G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
numb homolog (Drosophila)-like
G00000337 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071550 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000105245 (Ensembl human gene)
9253 (Entrez Gene)
679 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NUMBL (GeneCards)
604018 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8061 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y6R0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (6)

  • CAG3A
  • CTG3a
  • NUMB-R
  • TNRC23

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • Mutation and copy number analysis of LNX1 and Numbl in nervous system tumors.

    Blom T, Roselli A, Tanner M and Nupponen NN

    Molecular Cancer Biology Program, University of Helsinki, Biomedicum Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Tea.Blom@helsinki.fi

    Alterations at chromosome locus 4q12 are frequently found in gliomas; this locus contains the receptor tyrosine kinase--encoding genes KIT, PDGFRA, and KDR (alias VEGFR2). Notable among the genes at this locus is LNX1, the ligand of Numb protein X. LNX1 encodes a PDZ domain containing protein, which interacts with the cell fate determinant Numbl, a Numb homolog-like gene involved in the maintenance of neural progenitor cells during embryonic neurogenesis. We performed a mutation analysis for LNX1 and Numbl genes. In addition, gene copy numbers of LNX1, Numbl, and KIT in human nervous system tumors were analyzed by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Tissue samples from 90 patients were screened for LNX1 and Numbl mutations, and tissue sections from 56 samples were analyzed for gene amplification status. Our analysis revealed missense mutations in LNX1 exons 3 and 5 and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in Numbl exon 6. In addition, polyglutamine repeat polymorphism was found in Numbl exon 10. Chromogenic in situ hybridization showed gene amplification of LNX1 in 10%, Numbl in 5%, and KIT in 6% of nervous system tumors. Both gene sequence alterations and amplifications of LNX1 and Numbl are present in a subset of human gliomas, and the role of these genes in neurogenesis suggests that they may contribute to development of glial tumors.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2008;186;2;103-9

  • NUMBL interacts with TAB2 and inhibits TNFalpha and IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation.

    Ma Q, Zhou L, Shi H and Huo K

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 220 Handan Rd, Shanghai 200433, PR China.

    The cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1beta induce inflammation through activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB. TAB2 is an adapter protein that facilitates TNFalpha and IL-1beta-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In this work, using yeast two-hybrid system TAB2 was identified to interact with NUMBL. The interaction was further confirmed in vitro and in vivo. PTB domain of NUMBL and C-terminal region are required for their interaction. Overexpression of NUMBL inhibited TNFalpha, IL-1beta-induced activation of NF-kappaB signaling pathway. NUMBL also inhibited TAB2, TAK1, TRAF6 and RIP-induced activation of NF-kappaB in a dose-dependent manner. We found that NUMBL can impair TAB2 binding to TRAF6 or RIP and inhibit ubiquitination of TRAF6 enhanced by TAB2. Taken together, our data suggest that NUMBL is involved in negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling through its interaction with TAB2. These findings also reveal the new functions of NUMBL and implicate that NUMBL potentially links Notch pathway to NF-kappaB pathway.

    Cellular signalling 2008;20;6;1044-51

  • Analysis of coding-polymorphisms in NOTCH-related genes reveals NUMBL poly-glutamine repeat to be associated with schizophrenia in Brazilian and Danish subjects.

    Passos Gregorio S, Gattaz WF, Tavares H, Kieling C, Timm S, Wang AG, Berg Rasmussen H, Werge T and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratory of Neurosciences (LIM-27), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil, and University Department of Psychiatry, H:S Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark.

    Abnormality in neurodevelopment is one of the most robust hypotheses on the etiology of schizophrenia and has found substantial support from brain imaging and genetic studies. Neurodevelopmental processes involve several signaling pathways, including the Notch, but little is known at present regarding their possible involvement in schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the link of non-synonymous variants of five genes of the Notch pathway (NOTCH2, NOTCH3, JAGGED2, ASCL1 and NUMBL) to schizophrenia in a group of 200 Brazilian patients and 200-paired controls. Also, we replicated the association of the NUMBL variant, our most promising finding, in an unrelated set of 684 Danish patients and controls. When the Brazilian and Danish cohorts were merged, a total of 1084 subjects, we found the allele 18 CAG of NUMBL (p=0.003, x2=8.88, OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.09-1.56) as well as the 18/18 CAG genotype (p=0.002, x2=9.46, OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.87) to be associated with schizophrenia. The consistency of this finding in two independent and unrelated populations reinforces the veracity of this association.

