G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide
G00000296 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000110955 (Ensembl human gene)
506 (Entrez Gene)
632 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP5B (GeneCards)
102910 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Expression
1520 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P06576 (UniProt)

Literature (40)

Pubmed - other

  • Candidate genetic analysis of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    Chen SN, Cilingiroglu M, Todd J, Lombardi R, Willerson JT, Gotto AM, Ballantyne CM and Marian AJ

    Center for Cardiovascular Genetics, Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center and Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX, USA. snchen@bcm.tmc.edu

    Background: Plasma level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), a heritable trait, is an important determinant of susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Non-synonymous and regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in HDL-C synthesis and metabolism are likely to influence plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    Methods: We genotyped 784 unrelated Caucasian individuals from two sets of populations (Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study- LCAS, N = 333 and TexGen, N = 451) for 94 SNPs in 42 candidate genes by 5' nuclease assays. We tested the distribution of the phenotypes by the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. We used Box-Cox regression to analyze associations of the non-normally distributed phenotypes (plasma HDL-C and apo A-I levels) with the genotypes. We included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cigarette smoking as covariates. We calculated the q values as indicators of the false positive discovery rate (FDR).

    Results: Plasma HDL-C levels were associated with sex (higher in females), BMI (inversely), smoking (lower in smokers), DM (lower in those with DM) and SNPs in APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL and LIPC (each q <or=0.01). Likewise, plasma apo A-I levels, available in the LCAS subset, were associated with SNPs in CETP, APOA5, and APOC2 as well as with BMI, sex and age (all q values <or=0.03). The APOA5 variant S19W was also associated with minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, a quantitative index of severity of coronary atherosclerosis (q = 0.018); mean number of coronary artery occlusions (p = 0.034) at the baseline and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as indicated by the loss of MLD.

    Conclusion: Putatively functional variants of APOA2, APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL, LIPC and SOAT2 are independent genetic determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. The non-synonymous S19W SNP in APOA5 is also an independent determinant of plasma apo A-I level, severity of coronary atherosclerosis and its progression.

    BMC medical genetics 2009;10;111

  • Ovarian carcinoma cells with low levels of beta-F1-ATPase are sensitive to combined platinum and 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment.

    Hernlund E, Hjerpe E, Avall-Lundqvist E and Shoshan M

    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Center Karolinska R8, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    We have here examined chemopotentiating effects of glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) in two epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cell lines and 17 freshly isolated ascitic EOC cell samples, and we identify low expression of the beta-F1-ATPase involved in mitochondrial ATP production as a candidate marker for sensitivity to this strategy. Although in the majority of samples, DG per se did not induce apoptosis, cotreatment with DG potentiated apoptosis and total antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and, to a lesser degree, carboplatin. In the cell lines, combination treatment with DG and cisplatin or carboplatin at noninhibitory concentrations prevented posttreatment regrowth in drug-free medium over a total of 5 days. DG per se allowed complete recuperation in drug-free medium. The more platinum-resistant a cell line was, the more sensitive it was to potentiation by DG and showed higher glucose uptake, DG-sensitive lactate production, and lower beta-F1-ATPase levels. In the ascitic samples, DG reduced the median IC(50) for cisplatin by 68% and, in the most sensitive samples, up to 90%, and DG-mediated potentiation correlated with low expression of beta-F1-ATPase. By contrast, cisplatin sensitivity did not correlate with beta-F1-ATPase levels. The findings validate targeting cancer cell glucose metabolism for potentiating platinum chemotherapy in EOC and indicate that reduced beta-F1-ATPase/oxidative phosphorylation distinguishes cells that are amenable to this strategy.

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2009;8;7;1916-23

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • The layered structure of human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids.

    Bogenhagen DF, Rousseau D and Burke S

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA. dan@pharm.sunysb.edu

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) occurs in cells in nucleoids containing several copies of the genome. Previous studies have identified proteins associated with these large DNA structures when they are biochemically purified by sedimentation and immunoaffinity chromatography. In this study, formaldehyde cross-linking was performed to determine which nucleoid proteins are in close contact with the mtDNA. A set of core nucleoid proteins is found in both native and cross-linked nucleoids, including 13 proteins with known roles in mtDNA transactions. Several other metabolic proteins and chaperones identified in native nucleoids, including ATAD3, were not observed to cross-link to mtDNA. Additional immunofluorescence and protease susceptibility studies showed that an N-terminal domain of ATAD3 previously proposed to bind to the mtDNA D-loop is directed away from the mitochondrial matrix, so it is unlikely to interact with mtDNA in vivo. These results are discussed in relation to a model for a layered structure of mtDNA nucleoids in which replication and transcription occur in the central core, whereas translation and complex assembly may occur in the peripheral region.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R01-ES12039

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;6;3665-75

  • Ecto-F1-ATPase and MHC-class I close association on cell membranes.

