G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1
G00000269 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000014761 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000096384 (Ensembl human gene)
3326 (Entrez Gene)
615 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HSP90AB1 (GeneCards)
140572 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:5258 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P08238 (UniProt)

Literature (63)

Pubmed - other

  • Characterization of celastrol to inhibit hsp90 and cdc37 interaction.

    Zhang T, Li Y, Yu Y, Zou P, Jiang Y and Sun D

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is required for the stabilization and conformational maturation of various oncogenic proteins in cancer. The loading of protein kinases to Hsp90 is actively mediated by the cochaperone Cdc37. The crucial role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex has made it an exciting target for cancer treatment. In this study, we characterize Hsp90 and Cdc37 interaction and drug disruption using a reconstituted protein system. The GST pull-down assay and ELISA assay show that Cdc37 binds to ADP-bound/nucleotide-free Hsp90 but not ATP-bound Hsp90. Celastrol disrupts Hsp90-Cdc37 complex formation, whereas the classical Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g. geldanamycin) have no effect. Celastrol inhibits Hsp90 ATPase activity without blocking ATP binding. Proteolytic fingerprinting indicates celastrol binds to Hsp90 C-terminal domain to protect it from trypsin digestion. These data suggest that celastrol may represent a new class of Hsp90 inhibitor by modifying Hsp90 C terminus to allosterically regulate its chaperone activity and disrupt Hsp90-Cdc37 complex.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 120023, R01 CA120023

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;51;35381-9

  • Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity.

    Hosgood HD, Zhang L, Shen M, Berndt SI, Vermeulen R, Li G, Yin S, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Rothman N, Chanock S, Smith M and Lan Q

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7240, USA. hosgoodd@mail.nih.gov

    Introduction: Benzene is an established human haematotoxin, with substantial interindividual variation in benzene-induced toxicity.

    Methods: To further examine if genetic variation contributes to benzene haematotoxicity, we analysed 1023 tagSNPs in 121 gene regions important for benzene metabolism, haematopoiesis, leukaemia and lymphoma among 250 workers exposed to benzene and 140 unexposed controls in a cross-sectional study carried out in China. Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and total white blood cell (WBC) count and its subtypes, adjusting for potential confounders and occupational exposure to benzene and toluene among exposed workers. The minp test assessed the association on the gene region level. The false discovery rate method was used to control for multiple comparisons.

    Results: VEGF (minp = 0.0030) and ERCC3 (minp = 0.0042) were the most significantly associated gene regions with altered WBC counts among benzene-exposed workers, after accounting for multiple comparisons. Highly significant changes were also found for WBC subtype counts, including granulocytes, CD4+ T cells and lymphocytes for VEGF and granulocytes and NK cells for ERCC3. Further, in workers exposed to <1 ppm, a SNP in VEGF was associated with changes in WBC and granulocyte counts, and SNPs in ERCC3 were associated with changes in WBC, NK cell and granulocyte counts.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in VEGF, which plays an important role in blood vessel growth, and ERCC3, which is a member of the DNA repair pathway and is responsible for repairing bulky DNA adducts formed by chemicals, may contribute to individual susceptibility to benzene-induced haematotoxicity at relatively low levels of benzene exposure.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 CA999999; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES001896, P30ES01896, P42 ES004705, P42ES04705, R01 ES006721, R01ES06721

    Occupational and environmental medicine 2009;66;12;848-53

  • Heat shock protein-90 beta is expressed at the surface of multipotential mesenchymal precursor cells: generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, STRO-4, with specificity for mesenchymal precursor cells from human and ovine tissues.

    Gronthos S, McCarty R, Mrozik K, Fitter S, Paton S, Menicanin D, Itescu S, Bartold PM, Xian C and Zannettino AC

    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia.

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their precursor cells (MPCs) can proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal and some ectodermal and endodermal tissues. Culture-expanded MSCs are currently being evaluated as a possible cell therapy to replace/repair injured or diseased tissues. While a number of mAb reagents with specificity to human MSCs, including STRO-1, STRO-3 (BLK ALP), CD71 (SH2, SH3), CD106 (VCAM-1), CD166, and CD271, have facilitated the isolation of purified populations of human MSCs from primary tissues, few if any mAb reagents have been described that can be used to isolate equivalent cells from other species. This is of particular relevance when assessing the tissue regenerative efficacy of MSCs in large immunocompetent, preclinical animal models of disease. In light of this, we sought to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specific reactivity against a cell surface molecule that is expressed at high levels by MSCs from different species. Using CD106 (VCAM-1)-selected ovine MSCs as an immunogen, mAb-producing hybridomas were selected for their reactivity to both human and ovine MSCs. One such hybridoma, termed STRO-4, produced an IgG mAb that reacted with <5% of human and ovine bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells. As a single selection reagent, STRO-4 mAb was able to enrich colony-forming fibroblasts (CFU-F) in both human and ovine BM by 16- and 8-folds, respectively. Cells isolated with STRO-4 exhibited reactivity with markers commonly associated with MSCs isolated by plastic adherence including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Moreover, when placed in inductive culture conditions in vitro, STRO-4(+) MSCs exhibited multilineage differentiation potential and were capable of forming a mineralized matrix, lipid-filled adipocytes, and chondrocytes capable of forming a glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix. Biochemical analysis revealed that STRO-4 identified the beta isoform of heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90beta). In addition to identifying an antibody reagent that identifies a highly conserved epitope expressed by MSCs from different species, our study also points to a potential role for Hsp90beta in MSC biology.

    Stem cells and development 2009;18;9;1253-62

  • COMMD1 Promotes pVHL and O2-Independent Proteolysis of HIF-1alpha via HSP90/70.

    van de Sluis B, Groot AJ, Vermeulen J, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ, Wijmenga C, Klomp LW and Vooijs M

    Complex Genetics Section, DBG-Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Background: The Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain containing 1 protein COMMD1 has been associated with copper homeostasis, NF-kappaB signaling, and sodium transport. Recently, we identified COMMD1 as a novel protein in HIF-1 signaling. Mouse embryos deficient for Commd1 have increased expression of hypoxia/HIF-regulated genes i.e. VEGF, PGK and Bnip3. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of oxygen homeostasis, which control angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, glycolysis and cell survival/proliferation under normal and pathologic conditions. Although HIF activity is mainly controlled by ubiquitination and protein degradation by the von Hippel Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor gene other mechanisms have recently been identified that regulate HIF signaling independently of pVHL.

    Here we characterized the mechanism by which COMMD1 regulates HIF-1alpha protein degradation. We show that COMMD1 competes with the chaperone heat shock protein HSP90beta for binding to the NH(2)-terminal DNA-binding and heterodimerization domain of HIF-1alpha to regulate HIF-1alpha stability together with HSP70. Inhibition of HSP90 activity with 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) increased COMMD1-mediated HIF-1alpha degradation independent of ubiquitin and pVHL.

    These data reveal a novel role for COMMD1 in conjunction with HSP90beta/HSP70 in the ubiquitin and O(2)-independent regulation of HIF-1alpha.

    PloS one 2009;4;10;e7332

  • Expression of Hsp90 chaperone [corrected] proteins in human tumor tissue.

    McDowell CL, Bryan Sutton R and Obermann WM

    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

    The activity of many oncogenic proteins depends on the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Recent studies indicate that tumorigenesis is associated with increased expression of chaperones, such as Hsp90. However, little is known about the isoform dependence and cochaperone contribution on tumor formation. Here we report the first systematic expression profiling for Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta, the cochaperones Aha1, Cdc37, p23, Tpr2, and the Hsp90 dependent transcription factor HSF1 in a set of different tumor tissue samples. We find that in 10 out of 17 human tumors the expression level of at least one Hsp90 or Hsp90 cochaperone protein is significantly elevated. However, individual tumors show unique patterns of expression. Furthermore, Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta expression levels are not related. Our results suggest that expression profiling of Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta and its cochaperone proteins may be useful for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as for tailoring of drugs that interfere with the Hsp90 system in a tumor specific manner.

