G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1
G00000325 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000104381 (Ensembl human gene)
54332 (Entrez Gene)
672 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GDAP1 (GeneCards)
606598 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:15968 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8TB36 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • CMT4

Literature (35)

Pubmed - other

  • GDAP1 mutations differ in their effects on mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis depending on the mode of inheritance.

    Niemann A, Wagner KM, Ruegg M and Suter U

    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland. axel.niemann@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Mutations in the GDAP1 gene lead to recessively or dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; CMT). Here, we demonstrate that GDAP1 is a mitochondrial fission factor whose activity is dependent on the fission factors Drp1 and Fis1. Unlike other mitochondrial fission factors, GDAP1 overexpression or knockdown does not influence the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic stimuli. Recessively inherited CMT-associated forms of GDAP1 (rmGDAP1s) have reduced fission activity, whereas dominantly inherited forms (dmGDAP1s) interfere with mitochondrial fusion. Only the expression of dmGDAP1s increases the production of ROS, leads to uneven mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, and enhances the susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. Taken together, our results indicate that wild-type GDAP1 promotes fission without increasing the risk of apoptosis. In CMT, recessive GDAP1 mutations are associated with reduced fission activity, while dominant mutations impair mitochondrial fusion and cause mitochondrial damage. Thus, different cellular mechanisms that disturb mitochondrial dynamics underlie the similar clinical manifestations caused by GDAP1 mutations, depending on the mode of inheritance.

    Neurobiology of disease 2009;36;3;509-20

  • YY1-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human GDAP1 gene.

    Ratajewski M and Pulaski L

    Laboratory of Transcriptional Regulation, Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodowa 106, 93-232 Lodz, Poland. mratajewski@cbm.pan.pl

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a heritable neurodegenerative condition, some types of which (notably CMT4A) are caused by mutations in the GDAP1 gene that encodes a protein of unknown molecular function implicated in regulation of mitochondrial fission. Here we present for the first time a functional analysis of the GDAP1 gene promoter which we found to be transcriptionally regulated by YY1, a broadly studied factor that seems to be involved in regulating many of the same cellular phenomena as GDAP1. We show that GDAP1 is broadly expressed in cancer cell lines of different tissue origin, contrasting with the restricted neuronal distribution reported by some authors. There is a consensus YY1 binding site in the GDAP1 core promoter which we show to be functional in both in vitro binding assays and in living cells. Overexpression of YY1 activated the GDAP1 promoter in a reporter gene system as well as increased the level of endogenous mRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YY1 in HEK293 cells led to decreased GDAP1 expression. While YY1 is known to exert both positive and negative regulatory influences on nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, as well as on neurodegeneration-related genes, in all cell lines we studied (including neuroblastoma) the effect of YY1 on GDAP1 expression is activatory. This leads to interesting conclusions about the possible clinical role of this interaction and suggests a broader regulatory network.

    Genomics 2009;94;6;407-13

  • Novel mutations in the GDAP1 gene in patients affected with early-onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4A.

    Moroni I, Morbin M, Milani M, Ciano C, Bugiani M, Pagliano E, Cavallaro T, Pareyson D and Taroni F

    Division of Child Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, via Celoria 11, Milan, Italy. imoroni@istituto-besta.it

    We report a detailed study of eight patients from four Italian families presenting with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (AR-CMT2), characterized by early-onset and progressive severe weakness of all limbs. Vocal cord paresis was present in two cases. Sural nerve biopsy performed in three patients showed a severe neuropathy characterized by a predominant axonal involvement. Five novel mutations (p.Gln99stop, p.Gln122Lys, p.Arg125stop, p.Val219Asp, p.Asn297Lys) and one previously reported mutation (p.Leu239Phe) were identified in GDAP1 gene. GDAP1 mutations should be considered both in recessive and sporadic cases of early-onset axonal CMT.

    Funded by: Telethon: GUP04009

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2009;19;7;476-80

  • [Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. Search for the molecular diagnostics model].

    Kabzińska D, Franaszczyk M and Kochański A

    Zespół Chorób Nerwowo-Mieśniowych Instytutu Medycyny Doświadczalnej i Klinicznej im. M.J. Mossakowskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ul. A. Pawińskiego 5, 02-106 Warszawa.

    Unlabelled: THE AIM was focused on molecular analysis of the selected genes associated with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies (AR-CMT) and construction of a molecular diagnostic algorithm in this group of disorders in the Polish population.

    We analyzed a group of 138 subjects from 62 families with probably autosomal recessive inheritance and the control group of 52 individuals. The studies covered molecular genetic analysis of PMP22 gene dosage (real-time polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragments length polymorphisms), analysis of coding regions of the GDAP1, PRX, EGR2 and CTDP1 genes using: mutation screening (single strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis), sequencing and bioinformatics approach to the gene sequence variants.