    Schizophrenia research 2006;88;1-3;275-82

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • The gamma-secretase-generated intracellular domain of beta-amyloid precursor protein binds Numb and inhibits Notch signaling.

    Roncarati R, Sestan N, Scheinfeld MH, Berechid BE, Lopez PA, Meucci O, McGlade JC, Rakic P and D'Adamio L

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    The beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the Notch receptor undergo intramembranous proteolysis by the Presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase. The cleavage of APP by gamma-secretase releases amyloid-beta peptides, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and the APP intracellular domain (AID), for which the function is not yet well understood. A similar gamma-secretase-mediated cleavage of the Notch receptor liberates the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates to the nucleus and activates the transcription of genes that regulate the generation, differentiation, and survival of neuronal cells. Hence, some of the effects of APP signaling and Alzheimer's disease pathology may be mediated by the interaction of APP and Notch. Here, we show that membrane-tethered APP binds to the cytosolic Notch inhibitors Numb and Numb-like in mouse brain lysates. AID also binds Numb and Numb-like, and represses Notch activity when released by APP. Thus, gamma-secretase may have opposing effects on Notch signaling; positive by cleaving Notch and generating NICD, and negative by processing APP and generating AID, which inhibits the function of NICD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG19394, R01 AG019394; NIDA NIH HHS: DA15014-01, R01 DA015014; NINDS NIH HHS: NS14841, R01 NS014841

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;10;7102-7

  • GRASP-1: a neuronal RasGEF associated with the AMPA receptor/GRIP complex.

    Ye B, Liao D, Zhang X, Zhang P, Dong H and Huganir RL

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    The PDZ domain-containing proteins, such as PSD-95 and GRIP, have been suggested to be involved in the targeting of glutamate receptors, a process that plays a critical role in the efficiency of synaptic transmission and plasticity. To address the molecular mechanisms underlying AMPA receptor synaptic localization, we have identified several GRIP-associated proteins (GRASPs) that bind to distinct PDZ domains within GRIP. GRASP-1 is a neuronal rasGEF associated with GRIP and AMPA receptors in vivo. Overexpression of GRASP-1 in cultured neurons specifically reduced the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. In addition, the subcellular distribution of both AMPA receptors and GRASP-1 was rapidly regulated by the activation of NMDA receptors. These results suggest that GRASP-1 may regulate neuronal ras signaling and contribute to the regulation of AMPA receptor distribution by NMDA receptor activity.

    Neuron 2000;26;3;603-17

  • Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module.

    Salcini AE, Confalonieri S, Doria M, Santolini E, Tassi E, Minenkova O, Cesareni G, Pelicci PG and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct screening of expression libraries with EH domains yielded a number of putative EH interactors, all of which possessed NPF motifs that were shown to be responsible for the interaction. Among these interactors were the human homolog of NUMB, a developmentally reguated gene of Drosophila, and RAB, the cellular cofactor of the HIV REV protein. We demonstrated coimmunoprecipitation of Eps15 with NUMB and RAB. Finally, in vitro binding of NPF-containing peptides to cellular proteins and EST database screening established the existence of a family of EH-containing proteins in mammals. Based on the characteristics of EH-containing and EH-binding proteins, we propose that EH domains are involved in processes connected with the transport and sorting of molecules within the cell.

    Genes & development 1997;11;17;2239-49

  • cDNAs with long CAG trinucleotide repeats from human brain.

    Margolis RL, Abraham MR, Gatchell SB, Li SH, Kidwai AS, Breschel TS, Stine OC, Callahan C, McInnis MG and Ross CA

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. rmargoli@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu

