G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12
G00000255 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000009545 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000172380 (Ensembl human gene)
55970 (Entrez Gene)
375 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNG12 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:19663 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UBI6 (UniProt)

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Characterization of heterotrimeric G protein complexes in rice plasma membrane.

    Kato C, Mizutani T, Tamaki H, Kumagai H, Kamiya T, Hirobe A, Fujisawa Y, Kato H and Iwasaki Y

    Department of Bioscience, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Kenjyojima, Matsuoka-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1195, Japan.

    Two genes in the rice genome were identified as those encoding the gamma subunits, gamma1 and gamma2, of heterotrimeric G proteins. Using antibodies against the recombinant proteins for the alpha, beta, gamma1, and gamma2 subunits of the G protein complexes, all of the subunits were proven to be localized in the plasma membrane in rice. Gel filtration of solubilized plasma membrane proteins showed that all of the alpha subunits were present in large protein complexes (about 400 kDa) containing the other subunits, beta, gamma1, and gamma2, and probably also some other proteins, whereas large amounts of the beta and gamma (gamma1 and gamma2) subunits were freed from the large complexes and took a 60-kDa form. A yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the beta subunit interacted tightly with the gamma1 and gamma2 subunits, and so the beta and gamma subunits appeared to form dimers in rice cells. Some dimers were associated with the alpha subunit, because few beta, gamma1, and gamma2 subunits were present in the 400-kDa complexes in a rice mutant, d1, which was lacking in the alpha subunit. When a constitutively active form of the alpha subunit was prepared by the exchange of one amino acid residue and introduced into d1, the mutagenized subunit was localized in the plasma membrane of the transformants and took a free, and not the 400-kDa, form.

    The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology 2004;38;2;320-31

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism.

    Jiang G and Zhang BB

    Department of Metabolic Disorders and Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratory, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA.

    As a counterregulatory hormone for insulin, glucagon plays a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in vivo in both animals and humans. To increase blood glucose, glucagon promotes hepatic glucose output by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in a concerted fashion via multiple mechanisms. Compared with healthy subjects, diabetic patients and animals have abnormal secretion of not only insulin but also glucagon. Hyperglucagonemia and altered insulin-to-glucagon ratios play important roles in initiating and maintaining pathological hyperglycemic states. Not surprisingly, glucagon and glucagon receptor have been pursued extensively in recent years as potential targets for the therapeutic treatment of diabetes.

    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2003;284;4;E671-8

  • Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 IN Gbeta.

    Cuello F, Schulze RA, Heemeyer F, Meyer HE, Lutz S, Jakobs KH, Niroomand F and Wieland T

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fakultät für Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Maybachstrasse 14-16, D-68169 Mannheim, Germany.

    G protein betagamma dimers can be phosphorylated in membranes from various tissues by GTP at a histidine residue in the beta subunit. The phosphate is high energetic and can be transferred onto GDP leading to formation of GTP. Purified Gbetagamma dimers do not display autophosphorylation, indicating the involvement of a separate protein kinase. We therefore enriched the Gbeta-phosphorylating activity present in preparations of the retinal G protein transducin and in partially purified G(i/o) proteins from bovine brain. Immunoblots, autophosphorylation, and enzymatic activity measurements demonstrated enriched nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B in both preparations, together with residual Gbetagamma dimers. In the retinal NDPK B-enriched fractions, a Gbeta-specific antiserum co-precipitated phosphorylated NDPK B, and an antiserum against the human NDPK co-precipitated phosphorylated Gbetagamma. In addition, the NDPK-containing fractions from bovine brain reconstituted the phosphorylation of purified Gbetagamma. For identification of the phosphorylated histidine residue, bovine brain Gbetagamma and G(t)betagamma were thiophosphorylated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate, followed by digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C and trypsin, separation of the resulting peptides by gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively, and sequencing of the radioactive peptides. The sequence information produced by both methods identified specific labeled fragments of bovine Gbeta(1) that overlapped in the heptapeptide, Leu-Met-Thr-Tyr-Ser-His-Asp (amino acids 261-267). We conclude that NDPK B forms complexes with Gbetagamma dimers and contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP via intermediately phosphorylated His-266 in Gbeta(1) subunits.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7220-6

  • Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms.

    Cook LA, Schey KL, Cleator JH, Wilcox MD, Dingus J and Hildebrandt JD

    Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    The heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins, G proteins, consist of three distinct subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. There are 12 known mammalian gamma subunit genes whose products are the smallest and most variable of the G protein subunits. Sequencing of the bovine brain gamma(10) protein by electrospray mass spectrometry revealed that it differs from the human protein by an Ala to Val substitution near the N-terminus. Comparison of gamma isoform subunit sequences indicated that they vary substantially more at the N-terminus than at other parts of the protein. Thus, species variation of this region might reflect the lack of conservation of a functionally unimportant part of the protein. Analysis of 38 gamma subunit sequences from four different species shows that the N-terminus of a given gamma subunit isoform is as conserved between different species as any other part of the protein, including highly conserved regions. These data suggest that the N-terminus of gamma is a functionally important part of the protein exhibiting substantial isoform-specific variation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK37219, R01 DK037219

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2001;10;12;2548-55

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • Genomic characterization of the human heterotrimeric G protein alpha, beta, and gamma subunit genes.

