G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001604
Gene symbol
PLCB1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)
Orthologue
G00000355 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000182621 (Ensembl human gene)
23236 (Entrez Gene)
97 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PLCB1 (GeneCards)
Literature
607120 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:15917 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9NQ66 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • KIAA0581
  • PLC-I
  • PLC154

Diseases (1)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000138: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I N Y (9003510) Microinsertion (MI) N
D00000138: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I N Y (9003510) Polymorphism (P) N
D00000138: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I N Y (9003511) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N

References

  • Exclusion of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene as candidate for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) gene.

    de Wit MJ, Landsvater RM, Sinke RJ, Geurts van Kessel A, Lips CJ and Höppener JW

    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by hyperplasia and neoplasia in several endocrine organs. The MEN 1 gene, which is most probably a tumor suppressor gene, has been localized to a 900-kb region on chromosome 11q13. The human phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene, which is located within this region, was considered to be a good candidate for the MEN 1 gene. In this study, the structure and expression of the PLC beta 3 gene in MEN 1 patients were investigated in more detail, to determine its potential role in MEN 1 tumorigenesis. Southern blot analysis, using blood and tumor DNA from affected persons from seven different MEN 1 families, did not reveal structural abnormalities in the PLC beta 3 gene. To detect possible point mutations, or other small structural aberrations, direct sequencing of PLC beta 3 cDNAs from two affected persons from two different MEN 1 families was performed, but no MEN 1-specific abnormalities were revealed. Several common nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in these cDNAs, proving that both alleles of the PLC beta 3 gene were expressed and analyzed. In conclusion, these results exclude the PLC beta 3 gene as a candidate gene for MEN 1.

    Human genetics 1997;99;1;133-7

  • Exclusion of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLCB3) gene as a candidate for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Weber G, Grimmond S, Lagercrantz J, Friedman E, Phelan C, Carson E, Hayward N, Jacobovitz O, Nordenskjöld M and Larsson C

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    The predisposing genetic defect in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 has been assigned to chromosomal region 11q13. Our previous attempts to identify the MEN1 gene have resulted in the isolation of the phospholipase C beta 3 gene from the actual region. PLCB3 plays an important role in signal transduction and, moreover, shows loss of expression in some endocrine tumors, in accordance with a putative tumor suppressor gene function, and thus appears to be an excellent candidate for MEN1. We have therefore undertaken screening for constitutional mutations in individuals from MEN1 families. Several sequence alterations have been discovered, none of them however fulfilling the criteria for a disease-related mutation. We can now exclude PLCB3 from candidacy as the MEN1 gene.

    Human genetics 1997;99;1;130-2

Literature (57)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Exclusion of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene as candidate for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) gene.

    de Wit MJ, Landsvater RM, Sinke RJ, Geurts van Kessel A, Lips CJ and Höppener JW

    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by hyperplasia and neoplasia in several endocrine organs. The MEN 1 gene, which is most probably a tumor suppressor gene, has been localized to a 900-kb region on chromosome 11q13. The human phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene, which is located within this region, was considered to be a good candidate for the MEN 1 gene. In this study, the structure and expression of the PLC beta 3 gene in MEN 1 patients were investigated in more detail, to determine its potential role in MEN 1 tumorigenesis. Southern blot analysis, using blood and tumor DNA from affected persons from seven different MEN 1 families, did not reveal structural abnormalities in the PLC beta 3 gene. To detect possible point mutations, or other small structural aberrations, direct sequencing of PLC beta 3 cDNAs from two affected persons from two different MEN 1 families was performed, but no MEN 1-specific abnormalities were revealed. Several common nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in these cDNAs, proving that both alleles of the PLC beta 3 gene were expressed and analyzed. In conclusion, these results exclude the PLC beta 3 gene as a candidate gene for MEN 1.

    Human genetics 1997;99;1;133-7

  • Exclusion of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLCB3) gene as a candidate for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Weber G, Grimmond S, Lagercrantz J, Friedman E, Phelan C, Carson E, Hayward N, Jacobovitz O, Nordenskjöld M and Larsson C

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    The predisposing genetic defect in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 has been assigned to chromosomal region 11q13. Our previous attempts to identify the MEN1 gene have resulted in the isolation of the phospholipase C beta 3 gene from the actual region. PLCB3 plays an important role in signal transduction and, moreover, shows loss of expression in some endocrine tumors, in accordance with a putative tumor suppressor gene function, and thus appears to be an excellent candidate for MEN1. We have therefore undertaken screening for constitutional mutations in individuals from MEN1 families. Several sequence alterations have been discovered, none of them however fulfilling the criteria for a disease-related mutation. We can now exclude PLCB3 from candidacy as the MEN1 gene.

    Human genetics 1997;99;1;130-2

Pubmed - other

  • Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests.

    Cirulli ET, Kasperaviciūte D, Attix DK, Need AC, Ge D, Gibson G and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

    One surprising feature of the recently completed waves of genome-wide association studies is the limited impact of common genetic variation in individually detectable polymorphisms on many human traits. This has been particularly pronounced for studies on psychiatric conditions, which have failed to produce clear, replicable associations for common variants. One popular explanation for these negative findings is that many of these traits may be genetically heterogeneous, leading to the idea that relevant endophenotypes may be more genetically tractable. Aspects of cognition may be the most important endophenotypes for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, leading many researchers to pursue large-scale studies on the genetic contributors of cognitive performance in the normal population as a surrogate for aspects of liability to disease. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study with two tests of executive function, Digit Symbol and Stroop Color-Word, in 1086 healthy volunteers and with an expanded cognitive battery in 514 of these volunteers. We show that, consistent with published studies of the psychiatric conditions themselves, no single common variant has a large effect (explaining >4-8% of the population variation) on the performance of healthy individuals on standardized cognitive tests. Given that these are important endophenotypes, our work is consistent with the idea that identifying rare genetic causes of psychiatric conditions may be more important for future research than identifying genetically homogenous endophenotypes.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2010;18;7;815-20

  • A specific phospholipase C activity regulates phosphatidylinositol levels in lung surfactant of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Spyridakis S, Leondaritis G, Nakos G, Lekka ME and Galanopoulou D

    Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece.

    Lung surfactant (LS) is a lipid-rich material lining the inside of the lungs. It reduces surface tension at the liquid/air interface and thus, it confers protection of the alveoli from collapsing. The surface-active component of LS is dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, while anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and primarily phosphatidylglycerol are involved in the stabilization of the LS monolayer. The exact role of PtdIns in this system is not well-understood; however, PtdIns levels change dramatically during the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution. In this report we present evidence of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, which may regulate PtdIns levels. Characterization of this extracellular activity showed specificity for PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, sharing the typical substrate concentration-, pH-, and calcium-dependencies with mammalian PI-PLCs. Fractionation of BAL fluid showed that PI-PLC did not co-fractionate with large surfactant aggregates, but it was found mainly in the soluble fraction. Importantly, analysis of BAL samples from control subjects and from patients with ARDS showed that the PI-PLC specific activity was decreased by 4-fold in ARDS samples concurrently with the increase in BAL PtdIns levels. Thus, we have identified for the first time an extracellular PI-PLC enzyme activity that may be acutely involved in the regulation of PtdIns levels in LS.

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2010;42;3;357-62

  • A genome-wide study of common SNPs and CNVs in cognitive performance in the CANTAB.

    Need AC, Attix DK, McEvoy JM, Cirulli ET, Linney KL, Hunt P, Ge D, Heinzen EL, Maia JM, Shianna KV, Weale ME, Cherkas LF, Clement G, Spector TD, Gibson G and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, 450 Research Drive, Box 91009, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are commonly accompanied by cognitive impairments that are treatment resistant and crucial to functional outcome. There has been great interest in studying cognitive measures as endophenotypes for psychiatric disorders, with the hope that their genetic basis will be clearer. To investigate this, we performed a genome-wide association study involving 11 cognitive phenotypes from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. We showed these measures to be heritable by comparing the correlation in 100 monozygotic and 100 dizygotic twin pairs. The full battery was tested in approximately 750 subjects, and for spatial and verbal recognition memory, we investigated a further 500 individuals to search for smaller genetic effects. We were unable to find any genome-wide significant associations with either SNPs or common copy number variants. Nor could we formally replicate any polymorphism that has been previously associated with cognition, although we found a weak signal of lower than expected P-values for variants in a set of 10 candidate genes. We additionally investigated SNPs in genomic loci that have been shown to harbor rare variants that associate with neuropsychiatric disorders, to see if they showed any suggestion of association when considered as a separate set. Only NRXN1 showed evidence of significant association with cognition. These results suggest that common genetic variation does not strongly influence cognition in healthy subjects and that cognitive measures do not represent a more tractable genetic trait than clinical endpoints such as schizophrenia. We discuss a possible role for rare variation in cognitive genomics.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: G20234; Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;23;4650-61

  • Selective activation of the "b" splice variant of phospholipase Cbeta1 in chronically dilated human and mouse atria.

