G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1
G00000283 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000016685 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000120694 (Ensembl human gene)
10808 (Entrez Gene)
612 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HSPH1 (GeneCards)
610703 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:16969 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
2060 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q92598 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • HSP105A
  • HSP105B
  • KIAA0201
  • NY-CO-25

Literature (26)

Pubmed - other

  • Expression of heat shock protein 105 and 70 in malignant melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi.

    Park HS, Park CH, Choi BR, Lim MS, Heo SH, Kim CH, Kang SG, Whang KU and Cho MK

    Department of Dermatology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    Background: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) restore immature proteins or denatured proteins, thus protecting cells. Also, the expression of some HSPs is elevated substantially in malignant tumors, but the expression of HSPs in association with melanoma has yet to be studied. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of HSP 70 and 105 in melanoma, benign melanocytic nevi and normal human skin.

    Methods: Two specimens of malignant melanoma, two of benign melanocytic nevi and six of normal human skin were analyzed using Western blot analysis for expression of HSP 70 and 105. In another set, 16 specimens of malignant melanoma, 24 of benign melanocytic nevi and eight of normal human skin were analyzed for the expression of HSP 105 using immunohistochemical studies.

    Results: The Western blot analysis showed that HSP 70 was overexpressed in all three types. But, the HSP 105 was hardly expressed in normal human skin and benign melanocytic nevi. However, in malignant melanoma, the HSP 105 was overexpressed, and immunohistochemical examination of HSP 105 showed a result similar to that of Western blot analysis.

    Conclusions: In our study, HSP 105 is thought to be a more relevant tumor-associated antigen in malignant melanoma than is HSP 70.

    Journal of cutaneous pathology 2009;36;5;511-6

  • Differential expression of heat shock protein 105 in melanoma and melanocytic naevi.

    Muchemwa FC, Nakatsura T, Fukushima S, Nishimura Y, Kageshita T and Ihn H

    Department of Dermatology and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan. fcmuchemwa@yahoo.co.uk

    The objective of this study is to assess the expression of heat shock protein 105 (HSP105) in melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions. The expression of HSP105 in 62 human melanoma samples--46 primary and 16 metastatic lesions--and 42 melanocytic naevi samples, was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed on melanoma cell lines, melanoma tissues with matched normal skin and melanocytic naevi. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis and significance was considered to be P less than 0.05. Seventy-four per cent of the primary melanoma lesions and 88% of the metastatic lesions overexpressed HSP105 by immunohistochemistry. The majority of melanocytic lesions (95%) were negative (P<0.05). Western blotting detected high expression of HSP105 in melanoma cell lines and tissues. The expression of HSP105 was related to the invasiveness of the lesions. Melanocytic naevi expressed HSP105 at a level that was similar to that of normal skin. Our results show that high expression of HSP105 is associated with malignant melanoma especially advanced and metastatic lesions. The results suggest that HSP105 analysis may be a helpful tool as a poor prognostic indicator and as a diagnostic aid in problematic lesions; in addition, melanoma can be included in the growing list of tumours overexpressing HSP105 to be targeted for potential HSP105-based therapeutic strategies.

    Melanoma research 2008;18;3;166-71

  • HSP105 interacts with GRP78 and GSK3 and promotes ER stress-induced caspase-3 activation.

    Meares GP, Zmijewska AA and Jope RS

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0017, USA.

    Stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) is caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins, which occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress can lead to adaptive responses or apoptosis, both of which follow activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Heat shock proteins (HSP) support the folding and function of many proteins, and are important components of the ER stress response, but little is known about the role of one of the major large HSPs, HSP105. We identified several new partners of HSP105, including glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), a promoter of ER stress-induced apoptosis, and GRP78, a key component of the UPR. Knockdown of HSP105 did not alter UPR signaling after ER stress, but blocked caspase-3 activation after ER stress. In contrast, caspase-3 activation induced by genotoxic stress was unaffected by knockdown of HSP105, suggesting ER stress-specificity in the apoptotic action of HSP105. However, knockdown of HSP105 did not alter cell survival after ER stress, but instead diverted signaling to a caspase-3-independent cell death pathway, indicating that HSP105 is necessary for apoptotic signaling after UPR activation by ER stress. Thus, HSP105 appears to chaperone the responses to ER stress through its interactions with GRP78 and GSK3, and without HSP105 cell death following ER stress proceeds by a non-caspase-3-dependent process.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG021045, R01 AG021045, R01 AG021045-05; NIMH NIH HHS: MH38752, R01 MH038752, R01 MH038752-23, R56 MH038752

    Cellular signalling 2008;20;2;347-58

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • DNA vaccination of HSP105 leads to tumor rejection of colorectal cancer and melanoma in mice through activation of both CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells.

