G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001578
Gene symbol
CCNY (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
cyclin Y
Orthologue
G00000329 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017955 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000108100 (Ensembl human gene)
219771 (Entrez Gene)
665 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:23354 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8ND76 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • CBCP1
  • CFP1

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • Transcriptomic and genetic studies identify IL-33 as a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease.

    Chapuis J, Hot D, Hansmannel F, Kerdraon O, Ferreira S, Hubans C, Maurage CA, Huot L, Bensemain F, Laumet G, Ayral AM, Fievet N, Hauw JJ, DeKosky ST, Lemoine Y, Iwatsubo T, Wavrant-Devrièze F, Dartigues JF, Tzourio C, Buée L, Pasquier F, Berr C, Mann D, Lendon C, Alpérovitch A, Kamboh MI, Amouyel P and Lambert JC

    INSERM, U744, Université de Lille 2, Institut Pasteur de Lille, BP 245,1, rue du professeur Calmette, Lille cedex, France.

    The only recognized genetic determinant of the common forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). To identify new candidate genes, we recently performed transcriptomic analysis of 2741 genes in chromosomal regions of interest using brain tissue of AD cases and controls. From 82 differentially expressed genes, 1156 polymorphisms were genotyped in two independent discovery subsamples (n=945). Seventeen genes exhibited at least one polymorphism associated with AD risk, and following correction for multiple testing, we retained the interleukin (IL)-33 gene. We first confirmed that the IL-33 expression was decreased in the brain of AD cases compared with that of controls. Further genetic analysis led us to select three polymorphisms within this gene, which we analyzed in three independent case-control studies. These polymorphisms and a resulting protective haplotype were systematically associated with AD risk in non-APOE epsilon 4 carriers. Using a large prospective study, these associations were also detected when analyzing the prevalent and incident AD cases together or the incident AD cases alone. These polymorphisms were also associated with less cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the brain of non-APOE epsilon 4 AD cases. Immunohistochemistry experiments finally indicated that the IL-33 expression was consistently restricted to vascular capillaries in the brain. Moreover, IL-33 overexpression in cellular models led to a specific decrease in secretion of the A beta(40) peptides, the main CAA component. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic variants in IL-33 gene may be associated with a decrease in AD risk potentially in modulating CAA formation.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG05133, AG13672, P50 AG005133, P50 AG005133-219007, R01 AG013672, R01 AG013672-08

    Molecular psychiatry 2009;14;11;1004-16

  • Genetic risk profiling and prediction of disease course in Crohn's disease patients.

    Henckaerts L, Van Steen K, Verstreken I, Cleynen I, Franke A, Schreiber S, Rutgeerts P and Vermeire S

    Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Section, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. liesbet.henckaerts@uzleuven.be

    Clinical presentation at diagnosis and disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) are heterogeneous and variable over time. Early introduction of immunomodulators and/or biologicals might be justified in patients at risk for disease progression, so it is important to identify these patients as soon as possible. We examined the influence of recently discovered CD-associated susceptibility loci on changes in disease behavior and evaluated whether a genetic risk model for disease progression could be generated.

    Methods: Complete medical data were available for 875 CD patients (median follow-up time, 14 years; interquartile range, 7-22). Fifty CD-associated polymorphisms were genotyped. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, multiple logistic regression, and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses (GMDR) were performed, correcting for follow-up time.

    Results: Homozygosity for the rs1363670 G-allele in a gene encoding a hypothetical protein near the IL12B gene was independently associated with stricturing disease behavior (odds ratio [OR], 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-18.83; P = .007) and with shorter time to strictures (P = .01), especially in patients with ileal involvement (P = .0002). Male patients carrying at least one rs12704036 T-allele in a gene desert had the shortest time to non-perianal fistula (P < .0001). The presence of a C-allele at the CDKAL1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs6908425 and the absence of NOD2 variants were independently associated with development of perianal fistula (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.13-69.78; P = .04 and OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83; P = .004, respectively), particularly when colonic involvement and active smoking were present.

    Conclusions: CD-associated polymorphisms play a role in disease progression and might be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from an early top-down treatment approach.

    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2009;7;9;972-980.e2

  • Cyclin Y, a novel membrane-associated cyclin, interacts with PFTK1.

