G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
collapsin response mediator protein 1
G00000367 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000072832 (Ensembl human gene)
1400 (Entrez Gene)
728 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CRMP1 (GeneCards)
602462 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2365 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q14194 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • DPYSL1
  • DRP-1

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • Loss of collapsin response mediator Protein1, as detected by iTRAQ analysis, promotes invasion of human gliomas expressing mutant EGFRvIII.

    Mukherjee J, DeSouza LV, Micallef J, Karim Z, Croul S, Siu KW and Guha A

    Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Research Center, Hospital for Sick Children's Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary human brain tumor. GBMs are characterized by a variety of genetic alterations, among which oncogenic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) is most common. GBMs harboring EGFRvIII have increased proliferation and invasive characteristics versus those expressing wild-type (wt) EGFR. To identify the molecular basis of this increased tumorgenic phenotype, we used iTRAQ-labeling differential proteomic analysis. Among several differentially expressed proteins, we selected CRMP1, a protein implicated in cellular invasion that was markedly decreased in GBMs expressing EGFRvIII, for further study. The differential expression of CRMP1 was confirmed in a panel of human GBM cell lines and operative specimens that express wtEGFR or mutant EGFRvIII by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. In human GBM samples, decreased expression of CRMP1 correlated with EGFRvIII positivity. Knockdown of CRMP1 by siRNA resulted in increased invasion of wtEGFR expressing human GBM cells (U87 and U373) to those found in isogenic GBM cells. Exogenous expression of EGFRvIII in these wtEGFR-expressing GBM cells promoted their ability to invade and was accompanied by decreased expression of CRMP1. Rescuing CRMP1 expression decreased invasion of the EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cells by tilting the balance between Rac and Rho. Collectively, these results show that the loss of CRMP1 contribute to the increased invasive phenotype of human GBMs expressing mutant EGFRvIII.

    Cancer research 2009;69;22;8545-54

  • Loss of Drp1 function alters OPA1 processing and changes mitochondrial membrane organization.

    Möpert K, Hajek P, Frank S, Chen C, Kaufmann J and Santel A

    Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin, Germany.

    RNAi mediated loss of Drp1 function changes mitochondrial morphology in cultured HeLa and HUVEC cells by shifting the balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion towards unopposed fusion. Over time, inhibition of Drp1 expression results in the formation of a highly branched mitochondrial network along with "bulge"-like structures. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are accompanied by a reduction in levels of Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and 2 (Mfn2) and a modified proteolytic processing of OPA1 isoforms, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, our data imply that bulge formation is driven by Mfn1 action along with particular proteolytic short-OPA1 (s-OPA1) variants: Loss of Mfn2 in the absence of Drp1 results in an increase of Mfn1 levels along with processed s-OPA1-isoforms, thereby enhancing continuous "fusion" and bulge formation. Moreover, bulge formation might reflect s-OPA1 mitochondrial membrane remodeling activity, resulting in the compartmentalization of cytochrome c deposits. The proteins Yme1L and PHB2 appeared not associated with the observed enhanced OPA1 proteolysis upon RNAi of Drp1, suggesting the existence of other OPA1 processing controlling proteins. Taken together, Drp1 appears to affect the activity of the mitochondrial fusion machinery by unbalancing the protein levels of mitofusins and OPA1.

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;13;2165-80

  • Mitochondrial alterations in PINK1 deficient cells are influenced by calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1.

    Sandebring A, Thomas KJ, Beilina A, van der Brug M, Cleland MM, Ahmad R, Miller DW, Zambrano I, Cowburn RF, Behbahani H, Cedazo-Mínguez A and Cookson MR

    Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

    PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Previous studies have shown that PINK1 influences both mitochondrial function and morphology although it is not clearly established which of these are primary events and which are secondary. Here, we describe a novel mechanism linking mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial morphology related to PINK1. Cell lines were generated by stably transducing human dopaminergic M17 cells with lentiviral constructs that increased or knocked down PINK1. As in previous studies, PINK1 deficient cells have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and are more sensitive to the toxic effects of mitochondrial complex I inhibitors. We also show that wild-type PINK1, but not recessive mutant or kinase dead versions, protects against rotenone-induced mitochondrial fragmentation whereas PINK1 deficient cells show lower mitochondrial connectivity. Expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) exaggerates PINK1 deficiency phenotypes and Drp1 RNAi rescues them. We also show that Drp1 is dephosphorylated in PINK1 deficient cells due to activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Accordingly, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 blocks both Drp1 dephosphorylation and loss of mitochondrial integrity in PINK1 deficient cells but does not fully rescue mitochondrial membrane potential. We propose that alterations in mitochondrial connectivity in this system are secondary to functional effects on mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    PloS one 2009;4;5;e5701

  • Proteomic analysis reveals Hrs ubiquitin-interacting motif-mediated ubiquitin signaling in multiple cellular processes.