    Twelve diseases, most with neuropsychiatric features, arise from trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations. Expansion mutations may also cause a number of other disorders, including several additional forms of spinocerebellar ataxia, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. To obtain candiate genes for these disorders, cDNA libraries from adult and fetal human brain were screened at high stringency for clones containing CAG repeats. Nineteen cDNAs were isolated and mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20, and X. The clones contain between 4 and 17 consecutive CAG, CTG, TCG, or GCA triplets. Clone H44 encodes 40 consecutive glutamines, more than any other entry in the nonredundant GenBank protein database and well within the range that causes neuronal degeneration in several of the glutamine expansion diseases. Eight cDNAs encode 15 or more consecutive glutamine residues, suggesting that the gene products may function as transcription factors, with a potential role in the regulation of neurodevelopment or neuroplasticity. In particular, the conceptual translation of clone CTG3a contains 18 consecutive glutamines and is 45% identical to the C-terminal 306 residues of the mouse numb gene product. These genes are therefore candidates for diseases featuring anticipation, neurodegeneration, or abnormalities of neurodevelopment.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH02175-10A1, MH50763; NINDS NIH HHS: NS34172

    Human genetics 1997;100;1;114-22

  • Differential expression of mammalian Numb, Numblike and Notch1 suggests distinct roles during mouse cortical neurogenesis.

    Zhong W, Jiang MM, Weinmaster G, Jan LY and Jan YN

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, 94143, USA.

    During Drosophila neurogenesis, asymmetric cell divisions are achieved by differential segregation of Numb (d-Numb) into one of the daughter cells to cause a bias in the Notch mediated cell-cell interaction. We have isolated a second mammalian gene with significant sequence similarity to d-numb, mouse numblike. When expressed in dividing neural precursors in Drosophila, Numblike is symmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, unlike endogenous d-Numb or expressed mouse Numb (m-Numb), both of which are asymmetrically localized to one half of the cell membrane. In d-numb loss-of-function mutant embryos, expression of Numblike allows both daughter cells of a neural precursor to adopt the fate of the cell that normally inherits d-Numb. In mice, numblike mRNA is preferentially expressed in adult and embryonic nervous system. In the developing neocortex, Numblike is expressed in postmitotic neurons in the cortical plate, but not in progenitors within the ventricular zone where m-Numb and Notch1 are expressed. We have also found that, in dividing cortical progenitors, Notch1 is distributed around the entire membrane, unlike m-Numb which is asymmetrically localized to the apical membrane. We propose that an interplay between cell-intrinsic mechanisms (executed by m-numb and numblike) and cell-extrinsic mechanisms (mediated by Notch1) may be involved in both progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation during mammalian cortical neurogenesis.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1997;124;10;1887-97

  • Asymmetric localization of a mammalian numb homolog during mouse cortical neurogenesis.

    Zhong W, Feder JN, Jiang MM, Jan LY and Jan YN

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0724, USA.

    During Drosophila neurogenesis, differential segregation of Numb is necessary for daughter cells of asymmetric divisions to adopt distinct fates, at least partly by biasing the Notch-mediated cell-cell interaction. We have isolated a highly conserved mammalian homolog of Drosophila numb, m-numb. During mouse cortical neurogenesis, m-Numb is asymmetrically localized to the apical membrane of dividing ventricular neural progenitors. Depending upon the orientation of the cleavage plane, m-Numb may be distributed into one or both of the daughter cells. When expressed in Drosophila embryos, m-Numb is localized asymmetrically in dividing neural precursors and rescues the numb mutant phenotype. Furthermore, m-Numb can physically interact with mouse Notch1. We propose that some shared molecular mechanisms, both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic, generate asymmetric cell divisions during neurogenesis of vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Neuron 1996;17;1;43-53

  • A protein-binding domain, EH, identified in the receptor tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 and conserved in evolution.

    Wong WT, Schumacher C, Salcini AE, Romano A, Castagnino P, Pelicci PG and Di Fiore PP

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    In this report we structurally and functionally define a binding domain that is involved in protein association and that we have designated EH (for Eps15 homology domain). This domain was identified in the tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 on the basis of regional conservation with several heterogeneous proteins of yeast and nematode. The EH domain spans about 70 amino acids and shows approximately 60% overall amino acid conservation. We demonstrated the ability of the EH domain to specifically bind cytosolic proteins in normal and malignant cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and hematopoietic origin. These observations prompted our search for additional EH-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Using an EH domain-specific probe derived from the eps15 cDNA, we cloned and characterized a cDNA encoding an EH-containing protein with overall similarity to Eps15; we designated this protein Eps15r (for Eps15-related). Structural comparison of Eps15 and Eps15r defines a family of signal transducers possessing extensive networking abilities including EH-mediated binding and association with Src homology 3-containing proteins.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;21;9530-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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