G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001546
Gene symbol
ATP6V1A (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 70kDa, V1 subunit A
Orthologue
G00000297 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000114573 (Ensembl human gene)
523 (Entrez Gene)
633 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP6V1A (GeneCards)
Literature
607027 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:851 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P38606 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • VA68
  • Vma1

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, SP, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease.

    Journal of psychiatric research 2009;43;11;978-86

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Physical interaction between aldolase and vacuolar H+-ATPase is essential for the assembly and activity of the proton pump.

    Lu M, Ammar D, Ives H, Albrecht F and Gluck SL

    Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143-0532, USA. minglu@medicine.ucsf.edu

    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of highly conserved proton pumps that couple hydrolysis of cytosolic ATP to proton transport out of the cytosol. Although V-ATPases are involved in a number of cellular processes, how the proton pumps are regulated under physiological conditions is not well understood. We have reported that the glycolytic enzyme aldolase mediates V-ATPase assembly and activity by physical association with the proton pump (Lu, M., Holliday, L. S., Zhang, L., Dunn, W. A., and Gluck, S. L. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 30407-30413 and Lu, M., Sautin, Y., Holliday, L. S., and Gluck, S. L. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 8732-8739). In this study, we generate aldolase mutants that lack binding to the B subunit of V-ATPase but retain normal catalytic activities. Functional analysis of the aldolase mutants shows that disruption of binding between aldolase and the B subunit of V-ATPase results in disassembly and malfunction of V-ATPase. In contrast, aldolase enzymatic activity is not required for V-ATPase assembly. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest an important role for physical association between aldolase and V-ATPase in the regulation of the proton pump.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK64095, DK64977

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;34;24495-503

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase.

    Morel N

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France. nicolas.morel@nbcm.cnrs-gif.fr

    Vacuolar-H+ATPase (V-ATPase) is a complex enzyme with numerous subunits organized in two domains. The membrane domain V0 contains a proteolipid hexameric ring that translocates protons when ATP is hydrolysed by the catalytic cytoplasmic sector (V1). In nerve terminals, V-ATPase generates an electrochemical proton gradient that is acid and positive inside synaptic vesicles. It is used by specific neurotransmitter-proton antiporters to accumulate neurotransmitters inside their storage organelles. During synaptic activity, neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles docked at specialized portions of the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zones. A fusion pore opens that allows the neurotransmitter to be released from the synaptic vesicle lumen into the synaptic cleft. We briefly review experimental data suggesting that the membrane domain of V-ATPase could be such a fusion pore. We also discuss the functional implications for quantal neurotransmitter release of the sequential use of the same V-ATPase membrane domain in two different events, neurotransmitter accumulation in synaptic vesicles first, and then release from these organelles during synaptic activity.

    Biology of the cell 2003;95;7;453-7

  • Revised nomenclature for mammalian vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase subunit genes.

    Smith AN, Lovering RC, Futai M, Takeda J, Brown D and Karet FE

    To date, the nomenclature of mammalian genes encoding the numerous subunits and their many isoforms that comprise the family of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases has not been systematic, resulting in confusion both in the literature and among investigators. We present the official new system for these genes, approved by both Human and Mouse Gene Nomenclature Committees.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;801-3

  • Proton translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis in V-ATPases.

    Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments and, in certain cases, proton transport across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They are multisubunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V(1)) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral domain (V(0)) responsible for proton translocation. Based upon their structural similarity to the F(1)F(0) ATP synthases, the V-ATPases are thought to operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis in V(1) drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits in V(0). This review is focused on the current structural knowledge of the V-ATPases as it relates to the mechanism of ATP-driven proton translocation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    FEBS letters 2003;545;1;76-85

  • An evaluation of the assembly of an approximately 15-Mb region on human chromosome 13q32-q33 linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Christian SL, McDonough J, Liu Cy CY, Shaikh S, Vlamakis V, Badner JA, Chakravarti A and Gershon ES

    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. schrist@yoda.bsd.uchicago.edu

    The human 13q32-q33 region has been linked to both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Before completion of the draft sequences, we developed an approximately 15-Mb comprehensive map for the region extending from D13S1300 to ATA35H12. This map was assembled using publicly available mapping data and sequence-tagged site (STS)-based PCR confirmation. We then compared this map with the NCBI, Celera Genomics, and UCSC Golden Path data in February, June, and September 2001. All data sets showed gaps, misassignment of STSs, and errors in orientation and marker order. Surprisingly, the completed sequences of many bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) had been truncated. Of 21 gaps that were detected, 4 were present in both the NCBI and Celera databases. All gaps could be filled using 1-2 BAC clones. A total of 39 loci mapped to additional sites within the human genome, providing evidence of segmental duplications. Additionally, 61 unique cDNA clones were sequenced to increase available transcribed sequence, and 11,353 reference single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with an average density of 1 SNP/3720 bases were identified. Overall, integration of the data from multiple sources is still needed for complete assembly of the 13q32-q33 region. (c)

    Genomics 2002;79;5;635-56

  • Interaction of the C-terminal domain of p43 and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase. Its functional implication in endothelial cell proliferation.