    Pridgeon JW, Webber EA, Sha D, Li L and Chin LS

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells recognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway. To gain insight into the role of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in cells, we performed a proteomic screen for Hrs UIM-interacting ubiquitinated proteins in human brain by using an in vitro expression cloning screening approach. We have identified 48 ubiquitinated proteins that are specifically recognized by the UIM domain of Hrs. Among them, 12 are membrane proteins that are likely to be Hrs cargo proteins, and four are membrane protein-associated adaptor proteins whose ubiquitination may act as a signal to target their associated membrane cargo for Hrs-mediated endosomal sorting. Other classes of the identified proteins include components of the vesicular trafficking machinery, cell signaling molecules, proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and enzymes involved in ubiquitination and metabolism, suggesting the involvement of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. We have characterized the ubiquitination of two identified proteins, Munc18-1 and Hsc70, and their interaction with Hrs UIM, and provided functional evidence supporting a role for Hsc70 in the regulation of Hrs-mediated endosome-to-lysosome trafficking.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM082828, R01 GM082828, R01 GM082828-01A1, R01 GM082828-02, R01 GM082828-02S1; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047575, NS050650, R01 NS047575, R01 NS047575-01, R01 NS047575-02, R01 NS047575-03, R01 NS047575-04, R01 NS050650, R01 NS050650-01A1, R01 NS050650-02, R01 NS050650-03, R01 NS050650-04, T32 NS007480, T32 NS007480-05, T32 NS007480-06, T32 NS007480-07, T32 NS007480-08, T32 NS007480-09, T32NS007480

    The FEBS journal 2009;276;1;118-31

  • NF-kappaB p50 promotes tumor cell invasion through negative regulation of invasion suppressor gene CRMP-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Gao M, Yeh PY, Lu YS, Chang WC, Kuo ML and Cheng AL

    Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Lung adenocarcinoma Cl1-5 cells were selected from parental Cl1-0 cells based on their high metastatic potential. In a previous study, CRMP-1, an invasion suppressor gene, was shown to be suppressed in Cl1-5 cells. However, the regulation of CRMP-1 expression has not been explored. In this study, we showed nuclear factor-kappaB controls CRMP-1 expression. The electromobility shift assay showed that while Cl1-0 cells exhibited low NF-kappaB activity in response to TNF-alpha, an abundance of basal and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB-DNA complex was detected in Cl1-5 cells. Supershift-coupled EMSA and Western blotting of nuclear proteins, however, revealed p50 protein, but not classic p65/p50 heterodimer in the complex. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated that p50 binds to a kappaB site residing between -1753 and -1743 of the CRMP-1 promoter region. Transfection of antisense p50 gene into Cl1-5 cells increased the CRMP-1 protein level and decreased the invasive activity of Cl1-5 cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;376;2;283-7

  • Modulation of the expression of the invasion-suppressor CRMP-1 by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition via reciprocal regulation of Sp1 and C/EBPalpha.

    Wu CC, Lin JC, Yang SC, Lin CW, Chen JJ, Shih JY, Hong TM and Yang PC

    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP-1) controls neural development and axonal growth but also acts as a cancer invasion suppressor. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of CRMP-1 expression. Using a serial deletion strategy, we identified a basal promoter region between nucleotides -100 and -180 in the 5' flanking region of CRMP-1 (nucleotides -1,920 to +50) that contains multiple putative Sp1 and C/EBPalpha sites. Site-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis revealed that the two C/EBPalpha sites, from nucleotides -122 to -133 and from nucleotides -101 to -113, are the most important regulatory elements. Gel-shift and antibody supershift assays showed that Sp1 protein was also present at this C/EBPalpha site, which overlaps with a Sp1 site. Overexpression of Sp1 decreased CRMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression, whereas overexpression of C/EBPalpha produced the opposite effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that Sp1 and C/EBPalpha compete for binding at the overlapping C/EBPalpha and Sp1 sites and reciprocally regulate CRMP-1 expression. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) decreased CRMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, induced a dose-dependent increase in CRMP-1 expression. COX-2 inhibition also decreased Sp1-DNA complex formation and inhibited cell invasion. We conclude that transcription of the invasion suppressor, CRMP-1, is reciprocally regulated at the promoter region by C/EBPalpha and Sp1. COX-2 inhibitors increase CRMP-1 expression by inhibiting Sp1-DNA complex formation and enhancing DNA binding of C/EBPalpha at the promoter.