    Woodcock EA, Grubb DR, Filtz TM, Marasco S, Luo J, McLeod-Dryden TJ, Kaye DM, Sadoshima J, Du XJ, Wong C, McMullen JR and Dart AM

    Molecular Cardiology Laboratory, Baker IDI, Heart and Diabetes Institute, PO Box 6492, St. Kilda Road Central, Melbourne, 8008, Victoria, Australia. liz.woodcock@bakerIDI.edu.au

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with chronic dilatation of the left atrium, both in human disease and animal models. The immediate signaling enzyme phospholipase C (PLC) is activated by mechanical stretch to generate the Ca2+-releasing messenger inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), an activator of protein kinase C subtypes. There is also evidence that heightened activity of PLC, caused by the receptor coupling protein Gq, can contribute to atrial remodelling. We examined PLC activation in right and left atrial appendage from patients with mitral valve disease (VHD) and in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by transgenic overexpression of the stress-activated protein kinase, mammalian sterile 20 like kinase 1 (Mst1) (Mst1-TG). PLC activation was heightened 6- to 10-fold in atria from VHD patients compared with right atrial tissue from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and was also heightened in the dilated atria from Mst1-TG. PLC activation in human left atrial appendage and in mouse left atria correlated with left atrial size, implying a relationship between PLC activation and chronic dilatation. Dilated atria from human and mouse showed heightened expression of PLCbeta1b, but not of other PLC subtypes. PLCbeta1b, but not PLCbeta1a, caused apoptosis when overexpressed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, suggesting that PLCbeta1b may contribute to chamber dilatation. The activation of PLCbeta1b is a possible therapeutic target to limit atrial remodelling in VHD patients.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2009;47;5;676-83

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • Phosphoinositide-phospholipase C beta1 mono-allelic deletion is associated with myelodysplastic syndromes evolution into acute myeloid leukemia.

    Follo MY, Finelli C, Clissa C, Mongiorgi S, Bosi C, Martinelli G, Baccarani M, Manzoli L, Martelli AM and Cocco L

    Department of Human Anatomical Sciences, Cellular Signalling Laboratory, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. lucio.cocco@unibo.it

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between the presence of phosphoinositide-phospholipase C beta1 (PI-PLCbeta1) mono-allelic deletion with the clinical outcome of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients.

    Methods: PI-PLCbeta1, PI-PLCbeta4, and PI-PLCgamma1 cytogenetic investigations were performed on 80 newly diagnosed MDS patients (18 low risk, 26 intermediate 1, 18 intermediate 2, 18 high risk) comparing the results with the clinical outcome of the patients. Moreover, fluorescent in situ hybridization results were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, PI-PLCbeta1 gene and protein expression were assessed by both real-time PCR and immunocytochemical experiments.

    Results: Collectively, 35 (43.75%) of 80 of the MDS patients showed a specific mono-allelic deletion of PI-PLCbeta1. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant association (P < .0001) between the PI-PLCbeta1 mono-allelic deletion and a higher risk of evolution into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), since 23 of 35 MDS patients (65.7%) bearing the PI-PLCbeta1 mono-allelic deletion evolved into AML. Even in multivariate analysis, the PI-PLCbeta1 mono-allelic deletion retained a higher significance, with a P < .001, as a prognostic factor of evolution into AML (odds ratio [OR] 1.83; 95% CI, 2.26 to 17.24; P = .00045). Finally, PI-PLCbeta1 deletion was related to an altered gene and protein expression.

    Conclusion: PI-PLCbeta1 mono-allelic deletion is associated with a worse clinical outcome in MDS patients, hinting at the identification of a new group at higher risk of AML evolution and representing a reliable prognostic tool. Moreover, targeting PI-PLCbeta1 pathways might emerge as a new therapeutic strategy for MDS.

    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009;27;5;782-90

  • PI(3,4,5)P3 potentiates phospholipase C-beta activity.

    Zhang Y, Kwon SH, Vogel WK and Filtz TM

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) isozymes are key effectors in G protein-coupled signaling pathways. Previously, we showed that PLC-beta1 and PLC-beta3 bound immobilized PIP(3). In this study, PIP(3) was found to potentiate Ca(2+)-stimulated PLC-beta activities using an in vitro reconstitution assay. LY294002, a specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited 10 min of agonist-stimulated total IP accumulation. Both LY294002 and wortmannin inhibited 90 sec of agonist-stimulated IP(3) accumulation in intact cells. Moreover, transfected p110CAAX, a constitutively activated PI 3-kinase catalytic subunit, increased 90 sec of oxytocin-stimulated IP(3) accumulation. Receptor-ligand binding assays indicated that LY294002 did not affect G protein-coupled receptors directly, suggesting a physiological role for PIP(3) in directly potentiating PLC-beta activity. When coexpressed with p110CAAX, fluorescence-tagged PLC-beta3 was increasingly localized to the plasma membrane. Additional observations suggest that the PH domain of PLC-beta is not important for p110CAAX-induced membrane association.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: S10 RR 107903-01; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES 00210, P30 ES000210; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM 61244, R01 GM061244, R01 GM061244-05

    Journal of receptor and signal transduction research 2009;29;1;52-62

  • Regulation of PLCbeta1a membrane anchoring by its substrate phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate.

    Adjobo-Hermans MJ, Goedhart J and Gadella TW

    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Section of Molecular Cytology, Centre for Advanced Microscopy, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 316, NL-1098 SM, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Basic knowledge as to the subcellular location and dynamics of PLCbeta isozymes is scant. Here, we report on the subcellular location of GFP-PLCbeta1a and the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to examine the dynamics of GFP-PLCbeta1a at the plasma membrane upon stimulation of Gq-coupled receptors. Using this technique, we observed PLCbeta1a dissociation from the plasma membrane upon addition of agonist. An increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2 both coincided with a translocation of PLCbeta1a from the plasma membrane into the cytosol. In order to differentiate between calcium and PtdIns(4,5)P2, rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of FRB and FKBP12 fused to 5-phosphatase IV was used to instantaneously convert PtdIns(4,5)P2 into PtdIns(4)P. Addition of rapamycin caused PLCbeta1a to dissociate from the plasma membrane, indicating that removal of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is sufficient to cause translocation of PLCbeta1a from the plasma membrane. In conclusion, PLCbeta1a localization is regulated by its own substrate.

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 22;3770-7

  • Ins(1,4,5)P(3) regulates phospholipase Cbeta1 expression in cardiomyocytes.

    Vasilevski O, Grubb DR, Filtz TM, Yang S, McLeod-Dryden TJ, Luo J, Karna D, Chen J and Woodcock EA

    Cellular Biochemistry Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne, 3004, Victoria, Australia.

    The functional significance of the Ca2+-releasing second messenger inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3), IP(3)) in the heart has been controversial. Ins(1,4,5)P(3) is generated from the precursor lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP(2)) along with sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, and both of these are important cardiac effectors. Therefore, to evaluate the functional importance of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in cardiomyocytes (NRVM), we overexpressed IP(3) 5-phosphatase to increase degradation. Overexpression of IP(3) 5-phosphatase reduced Ins(1,4,5)P(3) responses to alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonists acutely, but with longer stimulation, caused an overall increase in phospholipase C (PLC) activity, associated with a selective increase in expression of PLCbeta1, that served to normalise Ins(1,4,5)P(3) content. Similar increases in PLC activity and PLCbeta1 expression were observed when Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was sequestered onto the PH domain of PLCdelta1, a high affinity selective Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-binding motif. These findings suggested that the available level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) selectively regulates the expression of PLCbeta1. Cardiac responses to Ins(1,4,5)P(3) are mediated by type 2 IP(3)-receptors. Hearts from IP(3)-receptor (type 2) knock-out mice showed heightened PLCbeta1 expression. We conclude that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and IP(3)-receptor (type 2) regulate PLCbeta1 and thereby maintain levels of Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This implies some functional significance for Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in the heart.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2008;45;5;679-84

  • Replication of a genome-wide case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Ng D, Hu N, Hu Y, Wang C, Giffen C, Tang ZZ, Han XY, Yang HH, Lee MP, Goldstein AM and Taylor PR

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7112, Bethesda, MD 20892-7236, USA. davidng@mail.nih.gov

    In a previous pilot case-control study of individuals diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and matched controls from a high-risk area in China, we identified 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ESCC located in or near one of 33 genes. In our study, we attempted to replicate the results of these 38 gene-related SNPs in a new sample of 300 ESCC cases and 300 matched controls from the same study conducted in Shanxi Province, China. Among 36 evaluable SNPs, 4 were significant in one or more analyses, including SNPs located in EPHB1, PGLYRP2, PIK3C3 and SLC9A9, although the odds ratios (ORs) for these genotypes were modest. Associations were found with EPHB1/rs1515366 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99; p = 0.019), PIK3C3/rs52911 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99; p = 0.02) and PGLYRP2/rs959117 (OR 0.93, 95% CI, 0.86-1.01; p = 0.061) in general linear models (additive mode); and the genotype distribution differed between cases and controls for SLC9A9/rs956062 (p = 0.024). To examine these 4 genes in more detail, 40 HapMap-based tag SNPs from these 4 genes were evaluated in the same subjects and 7 additional SNPs associated with ESCC were identified. Further confirmation of these findings in other populations and other studies are needed to determine if the signals from these SNPs are indirectly associated due to linkage disequilibrium, or are directly related to biologic function and the development of ESCC.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 HG999999

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;7;1610-5

  • Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation is required for CCR5-dependent, NF-kB-driven CCL2 secretion elicited in response to HIV-1 gp120 in human primary macrophages.