    Hurowitz EH, Melnyk JM, Chen YJ, Kouros-Mehr H, Simon MI and Shizuya H

    Beckman Institute, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA.

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Each subunit of the G protein complex is encoded by a member of one of three corresponding gene families. Currently, 16 different members of the alpha subunit family, 5 different members of the beta subunit family, and 11 different members of the gamma subunit family have been described in mammals. Here we have identified and characterized Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) containing the human homologs of each of the alpha, beta, and gamma subunit genes as well as a G alpha11 pseudogene and a previously undiscovered G gamma5-like gene. The gene structure and chromosome location of each gene was determined, as were the orientations of paired genes. These results provide greater insight into the evolution and functional diversity of the mammalian G protein subunit genes.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG01464; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34236

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2000;7;2;111-20

  • Selective association of G protein beta(4) with gamma(5) and gamma(12) subunits in bovine tissues.

    Asano T, Morishita R, Ueda H and Kato K

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi 480-0392, Japan. toasano@inst-hsc.pref.aichi.jp

    The beta and gamma subunits of G proteins are tightly bound under physiological conditions, and so far, seven beta and 11 gamma subunit isoforms have been found. The relative abilities of the beta and gamma subunits to associate with each other have been studied using transfected cell assays, in vitro translation and the yeast two-hybrid system, but have not been fully characterized in various tissues. In the present study, we demonstrated the selectivity of association of the beta with gamma isoforms in bovine tissues. Immunoprecipitation of betagamma complexes from tissue extracts with antibodies against various gamma subunits and subsequent analyses revealed that beta(4) associated with the gamma subunits with the following rank order of selectivity: gamma(5) > gamma(12) > gamma(2) > gamma(3), while beta(2) bound to gamma(2), gamma(3), and gamma(12) more selectively than to gamma(5). By contrast, beta(1) associated with all gamma subunits without significant selectivity. Analyses of purified betagamma complexes containing various gamma isoforms revealed beta subunit compositions similar to those found in the immunoprecipitates. Particular combinations of beta and gamma subunit isoforms may contribute to maintaining efficient and specific signal transduction mediated by G proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;30;21425-9

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Differential localization of the gamma 3 and gamma 12 subunits of G proteins in the mammalian brain.

    Morishita R, Saga S, Kawamura N, Hashizume Y, Inagaki T, Kato K and Asano T

    Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Human Service Center, Japan.

    The localization of two forms of the gamma subunit of G proteins, gamma 3 and gamma 12, was examined in the mammalian brain. Concentrations of these two gamma subunits increased markedly, as did those of glial fibrillary acidic protein, during postnatal development in the rat cerebral cortex. In aged human brains, by contrast, the concentration of gamma 3 tended to decrease with age, whereas that of gamma 12 in the temporal cortex increased slightly. An immunohistochemical study of human brains revealed that gamma 3 was abundant in the neuropil, whereas gamma 12 was localized in glial cells. In the hippocampal formation of aged human brains, levels of gamma 12-positive cells, as well as levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein- and vimentin-positive astrocytes, increased, in particular in the CA1 subfield and the prosubiculum, in which there was a decrease in the number of pyramidal cells. The appearance of gamma 12-positive cells associated with the loss of pyramidal cells was also observed in the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with kainic acid. These results indicate that gamma 12 is strongly expressed in reactive astrocytes. In a study of cultured neural cells, we found that gamma 12 was predominant in glioma cells, such as C6 and GA-1 cells, in contrast with the specific localization of gamma 3 in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, which are neuron-like cells. Taken together, the results indicate that gamma 3 and gamma 12 are selectively expressed in neuronal and glial cells, respectively, and that concentrations of gamma 3 and gamma 12 in the brain are related to the numbers and/or extent of maturation of these cells.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1997;68;2;820-7

  • Primary structure of a gamma subunit of G protein, gamma 12, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase C.

    Morishita R, Nakayama H, Isobe T, Matsuda T, Hashimoto Y, Okano T, Fukada Y, Mizuno K, Ohno S, Kozawa O et al.

    Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Human Service Center, Japan.

    We have determined the primary structure of a novel gamma subunit (gamma 12, previously designated gamma S1) of G protein purified from bovine spleen. The mature gamma 12 protein composed of 68 amino acids had acetylated serine at the N terminus and geranylgeranylated/carboxylmethylated cysteine at the C terminus. This was consistent with the C-terminal prenylation signal in the amino acid sequence, which was predicted from gamma 12 cDNA isolated from a bovine spleen cDNA library. Western blots with the specific antibody against gamma 12 showed that gamma 12 is present in all tissues examined. Among various gamma subunits (gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, gamma 7, and gamma 12), gamma 12 has a unique property to be phosphorylated by protein kinase C. The phosphorylated amino acid residue was Ser1 (or Ser2). The phosphorylated beta gamma 12 associated with Go alpha more tightly than the unphosphorylated form. Exposure of Swiss 3T3 and aortic smooth muscle cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and NaF induced phosphorylation of gamma 12. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cells with natural vasoactive agents such as angiotensin II and vasopressin also induced phosphorylation of gamma 12. The extent of phosphorylation of beta gamma 12 in vitro was suppressed by a complex formation with Go alpha, which was relieved by the addition of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or aluminum fluoride. These results strongly suggest that gamma 12 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C during activation of receptor(s) and G protein(s) in living cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;49;29469-75

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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