G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
dedicator of cytokinesis 3
G00000251 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000088538 (Ensembl human gene)
1795 (Entrez Gene)
568 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DOCK3 (GeneCards)
603123 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2989 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8IZD9 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • KIAA0299
  • MOCA
  • PBP

Literature (13)

Pubmed - other

  • Genetic variants in SLC9A9 are associated with measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in families.

    Markunas CA, Quinn KS, Collins AL, Garrett ME, Lachiewicz AM, Sommer JL, Morrissey-Kane E, Kollins SH, Anastopoulos AD and Ashley-Koch AE

    Center for Human Genetics, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Objective: A family was previously identified that cosegregates a pericentric inversion, inv(3)(p14 : q21), with an early-onset developmental condition, characterized by impulsive behavior and intellectual deficit. The inversion breakpoints lie within DOCK3 and SLC9A9 at the p-arm and q-arm, respectively. Based on this report, these genes were selected to be evaluated in a family-based attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) association study.

    Methods: Conners' Parent (CPRS) and Teacher (CTRS) Rating Scales of AD/HD symptoms and Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measures were collected and a minimal number of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each gene were selected for analysis. Analyses were performed on families who met research criteria for AD/HD. Using the program, QTDT, each tagging SNP was tested for association with T-scores from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) subscales according to the CTRS and CPRS, and five CPT measures.

    Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, a SNP in the 3' UTR of SLC9A9, rs1046706, remained significantly associated (false discovery rate, q value <0.05) with scores on the DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive and total symptom subscales according to the CTRS and errors of commission on the CPT. In addition, an intronic SLC9A9 SNP, rs2360867, remained significantly associated with errors of commission.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that SLC9A9 may be related to hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in AD/HD and the disruption of SLC9A9 may be responsible for the behavioral phenotype observed in the inversion family. The association with SLC9A9 is particularly interesting as it was recently implicated in a genome-wide association study for AD/HD. Further investigation of the role of SLC9A9 in AD/HD and other behavioral disorders is warranted.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS049067, R01 NS049067, R01 NS049067-05

    Psychiatric genetics 2010;20;2;73-81

  • Candidate gene analysis in an on-going genome-wide association study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: suggestive association signals in ADRA1A.

    Elia J, Capasso M, Zaheer Z, Lantieri F, Ambrosini P, Berrettini W, Devoto M and Hakonarson H

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Center for Applied Genomics, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. elia@email.chop.edu

    Objectives: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable, common developmental disorder. Although a few confirmed associations have emerged from candidate gene studies, these have shown the same limitations that have become evident in the study of other complex diseases, often with inconsistent and nonreplicated results across different studies.

    Methods: In this report, 27 ADHD candidate genes were explored in greater depth using high-density tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Association with 557 SNPs was tested using the transmission disequilibrium test in 270 nuclear pedigrees selected from an ongoing ADHD genetic study that includes all disease subtypes.

    Results: SNPs in seven genes including SLC1A3, SLC6A3, HTR4, ADRA1A, HTR2A, SNAP25, and COMT showed a nominal level of association with ADHD (P values <0.05), but none remained significant after a stringent correction for the total number of tests performed.

    Conclusion: The strongest signal emerged from SNPs in the promoter region (rs3808585) and in an intron (rs17426222, rs4732682, rs573514) of ADRA1A, all located within the same haplotype block. Some of the SNPs in HTR2A and COMT have already been reported by others, whereas other SNPs will need confirmation in independent samples.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: UL1-RR-024134; NIMH NIH HHS: K23MH066275-01

    Psychiatric genetics 2009;19;3;134-41

  • A common variant in DRD3 receptor is associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    de Krom M, Staal WG, Ophoff RA, Hendriks J, Buitelaar J, Franke B, de Jonge MV, Bolton P, Collier D, Curran S, van Engeland H and van Ree JM

    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology and Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolph Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Background: The presence of specific and common genetic etiologies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated for 132 candidate genes in a two-stage design-association study.

    Methods: 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering these candidate genes were tested in ASD (n = 144) and ADHD (n = 110) patients and control subjects (n = 404) from The Netherlands. A second stage was performed with those SNPs from Stage I reaching a significance threshold for association of p < .01 in an independent sample of ASD patients (n = 128) and controls (n = 124) from the United Kingdom and a Dutch ADHD (n = 150) and control (n = 149) sample.

    Results: No shared association was found between ASD and ADHD. However, in the first and second ASD samples and in a joint statistical analysis, a significant association between SNP rs167771 located in the DRD3 gene was found (joint analysis uncorrected: p = 3.11 x 10(-6); corrected for multiple testing and potential stratification: p = .00162).

    Conclusions: The DRD3 gene is related to stereotyped behavior, liability to side effects of antipsychotic medication, and movement disorders and may therefore have important clinical implications for ASD.