    Fantuzzi L, Spadaro F, Purificato C, Cecchetti S, Podo F, Belardelli F, Gessani S and Ramoni C

    Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

    CCL2 (MCP-1) has been shown to enhance HIV-1 replication. The expression of this chemokine by macrophages is up-modulated as a consequence of viral infection or gp120 exposure. In this study, we show for the first time that the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is required for the production of CCL2 triggered by gp120 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Using a combination of pharmacologic inhibition, confocal laser-scanner microscopy, and enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrate that R5 gp120 interaction with CCR5 activates PC-PLC, as assessed by a time-dependent modification of its subcellular distribution and a concentration-dependent increase of its enzymatic activity. Furthermore, PC-PLC is required for NF-kB-mediated CCL2 production triggered by R5 gp120. Notably, PC-PLC activation through CCR5 is specifically induced by gp120, since triggering CCR5 through its natural ligand CCL4 (MIP-1beta) does not affect PC-PLC cellular distribution and enzymatic activity, as well as CCL2 secretion, thus suggesting that different signaling pathways can be activated through CCR5 interaction with HIV-1 or chemokine ligands. The identification of PC-PLC as a critical mediator of well-defined gp120-mediated effects in MDMs unravels a novel mechanism involved in bystander activation and may contribute to define potential therapeutic targets to block Env-triggered pathologic responses.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R21 AI054215, R21 AI054215-01

    Blood 2008;111;7;3355-63

  • Spontaneous calcium oscillations and nuclear PLC-beta1 in human GV oocytes.

    Miyara F, Pesty A, Migne C, Djediat C, Huang XB, Dumont-Hassan M, Debey P and Lefèvre B

    INRA, UMR 1198, INRA Domaine de Vilvert, Jouy en Josas Cedex, France.

    Our aim was to investigate if human oocytes, like mouse oocytes, exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations and nuclear translocation of PLC-beta1 prior to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and to correlate these events with the evolution of chromatin configuration as a landmark for the meiosis resumption kinetics. Human germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were either loaded with Fluo-3 probe to record Ca(2+) signals or fixed for subsequent fluorescent labeling of both chromatin and PLC-beta1, and immunogold labeling of PLC-beta1. Here for the first time, we show that human oocytes at the GV-stage exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. Interestingly, only oocytes with a large diameter and characterized by a compact chromatin surrounding the nucleolus of the GV could reveal these kind of oscillations. We also observed a translocation of PLC-beta1 from the cytoplasm towards the nucleus during in vitro maturation of human oocytes. Spontaneous calcium oscillations and nuclear translocation of PLC-beta1 may reflect some degree of oocyte maturity. The impact of our results may be very helpful to understand and resolve many enigmatic problems usually encountered during the in vitro meiotic maturation of human GV oocytes.

    Molecular reproduction and development 2008;75;2;392-402

  • Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and ROS were involved in chicken blastodisc differentiation to vascular endothelial cells.

    Zhao J, Zhao B, Wang W, Huang B, Zhang S and Miao J

    Institute of Developmental Biology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shangdong 250100, China.

    To find the key factors that were involved in the survival and vascular endothelial differentiation of chick blatodisc induced by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), we built a chick vasculogenesis model in vitro. Subsequently, the activities of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), including Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent PC-PLC, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated during the endothelial differentiation of chick blastodisc. The results showed that Ca(2+)-indepentent PC-PLC underwent a remarkable increase in 24 h (P < 0.01), then it decreased gradually with the cell differentiation, while the Ca(2+)-depentent PC-PLC was nearly not changed in the whole process. At the same time, ROS level dramatically decreased during the cell differentiation. To understand the role of PC-PLC and how it performs its function in the vascular endothelial differentiation induced by FGF-2, we suppressed PC-PLC activity by its specific inhibitor D609 (tricyclodecan-9-yl potassium xanthate) at 24 h during the cell differentiation. As a result, the cell differentiation could not progress and the intracellular level of ROS was elevated. The data suggested that PC-PLC and ROS were involved in chicken blastodisc differentiation to vascular endothelial cells. PC-PLC was an important factor in the blastodisc cell survival and differentiation, and it might perform its function associated with ROS.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2007;102;2;421-8

  • Two waves of the nuclear phospholipase C activity in serum-stimulated HL-60 cells during G(1) phase of the cell cycle.

    Lukinovic-Skudar V, Matkovic K, Banfic H and Visnjic D

    Department of Physiology and Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 3, Zagreb, Croatia.

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is activated in cell nuclei during the cell cycle progression. We have previously demonstrated two peaks of an increase in the nuclear PI-PLC activities in nocodazole-synchronized HL-60 cells. In this study, the activity of nuclear PI-PLC was investigated in serum-stimulated HL-60 cells. In serum-starved HL-60 cells, two peaks of the activity of nuclear PI-PLC were detected at 30 min and 11 h after the re-addition of serum with no parallel increase in PLC activity in cytosol, postnuclear membranes or total cell lysates. An increase in the serine phosphorylation of b splicing variant of PI-PLCbeta(1) was detected with no change in the amount of PI-PLCbeta(1b) in nuclei isolated at 30 min and 11 h after the addition of serum. PI-PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH(3) and MEK inhibitor PD 98059 completely abolished serum-mediated increase at both time-points. The addition of inhibitors either immediately or 6 h after the addition of serum had inhibitory effects on the number of cells entering S phase. These results demonstrate that two waves of nuclear PI-PLCbeta(1b) activity occur in serum-stimulated cells during G(1) phase of the cell cycle and that the later increase in the PLC activity is equally important for the progression into the S phase.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R03 TW001381, R03 TW001381-04

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2007;1771;4;514-21

  • Nuclear inositide signaling: an appraisal of phospholipase C beta 1 behavior in myelodysplastic and leukemia cells.

    Cocco L, Follo MY, Faenza I, Bavelloni A, Billi AM, Martelli AM and Manzoli L

    Cellular Signalling Laboratory, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy. lcocco@biocfarm.unibo.it

    Advances in enzyme regulation 2007;47;2-9

  • Phospholipase C isoforms are localized at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis.

    Naito Y, Okada M and Yagisawa H

    Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo 678-1297.

    It has recently been demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is localized at the cleavage furrow in dividing cells and its hydrolysis is required for complete cytokinesis, suggesting a pivotal role of PIP2 in cytokinesis. Here, we report that at least three mammalian isoforms of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC), PLCdelta1, PLCdelta3 and PLCbeta1, are localized to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Targeting of the delta1 isoform to the furrow depends on the specific interaction between the PH domain and PIP2 in the plasma membrane. The necessity of active PLC in animal cell cytokinesis was confirmed using the specific inhibitors for PIP2 hydrolysis. These results support the model that activation of selected PLC isoforms at the cleavage furrow controls progression of cytokinesis through regulation of PIP2 levels: induction of the cleavage furrow by a contractile ring consisting of actomyosin is regulated by PIP2-dependent actin-binding proteins and formation of specific lipid domains required for membrane separation is affected by alterations in the lipid composition of the furrow.

    Journal of biochemistry 2006;140;6;785-91

  • Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.

    Kim SC, Sprung R, Chen Y, Xu Y, Ball H, Pei J, Cheng T, Kho Y, Xiao H, Xiao L, Grishin NV, White M, Yang XJ and Zhao Y

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107943

    Molecular cell 2006;23;4;607-18

  • Bacterial superantigens bypass Lck-dependent T cell receptor signaling by activating a Galpha11-dependent, PLC-beta-mediated pathway.

    Bueno C, Lemke CD, Criado G, Baroja ML, Ferguson SS, Rahman AK, Tsoukas CD, McCormick JK and Madrenas J

    The FOCIS Centre for Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapeutics, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada.