    Results: Thirty sequence variants have been found in the analysed genes, 5 pathogenic mutations in the GDAP1 gene and 2 pathogenic mutations in the PRX gene. On the basis of bioinformatic analysis other nucleotide changes have been categorized as harmless polymorphisms and variants of unknown pathogenic effect.

    Conclusions: This is the first study focused on the autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Polish population. Our results show the difficulties in the interpretation of the pathogenic effect of the sequence variants (pathogenic mutation or polymorphism) which is essential for molecular diagnostics in CMT disease.

    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 2009;13;2;146-53

  • Mitochondrial complex I deficiency in GDAP1-related autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2K).

    Cassereau J, Chevrollier A, Gueguen N, Malinge MC, Letournel F, Nicolas G, Richard L, Ferre M, Verny C, Dubas F, Procaccio V, Amati-Bonneau P, Bonneau D and Reynier P

    INSERM, U694, 4 rue Larrey, Angers, 49933, France.

    Mutations in GDAP1, an outer mitochondrial membrane protein responsible for recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4A), have also been associated with CMT2K, a dominant form of the disease. The three CMT2K patients we studied carried a novel dominant GDAP1 mutation, C240Y (c.719G > A). Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activity in fibroblasts from CMT2K patients was 40% lower than in controls, whereas the tubular mitochondria were 33% larger in diameter and the mitochondrial mass was 20% greater. Thus, besides the regulatory role GDAP1 plays in mitochondrial network dynamics, it may also be involved in energy production and in the control of mitochondrial volume.

    Neurogenetics 2009;10;2;145-50

  • Novel GDAP1 mutation in a Turkish family with CMT2K (CMT2K with novel GDAP1 mutation).

    Sahin-Calapoglu N, Tan M, Soyoz M, Calapoglu M and Ozcelik N

    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Cunur, Isparta, Turkey. nilufersahin@yahoo.com

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2), a severe autosomal recessive form of neuropathy associated with axonal phenotypes. It has been screened in this study for the presence of mutations in the coding region of GDAP1, which maps to chromosome 8q21, in a family with CMT2. To date, 29 mutations in the GDAP1 have been reported in patients of different ethnic origins. Here, we report a novel missense mutation (c.836A>G), and two polymorphisms: a silent variant (c.102G>C), and a 5'-splice site mutation (IVS5+24C>T) in GDPA1 gene identified in a five generation Turkish family with autosomal recessive CMT2.

    Neuromolecular medicine 2009;11;2;106-13

  • Targeting and function of the mitochondrial fission factor GDAP1 are dependent on its tail-anchor.

    Wagner KM, Rüegg M, Niemann A and Suter U

    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

    Proteins controlling mitochondrial dynamics are often targeted to and anchored into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) by their carboxyl-terminal tail-anchor domain (TA). However, it is not known whether the TA modulates protein function. GDAP1 is a mitochondrial fission factor with two neighboring hydrophobic domains each flanked by basic amino acids (aa). Here we define GDAP1 as TA MOM protein. GDAP1 carries a single transmembrane domain (TMD) that is, together with the adjacent basic aa, critical for MOM targeting. The flanking N-terminal region containing the other hydrophobic domain is located in the cytoplasm. TMD sequence, length, and high hydrophobicity do not influence GDAP1 fission function if MOM targeting is maintained. The basic aa bordering the TMD in the cytoplasm, however, are required for both targeting of GDAP1 as part of the TA and GDAP1-mediated fission. Thus, this GDAP1 region contains critical overlapping motifs defining intracellular targeting by the TA concomitant with functional aspects.

    PloS one 2009;4;4;e5160

  • A novel mutation in the GDAP1 gene is associated with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in an Amish family.

    Xin B, Puffenberger E, Nye L, Wiznitzer M and Wang H

    DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children, Middlefield, OH 44062, USA. bxin@ddcclinic.org

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) constitutes a large group of genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Autosomal recessive forms of CMT are less common in the general population but account for the vast majority of CMT phenotypes in communities with a high prevalence of consanguinity. At least 10 genetic loci cause autosomal recessive forms of CMT. Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene are among the most frequent genetic causes of autosomal recessive forms of CMT. To date, 28 mutations in GDAP1 gene have been linked with the disease. Here, we report a novel GDAP1 mutation in an Old Order Amish family with CMT. To ascertain the Amish CMT locus, we performed a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis on one of three patients from a consanguineous pedigree. Assuming mutation homogeneity, the analysis sought large homozygous SNP blocks that also contained known CMT loci. The largest homozygous SNP block in the patient was localized to chromosome 8q13.1-21.3 and contained the GDAP1 gene. Sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation, c.692C>T, at codon 231 (p.P231L) in exon 5 of GDAP1 in all patients. Neither the unaffected individuals in the family nor the healthy control samples were homozygous for this mutation. Our findings suggested that this novel mutation in GDAP1 gene is associated with an autosomal recessive form of CMT in Ohio Old Order Amish community.