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2008;7;6;1365-75

  • The collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) and the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) bind to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE), the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis.

    Weidemann W, Stelzl U, Lisewski U, Bork K, Wanker EE, Hinderlich S and Horstkorte R

    Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem, Germany.

    Sialic acids (Sia) are expressed as terminal sugars in many glycoconjugates. They are involved in a variety of cell-cell interactions and therefore play an important role during development and regeneration. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is the key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of Sia and it is a regulator of cell surface sialylation. Inactivation of GNE in mice results in early embryonic lethality. Mutations in the GNE gene are of clinical relevance in hereditary inclusion body myopathy, but these mutations do not necessarily decrease the enzymatic activity of GNE. In this study, we searched for novel function of the GNE protein beside its enzymatic function in the Sia biosynthesis. We here report the identification of novel GNE-interacting proteins. Using a human prey matrix we identified four proteins interacting with GNE in a yeast two-hybrid assay. For two of them, the collapsin response mediator protein 1 and the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, we could verify protein-protein interaction with GNE.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;28-29;6649-54

  • Distinct priming kinases contribute to differential regulation of collapsin response mediator proteins by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in vivo.

    Cole AR, Causeret F, Yadirgi G, Hastie CJ, McLauchlan H, McManus EJ, Hernández F, Eickholt BJ, Nikolic M and Sutherland C

    Division of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland.

    Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are a family of neuron-enriched proteins that regulate neurite outgrowth and growth cone dynamics. Here, we show that Cdk5 phosphorylates CRMP1, CRMP2, and CRMP4, priming for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3 in vitro. In contrast, DYRK2 phosphorylates and primes CRMP4 only. The Cdk5 and DYRK2 inhibitor purvalanol decreases the phosphorylation of CRMP proteins in neurons, whereas CRMP1 and CRMP2, but not CRMP4, phosphorylation is decreased in Cdk5(-/-) cortices. Stimulation of neuroblastoma cells with IGF1 or TPA decreases GSK3 activity concomitantly with CRMP2 and CRMP4 phosphorylation. Conversely, increased GSK3 activity is not sufficient to increase CRMP phosphorylation. However, the growth cone collapse-inducing protein Sema3A increases Cdk5 activity and promotes phosphorylation of CRMP2 (but not CRMP4). Therefore, inhibition of GSK3 alters phosphorylation of all CRMP isoforms; however, individual isoforms can be differentially regulated by their respective priming kinase. This is the first GSK3 substrate found to be regulated in this manner and may explain the hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 observed in Alzheimer's disease.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C18727; Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;24;16591-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CRMP1 and EVC genes.

    Sivakumaran TA and Lesperance MM

    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0241, USA.

    In this report, we present the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 1 (CRMP1) and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) gene region. We genotyped eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRMP1 and EVC genes in 90 control individuals of diverse ethnicity. The minor allele frequencies ranged from 3.3-49.4%, with most having a frequency >25%. A total of 37 haplotypes were derived from these eight polymorphisms, with only one haplotype having a frequency >10%. Pairwise LD analysis showed a weak but significant LD between markers located about 243 kb apart in this region. The LD was significant between markers spaced about 208 kb apart in EVC, whereas no LD was found between a pair of markers located about 5 kb apart in CRMP1. However, in general, LD correlated with the distance between loci. The CRMP1 and EVC genes are located near WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene, in which mutations also cause low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). The haplotypes obtained from these polymorphisms will be useful to track the segregation of phenotypes in families with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrodental dysostosis, LFSNHL and Wolfram syndrome type 1.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2004;14;5;903-7

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease.

    Goehler H, Lalowski M, Stelzl U, Waelter S, Stroedicke M, Worm U, Droege A, Lindenberg KS, Knoblich M, Haenig C, Herbst M, Suopanki J, Scherzinger E, Abraham C, Bauer B, Hasenbank R, Fritzsche A, Ludewig AH, Büssow K, Buessow K, Coleman SH, Gutekunst CA, Landwehrmeyer BG, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a valuable approach for characterizing proteins of unknown function. Here, we have developed a strategy combining library and matrix yeast two-hybrid screens to generate a highly connected PPI network for Huntington's disease (HD). The network contains 186 PPIs among 35 bait and 51 prey proteins. It revealed 165 new potential interactions, 32 of which were confirmed by independent binding experiments. The network also permitted the functional annotation of 16 uncharacterized proteins and facilitated the discovery of GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein, which enhances huntingtin aggregation by recruitment of the protein into membranous vesicles. Coimmunoprecipitations and immunofluorescence studies revealed that GIT1 and huntingtin associate in mammalian cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, GIT1 localizes to neuronal inclusions, and is selectively cleaved in HD brains, indicating that its distribution and function is altered during disease pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS31862

    Molecular cell 2004;15;6;853-65

  • Connective tissue growth factor and its role in lung adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis.