    Vantourout P, Martinez LO, Fabre A, Collet X and Champagne E

    INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France.

    Subunits of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex are expressed on the surface of tumors, bind the TCR of human Vgamma9/Vdelta2 lymphocytes and promote their cytotoxicity. Present experiments show that detection of the complex (called ecto-F1-ATPase) at the cell surface by immunofluorescence correlates with low MHC-class I antigen expression. Strikingly, the alpha and beta chains of ecto-F1-ATPase are detected in membrane protein precipitates from immunofluorescence-negative cells, suggesting that ATPase epitopes are masked. Removal of beta2-microglobulin by mild acid treatment so that most surface MHC-I molecules become free heavy chains reveals F1-ATPase epitopes on MHC-I+ cell lines. Ecto-F1-ATPase is detected by immunofluorescence on primary fibroblasts which express moderate levels of MHC-I antigens. Up-regulation of MHC-I on these cells following IFN-gamma and/or TNF-alpha treatment induces a dose-dependent disappearance of F1-ATPase epitopes. Finally, biotinylated F1-ATPase cell surface components co-immunoprecipitate with MHC-I molecules confirming the association of both complexes on Raji cells. Confocal microscopy analysis of MHC-I and ecto-F1-ATPase beta chain expression on HepG2 cells shows a co-localization of both complexes in punctate membrane domains. This demonstrates that the TCR target F1-ATPase is in close contact with MHC-I antigens which are known to control Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cell activity through binding to natural killer inhibitory receptors.

    Molecular immunology 2008;45;2;485-92

  • Fatty acids and glucose in high concentration down-regulates ATP synthase beta-subunit protein expression in INS-1 cells.

    Köhnke R, Mei J, Park M, York DA and Erlanson-Albertsson C

    Section for Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC, B11, Lund, Sweden. rickard.kohnke@med.lu.se

    Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia exert deleterious effects on beta-cell function and impair glucose-induced insulin release, referred to as glucotoxicity and lipotoxticity. These abnormalities are associated with decreased glucose-induced ATP production; ATP serves as an important signal for insulin secretion. To investigate the mechanism of the impaired ATP formation, we examined the effects of elevated glucose and fatty acids levels on ATP synthase beta-subunit expression, ATP content and insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma beta-cells. ATP synthase beta-subunit expression was measured by western blot, ATP content was monitored by ATP luminescence and insulin secretion detected by radio immunoassay. Our result indicated that chronic exposure to high doses of fatty acids together with high levels glucose produced a marked decrease in ATP synthase beta-subunit protein expression. Reduction of ATP synthase beta-subunit protein expression occurred with a decreased intracellular ATP concentration and insulin secretion at high fatty acid concentrations. These results indicate that high glucose together with fatty acids impair the production of ATP in beta-cells through the suppression of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. We conclude that ATP synthase beta-subunit may have an important role in the glucolipotoxicity of islet cells and suggest that ATP synthase beta-subunit might be a target of lipotoxicity in beta-cells.

    Nutritional neuroscience 2007;10;5-6;273-8

  • Angiostatin-like activity of a monoclonal antibody to the catalytic subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase.

    Chi SL, Wahl ML, Mowery YM, Shan S, Mukhopadhyay S, Hilderbrand SC, Kenan DJ, Lipes BD, Johnson CE, Marusich MF, Capaldi RA, Dewhirst MW and Pizzo SV

    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    The antiangiogenic protein angiostatin inhibits ATP synthase on the endothelial cell surface, blocking cellular proliferation. To examine the specificity of this interaction, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against ATP synthase. mAb directed against the beta-catalytic subunit of ATP synthase (MAb3D5AB1) inhibits the activity of the F(1) domain of ATP synthase and recognizes the catalytic beta-subunit of ATP synthase. We located the antibody recognition site of MAb3D5AB1 in domains containing the active site of the beta-subunit. MAb3D5AB1 also binds to purified Escherichia coli F(1) with an affinity 25-fold higher than the affinity of angiostatin for this protein. MAb3D5AB1 inhibits the hydrolytic activity of F(1) ATP synthase at lower concentrations than angiostatin. Like angiostatin, MAb3D5AB1 inhibits ATP generation by ATP synthase on the endothelial cell surface in acidic conditions, the typical tumor microenvironment where cell surface ATP synthase exhibits greater activity. MAb3D5AB1 disrupts tube formation and decreases intracellular pH in endothelial cells exposed to low extracellular pH. Neither angiostatin nor MAb3D5AB1 showed an antiangiogenic effect in the corneal neovascularization assay; however, both were effective in the low-pH environment of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Thus, MAb3D5AB1 shows angiostatin-like properties superior to angiostatin and may be exploited in cancer chemotherapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-86344, P01-CA56690; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32-GM07171

    Cancer research 2007;67;10;4716-24

  • Cholesterol loading increases the translocation of ATP synthase beta chain into membrane caveolae in vascular endothelial cells.