    Clinical genetics 2008;74;3;274-8

  • Clinical, electrophysiological and genetic studies of two families with mutations in the GDAP1 gene.

    Rougeot C, Chabrier S, Camdessanche JP, Prieur F, d'Anjou MC and Latour P

    Department of médecine physique et de réadaptation pédiatrique, centre hospitalier universitaire, Saint-Etienne, France.

    Mutations in the gene for the ganglioside-induced-differentiation-associated-protein 1 on 8q21 were recently reported to cause autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth sensorimotor neuropathy. We report a detailed clinical, electrophysiological and genetic study of two young patients harbouring missense GDAP1 mutations. The two patients presented severe neuropathy with an early onset. One of the mutations (Tyr279Cys) has never been hitherto reported. Electrophysiological investigations suggested a predominant axonal damage in both patients. Despite the similitude of the type of mutations and electromyographic features, the clinical course was different for the patients, highlighting the complexity of genotype/phenotype relationships among GDAP1 mutations.

    Neuropediatrics 2008;39;3;184-7

  • A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).

    Melzer D, Perry JR, Hernandez D, Corsi AM, Stevens K, Rafferty I, Lauretani F, Murray A, Gibbs JR, Paolisso G, Rafiq S, Simon-Sanchez J, Lango H, Scholz S, Weedon MN, Arepalli S, Rice N, Washecka N, Hurst A, Britton A, Henley W, van de Leemput J, Li R, Newman AB, Tranah G, Harris T, Panicker V, Dayan C, Bennett A, McCarthy MI, Ruokonen A, Jarvelin MR, Guralnik J, Bandinelli S, Frayling TM, Singleton A and Ferrucci L

    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom.

    There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57)), CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21)), IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13)), LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10)), GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7)), SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7)), CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6)) and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6)) genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R), altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA), variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1) and altered transcription (GGT1). We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels (p = 6.8x10(-40)), but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis locations. The identification of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) may be a powerful complementary method of improving our understanding of disease pathways.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIA NIH HHS: N01-AG-6-2101, N01-AG-6-2103, N01-AG-6-2106, R01 AG024233, R01 AG24233-01

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;5;e1000072

  • Two novel mutations in the GDAP1 and PRX genes in early onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    Auer-Grumbach M, Fischer C, Papić L, John E, Plecko B, Bittner RE, Bernert G, Pieber TR, Miltenberger G, Schwarz R, Windpassinger C, Grill F, Timmerman V, Speicher MR and Janecke AR

    Institute of Human Genetics, Medical University of Graz, Austria. michaela.auer-grumbach@klinikum-graz.at

    Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (AR-CMT) is often characterised by an infantile disease onset and a severe phenotype. Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene are thought to be a common cause of AR-CMT. Mutations in the periaxin (PRX) gene are rare. They are associated with severe demyelination of the peripheral nerves and sometimes lead to prominent sensory disturbances. To evaluate the frequency of GDAP1 and PRX mutations in early onset CMT, we examined seven AR-CMT families and 12 sporadic CMT patients, all presenting with progressive distal muscle weakness and wasting. In one family also prominent sensory abnormalities and sensory ataxia were apparent from early childhood. In three families we detected four GDAP1 mutations (L58LfsX4, R191X, L239F and P153L), one of which is novel and is predicted to cause a loss of protein function. In one additional family with prominent sensory abnormalities a novel homozygous PRX mutation was found (A700PfsX17). No mutations were identified in 12 sporadic cases. This study suggests that mutations in the GDAP1 gene are a common cause of early-onset AR-CMT. In patients with early-onset demyelinating AR-CMT and severe sensory loss PRX is one of the genes to be tested.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: P 19455

    Neuropediatrics 2008;39;1;33-8

  • A novel GDAP1 Q218E mutation in autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Chung KW, Kim SM, Sunwoo IN, Cho SY, Hwang SJ, Kim J, Kang SH, Park KD, Choi KG, Choi IS and Choi BO

    Department of Biological Science, Kongju National University, Gongju, South Korea.

    A wide range of phenotypes have been reported in autosomal recessive (AR) Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) patients carrying mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene, such as axonal, demyelinating, and intermediate forms of AR CMT. There have been very few reports of GDAP1 mutations in autosomal dominant (AD) CMT. Here, we report an AD CMT family with a novel Q218E mutation in the GDAP1 gene. The mutation was located within the well-conserved glutathione S-transferase (GST) core region and co-segregated with the affected members in the pedigree. The affected AD CMT individuals had a later disease onset and much milder phenotypes than the AR CMT patients, and the histopathologic examination revealed both axonal degeneration and demyelination.