    International journal of biological macromolecules 2009;45;3;310-4

  • A block in the road to fertility: autoantibodies to heat-shock protein 90-beta in human ovarian autoimmunity.

    Pires ES and Khole VV

    Department of Gamete Immuno Biology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (Indian Council of Medical Research), Parel, Mumbai, India.

    Objective: To report autoantibodies to human heat-shock protein 90-beta (HSP90 beta) in sera of women with infertility.

    Design: Prospective, controlled observations.

    Setting: Major urban infertility referral center and research institution.

    Fifty women with premature ovarian failure, 65 infertile women enrolled in the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program, and 60 normally menstruating fertile women as controls.


    Identification and complete characterization of a 90-kd protein, the most immunodominant autoantigen.

    Our previous studies employing a novel blocking demonstrated several cellular and molecular ovarian antigenic targets using patient's serum. Of all these antigens, the 90-kd protein designated as EP90 was found to be conserved across species, was serine-threonine phosphorylated, and was expressed from the primordial stage to the graafian-stage ooplasm of the oocytes during follicular development. Using high-throughput proteomic technologies like liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF), and tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the identity of this protein to be HSP90 beta. Commercially available recombinant protein immunoreacted with the sera from patients with antiovarian antibodies against the 90-kd antigen. In parallel, using monoclonal antibody to human HSP90, we found that it reacts with the eluted protein from a crude ovarian extract.

    This is the first report to show the presence of ovarian autoantibodies to human HSP90 in sera of women with infertility. This protein could be involved in human ovarian autoimmunity and thereby be a causative factor in early ovarian failure.

    Fertility and sterility 2009;92;4;1395-409

  • Caspase-10-mediated heat shock protein 90 beta cleavage promotes UVB irradiation-induced cell apoptosis.

    Chen H, Xia Y, Fang D, Hawke D and Lu Z

    Department of Neuro-Oncology, Brain Tumor Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Heat shock protein 90 beta (Hsp90 beta) is involved in many cellular functions. However, the posttranslational modification of Hsp90 beta, especially in response to apoptotic stimulation, is not well understood. In this study, we found that Hsp90 beta was cleaved by activated caspase-10 under UVB irradiation. Caspase-10 activation, in turn, depended on caspase-8, which cleaved caspase-10 directly. Autocrine secretion of FAS ligand and upregulated FAS expression induced by UVB irradiation contributed to activation of caspase-10, which cleaved Hsp90 beta at D278, P293, and D294. The downregulation of Hsp90 beta mediated by caspase-8-dependent caspase-10 activation promoted UVB-induced cell apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5R01CA109035, R01 CA109035, R01 CA109035-05

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;13;3657-64

  • The glucocorticoid receptor heterocomplex gene STIP1 is associated with improved lung function in asthmatic subjects treated with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Hawkins GA, Lazarus R, Smith RS, Tantisira KG, Meyers DA, Peters SP, Weiss ST and Bleecker ER

    Section on Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Immunologic Diseases, Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. ghawkins@wfubmc.edu

    Background: Corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory action by binding and activating the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor heterocomplex.

    Objective: We sought to evaluate the genes HSPCB, HSPCA, STIP1, HSPA8, DNAJB1, PTGES3, FKBP5, and FKBP4 on corticosteroid response.

    Methods: White asthmatic subjects (n = 382) randomized to once-daily flunisolide or conventional inhaled corticosteroid therapy were genotyped. Outcome measures were baseline FEV1, percent predicted FEV1, and percent change in FEV1 after corticosteroid treatment. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, and height were performed, fitting the most appropriate genetic model based on the quantitative mean derived from ANOVA models to determine whether there was an independent effect of polymorphisms on change in FEV1 independent of baseline level.

    Results: Positive recessive model correlations for STIP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed for baseline FEV1 (rs4980524, P = .009; rs6591838, P = .0045; rs2236647, P = .002; and rs2236648; P = .013), baseline percent predicted FEV1 (rs4980524, P = .002; rs6591838, P = .017; rs2236647, P = .003; and rs2236648, P = .008), and percent change in FEV1 at 4 weeks (rs4980524, P = .044; rs6591838, P = .016; and rs2236647, P = .01) and 8 weeks (rs4980524, P = .044; rs6591838, P = .016; and rs2236647; P = .01) or therapy. Haplotypic associations were observed for baseline FEV1 and percent change in FEV1 at 4 weeks of therapy (P = .05 and P = .01, respectively). Significant trends toward association were observed for baseline percent predicted FEV1 and percent change in FEV1 at 8 weeks of therapy. Positive correlations between haplotypes and percent change in FEV1 were also observed.

    Conclusions: STIP1 genetic variations might play a role in regulating corticosteroid response in asthmatic subjects with reduced lung function. Replication in a second asthmatic population is required to confirm these observations.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL076285, HL077916, HL65899, HL69197, R01 HL069167, R01 HL076285, R21 HL077916, U01 HL065899

    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2009;123;6;1376-83.e7

  • Heat shock protein 90 overexpression independently predicts inferior disease-free survival with differential expression of the alpha and beta isoforms in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Li CF, Huang WW, Wu JM, Yu SC, Hu TH, Uen YH, Tian YF, Lin CN, Lu D, Fang FM and Huang HY

    Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan.

    Purpose: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors harbor a mutated KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone mediating the folding and stabilization of many oncoproteins, including KIT. An Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, can attenuate KIT activation and proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell lines. We further evaluated Hsp90 immunoexpression and the difference between alpha and beta isoforms in gastrointestinal stromal tumor specimens.

    Hsp90 immunostain was assessable in 306 cases on tissue microarrays of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors and correlated with various variables and disease-free survival (DFS). RTK mutation variants, confirmed in 142 cases by sequencing with or without precedent denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography screening, were dichotomized into two prognostically different groups. Differential expression of transcript and protein isoforms was measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in 16 and 6 cases, respectively.

    Results: Hsp90 overexpression (55%) significantly correlated with larger size, nongastric location, higher mitotic count and NIH risk level, Ki-67 overexpression (all P < or = 0.001), and unfavorable RTK genotypes (P = 0.020). It strongly portended inferior DFS univariately (P < 0.0001) and remained independent in multivariate analysis (P = 0.031; risk ratio, 2.44), along with high-risk category, Ki-67 overexpression, and old age. For both mRNA and protein, Hsp90beta was more abundant than Hsp90alpha, whereas the latter was significantly higher in high-risk cases.

    Conclusions: Hsp90 overexpression represents a poor prognosticator that correlates with several adverse parameters, highlighting its role in disease progression and alternative therapy for high-risk, imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Hsp90alpha seems more relevant to the intrinsic aggressiveness of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, albeit less abundant than Hsp90beta.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2008;14;23;7822-31

  • Inhibition of apoptosome formation by suppression of Hsp90beta phosphorylation in tyrosine kinase-induced leukemias.

    Kurokawa M, Zhao C, Reya T and Kornbluth S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3813, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Constitutively active tyrosine kinases promote leukemogenesis by increasing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. However, mechanisms underlying apoptotic inhibition have not been fully elucidated. In many settings, apoptosis occurs by mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which nucleates the Apaf-1/caspase-9 apoptosome. Here we report that the leukemogenic kinases, Bcr-Abl, FLT3/D835Y, and Tel-PDGFRbeta, all can inhibit apoptosome function. In cells expressing these kinases, the previously reported apoptosome inhibitor, Hsp90beta, bound strongly to Apaf-1, preventing cytochrome c-induced Apaf-1 oligomerization and caspase-9 recruitment. Hsp90beta interacted weakly with the apoptosome in untransformed cells. While Hsp90beta was phosphorylated at Ser 226/Ser 255 in untransformed cells, phosphorylation was absent in leukemic cells. Expression of mutant Hsp90beta (S226A/S255A), which mimics the hypophosphorylated form in leukemic cells, conferred resistance to cytochrome c-induced apoptosome activation in normal cells, reflecting enhanced binding of nonphosphorylatable Hsp90beta to Apaf-1. In Bcr-Abl-positive mouse bone marrow cells, nonphosphorylatable Hsp90beta expression conferred imatinib (Gleevec) resistance. These data provide an explanation for apoptosome inhibition by activated leukemogenic tyrosine kinases and suggest that alterations in Hsp90beta-apoptosome interactions may contribute to chemoresistance in leukemias.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK; NCI NIH HHS: 5R01 CA102707, R01 CA102707

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;17;5494-506

  • Chaperone ligand-discrimination by the TPR-domain protein Tah1.

