G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001580
Gene symbol
DAAM1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1
Orthologue
G00000331 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000028939 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000100592 (Ensembl human gene)
23002 (Entrez Gene)
668 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DAAM1 (GeneCards)
Literature
606626 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:18142 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y4D1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA0666

Literature (13)

Pubmed - other

  • Biochemical characterization of the Rho GTPase-regulated actin assembly by diaphanous-related formins, mDia1 and Daam1, in platelets.

    Higashi T, Ikeda T, Shirakawa R, Kondo H, Kawato M, Horiguchi M, Okuda T, Okawa K, Fukai S, Nureki O, Kita T and Horiuchi H

    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

    The diaphanous-related formins are actin nucleating and elongating factors. They are kept in an inactive state by an intramolecular interaction between the diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID) and the diaphanous-autoregulatory domain (DAD). It is considered that the dissociation of this autoinhibitory interaction upon binding of GTP-bound Rho to the GTPase binding domain next to DID induces exposure of the FH1-FH2 domains, which assemble actin filaments. Here, we isolated two diaphanous-related formins, mDia1 and Daam1, in platelet extracts by GTP-RhoA affinity column chromatography. We characterized them by a novel assay, where beads coated with the FH1-FH2-DAD domains of either mDia1 or Daam1 were incubated with platelet cytosol, and the assembled actin filaments were observed after staining with rhodamine-phalloidin. Both formins generated fluorescent filamentous structures on the beads. Quantification of the fluorescence intensity of the beads revealed that the initial velocity in the presence of mDia1 was more than 10 times faster than in the presence of Daam1. The actin assembly activities of both FH1-FH2-DADs were inhibited by adding cognate DID domains. GTP-RhoA, -RhoB, and -RhoC, but not GTP-Rac1 or -Cdc42, bound to both mDia1 and Daam1 and efficiently neutralized the inhibition by the DID domains. The association between RhoA and Daam1 was induced by thrombin stimulation in platelets, and RhoA-bound endogenous formins induced actin assembly, which was inhibited by the DID domains of Daam1 and mDia1. Thus, mDia1 and Daam1 are platelet actin assembly factors having distinct efficiencies, and they are directly regulated by Rho GTPases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;13;8746-55

  • Mechanism of activation of the Formin protein Daam1.

    Liu W, Sato A, Khadka D, Bharti R, Diaz H, Runnels LW and Habas R

    Departments of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

    The Formin proteins are central players in mediating cytoskeletal reorganization and are epistatically positioned in a pathway downstream of Rho activation. These proteins exist in the cytoplasm in an autoinhibited state, which is mediated by intramolecular interactions between the amino-terminal GTPase binding domain (GBD) that encompasses the diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID) and the carboxyl-terminal diaphanous autoregulatory domain (DAD). It has been proposed that the binding of Rho within the GBD releases this molecule from autoinhibition by disrupting the DID/DAD interactions. Here we report that Daam1 is not significantly activated by Rho binding but rather by its interaction with Dishevelled (Dvl). Removal of the DAD domain disrupts interactions between Dvl and Daam1, and the binding of Dvl to Daam1 disrupts the interaction between the GBD and DAD that mediates Daam1 autoinhibition. Mutations within or removal of the DAD converts Daam1 into an active protein that can induce Rho activation. We further demonstrate that Dvl synergizes with Daam1 to regulate gastrulation during Xenopus embryogenesis and that expression of activated Daam1 can rescue impaired convergent extension movements resulting from deregulated noncanonical Wnt signaling. Our studies together define the importance of a carboxyl-terminal binding partner, Dvl, that leads to the activation of Daam1.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM078172, R01 GM078172, R01 GM078172-07

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;1;210-5

  • Crystal structure of human DAAM1 formin homology 2 domain.

    Yamashita M, Higashi T, Suetsugu S, Sato Y, Ikeda T, Shirakawa R, Kita T, Takenawa T, Horiuchi H, Fukai S and Nureki O

    Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8501, Japan.

    Reorganization of the actin filament is an essential process for cell motility, cell-cell attachment and intracellular transport. Formin proteins promote nucleation and elongation of the actin filament, and thus are key regulators for this process. The formin homology 2 (FH2) domain forms a head-to-tail ring-shaped dimer, and processively moves towards the barbed end. Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis (DAAM) is a Rho-regulated formin implicated in neuronal development. Here, we present the crystal structure of human DAAM1 FH2 dimer at 2.8 A resolution. This is the first dimeric structure of the mammalian formin. The core structure of human DAAM1 is similar to those of mouse mDia1 and yeast Bni1p, whereas the orientations of the FH2 dimeric rings are different between human DAAM1 and yeast Bni1p, despite their similar dimer interactions. This difference supports the previous prediction that the dimer architecture of the formin is highly flexible in the actin-free state. The results of the actin assembly assays using the DAAM1 mutants demonstrated that the length of the linker connecting the N-terminal domain and the core region is crucial for the activity.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2007;12;11;1255-65

  • Structure of the FH2 domain of Daam1: implications for formin regulation of actin assembly.