    Journal of human genetics 2008;53;4;360-4

  • A novel GDAP1 mutation P78L responsible for CMT4A disease in three Moroccan families.

    Bouhouche A, Birouk N, Benomar A, Ouazzani R, Chkili T and Yahyaoui M

    Service de Neurologie et de Neurogénétique, Hôpital des Spécialités, BP 6402, Al Irfane Rabat, Morocco.

    Background: The gene encoding the ganglioside-induced-differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) has been associated with both axonal and demyelinating neuropathy. Up to date, 25 mutations in the GDAP1 gene have been reported in patients from different origins.

    Methods: Three Moroccan families with early onset ARCMT1 and autosomal recessive inheritance were genotyped to test linkage to 8q21.3 and their GDAP1 gene coding exons screened for mutations.

    Results: A novel C233T transversion at codon 78 (P78L) was detected in 6 patients from 3 unrelated families. The mutation was found to be homozygous in two families and compound heterozygous in association with the already reported S194X mutation in one family. The P78L mutation was associated with a common haplotype suggesting a Moroccan founder mutation. The patients had symptoms within the two first years of life and developed common phenotype of CMT4A with evident hoarse-voice in two cases with the longer disease duration.

    Conclusion: P78L mutation was associated with a common haplotype suggesting a common ancestor.

    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 2007;34;4;421-6

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C4 caused by a novel Pro153Leu substitution in the GDAP1 gene.

    Kabzińska D, Saifi GM, Drac H, Rowińska-Marcińska K, Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I, Kochański A and Lupski JR

    Neuromuscular Unit, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4C4 disease (CMT4C4) is an early onset, autosomal recessive neuropathy with hoarseness caused by mutations in the GDAP1 gene which maps to the 8q13 region. To date, only 24 mutations in the GDAP1 gene have been reported. Neuropathological findings of sural nerve biopsies have been published for a limited number of CMT4C4 patients. Herein, a novel Pro153Leu mutation in the GDAP1 gene identified in a consanguineous Polish family is described and longitudinal clinical and electrophysiological studies as well as morphological findings are presented.

    Acta myologica : myopathies and cardiomyopathies : official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology 2007;26;2;108-11

  • Genome-wide association to body mass index and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study 100K project.

    Fox CS, Heard-Costa N, Cupples LA, Dupuis J, Vasan RS and Atwood LD

    The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. foxca@nhlbi.nih.gov

    Background: Obesity is related to multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as CVD and has a strong familial component. We tested for association between SNPs on the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip and measures of adiposity in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Methods: A total of 1341 Framingham Heart Study participants in 310 families genotyped with the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip had adiposity traits measured over 30 years of follow up. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), weight change, height, and radiographic measures of adiposity (subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, sagittal height) were measured at multiple examination cycles. Multivariable-adjusted residuals, adjusting for age, age-squared, sex, smoking, and menopausal status, were evaluated in association with the genotype data using additive Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and Family Based Association Test (FBAT) models. We prioritized mean BMI over offspring examinations (1-7) and cohort examinations (10, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26) and mean WC over offspring examinations (4-7) for presentation. We evaluated associations with 70,987 SNPs on autosomes with minor allele frequencies of at least 0.10, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p > or = 0.001, and call rates of at least 80%.

    Results: The top SNPs to be associated with mean BMI and mean WC by GEE were rs110683 (p-value 1.22*10(-7)) and rs4471028 (p-values 1.96*10(-7)). Please see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite for the complete set of results. We were able to validate SNPs in known genes that have been related to BMI or other adiposity traits, including the ESR1 Xba1 SNP, PPARG, and ADIPOQ.

    Conclusion: Adiposity traits are associated with SNPs on the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip. Replication of these initial findings is necessary. These data will serve as a resource for replication as more genes become identified with BMI and WC.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-25195, N01HC25195; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK066241

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S18

  • GDAP1 mutations in Czech families with early-onset CMT.

