate of cancer cells that occurs despite adequate oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. We have isolated and characterized the human PFKFB3 genomic sequence, which spans a region of 32.5 kb and which has a single chromosomal locus. Determination of the exon-intron splice junctions established that PFKFB3 is encoded by 19 exons of which only 15 are normally expressed. Exon sizes range between 23 and 208 bp, the largest intron is 10,286 bp long. The full-length human PFKFB3 open reading frame is 4,675 bp long and encodes a 590 aa protein with a predicted molecular weight of 66.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.64. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized the human PFKFB3 gene to chromosome 10p15.3-p15.2, and its locus is 3 million bp centromeric to PFKP, the platelet-type phosphofructokinase. PFKFB3 has been shown to be abundantly expressed in human tumors and its expression linked to long-standing observations concerning the apparent coupling of enhanced glycolysis and cell proliferation.

    International journal of oncology 2003;23;4;883-91

  • Trifunctional chemical probes for the consolidated detection and identification of enzyme activities from complex proteomes.

    Adam GC, Sorensen EJ and Cravatt BF

    The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and the Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Chemical probes that covalently modify the active sites of enzymes in complex proteomes are useful tools for identifying enzyme activities associated with discrete (patho) physiological states. Researchers in proteomics typically use two types of activity-based probes to fulfill complementary objectives: fluorescent probes for rapid and sensitive target detection and biotinylated probes for target purification and identification. Accordingly we hypothesized that a strategy in which the target detection and target isolation steps of activity-based proteomic experiments were merged might accelerate the characterization of differentially expressed protein activities. Here we report the synthesis and application of trifunctional chemical proteomic probes in which elements for both target detection (e.g. rhodamine) and isolation (e.g. biotin) are appended to a sulfonate ester reactive group, permitting the consolidated visualization and affinity purification of labeled proteins by a combination of in-gel fluorescence and avidin chromatography procedures. A trifunctional phenyl sulfonate probe was used to identify several technically challenging protein targets, including the integral membrane enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-isomerase and the cofactor-dependent enzymes platelet-type phosphofructokinase and type II tissue transglutaminase. The latter two enzyme activities were significantly up-regulated in the invasive estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 relative to the non-invasive ER(+) breast cancer lines MCF7 and T-47D. Collectively these studies demonstrate that chemical proteomic probes incorporating elements for both target detection and target isolation fortify the important link between the visualization of differentially expressed enzyme activities and their subsequent molecular identification, thereby augmenting the information content achieved in activity-based profiling experiments.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87660, R01 CA087660, R01 CA087660-02

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2002;1;10;828-35

  • Cloning of a complete protein-coding sequence of human platelet-type phosphofructokinase isozyme from pancreatic islet.

    Eto K, Sakura H, Yasuda K, Hayakawa T, Kawasaki E, Moriuchi R, Nagataki S, Yazaki Y and Kadowaki T

    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have cloned a full length protein-coding sequence of human platelet-type phosphofructokinase (PFK) from pancreatic islet cDNA library. The platelet-type PFK was composed of 784 amino acids and had a deduced molecular weight of 85,590. Homologies in the primary structure with muscle- and liver-type PFK were 71 and 67%. Clear similarities of the amino and carboxyl halves with a prokaryotic PFK indicated an evolutionary event that duplicated genes of a prototype PFK fused into larger genes of eukaryotic PFKs. Amino acid residues constituting the binding sites for various allosteric modulators were well conserved, while a couple of different residues at the inhibitory ATP sites among three isozymes may partly explain their varied degree of sensitivities to ATP. Considerable amount of platelet-type PFK expression was demonstrated in brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;198;3;990-8

  • Regional chromosomal assignment of the human platelet phosphofructokinase gene to 10p15.

    Morrison N, Simpson C, Fothergill-Gilmore L, Boyd E and Connor JM

    Duncan Guthrie Institute of Medical Genetics, Yorkhill, Glasgow, UK.

    A cDNA for human platelet 6-phosphofructokinase (PFKP) has been isolated from a human Raji cell line cDNA library. Using this cDNA as a probe, the gene for human PFKP, previously mapped to chromosome 10pter-p11.1, has been further localized to 10p15 by non-isotopic in situ hybridization.

    Human genetics 1992;89;1;105-6

  • Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding human platelet phosphofructokinase.

    Simpson CJ and Fothergill-Gilmore LA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

    A cDNA encoding human platelet 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK; EC has been isolated from a human lymphocyte Raji cell line cDNA library using a cDNA for human muscle PFK as a probe. The platelet cDNA contains 900bp of carboxy terminal coding sequence and 238bp of downstream untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 71% identity to the amino acid sequence for the human muscle isoenzyme and 63% identity to the human liver isoenzyme. Almost all of the amino acid residues contributing to catalytic and effector sites in the three isoenzymes are conserved. The platelet gene has been assigned to chromosome 10p15.2-p15.3 by using the cDNA clone as a biotinylated probe against human chromosome spreads (Morrison et al. 1991, submitted to Human Genetics).

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1991;180;1;197-203

  • Cloning of human muscle phosphofructokinase cDNA.