    Lu J, Meng W, Poy F, Maiti S, Goode BL and Eck MJ

    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Daam1 (dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis-1) is a diaphanous-related formin first studied as a novel dishevelled binding protein and shown to be crucial for the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in Xenopus. Daam1, like other formins, directs nucleation and elongation of new actin filaments using its conserved formin-homology-2 (FH2) domain. Here we report the crystal structure of a large C-terminal fragment of human Daam1 containing the FH2 domain. The structure, determined at 2.25 A resolution using the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing method, reveals a "tethered dimer" architecture that is similar to that previously described for the FH2 domain of the yeast formin Bni1, which shares approximately 21% sequence identity with Daam1. Despite the overall similarity with the dimeric FH2 domain of Bni1 and with a truncated monomeric structure of mDia1, the Daam1 FH2 structure reveals a number of differences in secondary structure elements and in the "lasso/post" dimerization interface that may be functionally important. Most strikingly, the two halves of the crystallographic dimer pack together in a manner that occludes their actin binding surfaces. This "locked" conformation is stabilized by two novel, interacting beta-strands formed by the ends of the linkers that connect the two sides of the dimer. The Daam1 FH2 domain has weak actin assembly activity as compared with other mammalian formins, but mutations that disrupt the beta-strand lock increase activity about tenfold to a level comparable to other formins, suggesting that this occluded conformation may represent an auto-inhibited conformation of the Daam1 FH2 domain.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR015301, P41 RR015301-040042, P41 RR015301-050042, P41 RR015301-05S17362; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM071834, R01 GM071834, R01 GM071834-01, R01 GM071834-02, R01 GM071834-03, R01 GM083137, R56 GM071834

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;369;5;1258-69

  • Profilin is an effector for Daam1 in non-canonical Wnt signaling and is required for vertebrate gastrulation.

    Sato A, Khadka DK, Liu W, Bharti R, Runnels LW, Dawid IB and Habas R

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

    Non-canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles during vertebrate embryogenesis and is required for cell motility during gastrulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of how Wnt signaling regulates modification of the actin cytoskeleton remain incompletely understood. We had previously identified the Formin homology protein Daam1 as an important link between Dishevelled and the Rho GTPase for cytoskeletal modulation. Here, we report that Profilin1 is an effector downstream of Daam1 required for cytoskeletal changes. Profilin1 interacted with the FH1 domain of Daam1 and was localized with Daam1 to actin stress fibers in response to Wnt signaling in mammalian cells. In addition, depletion of Profilin1 inhibited stress fiber formation induced by non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition or depletion of Profilin1 in vivo specifically inhibited blastopore closure in Xenopus but did not affect convergent extension movements, tissue separation or neural fold closure. Our studies define a molecular pathway downstream of Daam1 that controls Wnt-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization for a specific morphogenetic process during vertebrate gastrulation.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2006;133;21;4219-31

  • The diaphanous-related formin DAAM1 collaborates with the Rho GTPases RhoA and Cdc42, CIP4 and Src in regulating cell morphogenesis and actin dynamics.

    Aspenström P, Richnau N and Johansson AS

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 595, S-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden. pontus.aspenstrom@licr.uu.se

    Binding partners for the Cdc42 effector CIP4 were identified by the yeast two-hybrid system, as well as by testing potential CIP4-binding proteins in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. One of the CIP4-binding proteins, DAAM1, was characterised in more detail. DAAM1 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the mammalian diaphanous-related formins, which include proteins such as mDia1 and mDia2. DAAM1 was shown to bind to the SH3 domain of CIP4 in vivo. Ectopically expressed DAAM1 localised in dotted pattern at the dorsal side of transfected cells and the protein was accumulated in the proximity to the microtubule organising centre. Moreover, ectopic expression of DAAM1 induced a marked alteration of the cell morphology, seen as rounding up of the cells, the formation of branched protrusions as well as a reduction of stress-fibres in the transfected cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DAAM1 bound to RhoA and Cdc42 in a GTP-dependent manner. Moreover, DAAM1 was found to interact and collaborate with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src in the formation of branched protrusions. Taken together, our data indicate that DAAM1 communicates with Rho GTPases, CIP4 and Src in the regulation of the signalling pathways that co-ordinate the dynamics of the actin filament system.