    Baránková L, Vyhnálková E, Züchner S, Mazanec R, Sakmaryová I, Vondrácek P, Merlini L, Bojar M, Nelis E, De Jonghe P and Seeman P

    Department of Neurology, 2nd School of Medicine, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. lbaranek@email.cz

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation associated protein-1 gene (GDAP1) cause autosomal recessive (AR) demyelinating or axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). In order to establish the spectrum and frequency of GDAP1 mutations in Czech population, we sequenced GDAP1 in 74 Czech patients from 69 unrelated families with early-onset demyelinating or axonal CMT compatible with AR inheritance. We identified three isolated patients with GDAP1 mutations in both alleles. In one additional sporadic and one familial case, the second pathogenic mutation remained unknown. Overall, we detected two different mutations, a novel R191X nonsense and a L239F missense mutation. L239F previously described in a German-Italian family is a prevalent mutation in Czech population and we give evidence for its common ancestral origin. All Czech GDAP1 patients developed involvement of all four limbs evident by the end of second decade, except for one isolated patient showing very slow disease progression. All patients displayed axonal type of neuropathy.

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2007;17;6;482-9

  • Functional characterisation of ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 as a glutathione transferase.

    Shield AJ, Murray TP and Board PG

    Molecular Genetics Group, Division of Molecular Biosciences, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene have been linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. This protein, and its paralogue GDAP1L1, appear to be structurally related to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GST) including an N-terminal thioredoxin fold domain with conserved active site residues. The specific function, of GDAP1 remains unknown. To further characterise their structure and function we purified recombinant human GDAP1 and GDAP1L1 proteins using bacterial expression and immobilised metal affinity chromatography. Like other cytosolic GSTs, GDAP1 protein has a dimeric structure. Although the full-length proteins were largely insoluble, the deletion of a proposed C-terminal transmembrane domain allowed the preparation of soluble protein. The purified proteins were assayed for glutathione-dependent activity against a library of 'prototypic' GST substrates. No evidence of glutathione-dependent activity or an ability to bind glutathione immobilised on agarose was found.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;347;4;859-66

  • GDAP1 mutation in autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth with pyramidal features.

    Biancheri R, Zara F, Striano P, Pedemonte M, Cassandrini D, Stringara S, Manganelli F, Santoro L, Schenone A, Bellone E and Minetti C

    Journal of neurology 2006;253;9;1234-5

  • A novel Met116Thr mutation in the GDAP1 gene in a Polish family with the axonal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4 disease.

    Kabzińska D, Kochański A, Drac H, Rowińska-Marcińska K, Ryniewicz B, Pedrola L, Palau F and Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I

    Neuromuscular Unit, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

    Mutations in the gene coding for ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1), which maps to chromosome 8q21, have been described in families with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4A). Interestingly, some mutations in the GDAP1 gene have been reported in the demyelinating form of CMT1 disease, whereas others were found in patients with the axonal type of CMT disease. So far, 23 mutations in the GDAP1 gene have been reported in patients of different ethnic origins. In this study we report a novel mutation Met116Thr in the GDAP1 gene identified in a three generation Polish family with axonal CMT4.

    Journal of the neurological sciences 2006;241;1-2;7-11

  • GDAP1, the protein causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A, is expressed in neurons and is associated with mitochondria.

    Pedrola L, Espert A, Wu X, Claramunt R, Shy ME and Palau F

    Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Department of Genomics and Proteomics, Instituto de Biomedicina, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.

    Mutations in GDAP1, the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene, cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A, a severe autosomal recessive form of neuropathy associated with either demyelinating or axonal phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that GDAP1 has far greater expression in neurons than in myelinating Schwann cells. We investigated cell localization of GDAP1 in a human neuroblastoma cell line by means of transient overexpression and co-localization with organelle markers in COS-7 cells and by western blot analysis of subcell fractions with anti-GDAP1 polyclonal antibodies. We observed that GDAP1 is localized in mitochondria. We also show that C-terminal transmembrane domains are necessary for the correct localization in mitochondria; however, missense mutations do not change the mitochondrial pattern of the wild-type protein. Our findings suggest that CMT4A disease is in fact a mitochondrial neuropathy mainly involving axons and represents a disease belonging to the new category of mitochondrial disorders caused by mutations in nuclear genes. We postulate that GDAP1 may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial network.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01NS4139A, R01NS43168-01A1

    Human molecular genetics 2005;14;8;1087-94

  • Genetics of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A: mutations, inheritance, phenotypic variability, and founder effect.

