G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 1
G00000274 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000019760 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000086061 (Ensembl human gene)
3301 (Entrez Gene)
605 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DNAJA1 (GeneCards)
602837 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:5229 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1306 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P31689 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • HSPF4
  • NEDD7
  • dj-2
  • hdj-2

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Hsp40 chaperones promote degradation of the HERG potassium channel.

    Walker VE, Wong MJ, Atanasiu R, Hantouche C, Young JC and Shrier A

    Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada.

    Loss of function mutations in the hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene or KCNH2) potassium channel underlie the proarrhythmic cardiac long QT syndrome type 2. Most often this is a consequence of defective trafficking of hERG mutants to the cell surface, with channel retention and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we identify the Hsp40 type 1 chaperones DJA1 (DNAJA1/Hdj2) and DJA2 (DNAJA2) as key modulators of hERG degradation. Overexpression of the DJAs reduces hERG trafficking efficiency, an effect eliminated by the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin or with DJA mutants lacking their J domains essential for Hsc70/Hsp70 activation. Both DJA1 and DJA2 cause a decrease in the amount of hERG complexed with Hsc70, indicating a preferential degradation of the complex. Similar effects were observed with the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Both the DJAs and CHIP reduce hERG stability and act differentially on folding intermediates of hERG and the disease-related trafficking mutant G601S. We propose a novel role for the DJA proteins in regulating degradation and suggest that they act at a critical point in secretory pathway quality control.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 103329-1, 68825-2, 70306-1, MOP-68825, MOP-86589; PHS HHS: 103329-1, 68825-2, 70306-1

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;5;3319-29

  • Functional divergence between co-chaperones of Hsc70.

    Tzankov S, Wong MJ, Shi K, Nassif C and Young JC

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada.

    The ATPase cycle of the chaperone Hsc70 is regulated by co-chaperones; Hsp40/DnaJ-related proteins stimulate ATP hydrolysis by Hsc70 and can bind unfolded polypeptides themselves. Conversely, various nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) stimulate ADP-ATP exchange by Hsc70. We analyzed the purified Hsp40-related co-chaperones DJA1 (Hdj2) and DJA2 (Hdj3) and found that they had a distinct pattern of binding to a range of polypeptides. DJA2 alone could stimulate Hsc70-mediated refolding of luciferase in the absence of NEF, whereas DJA1 was much less active. The addition of the Bag1 NEF increased refolding by Hsc70 and DJA2, as did the newly characterized NEF Hsp110, but each NEF had a different optimal concentration ratio to Hsc70. Notably, the NEF HspBP1 could not increase refolding by Hsc70 and DJA2 at any concentration, and none of the NEFs improved the refolding activity with DJA1. Instead, DJA1 was inhibitory of refolding with DJA2 and Hsc70. All combinations of DJA1 or DJA2 with the three NEFs stimulated the Hsc70 ATPase rate, although Hsp110 became less effective with increasing concentrations. A chimeric DJA2 having its Hsc70-stimulatory J domain replaced with that of DJA1 was functional for polypeptide binding and ATPase stimulation of Hsc70. However, it could not support efficient Hsc70-mediated refolding and also inhibited refolding with DJA2 and Hsc70. These results suggest a more complex model of Hsc70 mechanism than has been previously thought, with notable functional divergence between Hsc70 co-chaperones.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 68825-1, 68825-2, 70306-1; PHS HHS: 68825-1, 68825-2, 70306-1

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;40;27100-9

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Redox-regulated cochaperone activity of the human DnaJ homolog Hdj2.

    Choi HI, Lee SP, Kim KS, Hwang CY, Lee YR, Chae SK, Kim YS, Chae HZ and Kwon KS

    Center for Systems Biology, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon 305-333, Korea.