    Wang T, Chen Z, Wang X, Shyy JY and Zhu Y

    Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083, China.

    Caveolae and its structural protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) are abundant in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and have been suggested to contribute to cell signaling and cholesterol trafficking. This study investigated the effect of cholesterol on the movement of caveolae-related proteins in human umbilical vein ECs with use of caveolae functional proteomics. After cholesterol exposure to ECs for 2 to 4 h, caveolae were isolated and separated on 2-D protein gels. Among 40 protein spots revealed in caveolae fractions, the ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPS-beta), one of the 3 proteins enriched by cholesterol in caveolae, was confirmed by western blotting and confocal microscopy. Further, cholesterol exposure increased the level of ATPS-beta, along with Cav-1 and cholesterol in caveolae. These effects could be blocked by cytochalasin B, an actin cytoskeleton disruptor. ATPS-beta was physically associated with Cav-1, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and GST-Cav-1 fusion protein pull-down assay. Cholesterol increased the extracellular ATP release mediated by ATPS-beta, since this action could be blocked by piceatannol or oligomycin, ATPS inhibitors. Thus, the ectopic localization of ATPS-beta may participate in the energy balance of cells in response to the change in intracellular cholesterol levels.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2006;1761;10;1182-90

  • Control of the ATP synthase beta subunit expression by RNA-binding proteins TIA-1, TIAR, and HuR.

    Izquierdo JM

    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Módulo C-V, Lab-230, Cantoblanco, DP 28049, Madrid, Spain.

    The beta-subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (beta-F1-ATPase) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ATP formation in eukaryotic cells. Here, we examined the post-transcriptional regulation of human beta-F1-ATPase mediated by the 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA (beta-3'-UTR). Biochemical analysis revealed that the adenosine/uridine (AU)-rich element-binding proteins TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen-1), TIAR (TIA-1-related protein), and HuR (Hu antigen R) interact with the beta-F1-ATPase mRNA through an AU-rich sequence located to the 3'-UTR. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) knocked-out for TIA-1 or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of endogenous TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR in HeLa cells resulted in a decrease in beta-F1-ATPase protein expression. The expression of GFP from a chimeric reporter containing human beta-3'-UTR was also abolished in HeLa cells depleted of TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR. MEFs knocked-in for TIA-1 or the overexpression of RNAi-resistant TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR proteins in the RNAi-treated HeLa cells significantly restored the levels of the expression of both endogenous mouse beta-F1-ATPase protein or recombinant GFP.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;348;2;703-11

  • Housekeeping genes for phylogenetic analysis of eutherian relationships.

    Kullberg M, Nilsson MA, Arnason U, Harley EH and Janke A

    Division of Evolutionary Molecular Systematics, Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.

    The molecular relationship of placental mammals has attracted great interest in recent years. However, 2 crucial and conflicting hypotheses remain, one with respect to the position of the root of the eutherian tree and the other the relationship between the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares), and Primates. Although most mitochondrial (mt) analyses have suggested that rodents have a basal position in the eutherian tree, some nuclear data in combination with mt-rRNA genes have placed the root on the so-called African clade or on a branch that includes this clade and the Xenarthra (e.g., anteater and armadillo). In order to generate a new and independent set of molecular data for phylogenetic analysis, we have established cDNA sequences from different tissues of various mammalian species. With this in mind, we have identified and sequenced 8 housekeeping genes with moderately fast rate of evolution from 22 placental mammals, representing 11 orders. In order to determine the root of the eutherian tree, the same genes were also sequenced for 3 marsupial species, which were used as outgroup. Inconsistent with the analyses of nuclear + mt-rRNA gene data, the current data set did not favor a basal position of the African clade or Xenarthra in the eutherian tree. Similarly, by joining rodents and lagomorphs on the same basal branch (Glires hypothesis), the data set is also inconsistent with the tree commonly favored in mtDNA analyses. The analyses of the currently established sequences have helped examination of problematic parts in the eutherian tree at the same time as they caution against suggestions that have claimed that basal eutherian relationships have been conclusively settled.