    Millson SH, Vaughan CK, Zhai C, Ali MM, Panaretou B, Piper PW, Pearl LH and Prodromou C

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

    Tah1 [TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat)-containing protein associated with Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90] has been identified as a TPR-domain protein. TPR-domain proteins are involved in protein-protein interactions and a number have been characterized that interact either with Hsp70 or Hsp90, but a few can bind both chaperones. Independent studies suggest that Tah1 interacts with Hsp90, but whether it can also interact with Hsp70/Ssa1 has not been investigated. Amino-acid-sequence alignments suggest that Tah1 is most similar to the TPR2b domain of Hop (Hsp-organizing protein) which when mutated reduces binding to both Hsp90 and Hsp70. Our alignments suggest that there are three TPR-domain motifs in Tah1, which is consistent with the architecture of the TPR2b domain. In the present study we find that Tah1 is specific for Hsp90, and is able to bind tightly the yeast Hsp90, and the human Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta proteins, but not the yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 isoform. Tah1 acheives ligand discrimination by favourably binding the methionine residue in the conserved MEEVD motif (Hsp90) and positively discriminating against the first valine residue in the VEEVD motif (Ssa1). In the present study we also show that Tah1 can affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90, in common with some other TPR-domain proteins.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 2008;413;2;261-8

  • Conserved conformational changes in the ATPase cycle of human Hsp90.

    Richter K, Soroka J, Skalniak L, Leskovar A, Hessling M, Reinstein J and Buchner J

    Center for Integrated Protein Science and Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.

    The dimeric molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the activation and stabilization of hundreds of substrate proteins, many of which participate in signal transduction pathways. The activation process depends on the hydrolysis of ATP by Hsp90. Hsp90 consists of a C-terminal dimerization domain, a middle domain, which may interact with substrate protein, and an N-terminal ATP-binding domain. A complex cycle of conformational changes has been proposed for the ATPase cycle of yeast Hsp90, where a critical step during the reaction requires the transient N-terminal dimerization of the two protomers. The ATPase cycle of human Hsp90 is less well understood, and significant differences have been proposed regarding key mechanistic aspects. ATP hydrolysis by human Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta is 10-fold slower than that of yeast Hsp90. Despite these differences, our experiments suggest that the underlying enzymatic mechanisms are highly similar. In both cases, a concerted conformational rearrangement involving the N-terminal domains of both subunits is controlling the rate of ATP turnover, and N-terminal cross-talk determines the rate-limiting steps. Furthermore, similar to yeast Hsp90, the slow ATP hydrolysis by human Hsp90s can be stimulated up to over 100-fold by the addition of the co-chaperone Aha1 from either human or yeast origin. Together, our results show that the basic principles of the Hsp90 ATPase reaction are conserved between yeast and humans, including the dimerization of the N-terminal domains and its regulation by the repositioning of the ATP lid from its original position to a catalytically competent one.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;26;17757-65

  • Interaction of heat-shock protein 90 beta isoform (HSP90 beta) with cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1) is required for cell differentiation.

    Didelot C, Lanneau D, Brunet M, Bouchot A, Cartier J, Jacquel A, Ducoroy P, Cathelin S, Decologne N, Chiosis G, Dubrez-Daloz L, Solary E and Garrido C

    INSERM, UMR 866, Dijon, France.

    Members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family have demonstrated functions in cell death, cell signalling, cell migration and mitosis. Several of them are E3 enzymes in the ubiquitination of proteins that leads to their degradation by the proteosomal machinery. We previously reported that one of them, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (c-IAP1), migrated from the nucleus to the surface of the Golgi apparatus in cells undergoing differentiation. Here, we show that c-IAP1 is a client protein of the stress protein HSP90 beta. In three distinct cellular models, the two proteins interact and migrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm along the differentiation process through a leptomycin B-sensitive pathway. Inhibition of HSP90 proteins by small chemical molecules and specific depletion of HSP90 beta isoform by siRNA both lead to auto-ubiquitination of c-IAP1 and its degradation by the proteasome machinery. This chaperone function of HSP90 towards c-IAP1 is specific of its beta isoform as specific depletion of HSP90alpha does not affect c-IAP1 content. Chemical inhibition of HSP90 or siRNA-mediated depletion of HSP90 beta both inhibit cell differentiation, which can be reproduced by siRNA-mediated depletion of c-IAP1. Altogether, these results suggest that HSP90 beta prevents auto-ubiquitination and degradation of its client protein c-IAP1, whose depletion would be sufficient to inhibit cell differentiation.

    Cell death and differentiation 2008;15;5;859-66

  • GCUNC45 is the first Hsp90 co-chaperone to show alpha/beta isoform specificity.

    Chadli A, Felts SJ and Toft DO

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. chadli.ahmed@mayo.edu

    Hsp90 is an essential molecular chaperone required for the normal functioning of many key regulatory proteins in eukaryotic cells. Vertebrates have two closely related isoforms of cytosolic Hsp90 (Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta). However, specific functions for each isoform are largely unknown, and no Hsp90 co-chaperone has been reported to distinguish between the two isoforms. In this study, we show that the Hsp90 co-chaperone GCUNC45 bound preferentially to the beta isoform of Hsp90 in vitro. GCUNC45 efficiently blocked the progression of progesterone receptor chaperoning in an in vitro functional system when Hsp90beta was used, but did so with much less efficacy when Hsp90alpha was used. Knockdown experiments in HeLa cells showed that GCUNC45 is required for the normal cellular distribution of Hsp90beta, but not Hsp90alpha. This is the first example of a co-chaperone with isoform selectivity, and this approach may open novel avenues to understanding the functional differences between Hsp90 isoforms.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 4624

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;15;9509-12

  • Substitution of only two residues of human Hsp90alpha causes impeded dimerization of Hsp90beta.

    Kobayakawa T, Yamada S, Mizuno A and Nemoto TK

    Department of Oral Molecular Biology, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan.

    Two isoforms of the 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), i.e., Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta, are expressed in the cytosol of mammalian cells. Although Hsp90 predominantly exists as a dimer, the dimer-forming potential of the beta isoform of human and mouse Hsp90 is less than that of the alpha isoform. The 16 amino acid substitutions located in the 561-685 amino acid region of the C-terminal dimerization domain should be responsible for this impeded dimerization of Hsp90beta (Nemoto T, Ohara-Nemoto Y, Ota M, Takagi T, Yokoyama K. Eur J Biochem 233: 1-8, 1995). The present study was performed to define the amino acid substitutions that cause the impeded dimerization of Hsp90beta. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis revealed that among the 16 amino acids, the conversion from Ala(558) of Hsp90beta to Thr(566) of Hsp90alpha and that from Met(621) of Hsp90beta to Ala(629) of Hsp90alpha most efficiently reversed the dimeric interaction, and that the inverse changes from those of Hsp90alpha to Hsp90beta primarily explained the impeded dimerization of Hsp90beta We conclude that taken together, the conversion of Thr(566) and Ala(629) of Hsp90alpha to Ala(558) and Met(621) is primarily responsible for impeded dimerization of Hsp90beta.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2008;13;1;97-104

  • Conformational dynamics of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 in complexes with a co-chaperone and anticancer drugs.

    Phillips JJ, Yao ZP, Zhang W, McLaughlin S, Laue ED, Robinson CV and Jackson SE

    Cambridge University Chemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK; Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Old Addenbrookes Site, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1GA, UK.