    Claramunt R, Pedrola L, Sevilla T, López de Munain A, Berciano J, Cuesta A, Sánchez-Navarro B, Millán JM, Saifi GM, Lupski JR, Vílchez JJ, Espinós C and Palau F

    Journal of medical genetics 2005;42;4;358-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Vocal cord and diaphragm paralysis, as clinical features of a French family with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, associated with a new mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Stojkovic T, Latour P, Viet G, de Seze J, Hurtevent JF, Vandenberghe A and Vermersch P

    Department of Neurology, CHU de Lille, Hôpital Roger Salengro, Service de Neurologie D, 59037 Lille Cedex, France. t-stojkovic@chru-lille.fr

    Axonal forms of Charot-Marie-Tooth disease, either dominantly or recessively inherited, are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. We describe the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of an axonal autosomal recessive form of Charot-Marie-Tooth disease in a French family, associated with a new mutation of the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 gene (GDAP1). Two sisters, born to non-consanguineous parents, presented severe proximal and distal sensorimotor deficit, areflexia, pes cavus, scoliosis and vocal cord and diaphragm paralysis. They lost ambulation in the third decade and since then they have been wheelchair bound. Nerve conduction studies were consistent with an axonal neuropathy. Clinical and electrophysiological examination of their parents and their brother was normal. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous thymidine deletion at nucleotide position 558 resulting in a frameshift at codon 186 and a stop codon at position 205. This axonal form of Charot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with a new GDAP1 mutation is recessively inherited and is characterized by a severe phenotype, since patients become wheelchair bound in the third decade, and present vocal cord and diaphram paralysis, which may be missed as they had no respiratory symptoms until the third decade.

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2004;14;4;261-4

  • Identification of novel GDAP1 mutations causing autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Ammar N, Nelis E, Merlini L, Barisić N, Amouri R, Ceuterick C, Martin JJ, Timmerman V, Hentati F and De Jonghe P

    Molecular Genetics Department, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerp, Belgium.

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene cause either autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A or autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with vocal cord paresis. We sequenced the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene in 138 patients from 119 unrelated families diagnosed with either demyelinating or axonal autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We detected six distinct mutant alleles in four families, four of which are novel. Electrophysiological studies show severely slowed motor nerve conduction velocities with severely reduced compound muscle action potentials. However, one patient had a normal conduction velocity in the ulnar nerve. Based on the electrophysiological tests, patients with ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 mutations will therefore be classified as either axonal or demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The neuropathological aspect shows a divergent pattern; nerve biopsies taken from two siblings at the same age and sharing the same ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene mutation showed a dissimilar severity stage.

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2003;13;9;720-8

  • Variability of disease progression in a family with autosomal recessive CMT associated with a S194X and new R310Q mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Azzedine H, Ruberg M, Ente D, Gilardeau C, Périé S, Wechsler B, Brice A, LeGuern E and Dubourg O

    Inserm U289, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 47 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris 13, France.

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance is a heterogeneous group of inherited motor and sensory neuropathies. Six genes and five additional loci have been identified that are responsible for either demyelinating or axonal forms of the disease. The gene encoding the ganglioside-induced-differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) has been associated with both demyelinating and axonal phenotypes. We report a detailed clinical, electrophysiological, and genetic study of two siblings from a Moroccan ARCMT family who are compound heterozygotes for the already described S194X and a new R310Q mutation in the GDAP1 gene. The electrophysiological data are compatible with an axonal form of the disease. The phenotype included hoarse voice and paralysis of the diaphragm. This study shows the variability of the phenotype associated with mutations in GDAP1 gene in terms of associated signs and severity.

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2003;13;4;341-6

  • Phenotypical features of a Moroccan family with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with the S194X mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Birouk N, Azzedine H, Dubourg O, Muriel MP, Benomar A, Hamadouche T, Maisonobe T, Ouazzani R, Brice A, Yahyaoui M, Chkili T and Le Guern E

    Service de Neurologie, Hôpital des Spécialités, Rabat, Morocco. birna@iam.net.ma

    Background: The first locus for demyelinating autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth (ARCMT) disease was identified in 8q13, where mutations in GDAP1 have been found. Mutations in the same gene have been detected in families with axonal ARCMT disease.

    Objective: To determine the clinical, electrophysiologic, and morphologic characteristics of a consanguineous Moroccan family with ARCMT disease associated with the S194X mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Methods: Four patients from a consanguineous Moroccan family were examined clinically and electrophysiologically. In one patient, a morphometric and ultrastructural study of a peroneal nerve biopsy sample was performed. Mutation in the coding region of the GDAP1 gene was identified by direct sequencing.

    Results: Neuropathy was evident early in childhood, walking was delayed in one patient, and onset of symptoms occurred before 18 months in the others. The phenotype was severe: foot deformities and disabilities involving the hands and feet developed toward the end of the first decade, followed by involvement of proximal muscles in the lower limbs, leading to loss of autonomy. Electrophysiologic findings were consistent with an axonal form of CMT disease: motor nerve conduction velocities, recordable in one patient only, were greater than 40 m/sec. Sensory nerve action potentials were either abolished or substantially reduced in amplitude. The morphologic data supported the diagnosis of axonal neuropathy, showing a marked reduction in myelinated fibers and signs of axonal regeneration, including frequent pseudo-onion bulb formations. The 4 patients in this family were homozygous for the S194X mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Conclusion: Electrophysiologic and pathological findings support the hypothesis of an axonal disorder in this ARCMT family with the S194X mutation in the GDAP1 gene.