    Molecular biology and evolution 2006;23;8;1493-503

  • Assaying ATP synthase rotor activity.

    Maguire D, Shah J and McCabe M

    Genomics Research Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, Australia.

    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 2006;578;67-72

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Intracellular signaling for vasoconstrictor coupling factor 6: novel function of beta-subunit of ATP synthase as receptor.

    Osanai T, Magota K, Tanaka M, Shimada M, Murakami R, Sasaki S, Tomita H, Maeda N and Okumura K

    The Second Department of Internal Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan. osanait@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

    Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, is circulating and functions as an endogenous vasoconstrictor by inhibiting cytosolic phospholipase A2. We showed a high plasma level of CF6 in human hypertension. The present study focused on the identification and characterization of a receptor for CF6 and its post-receptor signaling pathway. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with an excess of free CF6 reduced by 50% the immunoreactivity for the antibody to beta-subunit of ATP synthase at the cell surface, but unaffected that for the alpha-subunit antibody. A significant displacement of radioligand was observed at 3x10(-9) through 10(-7) M unlabeled CF6, and the Kd was 7.6 nM. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) at 10(-7) M and beta-subunit antibody suppressed the binding of (125)I-CF6 by 81.3+/-9.7% and 32.0+/-2.0%, respectively, whereas the alpha-subunit antibody unaffected it. The hydrolysis activity of ATP to ADP was increased by 1.6-fold by CF6 at 10(-7) M, and efrapeptin at 10(-5) M, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, blocked it. CF6 at 10(-7) M decreased intracellular pH in 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5 (6))-carboxyfluorescein-loaded HUVEC. Amyloride at 10(-4) M augmented the pH decrease in response to CF6, whereas efrapeptin at 10(-5) M blocked it. Arachidonic acid release was suppressed by CF6, and it was reversed by efrapeptin at 10(-5) M or beta-subunit antibody or ADP at 10(-7) M. The beta-subunit antibody suppressed coupling factor 6-induced increase in blood pressure. These indicate that membrane-bound ATP synthase functions as a receptor for CF6 and may have a previously unsuspected role in the genesis of hypertension by modulating the concentration of intracellular hydrogen.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2005;46;5;1140-6

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes.

    Aboulaich N, Vainonen JP, Strålfors P and Vener AV

    Division of Cell Biology and Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE58185 Linköping, Sweden.

    Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;383;Pt 2;237-48

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Molecular motors: turning the ATP motor.

    Cross RL

    Nature 2004;427;6973;407-8

  • Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG and Huber PA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56045

    Experimental cell research 2003;289;2;211-21

  • Ectopic beta-chain of ATP synthase is an apolipoprotein A-I receptor in hepatic HDL endocytosis.

    Martinez LO, Jacquet S, Esteve JP, Rolland C, Cabezón E, Champagne E, Pineau T, Georgeaud V, Walker JE, Tercé F, Collet X, Perret B and Barbaras R

    Institut Fédératif de Recherche Claude de Preval, IFR 30, Département Lipoprotéines, et Médiateurs Lipidiques, Toulouse cedex, France.

    The effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in protecting against atherosclerosis is usually attributed to its role in 'reverse cholesterol transport'. In this process, HDL particles mediate the efflux and the transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for further metabolism and bile excretion. Thus, cell-surface receptors for HDL on hepatocytes are chief partners in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. A high-affinity HDL receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was previously identified on the surface of hepatocytes. Here we show that this receptor is identical to the beta-chain of ATP synthase, a principal protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Different experimental approaches confirm this ectopic localization of components of the ATP synthase complex and the presence of ATP hydrolase activity at the hepatocyte cell surface. Receptor stimulation by apoA-I triggers the endocytosis of holo-HDL particles (protein plus lipid) by a mechanism that depends strictly on the generation of ADP. We confirm this effect on endocytosis in perfused rat liver ex vivo by using a specific inhibitor of ATP synthase. Thus, membrane-bound ATP synthase has a previously unsuspected role in modulating the concentrations of extracellular ADP and is regulated by a principal plasma apolipoprotein.

    Nature 2003;421;6918;75-9

  • A functionally active human F1F0 ATPase can be purified by immunocapture from heart tissue and fibroblast cell lines. Subunit structure and activity studies.