    Chang SY, Park SG, Kim S and Kang CY

    Laboratory of Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shillimdong, Kwanakgu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

    Human p43 is associated with macromolecular tRNA synthase complex and known as a precursor of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II). Interestingly, p43 is also secreted to induce proinflammatory genes. Although p43 itself seems to be a cytokine working at physiological conditions, most of the functional studies have been obtained with its C-terminal equivalent, EMAP II. To gain an insight into the working mechanism of p43/EMAP II, we used EMAP II and searched for an interacting cell surface molecule. The level of EMAP II-binding molecule(s) was significantly increased in serum-starved tumor cells. Thus, the EMAP II-binding molecule was isolated from the membrane of the serum-starved CEM cell. The isolated protein was determined to be the alpha subunit of ATP synthase. The interaction of EMAP II and alpha-ATP synthase was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in vitro pull down assays and blocked with the antibodies raised against EMAP II and alpha-ATP synthase. The binding of EMAP II to the surface of serum-starved cells was inhibited in the presence of soluble alpha-ATP synthase. EMAP II inhibited the growth of endothelial cells, and this effect was relieved by soluble alpha-ATP synthase. Anti-alpha-ATP synthase antibody also showed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of endothelial cells mimicking the activity of EMAP II. These results suggest the potential interaction of p43/EMAP II with alpha-ATP synthase and its role in the proliferation of endothelial cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;10;8388-94

  • The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases--nature's most versatile proton pumps.

    Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The pH of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells is a carefully controlled parameter that affects many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane transport, prohormone processing and transport of neurotransmitters, as well as the entry of many viruses into cells. The transporters responsible for controlling this crucial parameter in many intracellular compartments are the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases). Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and regulation of the V-ATPases, together with the mapping of human genetic defects to genes that encode V-ATPase subunits, have led to tremendous excitement in this field.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2002;3;2;94-103

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • Animal plasma membrane energization by proton-motive V-ATPases.

    Wieczorek H, Brown D, Grinstein S, Ehrenfeld J and Harvey WR

    Department of Biology/Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, D-49069, Osnabrück, Germany.

    Proton-translocating, vacuolar-type ATPases, well known energizers of eukaryotic, vacuolar membranes, now emerge as energizers of many plasma membranes. Just as Na(+) gradients, imposed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPases, energize basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia, so voltage gradients, imposed by H(+) V-ATPases, energize apical plasma membranes. The energized membranes acidify or alkalinize compartments, absorb or secrete ions and fluids, and underwrite cellular homeostasis. V-ATPases acidify extracellular spaces of single cells such as phagocytes and osteoclasts and of polarized epithelia, such as vertebrate kidney and epididymis. They alkalinize extracellular spaces of lepidopteran midgut. V-ATPases energize fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules and fluid absorption by insect oocytes. They hyperpolarize external plasma membranes for Na(+) uptake by amphibian skin and fish gills. Indeed, it is likely that ion uptake by osmotically active membranes of all fresh water organisms is energized by V-ATPases. Awareness of plasma membrane energization by V-ATPases provides new perspectives for basic science and presents new opportunities for medicine and agriculture.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22444; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC42956

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;8;637-48

  • Structure and properties of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases.

    Forgac M

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;19;12951-4

  • Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases.

    Nelson N and Harvey WR

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the most fundamental enzymes in nature. It functions in almost every eukaryotic cell and energizes a wide variety of organelles and membranes. V-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action with F-ATPase and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. In eukaryotic cells, F-ATPases are confined to the semi-autonomous organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, which contain their own genes that encode some of the F-ATPase subunits. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. The mechanistic and structural relations between the two enzymes prompted us to suggest similar functional units in V-ATPase as was proposed to F-ATPase and to assign some of the V-ATPase subunit to one of four parts of a mechanochemical machine: a catalytic unit, a shaft, a hook, and a proton turbine. It was the yeast genetics that allowed the identification of special properties of individual subunits and the discovery of factors that are involved in the enzyme biogenesis and assembly. The V-ATPases play a major role as energizers of animal plasma membranes, especially apical plasma membranes of epithelial cells. This role was first recognized in plasma membranes of lepidopteran midgut and vertebrate kidney. The list of animals with plasma membranes that are energized by V-ATPases now includes members of most, if not all, animal phyla. This includes the classical Na+ absorption by frog skin, male fertility through acidification of the sperm acrosome and the male reproductive tract, bone resorption by mammalian osteoclasts, and regulation of eye pressure. V-ATPase may function in Na+ uptake by trout gills and energizes water secretion by contractile vacuoles in Dictyostelium. V-ATPase was first detected in organelles connected with the vacuolar system. It is the main if not the only primary energy source for numerous transport systems in these organelles. The driving force for the accumulation of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles is pmf generated by V-ATPase. The acidification of lysosomes, which are required for the proper function of most of their enzymes, is provided by V-ATPase. The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to yeast vacuoles that maintain an internal pH of approximately 5.5, it is believed that the vacuoles of lemon fruit may have a pH as low as 2. Similarly, some brown and red alga maintain internal pH as low as 0.1 in their vacuoles. One of the outstanding questions in the field is how such a conserved enzyme as the V-ATPase can fulfill such diverse functions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-22444

    Physiological reviews 1999;79;2;361-85

  • Introduction: V-ATPases 1992-1998.