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is essential for the correct folding, maturation and activation of a diverse array of client proteins, including several key constituents of oncogenic processes. Hsp90 has become a focus of cancer research, since it represents a target for direct prophylaxis against multistep malignancy. Hydrogen-exchange mass spectrometry was used to study the structural and conformational changes undergone by full-length human Hsp90beta in solution upon binding of the kinase-specific co-chaperone Cdc37 and two Hsp90 ATPase inhibitors: Radicicol and the first-generation anticancer drug DMAG. Changes in hydrogen exchange pattern in the complexes in regions of Hsp90 remote to the ligand-binding site were observed indicating long-range effects. In particular, the interface between the N-terminal domain and middle domains exhibited significant differences between the apo and complexed forms. For the inhibitors, differences in the interface between the middle domain and the C-terminal domain were also observed. These data provide important insight into the structure of the biologically active form of the protein.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;372;5;1189-203

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.

    Kim SC, Sprung R, Chen Y, Xu Y, Ball H, Pei J, Cheng T, Kho Y, Xiao H, Xiao L, Grishin NV, White M, Yang XJ and Zhao Y

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107943

    Molecular cell 2006;23;4;607-18

  • The chaperone function of cyclophilin 40 maps to a cleft between the prolyl isomerase and tetratricopeptide repeat domains.

    Mok D, Allan RK, Carrello A, Wangoo K, Walkinshaw MD and Ratajczak T

    Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and UWA Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.

    Cyclophilin 40 (CyP40), an immunophilin cochaperone present in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes, contains an N-terminal peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain separated from a C-terminal Hsp90-binding tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain by a 30-residue linker. To map CyP40 chaperone function, CyP40 deletion mutants were prepared and analysed for chaperone activity. CyP40 fragments containing the PPIase domain plus linker or the linker region and the adjoining TPR domain retained chaperone activity, whilst individually, the catalytic and TPR domains were devoid of chaperoning ability. CyP40 chaperone function then, is localized within the linker that forms a binding cleft with potential to accommodate non-native substrates.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;11;2761-8

  • Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle.

    Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA and Körner R

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates the sister chromatids into two nascent cells, such that each daughter cell inherits one complete set of chromosomes. Errors in spindle formation can result in both chromosome missegregation and cytokinesis defects and hence lead to genomic instability. To ensure the correct function of the spindle, the activity and localization of spindle associated proteins has to be tightly regulated in time and space. Reversible phosphorylation has been shown to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms for the organization of the mitotic spindle. The relatively low number of identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of spindle components, however, has hampered functional analysis of regulatory spindle networks. A more complete inventory of the phosphorylation sites of spindle-associated proteins would therefore constitute an important advance. Here, we describe the mass spectrometry-based identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites from purified human mitotic spindles. In total, 736 phosphorylation sites were identified, of which 312 could be attributed to known spindle proteins. Among these are phosphorylation sites that were previously shown to be important for the regulation of spindle-associated proteins. Importantly, this data set also comprises 279 novel phosphorylation sites of known spindle proteins for future functional studies. This inventory of spindle phosphorylation sites should thus make an important contribution to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation, function, and integrity of the mitotic spindle.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;14;5391-6

  • Identification of novel ARF binding proteins by two-hybrid screening.

    Tompkins V, Hagen J, Zediak VP and Quelle DE

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA.

    The ARF tumor suppressor protects us against cancer through protein-protein interactions in partially defined p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. We performed a two-hybrid screen using ARF as bait and present the identification of several new ARF partners that may regulate its growth inhibitory signaling. The potential physiological roles of these novel ARF binding proteins in regulating ARF signaling are discussed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA090367

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2006;5;6;641-6

  • Chaperoning checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), an Hsp90 client, with purified chaperones.

    Arlander SJ, Felts SJ, Wagner JM, Stensgard B, Toft DO and Karnitz LM

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Graduate School.

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a serine/threonine kinase that regulates DNA damage checkpoints, is destabilized when heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is inhibited, suggesting that Chk1 is an Hsp90 client. In the present work we examined the interplay between Chk1 and Hsp90 in intact cells, identified a source of unchaperoned Chk1, and report the in vitro chaperoning of Chk1 in reticulocyte lysates and with purified chaperones and co-chaperones. We find that bacterially expressed Chk1 is post-translationally chaperoned to an active kinase. This reaction minimally requires Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40, Cdc37, and the protein kinase CK2. The co-chaperone Hop, although not essential for the activation of Chk1 in vitro, enhanced the chaperoning process, whereas the co-chaperone p23 did not stimulate the chaperoning reaction. Additionally, we found that the C-terminal regulatory domain of Chk1 affects the association of Chk1 with Hsp90. Collectively these results provide new insights into Hsp90-dependent chaperoning of a client kinase and identify a novel, biochemically tractable model system that will be useful to further dissect the Hsp90-dependent chaperoning of this important and ubiquitous class of Hsp90 clients.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA104378; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46249

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;5;2989-98

  • Interaction of Hsp90 with ribosomal proteins protects from ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation.

    Kim TS, Jang CY, Kim HD, Lee JY, Ahn BY and Kim J

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that plays a key role in the conformational maturation of various transcription factors and protein kinases in signal transduction. Multifunctional ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3), a component of the ribosomal small subunit, is involved in DNA repair and apoptosis. Our data show that Hsp90 binds directly to rpS3 and the functional consequence of Hsp90-rpS3 interaction results in the prevention of the ubiquitination and the proteasome-dependent degradation of rpS3, subsequently retaining the function and the biogenesis of the ribosome. Interference of Hsp90 activity by Hsp90 inhibitors appears to dissociate rpS3 from Hsp90, associate the protein with Hsp70, and induce the degradation of free forms of rpS3. Furthermore, ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) also interacted with Hsp90 and exhibited a similar effect upon treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors. Therefore, we conclude that Hsp90 regulates the function of ribosomes by maintaining the stability of 40S ribosomal proteins such as rpS3 and rpS6.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;2;824-33

  • The heat shock protein 90-CDC37 chaperone complex is required for signaling by types I and II interferons.

    Shang L and Tomasi TB

    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

    Interferon signaling pathways are critical to both innate and adaptive immunity. We have demonstrated here that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) functions by small interfering RNAs or chemical inhibitors blocking interferon-induced gene expression. Hsp90 was required for signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 phosphorylation, and in its absence, Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 were degraded by the proteosome. JAK1 interacts with Hsp90 and the CDC37 co-chaperone, and both interactions are destabilized by Hsp90 inhibitors. The biological consequences were suggested by experiments showing that T cell activation by interferon-gamma-primed macrophages and the antiviral response of interferons required Hsp90. We conclude that JAK1/2 are client proteins of Hsp90 and that Hsp90 and CDC37 play a critical role in types I and II interferon pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 16056; NICHD NIH HHS: HD 17013, R01 HD017013

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;4;1876-84

  • The HSP90 family of genes in the human genome: insights into their divergence and evolution.

    Chen B, Piel WH, Gui L, Bruford E and Monteiro A

    Department of Biological Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, NY 14260, USA. bchen2@buffalo.edu

    HSP90 proteins are important molecular chaperones. Transcriptome and genome analyses revealed that the human HSP90 family includes 17 genes that fall into four classes. A standardized nomenclature for each of these genes is presented here. Classes HSP90AA, HSP90AB, HSP90B, and TRAP contain 7, 6, 3, and 1 genes, respectively. HSP90AA genes mapped onto chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 11; HSP90AB genes mapped onto 3, 4, 6, 13 and 15; HSP90B genes mapped onto 1, 12, and 15; and the TRAP1 gene mapped onto 16. Six genes, HSP90AA1, HSP90AA2, HSP90N, HSP90AB1, HSP90B1 and TRAP1, were recognized as functional, and the remaining 11 genes were considered putative pseudogenes. Amino acid polymorphic variants were detected for genes HSP90AA1, HSP90AA2, HSP90AB1, HSP90B1, and TRAP1. The structures of these genes and the functional motifs and polymorphic variants of their proteins were documented and the features and functions of their proteins were discussed. Phylogenetic analyses based on both nucleotide and protein data demonstrated that HSP90(AA+AB+B) formed a monophyletic clade, whereas TRAP is a relatively distant paralogue of this clade.

    Genomics 2005;86;6;627-37

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • Identification and characterization of SSTK, a serine/threonine protein kinase essential for male fertility.