    Miyazaki M, Nakatsura T, Yokomine K, Senju S, Monji M, Hosaka S, Komori H, Yoshitake Y, Motomura Y, Minohara M, Kubo T, Ishihara K, Hatayama T, Ogawa M and Nishimura Y

    Department of Immunogenetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Hongo, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan. mxnishim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    We report that HSP105, identified by serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX), is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including colorectal, pancreatic, thyroid, esophageal, and breast carcinoma, but is not expressed in normal tissues except for the testis. The amino acid sequences and expression patterns of HSP105 are very similar in humans and mice. In this study, we set up a preclinical study to investigate the usefulness of a DNA vaccine producing mouse HSP105 whole protein for cancer immunotherapy in vivo using BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, Colon26, a syngeneic endogenously HSP105-expressing colorectal cancer cell line, and B16.F10, a melanoma cell line. The DNA vaccine was used to stimulate HSP105-specific T-cell responses. Fifty percent of mice immunized with the HSP105 DNA vaccine completely suppressed the growth of subcutaneous Colon26 or B16.F10 cells accompanied by massive infiltration of both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells into tumors. In cell transfer or depletion experiments we proved that both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells induced by these vaccines play critical roles in the activation of antitumor immunity. Evidence of autoimmune reactions was not present in surviving mice that had rejected tumor cell challenges. We found that HSP105 was highly immunogenic in mice and that the HSP105 DNA vaccination induced antitumor immunity without causing autoimmunity. Therefore, HSP105 is an ideal tumor antigen that could be useful for immunotherapy or the prevention of various human tumors that overexpress HSP105, including colorectal cancer and melanoma.

    Cancer science 2005;96;10;695-705

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Global phosphoproteome of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Kim JE, Tannenbaum SR and White FM

    Biological Engineering Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massassachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    Phosphorylation events in cellular signaling cascades triggered by a variety of cellular stimuli modulate protein function, leading to diverse cellular outcomes including cell division, growth, death, and differentiation. Abnormal regulation of protein phosphorylation due to mutation or overexpression of signaling proteins often results in various disease states. We provide here a list of protein phosphorylation sites identified from HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) combined with liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. In this study, proteins extracted from HT-29 whole cell lysates were digested with trypsin and carboxylate groups on the resulting peptides were converted to methyl esters. Derivatized phosphorylated peptides were enriched using Fe(3+)-chelated metal affinity resin. Phosphopeptides retained by IMAC were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. We identified 238 phosphorylation sites, 213 of which could be conclusively localized to a single residue, from 116 proteins by searching MS/MS spectra against the human protein database using MASCOT. Peptide identification and phosphorylation site assignment were confirmed by manual inspection of the MS/MS spectra. Many of the phosphorylation sites identified in our results have not been described previously in the scientific literature. We attempted to ascribe functionality to the sites identified in this work by searching for potential kinase motifs with Scansite (http://scansite.mit.edu) and obtaining information on kinase substrate selectivity from Pattern Explorer (http://scansite.mit.edu/pe). The list of protein phosphorylation sites identified in the present experiment provides broad information on phosphorylated proteins under normal (asynchronous) cell culture conditions. Sites identified in this study may be utilized as surrogate bio-markers to assess the activity of selected kinases and signaling pathways from different cell states and exogenous stimuli.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES 002109, P30 ES002109; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50 GM 68762-01

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;4;1339-46

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13.