    The human DnaJ homolog Hdj2 is a cochaperone containing a cysteine-rich zinc finger domain. We identified a specific interaction of Hdj2 with the cellular redox enzyme thioredoxin using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a coimmunoprecipitation assay, thereby investigating how the redox environment of the cell regulates Hdj2 function. In reconstitution experiments with Hsc70, we found that treatment with H2O2 caused the oxidative inactivation of Hdj2 cochaperone activity. Hdj2 inactivation paralleled the oxidation of cysteine thiols and concomitant release of coordinated zinc, suggesting a role of cysteine residues in the zinc finger domain of Hdj2 as a redox sensor of chaperone-mediated protein-folding machinery. H2O2-induced negative regulation of Hdj2 cochaperone activity was also confirmed in mammalian cells using luciferase as a foreign reporter cotransfected with Hsc70 and Hdj2. The in vivo oxidation of cysteine residues in Hdj2 was detected only in thioredoxin-knockdown cells, implying that thioredoxin is involved in the in vivo reduction. The oxidative inactivation of Hdj2 was reversible. Wild-type thioredoxin notably recovered the oxidatively inactivated Hdj2 activity accompanied by the reincorporation of zinc, whereas the catalytically inactive mutant thioredoxin (Cys32Ser/Cys35Ser) did not. Taken together, we propose that oxidation and reduction reversibly regulate Hdj2 function in response to the redox states of the cell.

    Free radical biology & medicine 2006;40;4;651-9

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Identification and characterization of rDJL, a novel member of the DnaJ protein family, in rat testis.

    Yang C, Miao S, Zong S, Koide SS and Wang L

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.

    Applying the method of segmentation of seminiferous tubules combined with DDRT-PCR and cDNA library screening, a novel DnaJ homologue, rDJL was identified in rat testis. The reading frame encodes a protein of 223 amino acid residues containing J domain in the NH2 terminal region. rDJL gene is expressed mainly in testis and rDJL protein was immunolocalized notably in the acrosome region of spermatozoa. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that rDJL interacted with Hsc70 and clathrin protein. When CHO cells were treated with EGF, rDJL and clathrin protein were found to be colocalized and be concentrated as endosome vesicles. The present findings suggest that rDJL functions as co-chaperone to Hsc70, participates in vesicular trafficking and may play an important role in acrosomogenesis.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;25;5734-40

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Low resolution structural study of two human HSP40 chaperones in solution. DJA1 from subfamily A and DJB4 from subfamily B have different quaternary structures.

    Borges JC, Fischer H, Craievich AF and Ramos CH

    Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CP 6192, 13084-971, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

    Proteins that belong to the heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 family assist Hsp70 in many cellular functions and are important for maintaining cell viability. A knowledge of the structural and functional characteristics of the Hsp40 family is therefore essential for understanding the role of the Hsp70 chaperone system in cells. In this work, we used small angle x-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation to study two representatives of human Hsp40, namely, DjA1 (Hdj2/dj2/HSDJ/Rdj1) from subfamily A and DjB4 (Hlj1/DnaJW) from subfamily B, and to determine their quaternary structure. We also constructed low resolution models for the structure of DjA1-(1-332), a C-terminal-deleted mutant of DjA1 in which dimer formation is prevented. Our results, together with the current structural information of the Hsp40 C-terminal and J-domains, were used to generate models of the internal structural organization of DjA1 and DjB4. The characteristics of these models indicated that DjA1 and DjB4 were both dimers, but with substantial differences in their quaternary structures: whereas DjA1 consisted of a compact dimer in which the N and C termini of the two monomers faced each other, DjB4 formed a dimer in which only the C termini of the two monomers were in contact. The two proteins also differed in their ability to bind unfolded luciferase. Overall, our results indicate that these representatives of subfamilies A and B of human Hsp40 have different quaternary structures and chaperone functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;14;13671-81

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Expression of a novel DnaJA1 alternative splicing in human testis and sperm.

    Hu Y, Zhou Z, Huang X, Xu M, Lu L, Xu Z, Li J and Sha J

    Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 2100029, China.

