G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
G00000292 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000033322 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000132692 (Ensembl human gene)
63827 (Entrez Gene)
203 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
BCAN (GeneCards)
600347 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:23059 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q96GW7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • CSPG7
  • MGC13038

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • Confirmation of genomewide association signals in Chinese Han population reveals risk loci for ischemic stroke.

    Ding H, Xu Y, Bao X, Wang X, Cui G, Wang W, Hui R and Wang DW

    Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China.

    The first genomewide association study of ischemic stroke in whites has identified multiple susceptibility loci. We confirmed this study by examining associations with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population.

    Methods: Twenty-five common variants were genotyped in a relatively large sample size including 1123 subjects with ischemic stroke cases (thrombosis stroke=716, lacunar infarction=407) and 557 normal control subjects. The association analyses were performed at both single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype levels. False discovery rate q value method was applied for multiple testing corrections.

    Results: rs11052413, a intergenic single nucleotide polymorphism, was most significantly associated with ischemic stroke independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in additive (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.19 to 1.92, P=7.4 x 10(-4), q=0.018) and dominant models (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.20 to 2.08, P=9.2 x 10(-4), q=0.023). In addition, both ZNF650 rs10204475 and intergenic single nucleotide polymorphism rs10486776 were associated with ischemic stroke as well as independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in dominant models (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.12 to 1.96, P=0.005, q=0.040 and OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.15 to 2.02, P=0.003, q=0.036, respectively). No significant results were found in stroke subtype analysis after multiple corrections.

    Conclusions: Our study confirmed previously reported associations between ischemic stroke and rs11052413, rs10486776, and ZNF 650 rs10204475 in a Chinese Han population. The mechanism whereby the genetic variants exert their effects on ischemic stroke remains to be further elucidated.

    Stroke 2010;41;1;177-80

  • The proteoglycan brevican binds to fibronectin after proteolytic cleavage and promotes glioma cell motility.

    Hu B, Kong LL, Matthews RT and Viapiano MS

    Center for Molecular Neurobiology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    The adult neural parenchyma contains a distinctive extracellular matrix that acts as a barrier to cell and neurite motility. Nonneural tumors that metastasize to the central nervous system almost never infiltrate it and instead displace the neural tissue as they grow. In contrast, invasive gliomas disrupt the extracellular matrix and disperse within the neural tissue. A major inhibitory component of the neural matrix is the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, of which brevican is the most abundant member in the adult brain. Interestingly, brevican is also highly up-regulated in gliomas and promotes glioma dispersion by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that brevican secreted by glioma cells enhances cell adhesion and motility only after proteolytic cleavage. At the molecular level, brevican promotes epidermal growth factor receptor activation, increases the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and promotes the secretion of fibronectin and accumulation of fibronectin microfibrils on the cell surface. Moreover, the N-terminal cleavage product of brevican, but not the full-length protein, associates with fibronectin in cultured cells and in surgical samples of glioma. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of brevican in primary brain tumors. In addition, these results underscore the important functional implications of brevican processing in glioma progression.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;36;24848-59

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Human glioblastomas overexpress ADAMTS-5 that degrades brevican.

    Nakada M, Miyamori H, Kita D, Takahashi T, Yamashita J, Sato H, Miura R, Yamaguchi Y and Okada Y

    Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan.

    Selective cleavage of the Glu395-Ser396 bond of brevican, one of the major proteoglycans in adult brain tissues, is thought to be important for glioma cell invasion. Our previous biochemical study demonstrated that ADAMTS-4, a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family, has such an activity. In the present study, we examined brevican-degrading activities of ADAMTS-1, -4 and -5 at the cellular level, and their expression and localization in human glioma tissues. In 293T transfectants expressing ADAMTS-4 or ADAMTS-5, brevican was cleaved into two major fragments in an identical pattern, but no such degradation was observed with ADAMTS-1 transfectants. When the expression levels of these ADAMTS species were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, only ADAMTS-5 was found to be overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues compared to control normal brain tissues (P <0.05). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ADAMTS-5 is expressed predominantly in glioblastoma cells. Forced expression of ADAMTS-5 in glioma cell lines stimulated cell invasion. These results demonstrate for the first time that ADAMTS-5 is capable of degrading brevican and is overexpressed in glioblastoma cells, and suggest that ADAMTS-5 may play a role in glioma cell invasion through the cleavage of brevican.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS041332

    Acta neuropathologica 2005;110;3;239-46

  • Novel tumor-specific isoforms of BEHAB/brevican identified in human malignant gliomas.