    Spiridonov NA, Wong L, Zerfas PM, Starost MF, Pack SD, Paweletz CP and Johnson GR

    Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, HFD-122, Bldg. 29A, Rm. 3B-20, 8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. spiridonov@cber.fda.gov

    Here we describe and characterize a small serine/threonine kinase (SSTK) which consists solely of the N- and C-lobes of a protein kinase catalytic domain. SSTK protein is highly conserved among mammals, and no close homologues were found in the genomes of nonmammalian organisms. SSTK specifically interacts with HSP90-1beta, HSC70, and HSP70 proteins, and this association appears to be required for SSTK kinase activity. The SSTK transcript was most abundant in human and mouse testes but was also detected in all human tissues tested. In the mouse testis, SSTK protein was localized to the heads of elongating spermatids. Targeted deletion of the SSTK gene in mice resulted in male sterility due to profound impairment in motility and morphology of spermatozoa. A defect in DNA condensation in SSTK null mutants occurred in elongating spermatids at a step in spermiogenesis coincident with chromatin displacement of histones by transition proteins. SSTK phosphorylated histones H1, H2A, H2AX, and H3 but not H2B or H4 or transition protein 1 in vitro. These results demonstrate that SSTK is required for proper postmeiotic chromatin remodeling and male fertility. Abnormal sperm chromatin condensation is common in sterile men, and our results may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying certain human infertility disorders.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;10;4250-61

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Interaction of HSP90 to N-WASP leads to activation and protection from proteasome-dependent degradation.

    Park SJ, Suetsugu S and Takenawa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) regulates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through activation of the Arp2/3 complex. Here, we show that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) regulates N-WASP-induced actin polymerization in cooperation with phosphorylation of N-WASP. HSP90 binds directly to N-WASP, but binding alone does not affect the rate of N-WASP/Arp2/3 complex-induced in vitro actin polymerization. An Src family tyrosine kinase, v-Src, phosphorylates and activates N-WASP. HSP90 increases the phosphorylation of N-WASP by v-Src, leading to enhanced N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization. In addition, HSP90 protects phosphorylated and activated N-WASP from proteasome-dependent degradation, resulting in amplification of N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization. Association between HSP90 and N-WASP is increased in proportion to activation of N-WASP by phosphorylation. HSP90 is colocalized and associated with active N-WASP at podosomes in 3Y1/v-Src cells and at growing neurites in PC12 cells, whose actin structures are clearly inhibited by blocking the binding of HSP90 to N-WASP. These findings suggest that HSP90 induces efficient activation of N-WASP downstream of phosphorylation signal by Src family kinases and is critical for N-WASP-dependent podosome formation and neurite extension.

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;8;1557-70

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of synaptosomes from human cerebral cortex.

    DeGiorgis JA, Jaffe H, Moreira JE, Carlotti CG, Leite JP, Pant HC and Dosemeci A

    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Protein phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational modification mechanism in the regulation of synaptic organization and function. Here, we analyzed synaptosome fractions from human cerebral cortex obtained during therapeutic surgery. To minimize changes in the phosphorylation state of proteins, the tissue was homogenized within two minutes of excision. Synaptosomal proteins were digested with trypsin and phosphopeptides were isolated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method allowed the detection of residues on synaptic proteins that were presumably phosphorylated in the intact cell, including synapsin 1, syntaxin 1, and SNIP, PSD-93, NCAM, GABA-B receptor, chaperone molecules, and protein kinases. Some of the residues identified are the same or homologous to sites that had been previously described to be phosphorylated in mammals whereas others appear to be novel sites which, to our knowledge, have not been reported previously. The study shows that new phosphoproteomic strategies can be used to analyze subcellular fractions from small amounts of tissue for the identification of phosphorylated residues for research and potentially for diagnostic purposes.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;2;306-15

  • Mammalian CHORD-containing protein 1 is a novel heat shock protein 90-interacting protein.

    Wu J, Luo S, Jiang H and Li H

    Children's Memorial Research Center, The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 2430 N. Halsted St., Chicago, IL 60614, USA.

    With two tandem repeated cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (designated as CHORD), CHORD-containing proteins (CHPs) are a novel family of highly conserved proteins that play important roles in plant disease resistance and animal development. Through interacting with suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1 (SGT1) and Hsp90, plant CHORD-containing protein RAR1 (required for Mla resistance 1) plays a critical role in disease resistance mediated by multiple R genes. Yet, the physiological function of vertebrate CHORD-containing protein-1 (Chp-1) has been poorly investigated. In this study, we provide the first biochemical evidence demonstrating that mammalian Chp-1 is a novel Hsp90-interacting protein. Mammalian Chp-1 contains two CHORD domains (I and II) and one CS domain (a domain shared by CHORD-containing proteins and SGT1). With sequence and structural similarity to Hsp90 co-chaperones p23 and SGT1, Chp-1 binds to the ATPase domain of Hsp90, but the biochemical property of the interaction is unique. The Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction is independent of ATP and ATPase-coupled conformational change of Hsp90, a feature that distinguishes Chp-1 from p23. Furthermore, it appears that multiple domains of Chp-1 are required for stable Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction. Unlike SGT1 whose CS domain is sufficient for Hsp90 binding, the CS domain of Chp-1 is essential but not sufficient for Hsp90 binding. While the CHORD-I domain of Chp-1 is dispensable for Hsp90 binding, the CHORD-II domain and the linker region are essential. Interestingly, the CHORD-I domain of plant RAR1 protein is solely responsible for Hsp90 binding. The unique Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction may be indicative of a distinct biological activity of Chp-1 and functional diversification of CHORD-containing proteins during evolution.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;2;421-6

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Phosphorylation analysis of 90 kDa heat shock protein within the cytosolic arylhydrocarbon receptor complex.

    Ogiso H, Kagi N, Matsumoto E, Nishimoto M, Arai R, Shirouzu M, Mimura J, Fujii-Kuriyama Y and Yokoyama S

    Protein Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.

    The arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and also mediates most of the toxic effects caused by dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The cytosolic AhR complex exists as a transcriptionally cryptic complex, consisting of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) and the hepatitis B virus X-associated protein 2 (XAP2). The posttranslational modifications, especially phosphorylation, of the cytosolic AhR-HSP90-XAP2 complex are poorly understood, although the phosphorylation of a transcriptionally active heterodimer of AhR and an AhR nuclear translocator is critically involved in AhR function. To reveal the phosphorylation status involved in AhR function, we used mass spectrometry to determine the site-specific phosphorylation of the steady-state cytosolic AhR complex, prepared from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing mouse AhR. We identified phosphorylations of the HSP90 subunits within the AhR complex at Ser225 and Ser254 of HSP90beta and Ser230 of HSP90alpha. By site-directed mutagenesis, these serine residues were substituted with alanine and glutamic acid to elucidate the role of the HSP90beta serine phosphorylations in the AhR function. Immunoprecipitation assays using COS7 transfectants showed that the replacement of Ser225 and Ser254 by Ala, S225/254A, increased the binding affinity for AhR, as compared with the Glu replacement. In a ligand-induced AhR transcription activity assay using Hepa1 transfectants, the S255/254A mutant exhibited more potent transcription activity than the S225/254E mutant, which had activity similar to that of wild-type HSP90beta. These results suggest that the phosphorylations in the charged linker region of the HSP90 molecule modulate the formation of the functional cytosolic AhR complex.

    Biochemistry 2004;43;49;15510-9

  • Repression of hsp90beta gene by p53 in UV irradiation-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells.