    The paradigm to explain antigen-dependent T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is based on the activation of the CD4 or CD8 coreceptor-associated kinase Lck. It is widely assumed that this paradigm is also applicable to signaling by bacterial superantigens. However, these bacterial toxins can activate human T cells lacking Lck, suggesting the existence of an additional pathway of TCR signaling. Here we showed that this alternative pathway operates in the absence of Lck-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylation events and was initiated by the TCR-dependent activation of raft-enriched heterotrimeric Galpha11 proteins. This event, in turn, activated a phospholipase C-beta and protein kinase C-mediated cascade that turned on the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and ERK-2, triggered Ca(2+) influx, and translocated the transcription factors NF-AT and NF-kappaB to the nucleus, ultimately inducing the production of interleukin-2 in Lck-deficient T cells. The triggering of this alternative pathway by superantigens suggests that these toxins use a G protein-coupled receptor as a coreceptor on T cells.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR048848

    Immunity 2006;25;1;67-78

  • Nuclear phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-beta 1: a central intermediary in nuclear lipid-dependent signal transduction.

    Martelli AM, Fiume R, Faenza I, Tabellini G, Evangelista C, Bortul R, Follo MY, Falà F and Cocco L

    Department of Human Anatomical Sciences and Muscoloskeletal System Physiopathology, Section of Human Anatomy, Cell Signalling Laboratory, University of Bologna, Italy. amartell@biocfarm.unibo.it

    Several studies have demonstrated the existence of an autonomous intranuclear phospho-inositide cycle that involves the activation of nuclear PI-PLC and the generation of diacylglycerol (DG) within the nucleus. Although several distinct isozymes of PI-PLC have been detected in the nucleus, the isoform that has been most consistently highlighted as being nuclear is PI-PLC-beta1. Nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been linked with either cell proliferation or differentiation. Remarkably, the activation mechanism of nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been shown to be different from its plasma membrane counterpart, being dependent on phosphorylation effected by p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. In this review, we report the most up-dated findings about nuclear PI-PLC-beta1, such as the localization in nuclear speckles, the activity changes during the cell cycle phases, and the possible involvement in the progression of myelodisplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Histology and histopathology 2005;20;4;1251-60

  • G-protein-activated phospholipase C-beta, new partners for cell polarity proteins Par3 and Par6.

    Cai Y, Stafford LJ, Bryan BA, Mitchell D and Liu M

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, 2121 W Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Cell polarity and asymmetric cell division are fundamental traits of all living cells and play an essential role in embryonic development, neuronal cell chirality formation, and maintenance of mammalian epithelial cell morphology. Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved in directing cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in different organisms. However, the mechanism for G-protein-mediated cell polarity and asymmetric cell division is poorly understood. In this study, we have demonstrated that G-protein-activated phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) interacts with cell polarity proteins Par3 and Par6 (Par: partition-defective) to form protein complexes and to mediate downstream signal transduction. The interactions between PLC-beta and Par proteins are direct and require the extreme C-terminal-specific sequence motifs of PLC-beta and the PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of Par proteins. Binding of Par proteins with PLC-beta stimulates PLC-beta enzymatic activity, leading to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, and the production of diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, important mediators in cell polarity and cell asymmetric division processes. Furthermore, we have shown that coexpression of PLC-beta with Par proteins induces transcriptional activation coupled to intracellular Ca2+ and the Wnt signaling pathway. Therefore, our data suggest that the interaction of PLC-beta with cell polarity Par proteins may serve as a nexus to transduce extracellular signals to transcriptional regulation through G-protein-mediated signaling pathway in cell polarity and cell asymmetric division.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL64792

    Oncogene 2005;24;26;4293-300

  • Apical localization of a functional TRPC3/TRPC6-Ca2+-signaling complex in polarized epithelial cells. Role in apical Ca2+ influx.

    Bandyopadhyay BC, Swaim WD, Liu X, Redman RS, Patterson RL and Ambudkar IS

    Secretory Physiology Section, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Receptor-coupled [Ca2+]i increase is initiated in the apical region of epithelial cells and has been associated with apically localized Ca2+-signaling proteins. However, localization of Ca2+ channels that are regulated by such Ca2+-signaling events has not yet been established. This study examines the localization of TRPC channels in polarized epithelial cells and demonstrates a role for TRPC3 in apical Ca2+ uptake. Endogenously and exogenously expressed TRPC3 was localized apically in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and salivary gland epithelial cells. In contrast, TRPC1 was localized basolaterally, whereas TRPC6 was detected in both locations. Localization of Galpha(q/11), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-3, and phospholipase Cbeta1 and -beta2 was also predominantly apical. TRPC3 co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous TRPC6, phospholipase Cbetas, Galpha(q/11), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-3, and syntaxin 3 but not with TRPC1. Furthermore, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-stimulated apical 45Ca2+ uptake was higher in TRPC3-MDCK cells compared with control (MDCK) cells. Bradykinin-stimulated apical 45Ca2+ uptake and transepithelial 45Ca2+ flux were also higher in TRPC3-expressing cells. Consistent with this, OAG induced [Ca2+]i increase in the apical, but not basal, region of TRPC3-MDCK cells that was blocked by EGTA addition to the apical medium. Most importantly, (i) TRPC3 was detected in the apical region of rat submandibular gland ducts, whereas TRPC6 was present in apical as well as basolateral regions of ducts and acini; and (ii) OAG stimulated Ca2+ influx into dispersed ductal cells. These data demonstrate functional localization of TRPC3/TRPC6 channels in the apical region of polarized epithelial cells. In salivary gland ducts this could contribute to the regulation of salivary [Ca2+] and secretion.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;13;12908-16

  • Regulatory interactions between the amino terminus of G-protein betagamma subunits and the catalytic domain of phospholipase Cbeta2.

    Bonacci TM, Ghosh M, Malik S and Smrcka AV

    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Ave., Rochester, New York 14642, USA,

    We previously identified a 10-amino acid region from the Y domain of phospholipase Cbeta2 (PLCbeta2) that associates with G-protein betagamma subunits (Sankaran, B., Osterhout, J., Wu, D., and Smrcka, A. V. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7148-7154). We mapped the site for cross-linking of a synthetic peptide (N20K) corresponding to this Y domain region to Cys(25) within the amino-terminal coiled-coil domain of Gbetagamma (Yoshikawa, D. M., Bresciano, K., Hatwar, M., and Smrcka, A. V. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11246-11251). Here, further experiments with a series of variable length cross-linking agents refined the site of N20K binding to within 4.4-6.7 angstroms of Cys(25). A mutant within the amino terminus of the Gbeta subunit, Gbeta(1)(23-27)gamma(2), activated PLCbeta2 more effectively than wild type, with no significant change in the EC(50), indicating that this region is directly involved in the catalytic regulation of PLCbeta2. This mutant was deficient in cross-linking to N20K, suggesting that a binding site for the peptide had been eliminated. Surprisingly, N20K could still inhibit Gbeta(1)(23-27)gamma(2)-dependent activation of PLC, suggesting a second N20K binding site. Competition analysis with a peptide that binds to the Galpha subunit switch II binding surface of Gbetagamma indicates a second N20K binding site at this surface. Furthermore, mutations to the N20K region within the Y-domain of full-length PLCbeta2 inhibited Gbetagamma-dependent regulation of the enzyme, providing further evidence for aGbetagamma binding site within the catalytic domain of PLCbeta2. The data support a model with two modes of PLC binding to Gbetagamma through the catalytic domain, where interactions with the amino-terminal coiled-coil domain are inhibitory, and interactions with the Galpha subunit switch II binding surface are stimulatory.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL/T3207949; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60286

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;10174-81

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Inositide-specific phospholipase c beta1 gene deletion in the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Lo Vasco VR, Calabrese G, Manzoli L, Palka G, Spadano A, Morizio E, Guanciali-Franchi P, Fantasia D and Cocco L

    Cellular Signalling Laboratory, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is an adult hematological disease that evolves into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in about 30% of the cases. The availability of a highly specific probe moved us to perform in patients affected with MDS/AML, associated with normal karyotype, painting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis aimed to check the inositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) beta1 gene, a player in the control of some checkpoints of the cell cycle. Here we present a preliminary observation in which FISH analysis disclosed in a small group of MDS/AML patients with normal karyotype the monoallelic deletion of the PI-PLCbeta1 gene. On the contrary, PI-PLC beta4, another gene coding for a signaling molecule, located on 20p12.3 at a distance as far as less than 1Mb from PI-PLCbeta1, is unaffected in MDS patients with the deletion of PI-PLC beta1 gene, hinting at an interstitial deletion. The MDS patients, bearing the deletion, rapidly evolved to AML. The data suggest the possible involvement of PI-PLCbeta1 in the progression of the disease and pave the way for a larger investigation aimed at identifying a possible high-risk group among MDS patients with a normal karyotype.