    Dunham A, Matthews LH, Burton J, Ashurst JL, Howe KL, Ashcroft KJ, Beare DM, Burford DC, Hunt SE, Griffiths-Jones S, Jones MC, Keenan SJ, Oliver K, Scott CE, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews DT, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Bannerjee R, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burrill W, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp ME, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg SC, Cobley V, Collins JE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Deloukas P, Dhami P, Dunham I, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AG, Faulkner L, Frankish AG, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gilbert JG, Gilson CJ, Ghori J, Grafham DV, Gribble SM, Griffiths C, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kay M, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford CJ, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Lloyd C, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, McLaren SJ, McMurray A, Milne S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter KM, Rice CM, Searle S, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thomas DW, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wright MW, Young L, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Beck S, Bentley DR, Rogers J and Ross MT

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SA, UK. ad1@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 13 is the largest acrocentric human chromosome. It carries genes involved in cancer including the breast cancer type 2 (BRCA2) and retinoblastoma (RB1) genes, is frequently rearranged in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and contains the DAOA locus associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We describe completion and analysis of 95.5 megabases (Mb) of sequence from chromosome 13, which contains 633 genes and 296 pseudogenes. We estimate that more than 95.4% of the protein-coding genes of this chromosome have been identified, on the basis of comparison with other vertebrate genome sequences. Additionally, 105 putative non-coding RNA genes were found. Chromosome 13 has one of the lowest gene densities (6.5 genes per Mb) among human chromosomes, and contains a central region of 38 Mb where the gene density drops to only 3.1 genes per Mb.

    Nature 2004;428;6982;522-8

  • Screening of Hsp105alpha-binding proteins using yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems.

    Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 607-8414 Kyoto, Japan.

    Hsp105alpha is a 105-kDa stress protein, which is expressed constitutively at especially high levels in the brain compared with other tissues in mammals, and is also induced by a variety of stressors. Recently, we have shown that Hsp105alpha binds to alpha-tubulin and prevents the heat-induced disaggregation of microtubules. To further elucidate the function of Hsp105alpha, we searched for Hsp105alpha-binding proteins by screening a mouse FM3A cell library and human and mouse brain cDNA libraries using the yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems. We showed here that Hsp105alpha interacted with several cellular proteins, such as cofilin, dynein light chain 2A, alpha-adducin, ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, and platelet-activating factor acethylhydrolase alpha1-subunit. The interaction was validated by the results of a pull-down assay and indirect immunofluorescence analysis. The significance of Hsp105alpha and Hsp105alpha-binding proteins in cells was discussed.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;314;2;396-402

  • Characterization of the interaction of the stress kinase SPAK with the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in the nervous system: evidence for a scaffolding role of the kinase.

    Piechotta K, Garbarini N, England R and Delpire E

    Department of Anesthesiology and Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    Activity of heterologously expressed NKCC1 was analyzed under basal and activated conditions in the presence and absence of binding of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Mutant NKCC1 that lacks the ability to bind to this kinase showed K+ transport function identical to wild-type NKCC1. Thus, preventing the binding of the kinase to the cotransporter does not affect cotransporter function. In contrast, several experiments suggest a possible role for SPAK as a scaffolding protein. First, Western blot analysis revealed the presence, and in some tissues abundance, of truncated forms of SPAK and OSR1 in which the kinase domains are affected and thus lack kinase activity. Second, a yeast two-hybrid screen of proteins that interact with the regulatory (binding) domain of SPAK identified several proteins all involved in cellular stress pathways. Third, p38, one of the three major MAPKs, can be coimmunoprecipitated with SPAK and with NKCC1 in an activity-dependent manner. The amount of p38 coimmunoprecipitated with the kinase and the cotransporter significantly decreases upon cellular stress, whereas the interaction of the kinase with NKCC1 remains unchanged. These findings suggest that cation-chloride cotransporters might act as "sensors" for cellular stress, and SPAK, by interacting with the cotransporter, serves as an intermediate in the response to cellular stress.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS36758

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;52;52848-56

  • Heat shock protein 105 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors.

    Kai M, Nakatsura T, Egami H, Senju S, Nishimura Y and Ogawa M

    Department of Surgery II, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan.

    We earlier reported that heat shock protein 105 (hsp105), which we identified by serological analyses of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX), was overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We went on to examine hsp105 expression in various colorectal cancers and adenomas, using immunohistochemical analysis. The 44 of 53 patients with colorectal cancers (83.0%) and only 2 of 21 (9.5%) with colorectal adenomas had an evident overexpression of hsp105, which means that overexpression of hsp105 is a late event in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Subsequently, we asked if hsp105 was overexpressed in other human tumors. During immunohistochemical studies, we discovered that overexpression of hsp105 occurred not only in cases of colorectal and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but also thyroid, esophageal, breast, and bladder carcinoma and islet cell tumor, gastric malignant lymphoma, pheochromocytoma, and seminoma. On the other hand, hsp105 was evidently overexpressed only in the testis in human adult normal tissues. Thus, hsp105 is a useful marker of a variety of human tumors and hsp105 may prove to be a target molecule for designing anti-tumor immunotherapy.