    Using cDNA microarray hybridization from a human testicular cDNA library, one gene exhibiting threefold difference at expression level between adult and embryo human testes was named nDnaJA1 (a new alternative isoform of human DnaJA1 which was also named HDJ2/Hsdj/dj2, a human HSP40 homologue), which was believed to be involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. Multiple tissue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results showed that nDnaJA1 expressed highly in testis and lung but low in thymus, prostate, colon and liver. The results of the other members of DnaJA1 family (GenBank accession numbers: D13388 and BC008182) showed that they were widely expressed. D13388 and BC008182 were highly expressed in sperm while nDnaJA1 was faintly expressed by reverse transcriptase PCR. Protein motif analysis of nDnaJA1 sequence revealed motifs of DnaJ. nDnaJA1 was considered as type I DnaJ like the other members of DnaJA1 family.

    International journal of andrology 2004;27;6;343-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation.

    Lehner B and Sanderson CM

    MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SB, United Kingdom.

    The degradation of mRNA is an important regulatory step in the control of gene expression. However, mammalian RNA decay pathways remain poorly characterized. To provide a framework for studying mammalian RNA decay, a two-hybrid protein interaction map was generated using 54 constructs from 38 human proteins predicted to function in mRNA decay. The results provide evidence for interactions between many different proteins required for mRNA decay. Of particular interest are interactions between the poly(A) ribonuclease and the exosome and between the Lsm complex, decapping factors, and 5'-->3' exonucleases. Moreover, multiple interactions connect 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' decay proteins to each other and to nonsense-mediated decay factors, providing the opportunity for coordination between decay pathways. The interaction network also predicts the internal organization of the exosome and Lsm complexes. Additional interactions connect mRNA decay factors to many novel proteins and to proteins required for other steps in gene expression. These results provide an experimental insight into the organization of proteins required for mRNA decay and their coupling to other cellular processes, and the physiological relevance of many of these interactions are supported by their evolutionary conservation. The interactions also provide a wealth of hypotheses to guide future research on mRNA degradation and demonstrate the power of exhaustive protein interaction mapping in aiding understanding of uncharacterized protein complexes and pathways.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1315-23

  • Normal development and fertility of knockout mice lacking the tumor suppressor gene LRP1b suggest functional compensation by LRP1.

    Marschang P, Brich J, Weeber EJ, Sweatt JD, Shelton JM, Richardson JA, Hammer RE and Herz J

    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    LRP1b and the closely related LRP1 are large members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. At the protein level LRP1b is 55% identical to LRP1, a multifunctional and developmentally essential receptor with roles in cargo transport and cellular signaling. Somatic LRP1b mutations frequently occur in non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers, suggesting a role in the modulation of cellular growth. In contrast to LRP1, LRP1b-deficient mice develop normally, most likely due to its restricted expression pattern and functional compensation by LRP1 or other receptors. LRP1b is expressed predominantly in the brain, and a differentially spliced form is present in the adrenal gland and in the testis. Despite the presence of a potential furin cleavage site and in contrast to LRP1, immunoblotting for LRP1b reveals the presence of a single 600-kDa polypeptide species. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have identified two intracellular proteins, the postsynaptic density protein 95 and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein, that bind to the intracellular domain of LRP1b. In addition, we have found several potential ligands that bind to the extracellular domain. Analysis of LRP1b knockout mice may provide further insights into the role of LRP1b as a tumor suppressor and into the mechanisms of cancer development.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL20948, HL63762, P01 HL020948, R01 HL063762, R37 HL063762; NINDS NIH HHS: NS43408, R01 NS043408

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;9;3782-93

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Characterization of two isoforms of a human DnaJ homologue, HSJ2.

    Hanai R and Mashima K

    Department of Life Science and Frontier Project Life's Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Changes, Rikkyo (St. Paul's) University, Japan. hanai@rikkyo.ne.jp

    Two cDNA forms were characterized for a human dnaJ homologue, HSJ2. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the gene product HSJ2 was longer than previously reported, extending its homology to other human DnaJ paralogues, and that the two cDNAs encoded two proteins as a result of alternative splicing. The products were 326 amino acids (designated as HSJ2a) and 241 amino acids (HSJ2b) in length, sharing the N-terminal 231 amino acids including the DnaJ homology region. When fused to green fluorescent protein and expressed in HeLa cells, HSJ2a was found to be localized to the nucleus, indicating that HSJ2a is a nuclear co-chaperone. HSJ2b, however, was observed throughout the cell, consistent with the elimination of a putative nuclear localization signal sequence as a result of the alternative splicing.