    Aggeler R, Coons J, Taylor SW, Ghosh SS, Garcia JJ, Capaldi RA and Marusich MF

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

    Human mitochondrial F(1)F(0) ATP synthase was isolated with a one-step immunological approach, using a monoclonal antibody against F(1) in a 96-well microplate activity assay system, to establish a method for fast high throughput screening of inhibitors, toxins, and drugs with very small amounts of enzyme. For preparative purification, mitochondria from human heart tissue as well as cultured fibroblasts were solubilized with dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside, and the F(1)F(0) was isolated with anti-F(1) monoclonal antibody coupled to protein G-agarose beads. The immunoprecipitated F(1)F(0) contained a full complement of subunits that were identified with specific antibodies against five of the subunits (alpha, beta, OSCP, d, and IF(1)) and by MALDI-TOF and/or LC/MS/MS for all subunits except subunit c, which could not be resolved by these methods because of the limits of detection. Microscale immunocapture of F(1)F(0) from detergent-solubilized mitochondria or whole cell fibroblast extracts was performed using anti-F(1) monoclonal antibody immobilized on 96-well microplates. The captured complex V displayed ATP hydrolysis activity that was fully oligomycin and inhibitor protein IF(1)-sensitive. Moreover, IF(1) could be co-isolated with F(1)F(0) when the immunocapture procedure was carried out at pH 6.5 but was absent when the ATP synthase was isolated at pH 8.0. Immunocaptured F(1)F(0) lacking IF(1) could be inhibited by more than 90% by addition of recombinant inhibitor protein, and conversely, F(1)F(0) containing IF(1) could be activated more than 10-fold by brief exposure to pH 8.0, inducing the release of inhibitor protein. With this microplate system an ATP hydrolysis assay of complex V could be carried out with as little as 10 ng of heart mitochondria/well and as few as 3 x 10(4) cells/well from fibroblast cultures. The system is therefore suitable to screen patient-derived samples for alterations in amount or functionality of both the F(1)F(0) ATPase and IF(1).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 24526

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;37;33906-12

  • Atp11p and Atp12p are chaperones for F(1)-ATPase biogenesis in mitochondria.

    Ackerman SH

    Department of Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. sackerm@med.wayne.edu

    The bioenergetic needs of aerobic cells are met principally through the action of the F(1)F(0) ATP synthase, which catalyzes ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation. The catalytic unit of the enzyme (F(1)) is a multimeric protein of the subunit composition alpha(3)beta(3)(gamma)(delta) epsilon. Our work, which employs the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system for studies of mitochondrial function, has provided evidence that assembly of the mitochondrial alpha and beta subunits into the F(1) oligomer requires two molecular chaperone proteins called Atp11p and Atp12p. Comprehensive knowledge of Atp11p and Atp12p activities in mitochondria bears relevance to human physiology and disease as these chaperone actions are now known to exist in mitochondria of human cells.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1555;1-3;101-5

  • Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.

    Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, Denmark.

    Background: The nucleolus is a subnuclear organelle containing the ribosomal RNA gene clusters and ribosome biogenesis factors. Recent studies suggest it may also have roles in RNA transport, RNA modification, and cell cycle regulation. Despite over 150 years of research into nucleoli, many aspects of their structure and function remain uncharacterized.

    Results: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar proteins were encoded by novel or uncharacterized genes, while the known proteins included several unexpected factors with no previously known nucleolar functions. MS analysis of nucleoli isolated from HeLa cells in which transcription had been inhibited showed that a subset of proteins was enriched. These data highlight the dynamic nature of the nucleolar proteome and show that proteins can either associate with nucleoli transiently or accumulate only under specific metabolic conditions.

    Conclusions: This extensive proteomic analysis shows that nucleoli have a surprisingly large protein complexity. The many novel factors and separate classes of proteins identified support the view that the nucleolus may perform additional functions beyond its known role in ribosome subunit biogenesis. The data also show that the protein composition of nucleoli is not static and can alter significantly in response to the metabolic state of the cell.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;1;1-11

  • Atp11p and Atp12p are assembly factors for the F(1)-ATPase in human mitochondria.

    Wang ZG, White PS and Ackerman SH

    Department of Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    Atp11p and Atp12p were first described as proteins required for assembly of the F(1) component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ackerman, S. H., and Tzagoloff, A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 4986-4990). Here we report the isolation of the cDNAs and the characterization of the human genes for Atp11p and Atp12p and show that the human proteins function like their yeast counterparts. Human ATP11 spans 24 kilobase pairs in 9 exons and maps to 1p32.3-p33, while ATP12 contains > or =8 exons and localizes to 17p11.2. Both genes are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and are expressed in a wide range of tissues, which suggests that Atp11p and Atp12p are essential housekeeping proteins of human cells. The information reported herein will be useful in the evaluation of patients with ascertained deficiencies in the ATP synthase, in which the underlying biochemical defect is unknown and may reside in a protein that influences the assembly of the enzyme.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48157

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;33;30773-8

  • Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells.