    Leukemia 2004;18;6;1122-6

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Calmodulin is a phospholipase C-beta interacting protein.

    McCullar JS, Larsen SA, Millimaki RA and Filtz TM

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and the Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

    Phospholipase C-beta 3 (PLC beta 3) is an important effector enzyme in G protein-coupled signaling pathways. Activation of PLC beta 3 by G alpha and G beta gamma subunits has been fairly well characterized, but little is known about other protein interactions that may also regulate PLC beta 3 function. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a mouse brain cDNA library with the amino terminus of PLC beta 3 has yielded potential PLC beta 3 interacting proteins including calmodulin (CaM). Physical interaction between CaM and PLC beta 3 is supported by a positive secondary screen in yeast and the identification of a CaM binding site in the amino terminus of PLC beta 3. Co-precipitation of in vitro translated and transcribed amino- and carboxyl-terminal PLC beta 3 revealed CaM binding at a putative amino-terminal binding site. Direct physical interaction of PLC beta 3 and PLC beta 1 isoforms with CaM is supported by pull-down of both isoenzymes with CaM-Sepharose beads from 1321N1 cell lysates. CaM inhibitors reduced M1-muscarinic receptor stimulation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells consistent with a physiologic role for CaM in modulation of PLC beta activity. There was no effect of CaM kinase II inhibitors, KN-93 and KN-62, on M1-muscarinic receptor stimulation of inositol phosphate hydrolysis, consistent with a direct interaction between PLC beta isoforms and CaM.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61244, R01 GM061244

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;36;33708-13

  • Diacylglycerol kinase-theta is localized in the speckle domains of the nucleus.

    Tabellini G, Bortul R, Santi S, Riccio M, Baldini G, Cappellini A, Billi AM, Berezney R, Ruggeri A, Cocco L and Martelli AM

    Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Sezione di Anatomia Umana, Cell Signalling Laboratory, Università di Bologna, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

    It is well established that the nucleus is endowed with enzymes that are involved in lipid-dependent signal transduction pathways. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a fundamental lipid second messenger that is produced in the nucleus. Previous reports have shown that the nucleus contains diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), i.e., the enzymes that, by converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA), terminate DAG-dependent events. Here, we show, by immunofluorescence staining and confocal analysis, that DGK-theta localizes mainly to the nucleus of various cell lines, such as MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, PC12, and HeLa. Nuclear DGK-theta co-localizes with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) in domains that correspond to nuclear speckles, as revealed by the use of an antibody to the splicing factor SC-35, a well-established marker for these structures. The spatial distribution of nuclear DGK-theta was dynamic in that it was affected by inhibition of mRNA transcription with alpha-amanitin. Immuno-electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that DGK-theta, PIP(2), and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cbeta1 (PLCbeta1) associated with electron-dense particles within the nucleus that correspond to interchromatin granule clusters. Cell fractionation experiments performed in MDA-MB-453, HeLa, and PC12 cells showed a preferential association of DGK-theta with the nucleus. Western blots demonstrated that DGK-theta was enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction prepared from MDA-MB-453 cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments with an antibody to PLCbeta1 revealed in MDA-MB-453 cells an association between this enzyme and both DGK-theta and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase Ialpha (PIPKIalpha). Our findings strengthen the contention that speckles represent a crucial site for the nuclear-based inositol lipid cycle. We may speculate that nuclear speckle-located DGK-theta, on cell stimulation with an agonist, converts to PA the DAG derived from PLCbeta1-dependent PIP(2) hydrolysis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23922

    Experimental cell research 2003;287;1;143-54

  • Signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 Tat in human monocytes to induce TNF-alpha.

    Bennasser Y, Badou A, Tkaczuk J and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse Cedex, France.

    In this study we investigated the signaling pathways triggered by Tat in human monocyte to induce TNF-alpha. In monocytes, the calcium, the PKA, and the PKC pathways are highly implicated in the expression of cytokine genes. Thus, these three major signaling pathways were investigated. Our data show that (i) PKC and calcium pathways are required for TNF-alpha production, whereas the PKA pathway seems to be not involved; (ii) downstream from PKC, activation of NFkappaB is essential while ERK1/2 MAP kinases, even though activated by Tat, are not directly involved in the pathway signaling leading to TNF-alpha production.

    Virology 2002;303;1;174-80

  • Regulation of GTP-binding protein alpha q (Galpha q) signaling by the ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50).

    Rochdi MD, Watier V, La Madeleine C, Nakata H, Kozasa T and Parent JL

    Service de Rhumatologie, Faculté de Médecine and Centre de Recherche Clinique-CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada.

    Although ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is a PDZ domain-containing protein known to bind to various channels, receptors, cytoskeletal elements, and cytoplasmic proteins, there is still very little evidence for a role of EBP50 in the regulation of receptor signal transduction. In this report, we show that EBP50 inhibits the phospholipase C (PLC)-beta-mediated inositol phosphate production of a Galpha(q)-coupled receptor as well as PLC-beta activation by the constitutively active Galpha(q)-R183C mutant. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that EBP50 interacts with Galpha(q) and to a greater extent with Galpha(q)-R183C. Agonist stimulation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP receptor) resulted in an increased interaction between EBP50 and Galpha(q), suggesting that EBP50 preferentially interacts with activated Galpha(q). We also demonstrate that EBP50 inhibits Galpha(q) signaling by preventing the interaction between Galpha(q) and the TP receptor and between activated Galpha(q) and PLC-beta1. Investigation of the EBP50 regions involved in Galpha(q) binding indicated that its two PDZ domains are responsible for this interaction. This study constitutes the first demonstration of an interaction between a G protein alpha subunit and another protein through a PDZ domain, with broad implications in the regulation of diverse physiological systems.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40751-9

  • Molecular characterization of the human PLC beta1 gene.

    Peruzzi D, Aluigi M, Manzoli L, Billi AM, Di Giorgio FP, Morleo M, Martelli AM and Cocco L

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, Cellular Signalling Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, 48, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.

    Inositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) signaling constitutes a central intermediate in a number of cellular functions among which the control of cell growth raises a particular interest. Indeed, we have previously shown that nuclear phospholipase C beta1 (PLC beta1) is central for the regulation of mitogen-induced cell growth. We have also assigned by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis the PLC beta1 to human chromosome 20p12. In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the human gene, showing the existence of alternative splicing, which gives rise, besides the two forms (1a and 1b) already shown in rodents, to a new 600 bp smaller form coding for a 110 kDa protein. We have also identified a new exon at the 5', showing no homology with the rodent sequence. Here we provide the complete determination of the exon/intron structure of the gene spanning 250 kb of DNA. We found that the exons are quite small, ranging from 49 to 222 bp, while the introns vary between 108 bp and 34,400 bp. The availability of the understanding of the genome organization of this inositide-specific PLC, which represents a key step of the cell cycle related signaling, could actually pave the way for further genetic analysis of p12 region of human chromosome 20 in diseases involving alterations of the control of cell growth such as malignancies.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1584;1;46-54

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • The TRPM7 channel is inactivated by PIP(2) hydrolysis.

    Runnels LW, Yue L and Clapham DE

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Enders 1309, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    TRPM7 (ChaK1, TRP-PLIK, LTRPC7) is a ubiquitous, calcium-permeant ion channel that is unique in being both an ion channel and a serine/threonine kinase. The kinase domain of TRPM7 directly associates with the C2 domain of phospholipase C (PLC). Here, we show that in native cardiac cells and heterologous expression systems, G alpha q-linked receptors or tyrosine kinase receptors that activate PLC potently inhibit channel activity. Numerous experimental approaches demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), the substrate of PLC, is a key regulator of TRPM7. We conclude that receptor-mediated activation of PLC results in the hydrolysis of localized PIP(2), leading to inactivation of the TRPM7 channel.

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;5;329-36

  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate modifies tubulin participation in phospholipase Cbeta1 signaling.

    Popova JS, Greene AK, Wang J and Rasenick MM

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60612-7342, USA.