    Oncology reports 2003;10;6;1777-82

  • Inhibitory actions of genistein in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.

    Chen WF, Huang MH, Tzang CH, Yang M and Wong MS

    Central Laboratory of the Institute of Molecular Technology for Drug Discovery and Synthesis, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

    Genistein, a natural isoflavanoid phytoestrogen, is thought to be the active ingredient in soy that possesses breast cancer preventive properties. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in its cancer preventive properties have not been completely understood. The present study is designed to investigate the mechanism involved in the inhibitory action of genistein in MCF-7 cells. Genistein at 50 and 100 microM significantly arrested the growth of MCF-7 cells at G2/M phase (P<0.05) and decreased at the proliferative S phase (P<0.05). Using cDNA microarray technology, genes differentially regulated by genistein were identified. In particular, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), genistein up-regulated heat shock protein 105 (HSP) mRNA and down-regulated mRNA expression of serum response factor (SRF), estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, disabled homolog 2 (DOC 2) and recombination activation gene 1 (RAG-1). Using real time RT-PCR, we have shown that HSP and SRF mRNA were both regulated by genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner; however, it appears that only the effect of genistein on SRF mRNA, but not HSP mRNA expression, can be partially abolished by cotreatment with estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. Western blotting analysis showed that the expressions of the ERalpha and SRF protein decreased significantly with genistein treatment (P<0.05). These results suggest that the inhibitory action of genistein on human breast cancer cells appears to be complex and is only partially mediated by the alteration of estrogen receptor-dependent pathways.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2003;1638;2;187-96

  • Identification of alpha-tubulin as an hsp105alpha-binding protein by the yeast two-hybrid system.

    Saito Y, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchicho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan.

    Hsp105alpha is a mammalian stress protein that belongs to the HSP105/110 family. Hsp105alpha prevents stress-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells and binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 and suppresses the Hsp70 chaperone activity in vitro. In this study, to further elucidate the function of Hsp105alpha, we searched for Hsp105alpha-binding proteins by screening a mouse FM3A cell cDNA library with full-length Hsp105alpha using the yeast two-hybrid system and obtained alpha-tubulin as an Hsp105alpha-binding protein. Hsp105alpha bound directly to alpha-tubulin both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with anti-Hsp105 and anti-alpha-tubulin antibodies indicated that Hsp105alpha was colocalized with microtubules. Furthermore, the disorganization of microtubules induced by heat shock was prevented in Hsp105alpha-overexpressing COS-7 cells. These findings suggested that Hsp105alpha associates with alpha-tubulin and microtubules in cells and plays a role in protection of microtubules under conditions of stress.

    Experimental cell research 2003;286;2;233-40

  • Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates Hsp105 alpha at Ser509 and modulates its function.

    Ishihara K, Yamagishi N and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchi-cho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan.

    The 105 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp) Hsp105 alpha is a mammalian stress protein that belongs to the HSP105/HSP110 family. We have shown previously that Hsp105 alpha exists as non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms in vivo, and is phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 (CK2) in vitro. In this study, to elucidate the role of phosphorylation of Hsp105 alpha, we first analysed the site of phosphorylation of Hsp105 alpha by CK2. Peptide mapping analysis of Hsp105 alpha phosphorylated by CK2 and in vitro phosphorylation experiments using various deletion and substitution mutants of Hsp105 alpha revealed that Hsp105 alpha is phosphorylated at Ser(509) in the beta-sheet domain. Furthermore, Ser(509) in Hsp105 alpha was also phosphorylated in mammalian COS-7 cells, although other sites were phosphorylated as well. Next, we examined the effects of phosphorylation of Hsp105 alpha on its functions using CK2-phosphorylated Hsp105 alpha. Interestingly, Hsp105 alpha suppressed 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70)-mediated protein folding, whereas the phosphorylation of Hsp105 alpha at Ser(509) abolished the inhibitory activity of Hsp105 alpha in vitro. In accordance with these findings, wild-type Hsp105 alpha, which was thought to be phosphorylated in vivo, had no effect on Hsp70-mediated refolding of heat-denatured luciferase, whereas a non-phosphorylatable mutant of Hsp105 alpha suppressed the Hsp70-mediated refolding of heat-denatured luciferase in mammalian cells. Thus it was suggested that CK2 phosphorylates Hsp105 alpha at Ser(509) and modulates the function of Hsp105 alpha. The regulation of Hsp105 alpha function by phosphorylation may play an important role in a variety of cellular events.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;371;Pt 3;917-25

