G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d1
G00000300 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000072834 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000159720 (Ensembl human gene)
9114 (Entrez Gene)
636 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP6V0D1 (GeneCards)
607028 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:13724 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P61421 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • ATP6DV
  • P39
  • VATX
  • Vma6

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • Control elements in the neighboring ATPase gene influence spatiotemporal expression of the human agouti-related protein.

    Ilnytska O, Sözen MA, Dauterive R and Argyropoulos G

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70809, USA.

    The agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptide that plays a significant role in the regulation of energy balance. It is expressed in the hypothalamus, the adrenal glands, and the testis, but sequences determining its spatial and temporal expression have not been identified. Using an elaborate in vitro screening approach, we show here that two adjacent enhancers inside the first intron of the neighboring (1.4 kb downstream) ATPase gene (ATP6V0D1) modulate the human AgRP promoter with profound spatiotemporal variation despite their diminutive sizes (221 and 231 nt). In transgenic mice, the proximal enhancer displayed specificity for the testis, tail, and ears, and the distal one for the testis, front feet, bone, heart, muscle, brain, spinal cord, and tongue, while dietary fat and overnight fasting had differential effects on enhancer activities. AgRP in the testis was localized to pachytene spermatocytes and in the tongue to epithelial cells. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the AgRP-ATP6V0D1 intergenic region is two times longer in humans than in mice and that the two enhancers are conserved in the rhesus monkey genome but not in the mouse genome. These data show that spatiotemporal expression of the human AgRP gene is influenced by diversified primate-specific intronic sequences in its neighboring ATP6V0D1 gene.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK62156, R01 DK062156, R01 DK062156-05

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;388;2;239-51

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • The d subunit plays a central role in human vacuolar H(+)-ATPases.

    Smith AN, Francis RW, Sorrell SL and Karet FE

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    The multi-subunit vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase consists of a V(1) domain (A-H subunits) catalyzing ATP hydrolysis and a V(0) domain (a, c, c', c", d, e) responsible for H(+) translocation. The mammalian V(0) d subunit is one of the least-well characterized, and its function and position within the pump are still unclear. It has two different forms encoded by separate genes, d1 being ubiquitous while d2 is predominantly expressed at the cell surface in kidney and osteoclast. To determine whether it forms part of the pump's central stalk as suggested by bacterial A-ATPase studies, or is peripheral as hypothesized from a yeast model, we investigated both human d subunit isoforms. In silico structural modelling demonstrated that human d1 and d2 are structural orthologues of bacterial subunit C, despite poor sequence identity. Expression studies of d1 and d2 showed that each can pull down the central stalk's D and F subunits from human kidney membrane, and in vitro studies using D and F further showed that the interactions between these proteins and the d subunit is direct. These data indicate that the d subunit in man is centrally located within the pump and is thus important in its rotary mechanism.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 079895

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 2008;40;4;371-80

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase.

    Morel N

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France. nicolas.morel@nbcm.cnrs-gif.fr

    Vacuolar-H+ATPase (V-ATPase) is a complex enzyme with numerous subunits organized in two domains. The membrane domain V0 contains a proteolipid hexameric ring that translocates protons when ATP is hydrolysed by the catalytic cytoplasmic sector (V1). In nerve terminals, V-ATPase generates an electrochemical proton gradient that is acid and positive inside synaptic vesicles. It is used by specific neurotransmitter-proton antiporters to accumulate neurotransmitters inside their storage organelles. During synaptic activity, neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles docked at specialized portions of the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zones. A fusion pore opens that allows the neurotransmitter to be released from the synaptic vesicle lumen into the synaptic cleft. We briefly review experimental data suggesting that the membrane domain of V-ATPase could be such a fusion pore. We also discuss the functional implications for quantal neurotransmitter release of the sequential use of the same V-ATPase membrane domain in two different events, neurotransmitter accumulation in synaptic vesicles first, and then release from these organelles during synaptic activity.

    Biology of the cell 2003;95;7;453-7

  • Revised nomenclature for mammalian vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase subunit genes.

    Smith AN, Lovering RC, Futai M, Takeda J, Brown D and Karet FE

    To date, the nomenclature of mammalian genes encoding the numerous subunits and their many isoforms that comprise the family of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases has not been systematic, resulting in confusion both in the literature and among investigators. We present the official new system for these genes, approved by both Human and Mouse Gene Nomenclature Committees.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;801-3

  • Proton translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis in V-ATPases.

    Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments and, in certain cases, proton transport across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They are multisubunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V(1)) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral domain (V(0)) responsible for proton translocation. Based upon their structural similarity to the F(1)F(0) ATP synthases, the V-ATPases are thought to operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis in V(1) drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits in V(0). This review is focused on the current structural knowledge of the V-ATPases as it relates to the mechanism of ATP-driven proton translocation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    FEBS letters 2003;545;1;76-85

  • The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases--nature's most versatile proton pumps.

    Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The pH of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells is a carefully controlled parameter that affects many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane transport, prohormone processing and transport of neurotransmitters, as well as the entry of many viruses into cells. The transporters responsible for controlling this crucial parameter in many intracellular compartments are the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases). Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and regulation of the V-ATPases, together with the mapping of human genetic defects to genes that encode V-ATPase subunits, have led to tremendous excitement in this field.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2002;3;2;94-103

  • Structure of the VPATPD gene encoding subunit D of the human vacuolar proton ATPase.

    Agarwal AK and White PC

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, 75390-9063, USA.

    The HSD11B2 and VPATPD genes encoding the human kidney isozyme of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD2) and subunit D of the vacuolar proton ATPase, respectively, are located on chromosome 16q22. They are transcribed from complementary DNA strands and their 3' ends are only 0.5 kilobase apart. Because polymorphisms in HSD11B2 have been associated with hypertension and salt sensitivity, we characterized the human VPATPD gene. It spans 19 kb and consists of 8 exons. The encoded protein is 99.5% identical to mouse subunit D at the amino acid level. An alternating purine-pyrimidine tract is located in the 3'-untranslated region of VPATPD. On genotyping 17 hypertensive subjects, no length polymorphism was found. Although VPATPD and HSD11B2 are both expressed in kidney and placenta, they are regulated differently; forskolin upregulates HSD11B2 but not VPATPD in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 cells. The functional significance of the proximity of these two genes remains to be established.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK42169

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;279;2;543-7

  • Animal plasma membrane energization by proton-motive V-ATPases.

    Wieczorek H, Brown D, Grinstein S, Ehrenfeld J and Harvey WR

    Department of Biology/Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, D-49069, Osnabrück, Germany.

    Proton-translocating, vacuolar-type ATPases, well known energizers of eukaryotic, vacuolar membranes, now emerge as energizers of many plasma membranes. Just as Na(+) gradients, imposed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPases, energize basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia, so voltage gradients, imposed by H(+) V-ATPases, energize apical plasma membranes. The energized membranes acidify or alkalinize compartments, absorb or secrete ions and fluids, and underwrite cellular homeostasis. V-ATPases acidify extracellular spaces of single cells such as phagocytes and osteoclasts and of polarized epithelia, such as vertebrate kidney and epididymis. They alkalinize extracellular spaces of lepidopteran midgut. V-ATPases energize fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules and fluid absorption by insect oocytes. They hyperpolarize external plasma membranes for Na(+) uptake by amphibian skin and fish gills. Indeed, it is likely that ion uptake by osmotically active membranes of all fresh water organisms is energized by V-ATPases. Awareness of plasma membrane energization by V-ATPases provides new perspectives for basic science and presents new opportunities for medicine and agriculture.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22444; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC42956

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;8;637-48

  • Structure and properties of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases.

    Forgac M

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;19;12951-4

  • Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases.

    Nelson N and Harvey WR

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the most fundamental enzymes in nature. It functions in almost every eukaryotic cell and energizes a wide variety of organelles and membranes. V-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action with F-ATPase and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. In eukaryotic cells, F-ATPases are confined to the semi-autonomous organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, which contain their own genes that encode some of the F-ATPase subunits. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. The mechanistic and structural relations between the two enzymes prompted us to suggest similar functional units in V-ATPase as was proposed to F-ATPase and to assign some of the V-ATPase subunit to one of four parts of a mechanochemical machine: a catalytic unit, a shaft, a hook, and a proton turbine. It was the yeast genetics that allowed the identification of special properties of individual subunits and the discovery of factors that are involved in the enzyme biogenesis and assembly. The V-ATPases play a major role as energizers of animal plasma membranes, especially apical plasma membranes of epithelial cells. This role was first recognized in plasma membranes of lepidopteran midgut and vertebrate kidney. The list of animals with plasma membranes that are energized by V-ATPases now includes members of most, if not all, animal phyla. This includes the classical Na+ absorption by frog skin, male fertility through acidification of the sperm acrosome and the male reproductive tract, bone resorption by mammalian osteoclasts, and regulation of eye pressure. V-ATPase may function in Na+ uptake by trout gills and energizes water secretion by contractile vacuoles in Dictyostelium. V-ATPase was first detected in organelles connected with the vacuolar system. It is the main if not the only primary energy source for numerous transport systems in these organelles. The driving force for the accumulation of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles is pmf generated by V-ATPase. The acidification of lysosomes, which are required for the proper function of most of their enzymes, is provided by V-ATPase. The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to yeast vacuoles that maintain an internal pH of approximately 5.5, it is believed that the vacuoles of lemon fruit may have a pH as low as 2. Similarly, some brown and red alga maintain internal pH as low as 0.1 in their vacuoles. One of the outstanding questions in the field is how such a conserved enzyme as the V-ATPase can fulfill such diverse functions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-22444

    Physiological reviews 1999;79;2;361-85

  • Introduction: V-ATPases 1992-1998.