    Viapiano MS, Bi WL, Piepmeier J, Hockfield S and Matthews RT

    Department of Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    Malignant gliomas are deadly brain tumors characterized by diffuse invasion into the surrounding brain tissue. Understanding the mechanisms involved in glioma invasion could lead to new therapeutic strategies. We have previously shown that BEHAB/brevican, an extracellular matrix protein in the central nervous system, plays a role in the invasive ability of gliomas. The mechanisms that underlie BEHAB/brevican function are not yet understood, due in part to the existence of several isoforms that may have different functions. Here we describe for the first time the expression of BEHAB/brevican in human brain and characterize two novel glioma-specific isoforms, B/b(sia) and B/b(Deltag), which are generated by differential glycosylation and are absent from normal adult brain and other neuropathologies. B/b(sia) is an oversialylated isoform expressed by about half the high- and low-grade gliomas analyzed. B/b(Deltag) lacks most of the carbohydrates typically present on BEHAB/brevican and is the major up-regulated isoform of this protein in high-grade gliomas but is absent in a specific subset of low-grade, indolent oligodendrogliomas. B/b(Deltag) is detected on the extracellular surface, where it binds to the membrane by a mechanism distinct from the other BEHAB/brevican isoforms. The glioma-specific expression of B/b(Deltag), its restricted membrane localization, and its expression in all high-grade gliomas tested to date suggest that it may play a significant role in glioma progression and make it an important new potential therapeutic target. In addition, its absence from benign gliomas prompts its use as a diagnostic marker to distinguish primary brain tumors of similar histology but different pathologic course.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01/NS35228

    Cancer research 2005;65;15;6726-33

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Secreted brevican mRNA is expressed in the adult rat pituitary.

    Dong Y, Han X, Xue Y, Dong B, Guo X, Hu G, Zhu C and Lu Y

    Department of Neurosurgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, 200003, Shanghai, China.

    Brevican is the most abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the adult rat brain. It has been found only in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that secreted brevican transcript was detectable in the pituitary of both male and female adult rats by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. In posterior lobe of pituitary, pituicytes were heavily labelled. In anterior and intermediate lobes of pituitary, signals for brevican transcripts were observed in cells of various sizes. These data demonstrated that secreted brevican mRNA is expressed in the adult rat pituitary and brevican might not be a CNS-specific ECM.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;314;3;745-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.

    Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P and Gray A

    Departments of Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology and Protein Chemistry, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. hclark@gene.com

    A large-scale effort, termed the Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), was undertaken to identify novel sec 169a reted and transmembrane proteins. In the first of several approaches, a biological signal sequence trap in yeast cells was utilized to identify cDNA clones encoding putative secreted proteins. A second strategy utilized various algorithms that recognize features such as the hydrophobic properties of signal sequences to identify putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human cDNA libraries. A third approach surveyed ESTs for protein sequence similarity to a set of known receptors and their ligands with the BLAST algorithm. Finally, both signal-sequence prediction algorithms and BLAST were used to identify single exons of potential genes from within human genomic sequence. The isolation of full-length cDNA clones for each of these candidate genes resulted in the identification of >1000 novel proteins. A total of 256 of these cDNAs are still novel, including variants and novel genes, per the most recent GenBank release version. The success of this large-scale effort was assessed by a bioinformatics analysis of the proteins through predictions of protein domains, subcellular localizations, and possible functional roles. The SPDI collection should facilitate efforts to better understand intercellular communication, may lead to new understandings of human diseases, and provides potential opportunities for the development of therapeutics.

    Genome research 2003;13;10;2265-70

  • A peptide with three hyaluronan binding motifs inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis.

    Xu XM, Chen Y, Chen J, Yang S, Gao F, Underhill CB, Creswell K and Zhang L

    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

    A number of hyaluronan (HA) binding proteins such as soluble CD44, receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM), and metastatin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. To determine whether the HA binding motif is the element responsible for the antitumor effect of this family of proteins, we examined the biological activity of a 42-amino acid peptide (designated as BH-P) that contains three HA binding motifs [B(X(7))B] from human brain HA binding protein. In initial experiments with cultured cells, we found that synthetic BH-P inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of tumor cells. It also blocked the growth of tumors on the chorioallantoic membranes of 10-day chicken embryos. In addition, MDA-435 melanoma cells that had been transfected with an expression vector for BH-P grew at a slower rate in nude mice than the vector-alone transfectants. Final studies revealed that the BH-P could activate caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and trigger the apoptosis of tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the HA binding motif that is present in HA binding proteins may be responsible for the antitumor effect exerted by the members of this family.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29 CA71545

    Cancer research 2003;63;18;5685-90

  • Molecular cloning of Bral2, a novel brain-specific link protein, and immunohistochemical colocalization with brevican in perineuronal nets.