    Tubulin forms the microtubule and regulates certain G-protein-mediated signaling pathways. Both functions rely on the GTP-binding properties of tubulin. Signal transduction through Galpha(q)-regulated phospholipase Cbeta1 (PLCbeta1) is activated by tubulin through a direct transfer of GTP from tubulin to Galpha(q). However, at high tubulin concentrations, inhibition of PLCbeta1 is observed. This report demonstrates that tubulin inhibits PLCbeta1 by binding the PLCbeta1 substrate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Tubulin binding of PIP2 was specific, because PIP2 but not phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate inhibited microtubule assembly. PIP2 did not affect GTP binding or GTP hydrolysis by tubulin. Muscarinic agonists promoted microtubule depolymerization and translocation of tubulin to the plasma membrane. PIP2 augmented this process in both Sf9 cells, containing a recombinant PLCbeta1 pathway, and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Colocalization of tubulin and PIP2 at the plasma membrane was demonstrated with confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy. Although tubulin bound to both Galpha(q) and PLCbeta1, PIP2 facilitated the interaction between tubulin and PLCbeta1 but not that between tubulin and Galpha(q). However, PIP2 did augment formation of tubulin--Galpha(q)-PLCbeta1 complexes. Subsequent to potentiating PLCbeta1 activation, sustained agonist-independent membrane binding of tubulin at PIP2- and PLCbeta1-rich sites appeared to inhibit Galpha(q) coupling to PLCbeta1. Furthermore, colchicine increased membrane-associated tubulin and also inhibited PLCbeta1 activity in SK-N-SH cells. Thus, tubulin, depending on local membrane concentration, may serve as a positive or negative regulator of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Rapid changes in membrane lipid composition or in the cytoskeleton might modify neuronal signaling through such a mechanism.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 15482; NIMH NIH HHS: MH 39595

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;5;1668-78

  • A unique fold of phospholipase C-beta mediates dimerization and interaction with G alpha q.

    Singer AU, Waldo GL, Harden TK and Sondek J

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    GTP-bound subunits of the Gq family of G alpha subunits directly activate phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) isozymes to produce the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. PLC-betas are GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that also promote the formation of GDP-bound, inactive G beta subunits. Both phospholipase activation by G alpha-GTP subunits and GAP activity require a C-terminal region unique to PLC-beta isozymes. The crystal structure of the C-terminal region from an avian PLC-beta, determined at 2.4 A resolution, reveals a novel fold composed almost entirely of three long helices forming a coiled-coil that dimerizes along its long axis in an antiparallel orientation. The dimer interface is extensive ( approximately 3,200 A(2)), and, based on gel exclusion chromatography, full length PLC-betas are dimeric, indicating that PLC-betas likely function as dimers. Sequence conservation, mutational data and molecular modeling show that an electrostatically positive surface of the dimer contains the major determinants for binding G beta q. Effector dimerization, as highlighted by PLC-betas, provides a viable mechanism for regulating signaling cascades linked to heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Nature structural biology 2002;9;1;32-6

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.

    Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, Rice CM, Ross MT, Scott CE, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Soderlund C, Steward CA, Sulston JE, Swann M, Sycamore N, Taylor R, Tee L, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans AC, Vaudin M, Wall M, Wallis JM, Whitehead SL, Whittaker P, Willey DL, Williams L, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Hubbard T, Durbin RM, Bentley DR, Beck S and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within the pericentromeric region of the long arm. We annotated 727 genes and 168 pseudogenes in the sequence. About 64% of these genes have a 5' and a 3' untranslated region and a complete open reading frame. Comparative analysis of the sequence of chromosome 20 to whole-genome shotgun-sequence data of two other vertebrates, the mouse Mus musculus and the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis, provides an independent measure of the efficiency of gene annotation, and indicates that this analysis may account for more than 95% of all coding exons and almost all genes.

    Nature 2001;414;6866;865-71

  • Interleukin 2 activates nuclear phospholipase Cbeta by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation in human natural killer cells.

    Vitale M, Matteucci A, Manzoli L, Rodella L, Mariani AR, Zauli G, Falconi M, Billi AM, Martelli AM, Gilmour RS and Cocco L

    Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Parma, Ospedale Maggiore, 14 43100 Parma, Italy.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2001;15;10;1789-91

  • Protein kinase C alpha -mediated negative feedback regulation is responsible for the termination of insulin-like growth factor I-induced activation of nuclear phospholipase C beta1 in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    Xu A, Wang Y, Xu LY and Gilmour RS

    Liggins Institute, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Previous studies from several independent laboratories have demonstrated the existence of an autonomous phosphoinositide (PI) cycle within the nucleus, where it is involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to induce a transient and rapid increase in the activity of nuclear-localized phospholipase C (PLC) beta1, which in turn leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol in the nucleus. Nuclear diacylglycerol provides the driving force for the nuclear translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha. Here, we report that treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with Go6976, a selective inhibitor of PKC alpha, caused a sustained elevation of IGF-I-stimulated nuclear PLC activity. A time course study revealed an inverse relationship between nuclear PKC activity and the activity of nuclear PLC in IGF-I-treated cells. A time-dependent association between PKC alpha and PLC beta1 in the nucleus was also observed following IGF-I treatment. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that PKC promoted phosphorylation of PLC beta1 at serine 887 in the nucleus of IGF-I-treated cells. Overexpression of either a PLC beta1 mutant in which the PKC phosphorylation site Ser(887) was replaced by alanine, or a dominant-negative PKC alpha, resulted in a sustained activation of nuclear PLC following IGF-I stimulation. These results indicate that a negative feedback regulation of PLC beta1 by PKC alpha plays a critical role in the termination of the IGF-I-dependent signal that activates the nuclear PI cycle.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;18;14980-6

  • Phosphorylation of nuclear phospholipase C beta1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates the mitogenic action of insulin-like growth factor I.

    Xu A, Suh PG, Marmy-Conus N, Pearson RB, Seok OY, Cocco L and Gilmour RS

    Liggins Institute, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

    It is well established that a phosphoinositide (PI) cycle which is operationally distinct from the classical plasma membrane PI cycle exists within the nucleus, where it is involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the regulation of the nuclear PI cycle. Here, we report that nucleus-localized phospholipase C (PLC) beta1, the key enzyme for the initiation of this cycle, is a physiological target of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) caused rapid nuclear translocation of activated ERK and concurrently induced phosphorylation of nuclear PLC beta1, which was completely blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. Coimmunoprecipitation detected a specific association between the activated ERK and PLC beta1 within the nucleus. In vitro studies revealed that recombinant PLC beta1 could be efficiently phosphorylated by activated mitogen-activated protein kinase but not by PKA. The ERK phosphorylation site was mapped to serine 982, which lies within a PSSP motif located in the characteristic carboxy-terminal tail of PLC beta1. In cells overexpressing a PLC beta1 mutant in which serine 982 is replaced by glycine (S982G), IGF-I failed to activate the nuclear PI cycle, and its mitogenic effect was also markedly attenuated. Expression of S982G was found to inhibit ERK-mediated phosphorylation of endogenous PLC beta1. This result suggests that ERK-evoked phosphorylation of PLC beta1 at serine 982 plays a critical role in the activation of the nuclear PI cycle and is also crucial to the mitogenic action of IGF-I.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;9;2981-90

  • Determination of the contact energies between a regulator of G protein signaling and G protein subunits and phospholipase C beta 1.

    Dowal L, Elliott J, Popov S, Wilkie TM and Scarlata S

    Department of Physiology & Biophysics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8661, USA.

    Cell signaling proteins may form functional complexes that are capable of rapid signal turnover. These contacts may be stabilized by either scaffolding proteins or multiple interactions between members of the complex. In this study, we have determined the affinities between a regulator of G protein signaling protein, RGS4, and three members of the G protein-phospholipase Cbeta (PLC-beta) signaling cascade which may allow for rapid deactivation of intracellular Ca(2+) release and activation of protein kinase C. Specifically, using fluorescence methods, we have determined the interaction energies between the RGS4, PLC-beta, G-betagamma, and both deactivated (GDP-bound) and activated (GTPgammaS-bound) Galpha(q). We find that RGS4 not only binds to activated Galpha(q), as predicted, but also to Gbetagamma and PLCbeta(1). These interactions occur through protein-protein contacts since the intrinsic membrane affinity of RGS4 was found to be very weak in the absence of the protein partner PLCbeta(1) or a lipid regulator, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5 trisphosphate. Ternary complexes between Galpha(q), Gbetagamma and phospholipase Cbeta(1) will form, but only at relatively high protein concentrations. We propose that these interactions allow RGS4 to remain anchored to the signaling complex even in the quiescent state and allow rapid transfer to activated Galpha(q) to shut down the signal. Comparison of the relative affinities between these interacting proteins will ultimately allow us to determine whether certain complexes can form and where signals will be directed.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53132

    Biochemistry 2001;40;2;414-21

  • Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E and Terstappen GC

    Biology Department, GlaxoWellcome Medicines Research Centre, Verona, Italy.

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1517;1;63-72

  • Association of mammalian trp4 and phospholipase C isozymes with a PDZ domain-containing protein, NHERF.