    Nakajima H, Noguchi T, Yamasaki T, Kono N, Tanaka T and Tarui S

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    Three overlapping cDNA clones for human muscle phosphofructokinase (HMPFK) covering the complete coding sequence were isolated. The sequence included a poly(A) tail, a 399 bp 3'-untranslated region, a 2337 bp coding region for 779 amino acid residues and a part of the 5'-untranslated region. Homologies between HMPFK and rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase (RMPFK) were 96% of the amino acids and 89% of the nucleotides in the coding region. Like RMPFK, HMPFK also possessed the internal homology between C- and N-halves in its primary structure. Cloning of HMPFK cDNA will help to identify the molecular defect in patients with glycogenosis type VII (HMPFK deficiency).

    FEBS letters 1987;223;1;113-6

  • Isozymes of human phosphofructokinase in blood cells and cultured cell lines: molecular and genetic evidence for a trigenic system.

    Vora S

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 26437-02, AM 26793-02

    Blood 1981;57;4;724-32

  • Isozymes of human phosphofructokinase: identification and subunit structural characterization of a new system.

    Vora S, Seaman C, Durham S and Piomelli S

    The existence of a five-membered isozyme system for human phosphofructokinase (PFK; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, EC has been demonstrated. These multimolecular forms result from the random polymerization of two distinct subunits, M (muscle type) and L (liver type), to form all possible tetrameters-i.e., M(4), M(3)L, M(2)L(2), ML(3), and L(4). Partially purified muscle and liver PFKs were hybridized by dissociation at low pH and then recombination at neutrality. Three hybrid species were generated in addition to the two parental isozymes, to yield an entire five-membered set. The various species could be consistently and reproducibly separated from one another by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography at pH 8.0 with a concave elution gradient of salt. Under similar experimental conditions, erythrocyte PFK from hemolysates was also resolved into five species chromatographically indistinguishable from those produced in the above experiment. Immunological and kinetic studies of the isozymes provided corroborative evidence to support the proposed subunit structures. Erythrocyte PFK was found to have kinetic properties intermediate between those of muscle and liver PFK and was neutralized only 50% by an antiserum against muscle PFK that completely neutralized muscle PFK. These data demonstrate that muscle and liver PFKs are distinct homotetramers-i.e., M(4) and L(4), respectively-whereas erythrocyte PFK is a heterogeneous mixture of all five isozymes. The structural heterogeneity of erythrocyte PFK provides a molecular genetic basis for the differential organ involvement observed in some inherited PFK deficiency states in which myopathy or hemolysis or both can occur.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1980;77;1;62-6

  • Phosphofructokinase in human blood cells.

    Meienhofer MC, Lagrange JL, Cottreau D, Lenoir G, Dreyfus JC and Kahn A

    The subunit composition of phosphofructokinase from normal and malignant blood cells has been investigated by means of immunologic, electrophoretic, and chromatographic methods. Immunoprecipitation tests were performed with three specific antisera recognizing each of the basic subunits of human phosphofructokinase: muscle, M-type; liver, L-type; and fibroblast, F-type. Mature polymorphonuclear cells contain mainly L-subunits, while lymphocytes and platelets contain hybrids formed of L and F subunits; these hybrids can be electrophoretically separated. Red cell phosphofructokinase is composed of L and M subunits, as judged by its reactivity with anti-L and anti-M-type antisera. The various M-L hybrids composing red cell phosphofructokinase could be only separated by chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose. Lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoblasts from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia contain phosphofructokinase forms similar to those from normal lymphocytes, while the immature granulocytic cells (leukemic myeloblasts and myeloid cells of chronic myeloid leukemia) are characterized by a reinforcement of enzyme inhibition by anti-F-type antiserum. Lymphoid lines in culture (Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced or malignant lymphoma-derived lines) are characterized by the indistinctive expression of all three basic subunits, similar to that found in some fetal tissues. This article represents the first description of the isozymic nature of phosphofructokinase in platelets and white blood cells and of its changes with malignancy and cell culture. This enzyme might represent a useful marker in the characterization of the leukemic cells.

    Blood 1979;54;2;389-400

  • Phosphofructokinase (PFK) isozymes in man. I. Studies of adult human tissues.

    Kahn A, Meienhofer MC, Cottreau D, Lagrange JL and Dreyfus JC

    Isozymic heterogeneity of human phosphofructokinase was investigated by means of ATP inhibition, immunoneutralization by antihuman muscle-type and antiliver-type phosphofructokinase antisera, solubility in (NH4)2SO4 solutions, and starch gel and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. The enzymes studied by these methods were purified from various normal and malignant human adult tissues by chromatography on blue Dextran Sepharose 4 B columns. From the results of these studied we suggest that three basic phosphofructokinase isozymes could exist: muscle-type, fibroblast-type, and liver-type isozymes. Muscle-type isozyme is the single form found in adult muscle, and is involved in the enzymes from heart, brain, red cell, and testis. Fibroblast-type isozyme is found mainly in the placenta, fibroblasts kidney, and some malignant tissues. Liver-type phosphofructokinase seems to be very definitely the predominant form in mature polymorphonuclear cells, platelets, and liver. Testis and red cell phosphofructokinase enzymes definitely include msucle-type aand liver-type subunits, associated in various hybrid forms.

    Human genetics 1979;48;1;93-108

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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