    Experimental cell research 2006;312;12;2180-94

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14.

    Heilig R, Eckenberg R, Petit JL, Fonknechten N, Da Silva C, Cattolico L, Levy M, Barbe V, de Berardinis V, Ureta-Vidal A, Pelletier E, Vico V, Anthouard V, Rowen L, Madan A, Qin S, Sun H, Du H, Pepin K, Artiguenave F, Robert C, Cruaud C, Brüls T, Jaillon O, Friedlander L, Samson G, Brottier P, Cure S, Ségurens B, Anière F, Samain S, Crespeau H, Abbasi N, Aiach N, Boscus D, Dickhoff R, Dors M, Dubois I, Friedman C, Gouyvenoux M, James R, Madan A, Mairey-Estrada B, Mangenot S, Martins N, Ménard M, Oztas S, Ratcliffe A, Shaffer T, Trask B, Vacherie B, Bellemere C, Belser C, Besnard-Gonnet M, Bartol-Mavel D, Boutard M, Briez-Silla S, Combette S, Dufossé-Laurent V, Ferron C, Lechaplais C, Louesse C, Muselet D, Magdelenat G, Pateau E, Petit E, Sirvain-Trukniewicz P, Trybou A, Vega-Czarny N, Bataille E, Bluet E, Bordelais I, Dubois M, Dumont C, Guérin T, Haffray S, Hammadi R, Muanga J, Pellouin V, Robert D, Wunderle E, Gauguet G, Roy A, Sainte-Marthe L, Verdier J, Verdier-Discala C, Hillier L, Fulton L, McPherson J, Matsuda F, Wilson R, Scarpelli C, Gyapay G, Wincker P, Saurin W, Quétier F, Waterston R, Hood L and Weissenbach J

    Genoscope-Centre National de Séquençage, 91000, Evry, France. heilig@genoscope.cns.fr

    Chromosome 14 is one of five acrocentric chromosomes in the human genome. These chromosomes are characterized by a heterochromatic short arm that contains essentially ribosomal RNA genes, and a euchromatic long arm in which most, if not all, of the protein-coding genes are located. The finished sequence of human chromosome 14 comprises 87,410,661 base pairs, representing 100% of its euchromatic portion, in a single continuous segment covering the entire long arm with no gaps. Two loci of crucial importance for the immune system, as well as more than 60 disease genes, have been localized so far on chromosome 14. We identified 1,050 genes and gene fragments, and 393 pseudogenes. On the basis of comparisons with other vertebrate genomes, we estimate that more than 96% of the chromosome 14 genes have been annotated. From an analysis of the CpG island occurrences, we estimate that 70% of these annotated genes are complete at their 5' end.

    Nature 2003;421;6923;601-7

  • Wnt/Frizzled activation of Rho regulates vertebrate gastrulation and requires a novel Formin homology protein Daam1.

    Habas R, Kato Y and He X

    Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz activation of Rho requires the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dvl) and a novel Formin homology protein Daam1. Daam1 binds to both Dvl and Rho, and mediates Wnt-induced Dvl-Rho complex formation. Inhibition or depletion of Daam1 prevents Wnt/Fz activation of Rho and of Xenopus gastrulation, but not of beta-catenin signaling. Our study illustrates a molecular pathway from Wnt/Fz signaling to Rho activation in cell polarity signal transduction.

    Cell 2001;107;7;843-54

  • Formin family proteins in cytoskeletal control.

    Tanaka K

    Division of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan. k-tanaka@med.hokudai.ac.jp

    Functions of the cell cortex, including motility, adhesion, and cytokinesis, are mediated by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The assembly of the cytoskeletal components at cortical sites is regulated dynamically in a temporal and spatial manner. Recent evidence indicates that the formin family proteins play a crucial role in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. In this review, recent advance in the understanding of the functions of formin family proteins is discussed.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;267;2;479-81

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Ishikawa K, Nagase T, Suyama M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of our cDNA analysis for deducing the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we have newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0611 to KIAA0710. In vitro transcription-coupled translation assay was applied as the first screening to select cDNA clones which produce proteins with apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa and over. One hundred unidentified cDNA clones thus selected were then subjected to sequencing of entire inserts. The average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames was 4.9 kb and 2.8 kb (922 amino acid residues), respectively. Computer search of the sequences against the public databases indicated that predicted coding sequences of 87 genes were similar to those of known genes, 62% of which (54 genes) were categorized as proteins related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The expression profiles in 10 human tissues of all the clones characterized in this study were examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal locations of the clones were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;3;169-76

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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