    Archives of neurology 2003;60;4;598-604

  • CMT4A: identification of a Hispanic GDAP1 founder mutation.

    Boerkoel CF, Takashima H, Nakagawa M, Izumo S, Armstrong D, Butler I, Mancias P, Papasozomenos SC, Stern LZ and Lupski JR

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Mutations of the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) cause autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A. We report four additional families with recessive mutations (487C-->T, Q163X; 359G-->A, R120Q) of GDAP1; Q163X occurred in three unrelated Hispanic families that had the same haplotype suggesting a Spanish founder mutation. Both the Q163X and the R120Q mutation cause demyelination and axonal loss. The patients had symptoms within the first two years of life and involvement of cranial, sensory, and enteric nerves. Neuropathology showed loss of large myelinated fibers, onion bulb formations and focal folding of the outer myelin lamina.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: K08 DK02738; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS27042

    Annals of neurology 2003;53;3;400-5

  • Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1) gene in intermediate type autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    Senderek J, Bergmann C, Ramaekers VT, Nelis E, Bernert G, Makowski A, Züchner S, De Jonghe P, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Zerres K and Schröder JM

    Department of Human Genetics, Aachen University of Technology, Germany.

    Mutations in the gene for the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1) on 8q21 recently were reported to cause autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) sensorimotor neuropathy. Neurophysiology and nerve pathology were heterogeneous in these cases: a subset of GDAP1 mutations was associated with peripheral nerve demyelination, whereas others resulted in axonal degeneration. In this study, we identified two novel mutations disrupting the GDAP1 reading frame. Homozygosity for a single base pair insertion in exon 3 (c.349_350insT) was observed in affected children from a Turkish inbred pedigree. The other novel allele detected in a German patient was a homozygous mutation of the intron 4 donor splice site (c.579 + 1G>A). Patients with GDAP1 mutations displayed severe, early childhood-onset CMT neuropathy with prominent pes equinovarus deformity and impairment of hand muscles. Nerve conduction velocities were between 25 and 35 m/s and peripheral nerve pathology showed axonal as well as demyelinating changes. These findings fitted the definition of intermediate type CMT and further support the view that GDAP1 is vital for both, axonal integrity and Schwann cell properties.

    Brain : a journal of neurology 2003;126;Pt 3;642-9

  • Mutations in GDAP1: autosomal recessive CMT with demyelination and axonopathy.

    Nelis E, Erdem S, Van Den Bergh PY, Belpaire-Dethiou MC, Ceuterick C, Van Gerwen V, Cuesta A, Pedrola L, Palau F, Gabreëls-Festen AA, Verellen C, Tan E, Demirci M, Van Broeckhoven C, De Jonghe P, Topaloglu H and Timmerman V

    Molecular Genetics Department, Flanders Interuniversity Institute of Biotechnology, Belgium.

    Background: Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) were recently shown to be responsible for autosomal recessive (AR) demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 4A (CMT4A) as well as AR axonal CMT with vocal cord paralysis.

    Methods: The coding region of GDAP1 was screened for the presence of mutations in seven families with AR CMT in which the patients were homozygous for markers of the CMT4A locus at chromosome 8q21.1.

    Results: A nonsense mutation was detected in exon 5 (c.581C>G, S194X), a 1-bp deletion in exon 6 (c.786delG, G262fsX284), and a missense mutation in exon 6 (c.844C>T, R282C).

    Conclusions: Mutations in GDAP1 are a frequent cause of AR CMT. They result in an early-onset, severe clinical phenotype. The range of nerve conduction velocities (NCV) is variable. Some patients have normal or near normal NCV, suggesting an axonal neuropathy, whereas others have severely slowed NCV compatible with demyelination. The peripheral nerve biopsy findings are equally variable and show features of demyelination and axonal degeneration.

    Neurology 2002;59;12;1865-72

  • The gene encoding ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 is mutated in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4A disease.

    Cuesta A, Pedrola L, Sevilla T, García-Planells J, Chumillas MJ, Mayordomo F, LeGuern E, Marín I, Vílchez JJ and Palau F

    Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Instituto de Biomedicina, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 46010 Valencia, Spain.

    We identified three distinct mutations and six mutant alleles in GDAP1 in three families with axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy and vocal cord paresis, which were previously linked to the CMT4A locus on chromosome 8q21.1. These results establish the molecular etiology of CMT4A (MIM 214400) and suggest that it may be associated with both axonal and demyelinating phenotypes.

    Nature genetics 2002;30;1;22-5

  • Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 is mutant in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A/8q21.