    Kane PM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 1999;31;1;3-5

  • The vacuolar H+-ATPase: a universal proton pump of eukaryotes.

    Finbow ME and Harrison MA

    CRC Beatson Laboratories, Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, U.K.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a universal component of eukaryotic organisms. It is present in the membranes of many organelles, where its proton-pumping action creates the low intra-vacuolar pH found, for example, in lysosomes. In addition, there are a number of differentiated cell types that have V-ATPases on their surface that contribute to the physiological functions of these cells. The V-ATPase is a multi-subunit enzyme composed of a membrane sector and a cytosolic catalytic sector. It is related to the familiar FoF1 ATP synthase (F-ATPase), having the same basic architectural construction, and many of the subunits from the two display identity with one another. All the core subunits of the V-ATPase have now been identified and much is known about the assembly, regulation and pharmacology of the enzyme. Recent genetic analysis has shown the V-ATPase to be a vital component of higher eukaryotes. At least one of the subunits, i.e. subunit c (ductin), may have multifunctional roles in membrane transport, providing a possible pathway of communication between cells. The structure of the membrane sector is known in some detail, and it is possible to begin to suggest how proton pumping is coupled to ATP hydrolysis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1997;324 ( Pt 3);697-712

  • Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase.

    Stevens TH and Forgac M

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403-1229, USA. stevens@molbio.uoregon.edu

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) function in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The peripheral V1 domain, a 500-kDa complex responsible for ATP hydrolysis, contains at least eight different subunits of molecular weight 70-13 (subunits A-H). The integral V0 domain, a 250-kDa complex, functions in proton translocation and contains at least five different subunits of molecular weight 100-17 (subunits a-d). Biochemical and genetic analysis has been used to identify subunits and residues involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, proton translocation, and coupling of these activities. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar acidification in vivo, including control of pump density, regulation of assembly of V1 and V0 domains, disulfide bond formation, activator or inhibitor proteins, and regulation of counterion conductance. Recent information concerning targeting and regulation of V-ATPases has also been obtained.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;779-808

  • The ubiquitous VA68 isoform of subunit A of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase is highly expressed in human osteoclasts.

    van Hille B, Richener H, Green JR and Bilbe G

    Pharma Research, Ciba-Geigy A.G., Basel, Switzerland.

    The 67-kDa subunit A of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase carries the high affinity ATP binding site and together with the 57-kDa subunit B forms the catalytic domain. Two isoforms of subunit A, VA68 and HO68, were cloned from an osteoclastoma cDNA library. We have analyzed their respective expression patterns in different tissues by RNAase A protection and in situ hybridization. The HO68 isoform was found to be present only in the tumor originally used to construct the cDNA library, whereas the ubiquitous VA68 RNA isoform was detected in large osteoclastic cells, as well as in brian and kidney, by RNAse protection assay. Furthermore, we localized the strong signal observed in osteoclastoma RNA to the large osteoclastic cell by in situ hybridisation. These findings suggest that the subunit A highly expressed in human osteoclasts is the ubiquitous isoform, VA68.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1995;214;3;1108-13

  • Identification of two subunit A isoforms of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in human osteoclastoma.

    van Hille B, Richener H, Evans DB, Green JR and Bilbe G

    Research Department, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

    Subunit A is thought to be the main component of the catalytic site of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase. Screening of a cDNA library made from human osteoclastoma tumor tissue revealed the presence of two isoforms of subunit A. HO68 is a cDNA of 3.1 kilobase pairs, corresponding to a mRNA of approximately 3.4 kilobases in osteoclastoma only, encoding a protein of 615 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 68177 Da. A second subtype, VA68, corresponding to a mRNA of approximately 4.8 kilobases was present in all tissues analyzed, and codes for a predicted protein of 617 residues and theoretical molecular mass of 68264 Da. These clones share homology with previously published subunit A sequences, and this, together with the tissue distribution of the mRNA, suggests there are ubiquitous (VA68-type) and tissue-specific (HO68-type) isoforms. HO68 shows the closest sequence homology (95% at the amino acid level) to subunit A of a proton-secreting vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase located in the apical membrane of midgut goblet cells of tobacco hornworm larva (Manduca sexta). We propose that HO68 could correspond to an isoform of subunit A specific for a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase located in the osteoclast plasma membrane.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;10;7075-80

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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