    Molecular biology reports 2003;30;3;149-53

  • CHIP is associated with Parkin, a gene responsible for familial Parkinson's disease, and enhances its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Imai Y, Soda M, Hatakeyama S, Akagi T, Hashikawa T, Nakayama KI and Takahashi R

    Laboratory for Motor System Neurodegeneration, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R) is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Accumulation of Pael-R in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dopaminergic neurons induces ER stress leading to neurodegeneration. Here, we show that CHIP, Hsp70, Parkin, and Pael-R formed a complex in vitro and in vivo. The amount of CHIP in the complex was increased during ER stress. CHIP promoted the dissociation of Hsp70 from Parkin and Pael-R, thus facilitating Parkin-mediated Pael-R ubiquitination. Moreover, CHIP enhanced Parkin-mediated in vitro ubiquitination of Pael-R in the absence of Hsp70. Furthermore, CHIP enhanced the ability of Parkin to inhibit cell death induced by Pael-R. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP is a mammalian E4-like molecule that positively regulates Parkin E3 activity.

    Molecular cell 2002;10;1;55-67

  • HSP40 binding is the first step in the HSP90 chaperoning pathway for the progesterone receptor.

    Hernández MP, Chadli A and Toft DO

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    The progesterone receptor (PR) can be isolated in its native conformation able to bind hormone, yet its ligand-binding domain rapidly loses its activity at elevated temperature. However, an in vitro chaperoning system consisting of five proteins (HSP40, HSP70, HOP, HSP90, and p23) with ATP is capable of restoring this function. The first step of this chaperoning mechanism is usually thought to be the binding of HSP70 to PR. Our findings here show that the binding of HSP40 to PR is, instead, the first step. HSP40 binding occurred rapidly and was not dependent on ATP or other proteins. The stoichiometry of HSP40 to native PR in these complexes was approximately 1:1. HSP40 bound specifically and with a high affinity to native PR (K(d) = 77 nm). The binding of HSP40 to PR was sustained and did not interact in the highly dynamic fashion that has been observed previously for HSP90 in this system. The HSP40 small middle dotPR complex could be isolated as a functional unit that could, after the addition of the other chaperones, progress to a PR complex capable of hormone binding. These results indicate that HSP40 initiates the entry of PR into the HSP90 pathway.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK59284

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;14;11873-81

  • Mammalian, yeast, bacterial, and chemical chaperones reduce aggregate formation and death in a cell model of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    Bao YP, Cook LJ, O'Donovan D, Uyama E and Rubinsztein DC

    Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom.

    Autosomal dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is characterized pathologically by intranuclear inclusions in skeletal muscles and is caused by the expansion of a 10-alanine stretch to 12-17 alanines in the intranuclear poly(A)-binding protein 2 (PABP2). Whereas PABP2 is a major component of the inclusions in OPMD, the pathogenic mechanisms causing disease are unknown. Here we show that polyalanine expansions in PABP2 cause increased numbers of inclusions and enhance death in COS-7 cells. We observed similar increases of protein aggregation and cell death with nuclear-targeted green fluorescent protein linked to longer versus shorter polyalanine stretches. Intranuclear aggregates in our OPMD cell model were associated with heat shock protein (HSP) 40 (HDJ-1) and HSP70. Human HDJ-1, yeast hsp104, a bacterially derived GroEL minichaperone, and the chemical chaperone Me(2)SO reduced both aggregation and cell death in our OPMD model without affecting the levels of PABP2, and similar trends were seen with green fluorescent protein with long polyalanine stretches. Thus, polyalanine expansion mutations in different protein contexts cause proteins to misfold/aggregate and kill cells. The situation in OPMD appears to have many parallels with polyglutamine diseases, raising the possibility that misfolded, aggregate-prone proteins may perturb similar pathways, irrespective of the nature of the mutation or protein context.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;14;12263-9

  • Polyglutamine length-dependent interaction of Hsp40 and Hsp70 family chaperones with truncated N-terminal huntingtin: their role in suppression of aggregation and cellular toxicity.