    Bekku Y, Su WD, Hirakawa S, Fässler R, Ohtsuka A, Kang JS, Sanders J, Murakami T, Ninomiya Y and Oohashi T

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    The hyaluronan binding chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, called lecticans, are the abundant extracellular matrix molecules in the developing and/or adult brain. The link proteins (LPs) are also known to be coordinately present in brain. We report here the molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel member of LPs: Bral2, predominantly expressed in brain. The Bral2 mRNA expression is first detected at P20 and continued through adulthood, suggesting its functional importance and association with adult-type lecticans. The substantial immunoreactivity of Bral2 is found in several nuclei throughout the midbrain and hindbrain in a perineuronal net pattern. In situ hybridization revealed that Bral2 is synthesized by these neurons themselves, especially by the GABAergic neurons in the cerebellar cortex. Interestingly, the colocalization and synergic importance of Bral2 and brevican in the perineuronal nets is indicated by the comparative immunohistochemical analysis using wild-type and brevican-deficient mouse brain. Our results suggest that Bral2 is involved in the formation of extracellular matrix contributing to perineuronal nets and facilitate the understanding of a functional role of these extracellular matrices.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2003;24;1;148-59

  • Human BRAL1 and BCAN genes that belong to the link-module superfamily are tandemly arranged on chromosome 1q21-23.

    Nomoto H, Oohashi T, Hirakawa S, Ueki Y, Ohtsuki H and Ninomiya Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Japan.

    We herein determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization the chromosomal localization of 2 human genes, BRAL1 and BCAN, both of which belong to the link-module superfamily, i.e. to the same band of chromosome 1q21-23. Further analysis of the genomic organization of BRAL1 and BCAN revealed that the BRAL1 gene was located 20-kb upstream of the BCAN start site. We isolated a polymorphic dinucleotide (CA) repeat sequence from a genomic clone containing the BCAN gene. High heterozygosity (0.79) makes this polymorphism a useful marker in the study of genetic disorders. Knowledge of the structure of the genes and the marker provides essential information for further analysis of the gene locus at chromosome 1q21-23.

    Acta medica Okayama 2002;56;1;25-9

  • The proteoglycans aggrecan and Versican form networks with fibulin-2 through their lectin domain binding.

    Olin AI, Mörgelin M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Heinegård D and Aspberg A

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Connective Tissue Biology, Lund University, BMC Plan C12, SE-221 84 Lund, Sweden.

    Aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican are important components of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their amino-terminal globular domains bind to hyaluronan, but the function of their carboxyl-terminal globular domains has long remained elusive. A picture is now emerging where the C-type lectin motif of this domain mediates binding to other extracellular matrix proteins. We here demonstrate that aggrecan, versican, and brevican lectin domains bind fibulin-2, whereas neurocan does not. As expected for a C-type lectin, the interactions are calcium-dependent, with K(D) values in the nanomolar range as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Solid phase competition assays with previously identified ligands demonstrated that fibulin-2 and tenascin-R bind the same site on the proteoglycan lectin domains. Fibulin-1 has affinity for the common site on versican but may bind to a different site on the aggrecan lectin domain. By using deletion mutants, the interaction sites for aggrecan and versican lectin domains were mapped to epidermal growth factor-like repeats in domain II of fibulin-2. Affinity chromatography and solid phase assays confirmed that also native full-length aggrecan and versican bind the lectin domain ligands. Electron microscopy confirmed the mapping and demonstrated that hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes can be cross-linked by the fibulins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;2;1253-61

  • Brevican is degraded by matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS4) at different sites.

    Nakamura H, Fujii Y, Inoki I, Sugimoto K, Tanzawa K, Matsuki H, Miura R, Yamaguchi Y and Okada Y

    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016, Japan.

    Brevican is a member of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. The susceptibility of brevican to digestion by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10, and -13 and membrane type 1 and 3 MMPs) and aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS4) was examined. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -10, and -13 degraded brevican into a few fragments with similar molecular masses, whereas the degradation products of aggrecanase-1 had apparently different sizes. NH(2)-terminal sequence analyses of the digestion fragments revealed that cleavages of the brevican core protein by these metalloproteinases occurred commonly within the central non-homologous domain. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -10, and -13 preferentially attacked the Ala(360)-Phe(361) bond, whereas aggrecanase-1 cleaved the Glu(395)-Ser(396) bond, which are similar to the cleavage sites observed with cartilage proteoglycan (aggrecan) for the MMPs and aggrecanase-1, respectively. These data demonstrate that MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -10, and -13 and aggrecanase-1 digest brevican in a similar pattern to aggrecan and suggest that they may be responsible for the physiological turnover and pathological degradation of brevican.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;49;38885-90

  • cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression analysis of human BEHAB/brevican, a brain specific proteoglycan regulated during cortical development and in glioma.