  • The distribution and localization of hsp110 in brain.

    Hylander BL, Chen X, Graf PC and Subjeck JR

    Department of Immunology, Roswell Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

    Hsp110 is one of the few, major heat shock proteins of mammalian cells and was one of the earliest heat shock proteins described. However, it has only recently been cloned and studied at the molecular level. It has been noted that of all tissues examined, brain expresses the highest level of hsp110, with expression levels in unstressed brain being similar to the levels seen in heat shocked cells. The present report describes a combined Northern and Western blot analysis of hsp110 expression in various regions of mouse and human brain. These observations are further expanded by an immunohistochemical characterization of hsp110 cellular localization in mouse brain. It is seen that although hsp110 is an abundant protein in most regions of the brain, its expression is heterogeneous, with little being detectable in the cerebellum. Within the cerebral hemispheres, hsp110 is present in neurons in all regions including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the thalamus and the hypothalamus. In contrast, in the cerebellum, the Purkinje cells are the major hsp110 containing cells while the more abundant granule cells show little if any hsp110 labeling. Since hsp110 has been shown to protect cells and proteins from thermal damage, this differential pattern of expression may have ramifications in the pathophysiology of brain, specifically involving cerebellar sequelae.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM45994

    Brain research 2000;869;1-2;49-55

  • Phosphorylation of the 105-kDa heat shock proteins, HSP105alpha and HSP105beta, by casein kinase II.

    Ishihara K, Yasuda K and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchicho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8414, Japan.

    The 105-kDa heat shock protein alpha (HSP105alpha) and HSP105beta are mammalian heat shock proteins that belong to the HSP105/HSP110 family. Both HSP105alpha and HSP105beta consist of acidic and basic isoforms. Here we report that the acidic isoforms are serine phosphorylated HSP105alpha or HSP105beta. Furthermore, using an in-gel kinase assay with HSP105alpha or HSP105beta as the substrate, the protein kinase that phosphorylates HSP105alpha and HSP105beta was identified as casein kinase II. Since phosphorylated HSP105alpha is especially prominent in the brain compared to other tissues of mice and rats, the phosphorylation of HSP105alpha by casein kinase II may be biologically significant.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;270;3;927-31

  • Molecular cloning, expression and localization of human 105 kDa heat shock protein, hsp105.

    Ishihara K, Yasuda K and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchi-cho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan.

    We have shown that the 105 kDa heat shock protein (hsp105alpha) and hsp105beta (42 degreesC-specific heat shock protein) constitute high molecular mass (HMM) heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mouse cells. However, since HMM HSPs have not been identified in human cells, we screened a cDNA library constructed with poly(A)+ RNA derived from heat-shocked human HeLa cells using mouse hsp105alpha cDNA. Two full-length cDNA clones were obtained: the pBH105-1 insert encoded an 858-amino-acid protein, and the pBH105-2 insert encoded an 814-amino-acid protein which lacked 44 amino acids from pBH105-1. The deduced amino acid sequences of pBH105-1 and pBH105-2 inserts were highly homologous to mouse hsp105alpha (96%) and hamster hsp110 (92%), and to mouse hsp105beta (93%), respectively. The transcript of pBH105-1 was induced by various stresses in HeLa cells, but the transcript of pBH105-2 was only induced during heat shock at 42 degreesC. These results indicated that pBH105-1 and pBH105-2 encoded human hsp105alpha and hsp105beta, respectively. Furthermore, a rabbit antibody was raised against recombinant human hsp105alpha, and immunofluorescence study also confirmed that hsp105 was present in the cytoplasm but was not found in the nucleoli of mammalian cells under both nonstressed and stressed conditions.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999;1444;1;138-42

  • Association of HSP105 with HSC70 in high molecular mass complexes in mouse FM3A cells.