    Kane PM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 1999;31;1;3-5

  • The vacuolar H+-ATPase: a universal proton pump of eukaryotes.

    Finbow ME and Harrison MA

    CRC Beatson Laboratories, Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, U.K.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a universal component of eukaryotic organisms. It is present in the membranes of many organelles, where its proton-pumping action creates the low intra-vacuolar pH found, for example, in lysosomes. In addition, there are a number of differentiated cell types that have V-ATPases on their surface that contribute to the physiological functions of these cells. The V-ATPase is a multi-subunit enzyme composed of a membrane sector and a cytosolic catalytic sector. It is related to the familiar FoF1 ATP synthase (F-ATPase), having the same basic architectural construction, and many of the subunits from the two display identity with one another. All the core subunits of the V-ATPase have now been identified and much is known about the assembly, regulation and pharmacology of the enzyme. Recent genetic analysis has shown the V-ATPase to be a vital component of higher eukaryotes. At least one of the subunits, i.e. subunit c (ductin), may have multifunctional roles in membrane transport, providing a possible pathway of communication between cells. The structure of the membrane sector is known in some detail, and it is possible to begin to suggest how proton pumping is coupled to ATP hydrolysis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1997;324 ( Pt 3);697-712

  • Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase.

    Stevens TH and Forgac M

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403-1229, USA. stevens@molbio.uoregon.edu

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) function in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The peripheral V1 domain, a 500-kDa complex responsible for ATP hydrolysis, contains at least eight different subunits of molecular weight 70-13 (subunits A-H). The integral V0 domain, a 250-kDa complex, functions in proton translocation and contains at least five different subunits of molecular weight 100-17 (subunits a-d). Biochemical and genetic analysis has been used to identify subunits and residues involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, proton translocation, and coupling of these activities. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar acidification in vivo, including control of pump density, regulation of assembly of V1 and V0 domains, disulfide bond formation, activator or inhibitor proteins, and regulation of counterion conductance. Recent information concerning targeting and regulation of V-ATPases has also been obtained.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;779-808

  • Cloning and tissue distribution of subunits C, D, and E of the human vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    van Hille B, Vanek M, Richener H, Green JR and Bilbe G

    Pharma Research, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

    The vacuolar proton ATPase (V-ATPase) translocates protons into intracellular organelles or across the plasma membrane of specialised cells such as osteoclast and renal intercalated cells. The catalytic site of the V-ATPase consists of a hexamer of three A subunits and three B subunits which bind and hydrolyse ATP and are regulated by accessory subunits C, D and E. cDNAs encoding subunits C, D, and E were cloned from human osteoclastoma, a tissue highly enriched in osteoclasts, as a first step in the characterisation of the V-ATPase used by the osteoclast. By Northern blot analysis only one mRNA species were detected for each of these subunits, which is consistent the constant transcription level in all tissues irrespective of the presence of specialised cells highly enriched in V-ATPases.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;197;1;15-21

  • Cloning of cDNA encoding a 32-kDa protein. An accessory polypeptide of the H+-ATPase from chromaffin granules.

    Wang SY, Moriyama Y, Mandel M, Hulmes JD, Pan YC, Danho W, Nelson H and Nelson N

    Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey.

    The purified H+-ATPase from chromaffin granules is composed of several polypeptides, one of which has an apparent molecular weight of 39,000. Immunoblots with the antibody against this protein and various membrane preparations showed that similar or even identical polypeptides may be associated with the H+-ATPases from synaptic vesicle, kidney microsomes, and lysosomes. A cDNA library was constructed from bovine adrenal medulla, and the cDNA encoding the polypeptide was isolated and sequenced. Search in DNA and protein data banks revealed no significant homology to known genes. Hydrophobicity plot revealed no obvious transmembrane segments with the exception of one stretch of hydrophobic and neutral amino acid starting at leucine 16. The cDNA was shown to encode the entire polypeptide by the virtue of an amino acid sequence corresponding to the N terminus of the open reading frame and by subunit and site-specific antibodies. The cDNA was cloned into an expression vector, transcribed by T7 polymerase, and translated by reticulocyte lysate. Even though the cDNA encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 31,495, the translation product comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the subunit of the purified H+-ATPase. In line with several other subunits of vacuolar H+-ATPases, no signal sequence was detected in the translated gene. Northern blots revealed the presence of a single mRNA of about 1.6 kb in bovine adrenal medulla. However, liver, lung, and kidney may contain additional mRNA of about 1.7 kb.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;33;17638-42

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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