    Tang Y, Tang J, Chen Z, Trost C, Flockerzi V, Li M, Ramesh V and Zhu MX

    Neurobiotechnology Center and Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    Mammalian homologues of Drosophila Trp have been implicated to form channels that are activated following the depletion of Ca(2+) from internal stores. Recent studies indicate that actin redistribution is required for the activation of these channels. Here we show that murine Trp4 and Trp5, as well as phospholipase C beta1 and beta2 interact with the first PDZ domain of NHERF, regulatory factor of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. We demonstrated the association of Trp4 and phospholipase C-beta1 with NHERF in vivo in an HEK293 cell line expressing Trp4 and in adult mouse brain by immuno-coprecipitation. NHERF is a two PDZ domain-containing protein that associates with the actin cytoskeleton via interactions with members of ezrin/radixin/moesin family. Thus, store-operated channels involving Trp4 and Trp5 can form signaling complexes with phospholipase C isozymes via interactions with NHERF and thereby linking the lipase and the channels to the actin cytoskeleton. The interaction with the PDZ protein may constitute an important mechanism for distribution and regulation of store-operated channels.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM54235

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;48;37559-64

  • Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages.

    Mayne M, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic and increases macrophage and microglia production of TNF-alpha, a cytopathic cytokine linked to the neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia. Others have shown that intracellular calcium regulates TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and we have shown that Tat releases calcium from inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-regulated stores in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Tat-induced TNF-alpha production was dependent on the release of intracellular calcium from IP3-regulated calcium stores in primary macrophages. We found that Tat transiently and dose-dependently increased levels of intracellular calcium and that this increase was blocked by xestospongin C, pertussis toxin, and by phospholipase C and type 1 protein kinase C inhibitors but not by protein kinase A or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Xestospongin C, BAPTA-AM, U73122, and bisindolylmalemide significantly inhibited Tat-induced TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that in macrophages, Tat-induced release of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of nonconventional PKC isoforms play an important role in Tat-induced TNF-alpha production.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;164;12;6538-42

  • Identification and chromosomal localisation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation of human gene of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C beta(1).

    Peruzzi D, Calabrese G, Faenza I, Manzoli L, Matteucci A, Gianfrancesco F, Billi AM, Stuppia L, Palka G and Cocco L

    Cellular Signalling Laboratory, Institute of Anatomy at the University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.

    Members of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) families are central intermediary in signal transduction in response to the occupancy of receptors by many growth factors. Among PLC isoforms, the type beta(1) is of particular interest because of its reported nuclear localisation in addition to its presence at the plasma membrane. It has been previously shown that both the stimulation and the inhibition of the nuclear PLCbeta(1) under different stimuli implicate PLCbeta(1) as an important enzyme for mitogen-activated cell growth as well as for murine erythroleukaemia cell differentiation. The above findings hinting at a direct involvement of PLCbeta(1) in controlling the cell cycle in rodent cells, and the previously reported mapping of its gene in rat chromosome band 3q35-36, a region frequently rearranged in rat tumours induced by chemical carcinogenesis, prompted us to identify its human homologue. By screening a human foetal brain cDNA library with the rat PLCbeta(1) cDNA probe, we have identified a clone homologous to a sequence in gene bank called KIAA 0581, which encodes a large part of the human PLCbeta(1). By using this human cDNA in fluorescence in situ hybridisation on human metaphases, it has been possible to map human PLCbeta(1) on chromosome 20p12, confirming the synteny between rat chromosome 3 and human chromosome 20 and providing a novel locus of homology between bands q35-36 in rat and p12 in man. Since band 20p12 has been recently reported amplified and/or deleted in several solid tumours, the identification and chromosome mapping of human PLCbeta(1) could pave the way for further investigations on the role exerted both in normal human cells and in human tumours by PLCbeta(1), which has been shown to behave as a key signalling intermediate in the control of the cell cycle.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1484;2-3;175-82

  • Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-regulated stores of intracellular calcium in calcium dysregulation and neuron cell death caused by HIV-1 protein tat.

    Haughey NJ, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 infection commonly leads to neuronal cell death and a debilitating syndrome known as AIDS-related dementia complex. The HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic, and because cell survival is affected by the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), we determined mechanisms by which Tat increased [Ca2+]i and the involvement of these mechanisms in Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Tat increased [Ca2+]i dose-dependently in cultured human fetal neurons and astrocytes. In neurons, but not astrocytes, we observed biphasic increases of [Ca2+]i. Initial transient increases were larger in astrocytes than in neurons and in both cell types were significantly attenuated by antagonists of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated intracellular calcium release [8-(diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate HCI (TMB-8) and xestospongin], an inhibitor of receptor-Gi protein coupling (pertussis toxin), and a phospholipase C inhibitor (neomycin). Tat significantly increased levels of IP3 threefold. Secondary increases of neuronal [Ca2+]i in neurons were delayed and progressive as a result of excessive calcium influx and were inhibited by the glutamate receptor antagonists ketamine, MK-801, (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. Secondary increases of [Ca2+]i did not occur when initial increases of [Ca2+]i were prevented with TMB-8, xestospongin, pertussis toxin, or neomycin, and these inhibitors as well as thapsigargin inhibited Tat-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggest that Tat, via pertussis toxin-sensitive phospholipase C activity, induces calcium release from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores, which leads to glutamate receptor-mediated calcium influx, dysregulation of [Ca2+]i, and Tat-induced neurotoxicity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;4;1363-74

  • GTPase activating specificity of RGS12 and binding specificity of an alternatively spliced PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain.

    Snow BE, Hall RA, Krumins AM, Brothers GM, Bouchard D, Brothers CA, Chung S, Mangion J, Gilman AG, Lefkowitz RJ and Siderovski DP

    Amgen Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C1, Canada.

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins increase the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of G-protein alpha subunits in vitro, but how specific G-protein-coupled receptor systems are targeted for down-regulation by RGS proteins remains uncharacterized. Here, we describe the GTPase specificity of RGS12 and identify four alternatively spliced forms of human RGS12 mRNA. Two RGS12 isoforms of 6.3 and 5.7 kilobases (kb), encoding both an N-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain and the RGS domain, are expressed in most tissues, with highest levels observed in testis, ovary, spleen, cerebellum, and caudate nucleus. The 5.7-kb isoform has an alternative 3' end encoding a putative C-terminal PDZ domain docking site. Two smaller isoforms, of 3.1 and 3.7 kb, which lack the PDZ domain and encode the RGS domain with and without the alternative 3' end, respectively, are most abundantly expressed in brain, kidney, thymus, and prostate. In vitro biochemical assays indicate that RGS12 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gi class alpha subunits. Biochemical and interaction trap experiments suggest that the RGS12 N terminus acts as a classical PDZ domain, binding selectively to C-terminal (A/S)-T-X-(L/V) motifs as found within both the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the alternative 3' exon form of RGS12. The presence of an alternatively spliced PDZ domain within RGS12 suggests a mechanism by which RGS proteins may target specific G-protein-coupled receptor systems for desensitization.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL16037; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;28;17749-55

  • HIV-1 tat molecular diversity and induction of TNF-alpha: implications for HIV-induced neurological disease.

    Mayne M, Bratanich AC, Chen P, Rana F, Nath A and Power C

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    Activation and infection by HIV-1 of glial cells and infiltrating macrophages are cardinal features of AIDS-related neurological disease. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released by these cell types, and increased TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels are associated with the development and severity of HIV-induced neurological disease. HIV-1 proteins have been implicated in HIV neuropathogenesis including Tat which has been shown to be a potent inducer of TNF-alpha. We review our data showing the induction of TNF-alpha by Tat in primary human fetal astrocytes, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrophages, and astrocytic and macrophage cell lines. TNF-alpha induction was NF-kappaB dependent and was eliminated by inhibiting protein kinase A, phospholipase C and protein tyrosine kinase activity. In addition, we examined the molecular diversity of the tat genome in the brains of HIV-infected patients from different HIV-1 clades. Comparison of matched brain- and spleen-derived tat sequences indicated that homology among brain-derived clones was greater than that between the brain- and spleen-derived clones. The brain-derived tat sequences were markedly heterogeneous in regions which influence viral replication and intracellular transport. Future studies using Tat, encoded by different sequences, will be necessary to determine the functional significance of tat molecular diversity. Nonetheless, these studies suggest that Tat is an important inducer of TNF-alpha production and thus may play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related neurological disease.

    Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5;3-4;184-92

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of a series of projects for sequencing human cDNA clones derived from relatively long transcripts, we herein report the entire sequences of 100 newly determined cDNA clones with the potential of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries with insert sizes between 4.5 and 8.3 kb. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and of their open reading frames was 5.3 kb and 2.8 kb (930 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology search against public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 86 clones exhibited significant similarities to known genes; 51 of them (59%) were related to those for cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. All the clones characterized in this study are accompanied by their expression profiles in 14 human tissues examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal mapping data.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;1;31-9

  • The Tat protein of HIV-1 induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Implications for HIV-1-associated neurological diseases.