    Chang CC, Shih JY, Jeng YM, Su JL, Lin BZ, Chen ST, Chau YP, Yang PC and Kuo ML

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Background: Tumor invasion and metastasis cause most deaths in cancer patients. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a secreted protein that binds to integrins, modulates the invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells, but few mechanistic details are known. We investigated the roles of CTGF and collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) in metastasis and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    Methods: We compared vector control-transfected cells with corresponding CTGF gene-transfected cells. Invasive activity was measured with a modified Boyden chamber assay, and metastatic activity was measured in an animal model. We used CTGF deletion mutants, CTGF and CRMP-1 antisense oligonucleotides, and anti-integrin and anti-CRMP-1 antibodies to investigate the functional relationship between CTGF and CRMP-1. Expression of CTGF protein in 78 lung adenocarcinoma specimens was investigated immunohistochemically. All statistical tests were two-sided.

    Results: Invasive (both P<.001) and metastatic (P<.001 and P=.003, respectively) activities were lower in cells that overexpress CTGF than in vector control cells. Expression of CRMP-1 was higher in CTGF-transfected clones than in vector control cells, and its level decreased after cells were treated with anti-integrin alpha(v)beta3 and alpha(v)beta5 antibodies. Reduced levels of CRMP-1 protein after the transfection of CRMP-1-specific antisense oligonucleotides, but not sense oligonucleotides, increased the invasiveness of CTGF-transfected cells (mean numbers of invasive CTGF-transfected cells treated with 20 microM CRMP-1-specific sense and antisense oligonucleotides were 327 and 516 cells, respectively [difference = 189 cells, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 156 to 221 cells; P<.001]). The CT module of CTGF was the region primarily responsible for the increased expression of CRMP-1 and the inhibition of invasion (mean numbers of invasive cells expressing full-length CTGF and CT module-deleted mutant were 148 and 385 cells, respectively [difference = 237 cells, 95% CI = 208 to 266 cells; P<.001]). Reduced expression of CTGF in lung cancer specimens was statistically significantly associated with the risk of more advanced-stage disease (stages III and IV versus stages I and II; P=.001), lymph node metastasis (P =.014), and shorter survival (median survival with high levels of CTGF = 66.7 months and median survival for low levels = 18.2 months; difference = 48.5 months, 95% CI = 33.5 to 63.5 months; P =.02).

    Conclusion: CTGF inhibits metastasis and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma by a CRMP-1-dependent mechanism.

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2004;96;5;364-75

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-1: a novel invasion-suppressor gene.

    Shih JY, Lee YC, Yang SC, Hong TM, Huang CY and Yang PC

    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis of cancer cells. Previously, we used microarray to identify that collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP-1) was involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. We further characterized that CRMP-1 was a novel invasion-suppression gene. Members of the CRMP gene family are intracellular phosphoproteins involved in the mediation of semaphorin induced F-actin depolymerization and growth cone collapse. The precise mechanism by which CRMP-I inhibits invasion is not yet clear. However, CRMP-1 transfected cells had fewer filopodia and less Matrigel-invasion abilities. A low expression of CRMP-I mRNA in lung cancer tissue was significantly associated with advanced disease, lymph node metastasis, early post-operative relapse, and shorter survival. In this article, we reviewed the functions of CRMPs and semaphorins and analyzed the structure and motifs of CRMP-1 by bioinformatics. As such, we hoped to shed further light on the mechanism by which CRMP-1 suppresses the invasion of cancer cells.

    Clinical & experimental metastasis 2003;20;1;69-76

  • p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA-induced neuronal morphology.