    Zhang Y, Wang JS, Chen LL, Zhang Y, Cheng XK, Heng FY, Wu NH and Shen YF

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

    Tumor suppressor p53 has been implicated in cell stress response and determines cell fate of either growth arrest or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) expressed under stress usually confer survival protection to the cell or interruption in the apoptotic pathways. Although Hsp90 can physically interact with p53, whether or not the hsp90 gene is influenced downstream of p53 in UV irradiation-induced apoptosis remains unclear. We have found that the level of p53 is elevated with the decline of Hsp90 in UV-irradiated cells and that malfunction of Hsp90, as inhibited by geldanamycin, enhances the p53-involved UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. In addition, the expression of the hsp90beta gene was reduced in both UV-irradiated and wild type p53-transfected cells. These results suggest a negative correlation between the trans factor p53 and a chaperone gene hsp90beta in apoptotic cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated that the p53 binding site in the first exon was indispensable for p53 regulation on the hsp90beta gene. In addition, with p53 bound at the promoter of the hsp90beta gene, mSin3a and p300 were differentially recruited in UV irradiation-treated or untreated Jurkat cells in vivo. The evidence of p53-repressed hsp90beta gene expression in UV-irradiated cells shed light on a novel pathway of Hsp90 in the survival control of the stressed cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;41;42545-51

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Chromosome 13q12 encoded Rho GTPase activating protein suppresses growth of breast carcinoma cells, and yeast two-hybrid screen shows its interaction with several proteins.

    Nagaraja GM and Kandpal RP

    Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458, USA.

    We have characterized the cDNA for a Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP) mapping to chromosome 13q12. The cDNA was characterized by determining the complete sequence of a 4.8 kb cDNA clone that represents the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the translated region, and the 3' UTR. The protein has a sterile alpha-motif (SAM), a distinct GAP domain, and a conserved START (StAR related lipid transfer) domain. The cDNA has 5 instability motifs (ATTTA) in the 3' UTR and one motif in the translated region between GAP and START domains. The RhoGAP transcript is truncated in some breast carcinoma cell lines and it has low expression in other breast cancer cell lines as compared to a normal breast cell line. We have previously observed the absence of RhoGAP transcript in a breast tumor specimen. A GST-fusion of the RhoGAP was tested for its specificity on RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1. The protein was most active for RhoA. Transfection of RhoGAP into MCF7 cells significantly inhibited cell growth. The introduction of the RhoGAP construct into MDAMB231 cells that had previously been transfected with a p21 construct did not affect cell proliferation, indicating the involvement of p21 in Rho-mediated proliferation of cancer cells. NIH3T3 cells overexpressing RhoGAP showed considerable inhibition of stress fiber formation. Several cDNAs were identified as RhoGAP interactors by using the yeast two-hybrid assay system. These cDNAs correspond to SWI/SNF, alpha-tubulin, HMG CoA reductase, and TAX1 binding protein (TAX1BP1). The interaction with HMG CoA reductase may partially explain the growth inhibition of breast carcinoma cells by statin class of cholesterol lowering drugs. The biological significance of the interacting proteins is discussed in the context of their involvement in tumorigenesis. Our results indicate that loss of RhoGAP or its altered activity suppresses the growth of breast tumor cells. The presence of various motifs in RhoGAP and its interaction with several other proteins suggest that the protein may regulate Rho signaling in multiple ways and possibly function in a Rho-independent manner.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;313;3;654-65

  • Interaction of the Hsp90 cochaperone cyclophilin 40 with Hsc70.

    Carrello A, Allan RK, Morgan SL, Owen BA, Mok D, Ward BK, Minchin RF, Toft DO and Ratajczak T

    Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    The high-affinity ligand-binding form of unactivated steroid receptors exists as a multicomponent complex that includes heat shock protein (Hsp)90; one of the immunophilins cyclophilin 40 (CyP40), FKBP51, or FKBP52; and an additional p23 protein component. Assembly of this heterocomplex is mediated by Hsp70 in association with accessory chaperones Hsp40, Hip, and Hop. A conserved structural element incorporating a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain mediates the interaction of the immunophilins with Hsp90 by accommodating the C-terminal EEVD peptide of the chaperone through a network of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. TPR cochaperones recognize the EEVD structural motif common to both Hsp90 and Hsp70 through a highly conserved clamp domain. In the present study, we investigated in vitro the molecular interactions between CyP40 and FKBP52 and other stress-related components involved in steroid receptor assembly, namely Hsp70 and Hop. Using a binding protein-retention assay with CyP40 fused to glutathione S-transferase immobilized on glutathione-agarose, we have identified the constitutively expressed form of Hsp70, heat shock cognate (Hsc)70, as an additional target for CyP40. Deletion mapping studies showed the binding determinants to be similar to those for CyP40-Hsp90 interaction. Furthermore, a mutational analysis of CyP40 clamp domain residues confirmed the importance of this motif in CyP40-Hsc70 interaction. Additional residues thought to mediate binding specificity through hydrophobic interactions were also important for Hsc70 recognition. CyP40 was shown to have a preference for Hsp90 over Hsc70. Surprisingly, FKBP52 was unable to compete with CyP40 for Hsc70 binding, suggesting that FKBP52 discriminates between the TPR cochaperone-binding sites in Hsp90 and Hsp70. Hop, which contains multiple units of the TPR motif, was shown to be a direct competitor with CyP40 for Hsc70 binding. Similar to Hop, CyP40 was shown not to influence the adenosine triphosphatase activity of Hsc70. Our results suggest that CyP40 may have a modulating role in Hsc70 as well as Hsp90 cellular function.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2004;9;2;167-81

  • PKC epsilon is a unique regulator for hsp90 beta gene in heat shock response.

    Wu JM, Xiao L, Cheng XK, Cui LX, Wu NH and Shen YF

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

    An early event in cellular heat shock response is the transmittance of stress signals from the cell surface into the nuclei, resulting in the induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps). Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a key player in transducing stress signals. However, mechanism(s) by which PKC regulates heat shock-induced events remains largely unknown. Here we present data that pan-PKC inhibitor GF109203X, but not classic PKC inhibitor Gö6976, specifically repressed heat shock-induced accumulation of mRNA as well as promoter activity of hsp90 beta, but not hsp90 alpha, in Jurkat cells. Subcellular fractionation studies revealed that heat shock exclusively induced PKC-epsilon membrane translocation. Consistently, expression of a constitutively active PKC-epsilon(A159E) resulted in an enhanced promoter activity of hsp90 beta upon heat shock, whereas a dominant-negative PKC-epsilon(K437R) abolished this effect. In contrast, constitutively active-PKC-alpha or dominant-negative-PKC-alpha had no effects on heat shock induction of the gene. The effect of PKC-epsilon on hsp90 beta expression seems to be stimuli-specific, as phorbol myristate acetate-mediated hsp90 beta expression was PKC-epsilon-independent. We conclude that PKC-epsilon is specifically required in the signaling pathway leading to the induction of hsp90 beta gene in response to heat shock.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA88815

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;51;51143-9

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.

    Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J and Beck S

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ajm@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.

    Nature 2003;425;6960;805-11

  • Involvement of heat-shock protein 90 in the interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway through STAT3.

    Sato N, Yamamoto T, Sekine Y, Yumioka T, Junicho A, Fuse H and Matsuda T

    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine playing roles in the immune system, hematopoiesis, and acute phase reactions. IL-6 also regulates the growth of various types of human malignant tumors. Here we demonstrate that IL-6-induced gene expression was suppressed by a specific heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) in human hepatoma Hep3B cells. GA also suppressed the IL-6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in a human embryonic kidney carcinoma 293T cells. This inhibitory effect of GA on STAT3 activation was reversed by overexpression of Hsp90. Furthermore, Hsp90 directly bound to STAT3 via its N-terminal region, which interacted with GA. We provide evidence that the action of GA on IL-6 functions was due to the inhibition of direct physical interactions between STAT3 and Hsp90, which represents a novel role of Hsp90 in the IL-6 signaling pathways.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;300;4;847-52

  • Co-chaperones Bag-1, Hop and Hsp40 regulate Hsc70 and Hsp90 interactions with wild-type or mutant p53.

    King FW, Wawrzynow A, Höhfeld J and Zylicz M

    Department of Molecular Biology, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, UNESCO, Warsaw, Poland.