    Gary SC, Zerillo CA, Chiang VL, Gaw JU, Gray G and Hockfield S

    Section of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. sydney.gary@yale.edu

    BEHAB (Brain Enriched HyAluronan Binding)/brevican, a brain-specific member of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), may play a role in both brain development and human glioma. BEHAB/brevican has been cloned from bovine, mouse and rat. Two isoforms have been reported: a full-length isoform that is secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and a shorter isoform with a sequence that predicts a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we report the characterization of BEHAB/brevican isoforms in human brain. First, BEHAB/brevican maps to human chromosome 1q31. Second, we report the sequence of both isoforms of human BEHAB/brevican. The deduced protein sequence of full-length, secreted human BEHAB/brevican is 89.7, 83.3 and 83.2% identical to bovine, mouse and rat homologues, respectively. Third, by RNase protection analysis (RPA) we show the developmental regulation of BEHAB/brevican isoforms in normal human cortex. The secreted isoform is highly expressed from birth through 8years of age and is downregulated by 20years of age to low levels that are maintained in the normal adult cortex. The GPI isoform is expressed at uniformly low levels throughout development. Fourth, we confirm and extend previous studies from our laboratory, here demonstrating the upregulation of BEHAB/brevican mRNA in human glioma quantitatively. RPA analysis shows that both isoforms are upregulated in glioma, showing an approximately sevenfold increase in expression over normal levels. In contrast to the developmental regulation of BEHAB/brevican, where only the secreted isoform is regulated, both isoforms are increased in parallel in human glioma. The distinct patterns of regulation of expression of the two isoforms suggest distinct mechanisms of regulation of BEHAB/brevican during development and in glioma.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY06511; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35228

    Gene 2000;256;1-2;139-47

  • The C-type lectin domains of lecticans, a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of carbohydrate moiety.

    Aspberg A, Miura R, Bourdoulous S, Shimonaka M, Heinegârd D, Schachner M, Ruoslahti E and Yamaguchi Y

    The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The lecticans are a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans including aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican. The C-terminal globular domains of lecticans are structurally related to selectins, consisting of a C-type lectin domain flanked by epidermal growth factor and complement regulatory protein domains. The C-type lectin domain of versican has been shown to bind tenascin-R, an extracellular matrix protein specifically expressed in the nervous system, and the interaction was presumed to be mediated by a carbohydrate-protein interaction. In this paper, we show that the C-type lectin domain of brevican, another lectican that is specifically expressed in the nervous system, also binds tenascin-R. Surprisingly, this interaction is mediated by a protein-protein interaction through the fibronectin type III domains 3-5 of tenascin-R, independent of any carbohydrates or sulfated amino acids. The lectin domains of versican and other lecticans also bind the same domain of tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that brevican lectin has at least a 10-fold higher affinity than the other lectican lectins. Tenascin-R is coprecipitated with brevican from adult rat brain extracts, suggesting that tenascin-R and brevican form complexes in vivo. These results demonstrate that the C-type lectin domain can interact with fibronectin type III domains through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that brevican is a physiological tenascin-R ligand in the adult brain.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA28896, CA30199, P30 CA030199; NINDS NIH HHS: NS32717

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;19;10116-21

  • Brevican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of rat brain, occurs as secreted and cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored isoforms.

    Seidenbecher CI, Richter K, Rauch U, Fässler R, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    Federal Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany.

    cDNA clones encoding proteins related to the aggrecan/versican family of proteoglycan core proteins have been isolated with antisera against rat brain synaptic junctions. Two sets of overlapping cDNAs have been characterized that differ in their 3'-terminal regions. Northern analyses with probes derived from unique regions of each set were found to hybridize with two brain-specific transcripts of 3.3 and 3.6 kilobases (kb). The 3.6-kb transcript encodes a polypeptide that exhibits 82% sequence identity with bovine brevican and is thought to be the rat ortholog of brevican. Interestingly, the polypeptide deduced from the open reading frame of the 3.3-kb transcript is truncated just carboxyl-terminal of the central domain of brevican and instead contains a putative glypiation signal. Antibodies raised against a bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-brevican fusion protein have been used to show that both soluble and membrane-bound brevican isoforms exist. Treatment of the crude membrane fraction and purified synaptic plasma membranes with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C revealed that isoforms of brevican are indeed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the plasma membrane. Moreover, digestions with chondroitinase ABC have indicated that rat brevican, like its bovine ortholog, is a conditional chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that brevican is widely distributed in the brain and is localized extracellularly. During postnatal development, amounts of both soluble and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-sensitive isoforms increase, suggesting a role for brevican in the terminally differentiating and the adult nervous system.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;45;27206-12

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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