    Jiang M, Gao Y, Yang T, Zhu X and Chen J

    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, SIBS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

    A novel cyclin, CCNY, was identified as a PFTK1 interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The cyclin box in CCNY and the PFTAIRE motif in PFTK1 are both required for the interaction which was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro assays. Two transcripts (4 and 2kb), of CCNY were detected by Northern blot analysis and CCNY was enriched at the plasma membrane due to an N-terminal myristoylation signal. We propose that binding of CCNY to PFTK1 enhances PFTK1 kinase activity and changes its intracellular location.

    FEBS letters 2009;583;13;2171-8

  • Confirmation of multiple Crohn's disease susceptibility loci in a large Dutch-Belgian cohort.

    Weersma RK, Stokkers PC, Cleynen I, Wolfkamp SC, Henckaerts L, Schreiber S, Dijkstra G, Franke A, Nolte IM, Rutgeerts P, Wijmenga C and Vermeire S

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands. R.K.Weersma@int.umcg.nl

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)-Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)-are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders with a complex genetic background. A genome-wide association scan by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) recently identified several novel susceptibility loci.

    Methods: We performed a large replication study in 2,731 Dutch and Belgian IBD patients (1,656 CD and 1,075 UC) and 1,086 controls. In total, 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed moderate or strong association in the WTCCC study, along with SNPs in the previously identified genes IL23R, ATG16L1, and NELL1, were studied.

    Results: We confirmed the associations with IL23R (rs11209026, P=2.69E-12), ATG16L1 (rs2241880, P=4.82E-07), IRGM (rs4958847, P=2.26E-05), NKX2-3 (rs10883365, P=5.91E-06), 1q24 (rs12035082, P=1.51E-05), 5p13 (rs17234657, P=2.62E-05), and 10q21 (rs10761659, P=8.95E-04). We also identified associations with cyclin Y (CCNY; rs3936503, P=2.09 E-04) and Hect domain and RCC1-like domain 2 (HERC2; rs916977, P=1.12E-04). Pooling our data with the original WTCCC data substantiated these associations. Several SNPs were also moderately associated with UC. Two genetic risk profiles based on the number of risk alleles and based on a weighted score were created. On the basis of these results, we calculated sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for CD.

    Conclusions: We replicated genetic associations for CD with IL23R, ATG16L1, IRGM, NKX2-3, 1q24, 10q21, 5p13, and PTPN2 and report evidence for associations with HERC2 and CCNY. Pooling our data with the results of the WTCCC strengthened the results, suggesting genuine genetic associations. We show that a genetic risk profile can be constructed that is clinically useful and that can aid in making treatment decisions.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2009;104;3;630-8

  • Investigation of Crohn's disease risk loci in ulcerative colitis further defines their molecular relationship.

    Anderson CA, Massey DC, Barrett JC, Prescott NJ, Tremelling M, Fisher SA, Gwilliam R, Jacob J, Nimmo ER, Drummond H, Lees CW, Onnie CM, Hanson C, Blaszczyk K, Ravindrarajah R, Hunt S, Varma D, Hammond N, Lewis G, Attlesey H, Watkins N, Ouwehand W, Strachan D, McArdle W, Lewis CM, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Lobo A, Sanderson J, Jewell DP, Deloukas P, Mansfield JC, Mathew CG, Satsangi J and Parkes M

    Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology Unit, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK.

    Identifying shared and disease-specific susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) would help define the biologic relationship between the inflammatory bowel diseases. More than 30 CD susceptibility loci have been identified. These represent important candidate susceptibility loci for UC. Loci discovered by the index genome scans in CD have previously been tested for association with UC, but those identified in the recent meta-analysis await such investigation. Furthermore, the recently identified UC locus at ECM1 requires formal testing for association with CD.

    Methods: We analyzed 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms, tagging 29 of the loci recently associated with CD in 2527 UC cases and 4070 population controls. We also genotyped the UC-associated ECM1 variant rs11205387 in 1560 CD patients and 3028 controls.