    Moser TL, Stack MS, Asplin I, Enghild JJ, Højrup P, Everitt L, Hubchak S, Schnaper HW and Pizzo SV

    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Angiostatin, a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, is a potent antagonist of angiogenesis and an inhibitor of endothelial cell migration and proliferation. To determine whether the mechanism by which angiostatin inhibits endothelial cell migration and/or proliferation involves binding to cell surface plasminogen receptors, we isolated the binding proteins for plasminogen and angiostatin from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Binding studies demonstrated that plasminogen and angiostatin bound in a concentration-dependent, saturable manner. Plasminogen binding was unaffected by a 100-fold molar excess of angiostatin, indicating the presence of a distinct angiostatin binding site. This finding was confirmed by ligand blot analysis of isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cell plasma membrane fractions, which demonstrated that plasminogen bound to a 44-kDa protein, whereas angiostatin bound to a 55-kDa species. Amino-terminal sequencing coupled with peptide mass fingerprinting and immunologic analyses identified the plasminogen binding protein as annexin II and the angiostatin binding protein as the alpha/beta-subunits of ATP synthase. The presence of this protein on the cell surface was confirmed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Angiostatin also bound to the recombinant alpha-subunit of human ATP synthase, and this binding was not inhibited by a 2,500-fold molar excess of plasminogen. Angiostatin's antiproliferative effect on endothelial cells was inhibited by as much as 90% in the presence of anti-alpha-subunit ATP synthase antibody. Binding of angiostatin to the alpha/beta-subunits of ATP synthase on the cell surface may mediate its antiangiogenic effects and the down-regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL053918; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK049362; Wellcome Trust

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;6;2811-6

  • Energy transduction in the F1 motor of ATP synthase.

    Wang H and Oster G

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley 94720-3112, USA.

    ATP synthase is the universal enzyme that manufactures ATP from ADP and phosphate by using the energy derived from a transmembrane protonmotive gradient. It can also reverse itself and hydrolyse ATP to pump protons against an electrochemical gradient. ATP synthase carries out both its synthetic and hydrolytic cycles by a rotary mechanism. This has been confirmed in the direction of hydrolysis after isolation of the soluble F1 portion of the protein and visualization of the actual rotation of the central 'shaft' of the enzyme with respect to the rest of the molecule, making ATP synthase the world's smallest rotary engine. Here we present a model for this engine that accounts for its mechanochemical behaviour in both the hydrolysing and synthesizing directions. We conclude that the F1 motor achieves its high mechanical torque and almost 100% efficiency because it converts the free energy of ATP binding into elastic strain, which is then released by a coordinated kinetic and tightly coupled conformational mechanism to create a rotary torque.

    Nature 1998;396;6708;279-82

  • Energy transduction in ATP synthase.

    Elston T, Wang H and Oster G

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720-3112, USA.

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning F0 portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through F0 is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil gamma-subunit. This acts as a rotating 'cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this proton motive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that F0 constitutes a rotary motor turning the gamma shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility-supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump-can also be explained by our model.

    Nature 1998;391;6666;510-3

  • ETS transcription factors regulate the expression of the gene for the human mitochondrial ATP synthase beta-subunit.

    Villena JA, Martin I, Viñas O, Cormand B, Iglesias R, Mampel T, Giralt M and Villarroya F

    Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.

    Elements responsible for the transcriptional activity of the human ATP synthase beta-subunit (ATPsyn beta) gene promoter have been studied through transient expression in HepG2 hepatoma cells of a CAT gene connected with various 5'-deletion mutants of the 5'-flanking region. Promoter activity was mostly dependent upon a single CCAAT motif as well as a nearby Ets domain binding region. This last region contains two sites that bind Ets-related proteins present in liver nuclear extracts as well as recombinant purified Ets-1 protein. The ATPsyn beta promoter was trans-activated by Ets-1 and Ets-2 expression vectors, and this effect was lost when the Ets binding region was deleted. The Ets binding region of the ATPsyn beta promoter increased basal expression and conferred Ets-1- and Ets-2-dependent trans-activation to the herpes symplex thymidine kinase minimal promoter. A double-point mutation of the main Ets-binding site, which suppresses Ets binding, blocks Ets-dependent trans-activation. It is concluded that the gene for the mitochondrial ATPsyn beta is a target of transcriptional activation by members of the Ets family of transcription factors. It is suggested that Ets transcription factors may be involved in the enhanced expression of the ATPsyn beta gene in highly proliferating cells and in the coordinate transcription of nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;51;32649-54

  • Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria.

    Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R and Walker JE

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    In the crystal structure of bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase determined at 2.8 A resolution, the three catalytic beta-subunits differ in conformation and in the bound nucleotide. The structure supports a catalytic mechanism in intact ATP synthase in which the three catalytic subunits are in different states of the catalytic cycle at any instant. Interconversion of the states may be achieved by rotation of the alpha 3 beta 3 subassembly relative to an alpha-helical domain of the gamma-subunit.

    Nature 1994;370;6491;621-8

  • A novel ligand in lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity: expression of the beta subunit of H+ transporting ATP synthase on the surface of tumor cell lines.

    Das B, Mondragon MO, Sadeghian M, Hatcher VB and Norin AJ

    Department of Medicine, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn 11203.

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) has been suggested to play a role in lymphocyte-induced tumor destruction. We now provide evidence that a protein responsible for ATP synthesis in mitochondria may also play a physiologic role in major histocompatibility complex-independent, lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. A 51.5-kD protein (p51.5) bearing structural and immunologic characteristics of the beta subunit of H+ transporting ATP synthase (E.C., beta-H+ATPase, published molecular mass of 51.6 kD) was detected on the plasma membrane of three different human tumor cell lines studied. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified p51.5 from K562 tumor cells revealed 100% homology of 16 residues identified in the first 21 positions to the known sequence of human mitochondrial beta-H+ ATPase. Antibody directed against a 21-mer peptide in the ATP binding region of beta-H+ ATPase (anti-beta) reacted with only one band on Western blots of whole tumor extracts and tumor membrane extracts suggesting that the antiserum reacts with a single species of protein. Anti-beta reacted with the cell membranes of tumor cells as determined by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry and immunoprecipitated a 51.5-kD protein from surface-labeled neoplastic cells (but not human erythrocytes and lymphocytes). Purified p51.5 bound to human lymphocytes and inhibited natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, anti-beta treatment of the K562 and A549 tumor cell lines inhibited NK (by > 95%) and interleukin 2-activated killer (LAK) cell (by 75%) cytotoxicity, respectively. Soluble p51.5 upon binding to lymphocytes retained its reactivity to anti-beta suggesting that the ATP binding domain and the lymphocyte-receptor binding domain reside in distinct regions of the ligand. These results suggest that beta-H+ ATPase or a nearly identical molecule is an important ligand in the effector phase (rather than the recognition phase) of a cytolytic pathway used by naive NK and LAK cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-47548

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1994;180;1;273-81

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • The human ATP synthase beta subunit gene: sequence analysis, chromosome assignment, and differential expression.

    Neckelmann N, Warner CK, Chung A, Kudoh J, Minoshima S, Fukuyama R, Maekawa M, Shimizu Y, Shimizu N, Liu JD et al.

    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.

    In humans, the functional F0F1-ATP synthase beta subunit gene is located on chromosome 12 in the p13----qter region. Other partially homologous sequences have been detected on chromosomes 2 and 17. The bona fide beta subunit gene has 10 exons encoding a leader peptide of 49 amino acids and a mature protein of 480 amino acids. Thirteen Alu family DNA repeats are found upstream from the gene and in four introns. The gene has four "CCAAT" sequences upstream and in close proximity to the transcriptional initiation site. A 13-bp motif is found in the 5' nontranscribed region of both the beta subunit gene and an ADP/ATP translocator gene that is expressed in high levels in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Analysis of the beta subunit mRNA levels reveals marked differences among tissues. The highest levels are found in heart, lower levels in skeletal muscle, and the lowest levels in liver and kidney. These findings suggest that the tissue-specific levels of ATP synthase beta subunit mRNA may be generated through transcriptional control.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33022

    Genomics 1989;5;4;829-43

  • Gene structure of the human mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase beta subunit.

    Ohta S, Tomura H, Matsuda K and Kagawa Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi-ken, Japan.