    Hatayama T, Yasuda K and Yasuda K

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8414, Japan. hatayama@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp

    The 105-kDa stress proteins HSP105alpha and HSP105beta belong to a high molecular mass heat shock protein family which has been found in organisms from yeast to mammals. Here we demonstrated the interaction of HSP105 with HSP70 family proteins in mouse FM3A cells. The association of HSP105 with HSC70 was shown by immunoprecipitation using anti-HSP105 antibody. Furthermore, when cell extracts or partially purified HSP105 fractions from nonstressed or heat-shocked cells were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation or cross-linking, HSP105 was detected as HSP105/HSC70 complexes with molecular masses of approximately 300-500-kDa, 160-kDa or 200-kDa, respectively. Since the 160-200-kDa complexes must be HSP105/HSC70 heterodimers, the 300-500-kDa complexes seemed to consist of HSP105/HSC70 heterotetramers possibly with other proteins. Our finding that HSP105 is complexed with HSC70 suggests that HSP105 may function cooperatively with HSC70, that HSP105 regulates the function of HSC70 or that HSC70 reversibly regulates the function of HSP105 in cells under both nonstressed and stressed conditions.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;248;2;395-401

  • Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies.

    Scanlan MJ, Chen YT, Williamson B, Gure AO, Stockert E, Gordan JD, Türeci O, Sahin U, Pfreundschuh M and Old LJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York Branch at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10021, USA. scanlanm@mskcc.org

    The screening of cDNA expression libraries derived from human tumors with autologous antibody (SEREX) has proven to be a powerful method for defining the structure of tumor antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. In the present study, 48 distinct antigens (NY-CO-1-NY-CO-48) reactive with autologous IgG were identified by SEREX analysis in 4 patients with colon cancer. Sequencing analysis showed that 17 of the cDNA clones were previously uncharacterized molecules and 31 represented known gene products. The individual cDNA clones were analyzed in the following manner: a search for mutations or other structural changes; an analysis of mRNA expression in a panel of normal tissues; and a frequency analysis of the antibody response to the expressed product in the sera of colon cancer patients and normal individuals. The initial analysis showed NY-CO-13 to be a mutated version of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Three of the 48 antigens showed a differential pattern of mRNA expression, with NY-CO-27 (galectin-4) expressed primarily in gastrointestinal tract, and NY-CO-37 and -38 showing a pattern of tissue-specific isoforms. With regard to immunogenicity, 20 of the 48 antigens were detected by allogeneic sera; 14 of these were reactive with sera from both normal donors and cancer patients, and 6 other clones (NY-CO-8, -9, -13, -16, -20 and -38) reacted exclusively with sera from colon cancer patients (ranging from 14% to 27%). Our results on colon cancer illustrate both the complexity and the potential of the SEREX approach for analysis of the humoral immune response against human cancer.

    International journal of cancer 1998;76;5;652-8

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VI. The coding sequences of 80 new genes (KIAA0201-KIAA0280) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from cell line KG-1 and brain.

    Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Ohira M, Kawarabayasi Y, Ohara O, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Miyajima N and Nomura N

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long and nearly full-length transcripts, we newly determined the sequences of 80 clones, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0201 to KIAA0280. Among the sequenced clones, 68 were obtained from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1 and 12 from human brain. The average size of the clones was 5.3 kb, and that of distinct ORFs in clones was 2.8 kb, corresponding to a protein of approximately 100 kDa. Computer search against the public databases indicated that the sequences of 22 genes were unrelated to any reported genes, while the remaining 58 genes carried sequences which show some similarities to known genes. Protein motifs that matched those in the PROSITE motif database were found in 25 genes and significant transmembrane domains were identified in 30 genes. Among the known genes to which significant similarity was shown, the genes that play key roles in regulation of developmental stages, apoptosis and cell-to-cell interaction were included. Taking into account of both the search data on sequence similarity and protein motifs, at least seven genes were considered to be related to transcriptional regulation and six genes to signal transduction. When the expression profiles of the cDNA clones were examined with different human tissues, about half of the clones from brain (5 of 11) showed significant tissue-specificity, while approximately 80% of the genes from KG-1 were expressed ubiquitously.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1996;3;5;321-9, 341-54

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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