    Jana NR, Tanaka M, Wang Gh and Nukina N

    Laboratory for CAG Repeat Diseases, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Hirosawa, Japan.

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in the disease protein, huntingtin. In HD patients and transgenic mice, the affected neurons form characteristic ubiquitin-positive nuclear inclusions (NIs). We have established ecdysone-inducible stable mouse Neuro2a cell lines that express truncated N-terminal huntingtin (tNhtt) with different polyglutamine lengths which form both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates in a polyglutamine length- and inducer dose-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate that newly synthesized polyglutamine-expanded truncated huntingtin interacts with members of Hsp40 and Hsp70 families of chaperones in a polyglutamine length-dependent manner. Of these interacting chaperones, only Hdj-2 and Hsc70 frequently (Hdj-2 > Hsc70) co-localize with both the aggregates in the cellular model and with the NIs in the brains of HD exon 1 transgenic mice. However, Hdj-2 and Hsc70 do not co-localize with cytoplasmic aggregates in the brains of transgenic mice despite these chaperones being primarily localized in the cytoplasmic compartment. This strongly suggests that the chaperone interaction and their redistribution to the aggregates are two completely different phenomena of the cellular unfolded protein response. This unfolded protein response is also evident from the dramatic induction of Hsp70 on expression of polyglutamine-expanded protein in the cellular model. Transient overexpression of either Hdj-1 or Hsc70 suppresses the aggregate formation; however, suppression efficiency is much higher in Hdj-1 compared with Hsc70. Overexpression of Hdj-1 and Hsc70 is also able to protect cell death caused by polyglutamine-expanded tNhtt and their combination proved to be most effective.

    Human molecular genetics 2000;9;13;2009-18

  • Human DnaJ homologs dj2 and dj3, and bag-1 are positive cochaperones of hsc70.

    Terada K and Mori M

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan. terada@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    DnaJ is an essential cochaperone of mammalian heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) protein. We previously found that dj2 (HSDJ/hdj-2/rdj1), rather than dj1 (hsp40/hdj-1), is a partner DnaJ for the hsc70-based chaperone system. Here, we compared the distribution of dj1, dj2, and the newly found dj3 (cpr3/DNJ3/HIRIP4/rdj2) in cultured cells. Both dj3 as well as dj2 were farnesylated and were ubiquitously expressed. In immunocytochemical and subfractionation studies, these two proteins colocalized with hsc70 under normal conditions. However, dj1 and hsc70 apparently colocalized in the nucleoli after heat shock. Simultaneous depletion of dj2 and dj3 from rabbit reticulocyte lysate markedly reduced mitochondrial import of pre-ornithine transcarbamylase and refolding of guanidine-denatured luciferase. Re-addition of either dj2 or dj3 led to recovery of these reactions. In a reconstituted system, both hsc70-dj2 and hsc70-dj3 were effective in protein refolding. Anti-apoptotic protein bag-1 further stimulated ATP hydrolysis and protein refolding by both pairs. Thus, dj2 and dj3 are the partner DnaJs of hsc70 within the cell, functionally similar and much more efficient than dj1, and bag-1 is a positive cochaperone of the hsc70-dj2 and hsc70-dj3 systems.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;32;24728-34

  • Mammalian HSP40/DNAJ homologs: cloning of novel cDNAs and a proposal for their classification and nomenclature.

    Ohtsuka K and Hata M

    Laboratory of Experimental Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan. kohtsuka@aichi-cc.pref.aichi.jp