    Baxter RV, Ben Othmane K, Rochelle JM, Stajich JE, Hulette C, Dew-Knight S, Hentati F, Ben Hamida M, Bel S, Stenger JE, Gilbert JR, Pericak-Vance MA and Vance JM

    Center for Human Genetics, Institute of Genomic Sciences and Policy, Research Park Building II Room 105, Box 2903, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    We previously localized and fine-mapped Charcot Marie Tooth 4A (CMT4A), the autosomal recessive, demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, to chromosome 8. Through additional positional cloning, we have identified a good candidate gene, encoding ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1). We found three different mutations in four different Tunisian families-two nonsense and one missense mutation. How mutations in GDAP1 lead to CMT4A remains to be understood.

    Nature genetics 2002;30;1;21-2

  • Mutations in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy with secondary laminin alpha2 deficiency and abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan.

    Brockington M, Blake DJ, Prandini P, Brown SC, Torelli S, Benson MA, Ponting CP, Estournet B, Romero NB, Mercuri E, Voit T, Sewry CA, Guicheney P and Muntoni F

    The Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, United Kindom.

    The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders presenting in infancy with muscle weakness, contractures, and dystrophic changes on skeletal-muscle biopsy. Structural brain defects, with or without mental retardation, are additional features of several CMD syndromes. Approximately 40% of patients with CMD have a primary deficiency (MDC1A) of the laminin alpha2 chain of merosin (laminin-2) due to mutations in the LAMA2 gene. In addition, a secondary deficiency of laminin alpha2 is apparent in some CMD syndromes, including MDC1B, which is mapped to chromosome 1q42, and both muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) and Fukuyama CMD (FCMD), two forms with severe brain involvement. The FCMD gene encodes a protein of unknown function, fukutin, though sequence analysis predicts it to be a phosphoryl-ligand transferase. Here we identify the gene for a new member of the fukutin protein family (fukutin related protein [FKRP]), mapping to human chromosome 19q13.3. We report the genomic organization of the FKRP gene and its pattern of tissue expression. Mutations in the FKRP gene have been identified in seven families with CMD characterized by disease onset in the first weeks of life and a severe phenotype with inability to walk, muscle hypertrophy, marked elevation of serum creatine kinase, and normal brain structure and function. Affected individuals had a secondary deficiency of laminin alpha2 expression. In addition, they had both a marked decrease in immunostaining of muscle alpha-dystroglycan and a reduction in its molecular weight on western blot analysis. We suggest these abnormalities of alpha-dystroglycan are caused by its defective glycosylation and are integral to the pathology seen in MDC1C.

    American journal of human genetics 2001;69;6;1198-209

  • Isolation of 10 differentially expressed cDNAs in differentiated Neuro2a cells induced through controlled expression of the GD3 synthase gene.

    Liu H, Nakagawa T, Kanematsu T, Uchida T and Tsuji S

    Department of Molecular Glycobiology, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

    Recently, we showed that transfection of GD3 synthase cDNA into Neuro2a cells, a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, causes cell differentiation with neurite sprouting. In a search for the genes involved in this ganglioside-induced Neuro2a differentiation, we used a tetracycline-regulated GD3 synthase cDNA expression system combined with differential display PCRs to identify mRNAs that were differentially expressed at four representative time points during the process. We report here the identification of 10 mRNAs that are expressed highly at the Neuro2a differentiated stage. These cDNAs were named GDAP1-GDAP10 for (ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein) cDNAs. It is interesting that in retinoic acid-induced neural differentiated mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells, GDAP mRNA expression levels were also up-regulated (except that of GDAP3), ranging from three to >10 times compared with nondifferentiated P19 cells. All the GDAP genes (except that of GDAP3) were developmentally regulated. The GDAP1, 2, 6, 8, and 10 mRNAs were expressed highly in the adult mouse brain, whereas all the other GDAP mRNAs were expressed in most tissues. Our results suggested that these GDAP genes might be involved in the signal transduction pathway that is triggered through the expression of a single sialyltransferase gene to induce neurite-like differentiation of Neuro2a cells.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;72;5;1781-90

  • Alteration of the HL-A antigenic site in situ.

    Gauldie J, Bhandari SC and Singal DP

    The chemical nature of the HL-A antigenic sites on peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied by treatment of these cells with glycolytic enzymes and with sodium metaperiodate, and monitoring the residual antigen expression either by the lymphocyte cytotoxicity test or by quantitative microabsorption of monospecific anti-HL-A sera. Neither the gentle enzymatic nor the chemical treatment of lymphocytes altered expression of the HL-A antigens indicating that carbohydrates are not involved, in a major way, in the HL-A antigenic sites.

    Immunological communications 1975;4;5;465-76

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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