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase beta subunit is encoded by a nuclear gene and assembled with the other subunits encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. As the next step in the analysis of the molecular mechanisms coordinating the two genetic systems, the gene for the human beta subunit was cloned, and its structure was determined. The gene contains 10 exons, with the first exon corresponding to the noncoding region and most of the presequence which targets this protein to the mitochondria. Eight Alu repeating sequences including inverted repeats were found in the 5' upstream region and introns. An S1 nuclease protection experiment revealed two initiation sites for the transcription. A typical TATA box was not present at about 30 base pairs upstream from either initiation site. Three CAT boxes (CCAAT) were found between the two initiation sites. In addition, one CAT box was found 41 base pairs upstream from the first initiation site. Two GC boxes (potential Sp1 binding sites) were located in the 5' upstream region, one of them linked to Alu repeating sequences. For determination of the promoter activity, fragments of various length from the 5' upstream region were fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and transfected into cultured cells. This experiment showed the existence of an enhancing, structure(s) for transcription between nucleotide -400 and -1100 in the upstream region.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;23;11257-62

  • Sequence analysis of cDNAs for the human and bovine ATP synthase beta subunit: mitochondrial DNA genes sustain seventeen times more mutations.

    Wallace DC, Ye JH, Neckelmann SN, Singh G, Webster KA and Greenberg BD

    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, GA 30322.

    We have cloned and sequenced human and bovine cDNAs for the beta subunit of the ATP synthase (ATP-syn beta), a nuclear DNA (nDNA) encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) gene. The two cDNAs were found to share 99% amino acid homology and 94% nucleotide homology. The evolutionary rate of ATPsyn beta was then compared with that of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ATP synthase genes (ATPase 6 and 8), seven other mtDNA OXPHOS genes, and a number of nuclear genes. The synonymous substitution rate for ATPsyn beta proved to be 1.9 x 10(-9) substitutions per site per year (substitutions x site-1 x year-1) (SSY). This is less than 1/2 that of the average nDNA gene, 1/12 the rate of ATPase 6 and 8, and 1/17 the rate of the average mtDNA gene. The synonymous and replacement substitution rates were used to calculate a new parameter, the "selective constraint ratio". This revealed that even the most variable mtDNA protein was more constrained than the average nDNA protein. Thus, the high substitution mutation rate and strong selective constraints of mammalian mtDNA proteins suggest that mtDNA mutations may result in a disproportionately large number of human hereditary diseases of OXPHOS.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33022; NINDS NIH HHS: NS21328

    Current genetics 1987;12;2;81-90

  • Human F1-ATPase: molecular cloning of cDNA for the beta subunit.

    Ohta S and Kagawa Y

    F1-ATPase is the major enzyme for ATP synthesis, and its beta subunit is the catalytic site. To date, no full-length cDNA for the eukaryotic F1 gene has been reported. Human F1 was studied because of its importance in medicine and cell biology. Here we report molecular cloning of a full-length cDNA for the human F1 beta subunit and purification of the human F1 beta subunit. The HeLa cell cDNA library constructed in an expression vector gamma gt11 was screened with antiserum against the yeast F1 beta subunit. One of the positive phage DNAs containing the human F1 beta gene and its flanking regions (1.8 kilobase pairs) was sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. The open reading frame started from a putative signal presequence, which was rich in both serine and arginine. There was a homologous segment in the signal presequence of human ornithine transcarbamoylase and that of F1 beta. The precursor of F1 beta was expressed in E. coli harboring a plasmid which had been constructed with T5 promotor and the F1 beta cDNA. Both the precursor and mature form of F1 beta were detected in HeLa cells in a pulse-chase experiment. The amino acid sequence of 480 residues (51,568.3 daltons) following the presequence was highly homologous with that of mature beef heart F1 beta (97.5%) and E. coli F1 beta (71.7%), but the codon usage in the human gene was very different from those of reported genes coding for F1 beta of other species.

    Journal of biochemistry 1986;99;1;135-41

  • A new concept for energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation based on a molecular explanation of the oxygen exchange reactions.

    Boyer PD, Cross RL and Momsen W

    The P(i) right arrow over left arrow HOH exchange reaction of oxidative phosphorylation is considerably less sensitive to uncouplers than the P(i) right arrow over left arrow ATP and ATP right arrow over left arrow HOH exchanges. The uncoupler-insensitive P(i) right arrow over left arrow HOH exchange is inhibited by oligomycin. These results and other considerations suggest that the relatively rapid and uncoupler-insensitive P(i) right arrow over left arrow HOH exchange results from a rapid, reversible hydrolysis of a tightly but noncovalently bound ATP at a catalytic site for oxidative phosphorylation, concomitant with interchange of medium and bound P(i). Such tightly bound ATP has been demonstrated in submitochondrial particles in the presence of uncouplers, P(i), and ADP, by rapid labeling from (32)P(i) under essentially steady-state phosphorylation conditions. These results lead to the working hypothesis that in oxidative phosphorylation energy from electron transport causes release of preformed ATP from the catalytic site. This release could logically involve energy-requiring protein conformational change.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1973;70;10;2837-9

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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