    We have cloned 10 novel full-length cDNAs of mouse and human HSP40/DNAJ homologs using expressed sequence tag (EST) clones found in the DDBJ/GenBank/EMBL DNA database. In this report, we tentatively designated them mHsp40, mDj3, mDj4, mDj5, mDj6, mDj7, mDj8, hDj9, mDj10, and mDj11. Based on the identity of the deduced amino acid sequences, mHsp40, mDj3, and mDj11 are orthologs of human Hsp40, rat Rdj2, and human Tpr2, respectively. We determined that mDj4 is identical with the recently isolated mouse Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ). PSORT analysis (a program that predicts the subcellular localization site of a given protein from its amino acid sequences) revealed that hDj9 has an N-terminal signal peptide; hence, its localization might be extracellular, suggesting that there may be a partner Hsp70 protein that acts together with the hDj9 outside of the cell. The same analysis indicated that mDj7 and mDj10 may have transmembrane domains. In order to simplify the complicated and confusing nomenclature of recently identified mammalian HSP40/DNAJ homologs, we propose here some new rules for their nomenclature. This proposed nomenclature includes the name of species with 2 lowercase letters such as hs (Homo sapiens), mm (Mus musculus) and rn (Rattus norvegicus); Dj standing for DnaJ; the name of types with A, B, and C, which were previously classified as type I, II, and III according to the domain structure of the homologs; and finally Arabic numerals according to the chronological order of registration of the sequence data into the database.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2000;5;2;98-112

  • The Hdj-2/Hsc70 chaperone pair facilitates early steps in CFTR biogenesis.

    Meacham GC, Lu Z, King S, Sorscher E, Tousson A and Cyr DM

    Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35209, USA.

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel constructed from two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs), two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) and a regulatory (R) domain. The NBDs and R-domain are cytosolic and how they are assembled with the MSDs to achieve the native CFTR structure is not clear. Human DnaJ 2 (Hdj-2) is a co-chaperone of heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) which is localized to the cytosolic face of the ER. Whether Hdj-2 directs Hsc70 to facilitate the assembly of cytosolic regions on CFTR was investigated. We report that immature ER forms of CFTR and DeltaF508 CFTR can be isolated in complexes with Hdj-2 and Hsc70. The DeltaF508 mutation is localized in NBD1 and causes the CFTR to misfold. Levels of complex formation between DeltaF508 CFTR and Hdj-2/Hsp70 were approximately 2-fold higher than those with CFTR. The earliest stage at which Hdj-2/Hsc70 could bind CFTR translation intermediates coincided with the expression of NBD1 in the cytosol. Interestingly, complex formation between Hdj-2 and nascent CFTR was greatly reduced after expression of the R-domain. In experiments with purified components, Hdj-2 and Hsc70 acted synergistically to suppress NBD1 aggregation. Collectively, these data suggest that Hdj-2 and Hsc70 facilitate early steps in CFTR assembly. A putative step in the CFTR folding pathway catalyzed by Hdj-2/Hsc70 is the formation of an intramolecular NBD1-R-domain complex. Whether this step is defective in the biogenesis of DeltaF508 CFTR will be discussed.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM56981

    The EMBO journal 1999;18;6;1492-505

  • Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue of DnaJ in testicular cells.

    Pei L

    Division of Endocrinology, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a recently characterized proto-oncogene that is expressed specifically in adult testis. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization and developmental Northern blot assays to demonstrate that PTTG mRNA is expressed stage-specifically in spermatocytes and spermatids during rat spermatogenic cycle. We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with PTTG in testicular cells. Two positive clones were characterized. One of the clones is the ribosomal protein S10, the other encodes a novel human DnaJ homologue designated HSJ2. Northern blot analysis showed that testis contains higher levels of HSJ2 mRNA than other tissues examined, and the expression pattern of HSJ2 mRNA in postnatal rat testis is similar to PTTG. S10 mRNA levels do not vary remarkably among different tissues and remains unchanged during testicular germ cell differentiation. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that both S10 and HSJ2 bind to PTTG specifically and that PTTG can be co-immunoprecipitated with S10 and HSJ2 from transfected cells. Moreover, the binding sites for both proteins were located within the C-terminal 75 amino acids of the PTTG protein. These results suggest that PTTG may play a role in spermatogenesis.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-02346

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;5;3151-8

  • Characterization of HDJ-2, a human 40 kD heat shock protein.