    Results: Nine regions showed association with UC at a threshold corrected for the 29 loci tested (P < .0017). The strongest association (P = 4.13 x 10(-8); odds ratio = 1.27) was identified with a 170-kilobase region on chromosome 1q32 that contains 3 genes. We also found association with JAK2 and replicated a recently reported association with STAT3, further implicating the role of this signaling pathway in inflammatory bowel disease. Additional novel UC susceptibility genes were LYRM4 and CDKAL1. Twenty of the loci were not associated with UC, and several appear to be specific to CD. ECM1 variation was not associated with CD.

    Conclusions: Collectively, these data help define the genetic relationship between CD and UC and characterize common, as well as disease-specific mechanisms of pathogenesis.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/540; Medical Research Council: G0000934, G0600329, G0800383, G0800675, G0800759, MC_QA137934; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 089120

    Gastroenterology 2009;136;2;523-9.e3

  • KIF5B gene sequence variation and response of cardiac stroke volume to regular exercise.

    Argyropoulos G, Stütz AM, Ilnytska O, Rice T, Teran-Garcia M, Rao DC, Bouchard C and Rankinen T

    Energy Balance Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124, USA.

    A genome-wide linkage scan for endurance training-induced changes in stroke volume detected a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10p11 in white families of the HERITAGE Family Study. Dense microsatellite mapping narrowed down the linkage region to a 7 Mb area containing 16 known and 14 predicted genes. Association analyses with 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provided suggestive evidence (P values from 0.03 to 0.06) for association in the kinesin heavy chain (KIF5B) gene locus in the whole cohort. The associations at the KIF5B locus were stronger (P values from 0.001 to 0.008) when the analyses were performed on linkage-informative families only (family-specific logarithm of the odds ratio scores >0.025 at peak linkage location). Resequencing the coding and regulatory regions of KIF5B revealed no new exonic SNPs. However, the putative promoter region was particularly polymorphic, containing eight SNPs with at least 5% minor allele frequency within 1850 bp upstream of the start codon. Functional analyses using promoter haplotype reporter constructs led to the identification of sequence variants that had significant effects on KIF5B promoter activity. Analogous inhibition and overexpression experiments showed that changes in KIF5B expression alter mitochondrial localization and biogenesis in a manner that could affect the ability of the heart to adjust to regular exercise. Our data suggest that KIF5B is a strong candidate gene for the response of stroke volume to regular exercise. Furthermore, training-induced changes in submaximal exercise stroke volume may be due to mitochondrial function and variation in KIF5B expression as determined by functional SNPs in its promoter.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45670

    Physiological genomics 2009;36;2;79-88

  • Identification and characterization of cyclin X which activates transcriptional activities of c-Myc.

    Li X, Wang X, Liu G, Li R and Yu L

    Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

    Cyclins are eukaryotic proteins that play an active role in controlling cell division cycles and regulate cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). In this study, we identified and characterized a new member of the human cyclin family. Its cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 864 bp, encoding a protein of 287 amino acids. This putative cyclin, designated cyclin X, contains a typical cyclin box. Cyclin X shows the highest sequence similarity in cyclin box to cyclin B3 and the similarity between these two proteins also extends to the whole molecule. The expression pattern of cyclin X showed that it was highly expressed in testis. Cyclin X protein was located in nucleus of the H1299 cells and Overexpression of cyclin X activated the transcriptional activities of c-Myc. These results indicate that cyclin X is a novel member of the human cyclin family and positive regulator of c-Myc-mediated gene transcription.

    Molecular biology reports 2009;36;1;97-103

  • Replication of signals from recent studies of Crohn's disease identifies previously unknown disease loci for ulcerative colitis.

    Franke A, Balschun T, Karlsen TH, Hedderich J, May S, Lu T, Schuldt D, Nikolaus S, Rosenstiel P, Krawczak M and Schreiber S

    Institute for Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-University, D-24105 Kiel, Germany.

    Following up on recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Crohn's disease, we investigated 50 previously reported susceptibility loci in a German sample of individuals with Crohn's disease (n = 1,850) or ulcerative colitis (n = 1,103) and healthy controls (n = 1,817). Among these loci, we identified variants in 3p21.31, NKX2-3 and CCNY as susceptibility factors for both diseases, whereas variants in PTPN2, HERC2 and STAT3 were associated only with ulcerative colitis in our sample collection.

    Nature genetics 2008;40;6;713-5

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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