    Using highly purified proteins, we have identified intermediate reactions that lead to the assembly of molecular chaperone complexes with wild-type or mutant p53R175H protein. Hsp90 possesses higher affinity for wild-type p53 than for the conformational mutant p53R175H. The presence of Hsp90 in a complex with wild-type p53 inhibits the binding of Hsp40 and Hsc70 to p53, consequently preventing the formation of wild-type p53-multiple chaperone complexes. The conformational mutant p53R175H can form a stable heterocomplex with Hsp90 only in the presence of Hsc70, Hsp40, Hop and ATP. The anti-apoptotic factor Bag-1 can dissociate Hsp90 from a pre- assembled complex wild-type p53 protein, but it cannot dissociate a pre-assembled p53R175H-Hsp40- Hsc70-Hop-Hsp90 heterocomplex. The results presented here provide possible molecular mechanisms that can help to explain the observed in vivo role of molecular chaperones in the stabilization and cellular localization of wild-type and mutant p53 protein.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;22;6297-305

  • The N-terminal adenosine triphosphate binding domain of Hsp90 is necessary and sufficient for interaction with estrogen receptor.

    Bouhouche-Chatelier L, Chadli A and Catelli MG

    Institut Cochin de Génétique Moléculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unité Propre de Recherche, Department of Endocrinology, Paris, France.

    To understand how the molecular chaperone Hsp90 participates in conformational maturation of the estrogen receptor (ER), we analyzed the interaction of immobilized purified avian Hsp90 with mammalian cytosolic ER. Hsp90 was either immunoadsorbed to BF4 antibody-Sepharose or GST-Hsp90 fusion protein (GST.90) was adsorbed to glutathione-Sepharose. GST.90 was able to retain specifically ER, similarly to immunoadsorbed Hsp90. When cells were treated with estradiol and the hormone treatment was maintained during cell homogenization, binding, and washing steps, GST.90 still interacted efficiently with ER, suggesting that ER may form complexes with Hsp90 even after its activation by hormone and salt extraction from nuclei. The GST.90-ER interaction was consistently reduced in the presence of increasing concentrations of potassium chloride or when cytosolic ER-Hsp90 complexes were previously stabilized by molybdate, indicating that GST.90-ER complexes behave like cytosolic Hsp90-ER complexes. A purified thioredoxin-ER fusion protein was also able to form complexes with GST.90, suggesting that the presence of other chaperones is not required. ER was retained only by GST.90 deletion mutants bearing an intact Hsp90 N-terminal region (1-224), the interaction being more efficient when the charged region A was present in the mutant (1-334). The N-terminal fragment 1-334, devoid of the dimeric GST moiety, was also able to interact with ER, pointing to the monomeric N-terminal adenosine triphosphate binding region of Hsp90 (1-224) as the region necessary and sufficient for interaction. These results contribute to understand the Hsp90-dependent process responsible for conformational competence of ER.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2001;6;4;297-305

  • Interaction of the type IIa Na/Pi cotransporter with PDZ proteins.

    Gisler SM, Stagljar I, Traebert M, Bacic D, Biber J and Murer H

    Institute of Physiology, Veterinary Biochemistry, and Anatomy, University of Zürich-Irchel, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

    The type IIa Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate (Na/P(i)) cotransporter is localized in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells and is regulated by an endocytotic pathway. Because molecular processes such as apical sorting, internalization, or subsequent degradation might be assisted by associated proteins, a yeast two-hybrid screen against the C-terminal, cytosolic tail of type IIa cotransporter was designed. Most of the potential proteins found belonged to proteins with multiple PDZ modules and were either identical/related to PDZK1 or identical to NHERF-1. Yeast trap truncation assays confined the peptide-protein association to the C-terminal amino acid residues TRL of type IIa cotransporter and to single PDZ domains of each identified protein, respectively. The specificity of these interactions were confirmed in yeast by testing other apical localized transmembraneous proteins. Moreover, the type IIa protein was recovered in vitro by glutathione S-transferase-fused PDZ proteins from isolated renal brush border membranes or from type IIa-expressing oocytes. Further, these PDZ proteins are immunohistochemically detected either in the microvilli or in the subapical compartment of proximal tubular cells. Our results suggest that the type IIa Na/P(i) cotransporter interacts with various PDZ proteins that might be responsible for the apical sorting, parathyroid hormone controlled endocytosis or the lysosomal sorting of internalized type IIa cotransporter.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;12;9206-13

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Modulation of Akt kinase activity by binding to Hsp90.

    Sato S, Fujita N and Tsuruo T

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    Serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is a downstream effector molecule of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and is thought to mediate many biological actions toward anti-apoptotic responses. We found that Akt formed a complex with a 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) in vivo. By constructing deletion mutants, we identified that amino acid residues 229-309 of Akt were involved in the binding to Hsp90 and amino acid residues 327-340 of Hsp90beta were involved in the binding to Akt. Inhibition of Akt-Hsp90 binding led to the dephosphorylation and inactivation of Akt, which increased sensitivity of the cells to apoptosis-inducing stimulus. The dephosphorylation of Akt was caused by an increase in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated dephosphorylation and not by a decrease in 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation. These results indicate that Hsp90 plays an important role in maintaining Akt kinase activity by preventing PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;20;10832-7

  • Expression of hsp90 and cyclin D1 in human breast cancer.

    Yano M, Naito Z, Yokoyama M, Shiraki Y, Ishiwata T, Inokuchi M and Asano G

    Department of Pathology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

    The integral roles of heat shock proteins (hsps) in the cell cycle and in multistep processes leading to tumorigenesis have been implied. We examined the expression of hsp90alpha, hsp90beta and cyclin D1 in human breast cancer. Levels of mRNAs coding for hsp90alpha and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in cancer tissues than in non-cancer tissues. Moreover, there was a close relationship between the extent of the two mRNA levels, suggesting that increased expression of hsp90alpha, an isoform of the hsp90 family, is associated with the proliferation of human breast cancer. Hsp90beta was expressed in cancer cells, but not associated with cell proliferation.

    Cancer letters 1999;137;1;45-51

  • A two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma proteins.

    Ji H, Reid GE, Moritz RL, Eddes JS, Burgess AW and Simpson RJ

    Joint Protein Structure Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (Melbourne Branch), Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    The master two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma cells currently lists cellular proteins from normal crypts and the colorectal cancer cell lines LIM 1863, LIM 1215 and LIM 1899 (Ward et al., Electrophoresis 1990, 11, 883-891; Ji et al., Electrophoresis 1994, 15, 391-405). Updated two-dimensional electrophoretic (2-DE) maps of cellular proteins from LIM 1215 cells, acquired under both nonreducing and reducing conditions, are presented. Fifteen cellular proteins are identified in the reducing 2-DE gel map, and seven in the nonreducing gel map, along with a tabular listing of their M(r)/pI loci and mode of identification. We also include our mass spectrometric based procedures for identifying 2-DE resolved proteins. This procedure relies on a combination of capillary column (0.10-0.32 mm internal diameter) reversed-phase HPLC peptide mapping of in-gel digested proteins, peptide mass fingerprinting, sequence analysis by either collision-induced dissociation or post-source-decay fragmentation, and protein identification using available database search algorithms. These data, and descriptions of the micro-techniques employed in this laboratory for identifying 2-DE resolved proteins can be accessed via the internet URL: http:(/)/www.ludwig.edu.au.

    Electrophoresis 1997;18;3-4;605-13

  • Evidence for oestrogenic regulation of heat shock protein expression in human endometrium and steroid-responsive cell lines.

    Tang PZ, Gannon MJ, Andrew A and Miller D

    Endocrinology Reproductive Research Branch, Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    Gene amplification with target-specific primers (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)) was used to monitor the relative expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptor mRNAs alongside the mRNAs for heat shock proteins HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta and HSP 70a in normal samples of human endometrial tissue over the whole menstrual cycle and in short-term cultures of steroid-responsive (T47-D) and unresponsive (HRT-18) cell lines exposed to oestradiol and progesterone over a 24-h incubation period. In endometrium, oestrogen and progesterone receptors followed the expected patterns of expression at the protein level during the menstrual cycle and also showed a positive correlation of expression with each other throughout (r = 0.514). Of the HSPs only HSP 90 alpha expression correlated positively with oestrogen receptor (r = 0.687), while HSP 70a expression, which peaked in the late secretory stage, displayed a significantly inverse correlation with HSP 90 beta expression (r = -0.526). All p values < 0.05. In T47-D cell cultures, oestrogen receptor expression was stimulated transiently by oestradiol (10(-7) mol/l) and more persistently by progesterone (10(-7) mol/l). Progesterone receptor expression was depressed by progesterone and weakly stimulated by oestradiol. HSP 70a and HSP 90 alpha expression were stimulated by oestradiol. Progesterone generally depressed HSP 90 alpha expression and simultaneous addition of both oestradiol and progesterone to the culture medium was antagonistic to HSP 90 alpha expression. No clear effect of agonist addition on HSP mRNA expression was apparent in the HRT-18 cultures. A possible mechanism for observed oestrogenic effects on HSP expression is put forward.