    Leung T, Ng Y, Cheong A, Ng CH, Tan I, Hall C and Lim L

    Glaxo-IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 30 Medical Drive, 117609, Singapore. mcbthoml@imcb.nus.edu.sg

    Using antibody against the Rho binding domain of ROKalpha, two neuronal phosphoproteins of 62 and 80 kDa were co-immunoprecipitated from brain extracts. Peptide analysis revealed their identity as collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs); p62 was CRMP-2 whereas p80 was a novel splice form of CRMP-1 with an extended N-terminus. p80 CRMP-1 was able to complex with CRMP-2, suggesting that p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 form oligomers. CRMP-2 was the major substrate of ROK. p80 CRMP-1 interacted with the kinase domain of ROKalpha, resulting in inhibition of the catalytic activity towards other substrates. Over-expression of p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 together counteracted the effects of RhoA on neurite retraction, an effect enhanced by mutation of the ROK phosphorylation site in CRMP-2. p80 CRMP-1 and CRMP-2 may be modulators of RhoA-dependent signaling, through interaction with and regulation of ROKalpha.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;3;445-9

  • Collapsin response mediator protein-1 and the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.

    Shih JY, Yang SC, Hong TM, Yuan A, Chen JJ, Yu CJ, Chang YL, Lee YC, Peck K, Wu CW and Yang PC

    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei.

    Background: Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis and invasion of cancer cells. To identify differentially expressed invasion-associated genes, we screened a panel of lung cancer cell lines (CL(1-0), CL(1-1), CL(1-5), and CL(1-5)-F(4) in order of increasing invasive activity) for such genes and selected one gene, collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP-1), to characterize.

    Methods: We used a microarray containing 9600 gene sequences to assess gene expression in the cell panel and selected the differentially expressed CRMP-1 gene for further study. We confirmed the differential expression of CRMP-1 with northern and western blot analyses. After transfecting and overexpressing CRMP-1 in highly invasive CL(1-5) cells, the cells were assessed morphologically and with an in vitro invasion assay. We used enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged CRMP-1 and fluorescence microscopy to localize CRMP-1 intracellularly. CRMP-1 expression in 80 lung cancer specimens was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All statistical tests were two-sided.

    Results: Expression of CRMP-1 was inversely associated with invasive activity in the cell panel, an observation confirmed by northern and western blot analyses. CRMP-1-transfected CL(1-5) cells became rounded and had fewer filopodia and statistically significantly lower in vitro invasive activity than untransfected cells (all P< .001). During interphase, CRMP-1 protein was present uniformly throughout the cytoplasm and sometimes in the nucleus; during mitosis, CRMP-1 was associated with mitotic spindles, centrosomes, and the midbody (in late telophase). Real-time RT-PCR of lung cancer specimens showed that reduced expression of CRMP-1 was statistically significantly associated with advanced disease (stage III or IV; P = .010), lymph node metastasis (N1, N2, and N3; P =.043), early postoperative relapse (P = .030), and shorter survival (P = .016).

    Conclusions: CRMP-1 appears to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis and may be an invasion-suppressor gene.

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001;93;18;1392-400

  • Genomic organization and localization of the human CRMP-1 gene.

    Torres R and Polymeropoulos MH

    Genetic Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-1 (CRMP-1) is a brain specific protein considered to be involved in the collapsin-induced growth cone collapse during neural development. CRMP-1 belongs to the Unc-33 gene family. Here we report the genomic structure and the localization of the human CRMP-1 gene to chromosome 4p16.1. Sequence analysis revealed that the human CRMP-1 gene consists of 14 exons. We have also established sequencing assays for all its coding exons. This should permit the rapid screening for mutations to assess CRMP-1 role in genetic disorders mapped in the 4p16.1 region.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;6;393-5

  • A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue distribution.

    Hamajima N, Matsuda K, Sakata S, Tamaki N, Sasaki M and Nonaka M

    Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya City University Medical School, Japan.

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding dihydropyrimidinase (DHPase) from human liver and its three homologues from human fetal brain. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of human DHPase showed 90% identity with that of rat DHPase, and the three homologues showed 57-59% aa identity with human DHPase, and 74-77% aa identity with each other. We tentatively termed these homologues human DHPase related protein (DRP)-1, DRP-2 and DRP-3. Human DRP-2 showed 98% aa identity with chicken CRMP-62 (collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass of 62 kDa) which is involved in neuronal growth cone collapse. Human DRP-3 showed 94-100% aa identity with two partial peptide sequences of rat TOAD-64 (turned on after division, 64 kDa) which is specifically expressed in postmitotic neurons. Human DHPase and DRPs showed a lower degree of aa sequence identity with Bacillus stearothermophilus hydantoinase (39-42%) and Caenorhabditis elegans unc-33 (32-34%). Thus we describe a novel gene family which displays differential tissue distribution: i.e., human DHPase, in liver and kidney; human DRP-1, in brain; human DRP-2, ubiquitously expressed except for liver; human DRP-3, mainly in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Gene 1996;180;1-2;157-63

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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