    Davis AR, Alevy YG, Chellaiah A, Quinn MT and Mohanakumar T

    Department of Surgery and Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a large and complex family of proteins that play important roles in cellular function and survival. In previous studies, cDNA for a 45 kD human HSP (HDJ-2) was cloned and shown to be homologous to DNA-J, a bacterial HSP [F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith, K. Struhl, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997; A. Chellaiah, A. Davis, T. Mohanakumar, Cloning of a unique human homologue of the Escherichia coli DNAJ heat shock protein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1174 (1993) 111-113]. We have also shown that the expression of HDJ-2 is highly elevated in kidney allograft biopsies of kidneys undergoing rejection [Y.G. Alevy, D. Brennan, S. Durriya, T. Howard, T. Mohanakumar, Increased expression of the HDJ-2 heat shock protein in biopsies of human rejected kidneys, Transplantation 61 (1996) 963-967]. Because of the potential importance of HDJ-2 to disease pathogenesis, we carried out studies to characterize the structure and regulation of HDJ-2. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that recognize recombinant HDJ-2 were prepared and used to localize its cellular expression. HDJ-2 was found to be farnesylated but not glycosylated. This HSP was ubiquitously expressed in all of the cell types we analyzed and was localized throughout the cytoplasm and around the nuclear membrane. However, upon heat shock it migrated to the Golgi, nucleolus, and the nuclear membrane. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA transcripts whose synthesis was not affected by heat shock. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that expression of HDJ-2 was also not affected by heat shock. Thus, our study shows the characterization of a HSP which, because of its migration pattern upon heat shock, is an excellent candidate for a protein chaperon.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI33551; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR42426

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 1998;30;11;1203-21

  • HSDJ, a human homolog of DnaJ, is farnesylated and is involved in protein import into mitochondria.

    Kanazawa M, Terada K, Kato S and Mori M

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kuhonji.

    The role of HSDJ, a human homolog of bacterial DnaJ and yeast YDJ1p/MAS5, in mitochondrial protein import was examined. Recombinant HSDJ was purified and an antibody was prepared. HSDJ mRNA was heat-induced in cultured cells. In pulse-labeling and chase experiments using COS-7 cells, the endogenous HSDJ homolog was prenylated. Transiently expressed HSDJ was also prenylated, whereas its mutant C394S in which cysteine of the "CaaX box" was mutated to serine, was not. HSDJ, but not C394S, synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte lysate was farnesylated. The HSDJ antibody inhibited import of ornithine transcarbamylase precursor (pOTC) into isolated mitochondria when added prior to pOTC synthesis, but not when added prior to import assay. In transient expression of pOTC in COS-7 cells, pOTC was synthesized and processed to the mature form with an apparent half-life of 2-3 min. Coexpression of HSDJ or C394S resulted in slight retardation of the pOTC processing. These results indicate that HSDJ is involved in an early step(s) of protein import into mitochondria.

    Journal of biochemistry 1997;121;5;890-5

  • Cloning of a unique human homologue of the Escherichia coli DNAJ heat shock protein.

    Chellaiah A, Davis A and Mohanakumar T

    Department of Surgery and Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.

    A human homologue of the bacterial DNAJ heatshock protein, HDJ-2, was isolated from a human umbilical vein endothelial cDNA library using a monoclonal antibody which reacts specifically to human endothelial cells and monocytes. This cDNA clone consists of 1469 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1191 nucleotides. HDJ-2 shares significant homology with Escherichia coli heat shock protein DNAJ, as well as the yeast homologues Sec63, YDJ1, SCJ1 and SIS1. This homology suggests HDJ-2 may be involved in protein folding and/or transport.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI33551

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993;1174;1;111-3

  • Human cDNA encoding DnaJ protein homologue.

    Oh S, Iwahori A and Kato S

    Sagami Chemical Research Center, Kanagawa, Japan.

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a DnaJ-like protein from the human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a protein of 397 amino acid residues whose sequence shows 38.2% identity with the Escherichia coli DnaJ protein and 47.2% with the yeast DnaJ homologue along the entire length. Since the sequence contains the N-terminal domain region conserved in DnaJ family members and the four repeats of the Cys-X-X-Cys-X-Gly-X-Gly motif which are characteristic of DnaJ proteins, we conclude that this cDNA clone encodes the human homologue of DnaJ.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993;1174;1;114-6

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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