    European journal of endocrinology 1995;133;5;598-605

  • Mechanism of dimer formation of the 90-kDa heat-shock protein.

    Nemoto T, Ohara-Nemoto Y, Ota M, Takagi T and Yokoyama K

    Department of Biochemistry, Iwate Medical University School of Dentistry, Morioka, Japan.

    This study describes the mechanism of homodimer formation of the 90-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90). In eukaryotic cells, there are two HSP90 isoforms, alpha and beta, encoded by two separate genes. HSP90 alpha exists predominantly as a homodimer, HSP90 beta mainly as a monomer. Analysis by native PAGE revealed that bacterially expressed HSP90 alpha fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) existed as a high-molecular-mass oligomer, and was converted to a homodimer following removal of the fusion enzyme by thrombin cleavage. A deletion mutant, HSP90 alpha D44-603, formed a monomer and an N-terminal truncated mutant, HSP90 alpha 533-732, existed as a dimer, indicating that the dimer-forming ability resides somewhere in the C-terminal 200 amino acids. Limited proteolysis of the C-terminal 200 amino acids of HSP90 alpha with chymotrypsin produced the C-terminal 16-kDa fragment (Met628/Ala629-Asp732) and its adjacent more N-terminal 13-kDa fragment (Val542-Tyr627/Met628). Size-exclusion HPLC and two-dimensional PAGE analyses demonstrated that these two chymotryptic fragments bound each other. The C-terminal 198 amino acids as well as the full-length form of HSP90 beta revealed a lower dimer-forming activity than HSP90 alpha. Expression of the chimeric proteins at the C-terminal 198 amino acids of the alpha and beta isoforms further indicated that the 16 amino acid substitutions locating between amino acids 561 and 685 account for the impeded dimerization of HSP90 beta. A leucine zipper motif (Met402-Leu423) was unlikely to be involved in the dimer formation. Taken together, these results indicate that the dimeric structure of HSP90 alpha is mediated by the C-terminal 191 amino acids and consists of duplicate interactions of the C-terminal region (Met628/Ala629-Asp732) of one subunit and the adjacent more N-terminal region (Val542-Try627/Met628) of the other subunit.

    European journal of biochemistry 1995;233;1;1-8

  • A cosmid clone at the D6S182 locus on human chromosome 6p12 contains the 90-kDa heat shock protein beta gene (HSP90 beta).

    Takahashi I, Tanuma R, Hirata M and Hashimoto K

    Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;2;121-2

  • Nucleotide sequence and regulation of a human 90-kDa heat shock protein gene.

    Rebbe NF, Hickman WS, Ley TJ, Stafford DW and Hickman S

    Washington University Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63106.

    In order to define the mechanisms responsible for the regulated expression of a human 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) gene, we have determined the complete genomic sequence of the gene encoding HSP90 beta, including 1102 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. This gene consists of 12 exons and 11 introns. The exons range in size from 99 to 396 base pairs and the introns range from 91 to 1433 base pairs. Analysis of the 5' promoter region revealed TATA and CAAT consensus sequences. Additionally, Sp1 factor binding sites and presumptive heat shock element consensus sequences were found surrounding the transcription initiation site. Three out of the six identified potential heat shock elements reside within the first intron. The ability of the promoter region to respond to heat shock was examined by constructing a plasmid containing the 5' end of the HSP90 beta gene driving a neomycin phosphotransferase reporter gene. This plasmid was used to stably transform human K562 erythroleukemia cells. With heat shock, the abundance of HSP-neo transcripts increased, demonstrating that the promoter region of this gene contains the cis-acting DNA elements required for the heat shock response.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 25044

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;25;15006-11

  • Two human 90-kDa heat shock proteins are phosphorylated in vivo at conserved serines that are phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II.

    Lees-Miller SP and Anderson CW

    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973.

    Amino-terminal protein sequence analysis revealed that exponentially growing human HeLa cells at 37 degrees C express two closely related 90-kDa "heat shock" proteins (hsp 90) in nearly equal amounts. Both hsp 90s begin with proline; the initial methionine residue is removed. The alpha protein contains a 9-amino acid segment, TQTQDQPME, from residues 4 to 12, that is replaced by a 4-amino acid segment, VHHG, in the beta form. The purified hsp 90 mixture contains 2 mol of phosphate/mol of polypeptide. Both hsp 90 proteins are phosphorylated at two homologous sites. For the alpha protein, these sites correspond to serine 231 and serine 263. A 5-amino acid segment, ESEDK, between the two phosphorylation sites is absent from the beta protein. The sequence between phosphorylation sites of both hsp 90s is predicted to have alpha helical structure. Dephosphorylated hsp 90 is phosphorylated at both sites by casein kinase II from HeLa cells, calf thymus, or rabbit reticulocytes; no other hsp 90 residues were phosphorylated by casein kinase II in vitro.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM35945

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;5;2431-7

  • Heat-shock proteins, Hsp84 and Hsp86, of mice and men: two related genes encode formerly identified tumour-specific transplantation antigens.

    Hoffmann T and Hovemann B

    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie Heidelberg, F.R.G.

    Mouse cDNA clones have been isolated with the help of Drosophila melanogaster 82-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp82)-coding sequences as hybridization probe. Sequencing of the overlapping mouse clones reveals a long open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a polypeptide of 83.3 kDa which shows about 80% similarity to the respective Drosophila Hsp82 amino acid sequence. The N-terminal half of this cDNA cross-hybridizes to a different class of mouse cDNA clones indicating a related gene. Northern blot hybridization experiments reveal a 2.6-kb poly(A)+RNA when probed with the hsp84 clone and a 2.85-kb signal with the hsp84-related cDNA. The amino acid sequences deduced from the contiguous ORF of the hsp84 and the hsp84-related cDNA coincide with the N-terminal sequence of formerly identified 84-kDa and 86-kDa tumour-specific transplantation antigens (Ullrich et al., 1986). In addition, the amino acid composition of the putative 84-kDa mouse Hsp described here is very similar to that of the 84-kDa tumour antigen described by Ullrich et al. (1986). Both observations corroborate the assumption that these Hsps are identical to the described 84-kDa and 86-kDa tumour-specific transplantation antigens. Using these mouse hsp gene clones as hybridization probes we also isolated the corresponding pair of human cDNA clones. Comparison of the respective sequences reveals a strong evolutionary constraint on these two genes in mouse and man.

    Gene 1988;74;2;491-501

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for a member of the human 90-kDa heat-shock protein family.

    Rebbe NF, Ware J, Bertina RM, Modrich P and Stafford DW

    This paper describes the isolation and sequence of a human cDNA homologous to a class of proteins commonly referred to as 90-kDa heat-shock proteins. The complete nucleotide sequence of 2563 bp and the deduced amino acid sequence are presented. A single long open reading frame encodes a protein of 83,303 Da, the amino acid composition of which correlates well with that determined for the human 90-kDa heat-shock or 'stress' protein [Welch, W.J. and Feramisco, J.R., J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 14949-14959]. Moreover, sequence analysis of this gene reveals extensive homology with the Drosophila 83-kDa and yeast 90-kDa heat-shock proteins. A comparison of the translated product of the human cDNA to the published yeast 90-kDa heat-shock protein reveals more than 60% homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Several regions of 50 aa or more show greater than 90% identity. This cDNA also hybridizes with an RNA species which increases upon heat shock of HeLa cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5-T32-CA-09156; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL06 6350C

    Gene 1987;53;2-3;235-45

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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