    Chen P, Mayne M, Power C and Nath A

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may cause a dementing illness. HIV-mediated dementia is clinically and pathologically correlated with the infiltration of activated macrophages and elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, both of which occur in an environment of small numbers of infected cells. We examined the possibility that HIV protein Tat, which is released extracellularly from infected cells, may induce the production of TNF-alpha. Tat induced TNF-alpha mRNA and protein production dose-dependently, primarily in macrophages but also in astrocytic cells. The TNF-alpha induction was NF-kappaB-dependent and could be eliminated by inhibiting protein kinase A or protein tyrosine kinase activity. In addition, Tat-induced TNF-alpha release was also linked to phospholipase C activation. However, Tat effects were independent of protein kinase C. These observations suggest that Tat may provide an important link between HIV and macrophage/glial cell activation and suggest new therapeutic approaches for HIV dementia.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;36;22385-8

  • Signaling through G proteins in platelets: to the integrins and beyond.

    Brass LF, Manning DR, Cichowski K and Abrams CS

    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA. brass@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Many of the agonists that cause platelet activation are thought to do so by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors on the platelet surface. By activating heterotrimeric G proteins, these receptors evoke shape change, granule secretion and platelet aggregation. This review provides a brief overview of these events, summarizes current information about the role of pleckstrin in events downstream from G protein-coupled receptors, and briefly considers the signaling pathways that couple G protein activation to the low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins which control cytoskeletal reorganization and fibrinogen receptor exposure during platelet activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL40387, HL45181, HL54500; ...

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 1997;78;1;581-9

  • Distribution of phospholipase C isozymes in normal human lung tissue and their immunohistochemical localization.

    Hwang SC, Park KH, Ha MJ, Noh IS, Park TB and Lee YH

    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ajou University, School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

    Phospholipase C(PLC) plays a central role in signal transduction and it is important in cellular growth, differentiation and transformation. There are currently ten known mammalian isozymes of PLC identified and cloned. However, there are no report of PLC distribution in human lung tissue or their significances in pulmonary diseases. Presence of various PLC isozymes in normal human lung tissue was studied from surgical specimens. PLC isozymes in tissue extracts of the lung were partially purified by successive chromatographic steps on heparin-sepharose CL-6B conventional and TSKgel heparin-5PW HPLC columns and their activities were assayed. PLC activity peaks identified in the chromatography were immunoblotted with specific antibodies against ten known mammalian PLC isozymes(PLC-beta 1-4, -gamma 1-2, and -delta 1-4). In addition, immunohistochemical staining of the lung tissue was performed to determine subcellular and histological localization of PLC isozymes. The results indicate that normal human lungs contain beta 1, beta 3, gamma 1, and delta 1, isozymes of PLC. The order of amount present in the lung tissue was PLC-delta 1 > gamma 1 > beta 1 > beta 3, in descending order. On immunohistochemistry, PLC-gamma 1 was most widely distributed and was present in bronchiolar epithelium, in type I and type II pneumocytes as well as in fibroblasts of the interstitial tissue. PLC-delta 1 was present in the cytoplasm of the bronchiolar epithelium whereas PLC-beta 1 was localized to the apical membranous portion of the same epithelium. PLC-beta 3 was seen in the nucleus of the respiratory and alveolar lining epithelium as well as in the nucleus of lung fibroblasts.

    Journal of Korean medical science 1996;11;4;305-13

  • Exogenous human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein selectively stimulates a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C nuclear pathway in the Jurkat T cell line.

    Zauli G, Previati M, Caramelli E, Bassini A, Falcieri E, Gibellini D, Bertolaso L, Bosco D, Robuffo I and Capitani S

    Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Ferrara, Italy.

    We investigated the effect of extracellular Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) on the phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle, which represents a major signal transduction pathway in lymphoid cells. Recombinant Tat, recombinant HIV-1 p24 and cross-linked anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were added in culture for 1-60 min to Jurkat lymphoblastoid CD4+ T cells. The stimulation of T cell receptor by cross-linked anti-CD3 mAb resulted in a rapid increase of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in whole cell lysates. On the other hand, Tat protein, either alone or in combination with anti-CD3 mAb, showed little effect on the PI turnover of whole cell extracts. Tat, however, selectively stimulated a nuclear-specific PI-PLC with a peak of activity after 30 min from the addition in culture to Jurkat cells. Interestingly, this time corresponded to that required for the uptake and nuclear localization of recombinant Tat protein, as demonstrated by electron microscope immunocytochemistry experiments with anti-Tat mAb. Moreover, exogenous Tat reached the nucleus of Jurkat cells in a bioactive form, as shown in a HIV-1 long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase transactivation assay. The specific increase of a nuclear PI-PLC activity was further demonstrated by the ability of Tat to stimulate PI turnover also when added directly to isolated nuclei. As a whole, these data demonstrate that Tat selectively stimulates a nuclear polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, which appears to be independent of the cellular PI turnover. The relevance of these findings for a better understanding of the biological functions of extracellular Tat is discussed.

    European journal of immunology 1995;25;9;2695-700

  • Phospholipase C-beta 1 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gq/11, its physiologic regulator.

    Berstein G, Blank JL, Jhon DY, Exton JH, Rhee SG and Ross EM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9041.

    Purified M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor and Gq/11 were coreconstituted in lipid vesicles. Addition of purified phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC-beta 1) further stimulated the receptor-promoted steady-state GTPase activity of Gq/11 up to 20-fold. Stimulation depended upon receptor-mediated GTP-GDP exchange. Addition of PLC-beta 1 caused a rapid burst of hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP that was at least 50-fold faster than in its absence. Thus, PLC-beta 1 stimulates hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP and acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for its physiologic regulator, Gq/11. GTPase-stimulating activity was specific both for PLC-beta 1 and Gq/11. Such GAP activity by an effector coupled to a trimeric G protein can reconcile slow GTP hydrolysis by pure G proteins in vitro with fast physiologic deactivation of G protein-mediated signaling.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: TW04475; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30355

    Cell 1992;70;3;411-8

  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor phosphoinositide transduction pathway.

    Cefai D, Debre P, Kaczorek M, Idziorek T, Autran B and Bismuth G

    Laboratoire d'Immunologie Cellulaire et Tissulaire, Group Hospitalier (GH) Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France.

    The interference of the recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 with the CD3/T cell antigen receptor (TcR)-mediated activation process has been investigated in the CD4+ diphtheria toxoid-specific human P28D T cell clone. Both glycoproteins clearly inhibit the T cell proliferation induced in an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-free system by various cross-linked monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD3 molecule or the TcR alpha chain (up to 80% inhibition). Biochemical studies further demonstrate that exposure of the T cell clone to both glycoproteins (gps) specifically inhibits the CD3/TcR phospholipase C (PLC) transduction pathway, without affecting the CD3/TcR cell surface expression. Thus, inositol phosphate production, phosphatidic acid turnover, intracellular free calcium, and intracellular pH increase induced by CD3/TcR-specific MAbs are specifically impaired in gps-treated P28D T cells. Addition of purified soluble CD4 prevents binding of gps to T cells and overcomes all observed inhibitions. Maximal inhibitions are obtained for long-term exposure of the T cell clone to gps (16 h). No early effect of gps is observed. By contrast, gp160 and gp120 fail to suppress the CD2-triggered functional and biochemical P28D T cell responses. These results demonstrate that, in addition to their postulated role in the alteration of the interaction between CD4 on T lymphocytes and MHC class II molecules on APC, soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins may directly and specifically impair the CD3/TcR-mediated activation of PLC in uninfected T cells via the CD4 molecule.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1990;86;6;2117-24

  • Purification and characterization of membrane-bound phospholipase C specific for phosphoinositides from human platelets.

    Banno Y, Yada Y and Nozawa Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Two peaks (mPLC-I and mPLC-II) of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity were resolved when 1% sodium cholate extract from particulate fractions of human platelet was chromatographed on a heparin-Sepharose column. The major peak of enzyme activity (mPLC-II) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of Fast Q-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Ultrogel AcA-44, Mono Q, Superose 6-12 combination column, and Superose 12 column chromatographies. The specific activity increased 2,700-fold as compared with that of the starting particulate fraction. The purified mPLC-II had an estimated molecular weight of 61,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The minor peak of enzyme activity (mPLC-I) was partially purified to 430-fold. Both enzymes hydrolyzed PIP2 at low Ca2+ concentration (0.1-10 microM) and exhibited higher Vmax for PIP2 than for phosphatidylinositol. PIP2-hydrolyzing activities of both enzymes were enhanced by various detergents and lipids, such as deoxycholate, cholate, phosphatidylethanolamine, and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The mPLC-I and mPLC-II activities were increased by Ca2+, but not by Mg2+, while Hg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, and La3+ were inhibitory. GTP-binding proteins (Gi, Go, and Ki-ras protein) had no significant effects on the mPLC-II activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;23;11459-65

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000033 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H2 Human orthologues of cluster 2 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 13
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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