    Biological psychiatry 2009;65;7;625-30

  • A novel functional screen in human cells identifies MOCA as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling.

    Caspi E and Rosin-Arbesfeld R

    Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

    Aberrant Wnt signal transduction is involved in many human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The key effector protein of the canonical Wnt pathway is beta-catenin, which functions with T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to activate gene transcription that leads to expression of Wnt target genes. In this study we provide results obtained from a novel functional screen of a human brain cDNA library used to identify 63 genes that are putative negative Wnt regulators. These genes were divided into eight functional groups that include known canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathway components and genes that had not yet been assigned to the Wnt pathway. One of the groups, the presenilin-binding proteins, contains the modifier of cell adhesion (MOCA) gene. We show that MOCA is a novel inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. MOCA forms a complex with beta-catenin and inhibits transcription of known Wnt target genes. Epistasis experiments indicate that MOCA acts to reduce the levels of nuclear beta-catenin, increase the levels of membrane-bound beta-catenin, and enhances cell-cell adhesion. Therefore, our data indicate that MOCA is a novel Wnt negative regulator and demonstrate that this screening approach can be a rapid means for isolation of new Wnt regulators.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;11;4660-74

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Modifier of cell adhesion regulates N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth.

    Chen Q, Chen TJ, Letourneau PC, Costa Lda F and Schubert D

    Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Modifier of cell adhesion (MOCA) is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis 180 family of proteins and is highly expressed in CNS neurons. MOCA is associated with Alzheimer's disease tangles and regulates the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein and beta-amyloid. Here, we report that MOCA modulates cell-cell adhesion and morphology. MOCA increases the accumulation of adherens junction proteins, including N-cadherin and beta-catenin, whereas reducing endogenous MOCA expression lowers cell-cell aggregation and N-cadherin expression. MOCA colocalizes with N-cadherin and actin in areas of cell-cell and cell substratum contact and is expressed in neuronal processes. MOCA accumulates during neuronal differentiation, and its expression enhances NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and morphological complexity. We conclude that MOCA regulates N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD19950

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;2;281-90

  • Disruption of a novel member of a sodium/hydrogen exchanger family and DOCK3 is associated with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like phenotype.

    de Silva MG, Elliott K, Dahl HH, Fitzpatrick E, Wilcox S, Delatycki M, Williamson R, Efron D, Lynch M and Forrest S

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. desilvmi@cryptic.rch.unimelb.edu.au

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex condition with high heritability. However, both biochemical investigations and association and linkage studies have failed to define fully the underlying genetic factors associated with ADHD. We have identified a family co-segregating an early onset behavioural/developmental condition, with features of ADHD and intellectual disability, with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 3, 46N inv(3)(p14:q21).

    Methods: We hypothesised that the inversion breakpoints affect a gene or genes that cause the observed phenotype. Large genomic clones (P1 derived/yeast/bacterial artificial chromosomes) were assembled into contigs across the two inversion breakpoints using molecular and bioinformatic technologies. Restriction fragments crossing the junctions were identified by Southern analysis and these fragments were amplified using inverse PCR.

    Results: The amplification products were subsequently sequenced to reveal that the breakpoints lay within an intron of the dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) gene at the p arm breakpoint, and an intron of a novel member of the solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger) isoform 9 (SLC9A9) at the q arm. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but neither of the genes has previously been implicated in developmental or behavioural disorders.

    Conclusion: These two disrupted genes are candidates for involvement in the pathway leading to the neuropsychological condition in this family.

    Journal of medical genetics 2003;40;10;733-40

  • Identification of an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of DOCK180-related proteins with guanine nucleotide exchange activity.

    Côté JF and Vuori K

    The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Mammalian DOCK180 protein and its orthologues Myoblast City (MBC) and CED-5 in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively, function as critical regulators of the small GTPase Rac during several fundamentally important biological processes, such as cell motility and phagocytosis. The mechanism by which DOCK180 and its orthologues regulate Rac has remained elusive. We report here the identification of a domain within DOCK180 named DHR-2 (Dock Homology Region-2) that specifically binds to nucleotide-free Rac and activates Rac in vitro. Our studies further demonstrate that the DHR-2 domain is both necessary and sufficient for DOCK180-mediated Rac activation in vivo. Importantly, we have identified several novel homologues of DOCK180 that possess this domain and found that many of them directly bind to and exchange GDP for GTP both in vitro and in vivo on either Rac or another Rho-family member, Cdc42. Our studies therefore identify a novel protein domain that interacts with and activates GTPases and suggest the presence of an evolutionarily conserved DOCK180-related superfamily of exchange factors.

    Journal of cell science 2002;115;Pt 24;4901-13

  • A novel mechanism for the regulation of amyloid precursor protein metabolism.

    Chen Q, Kimura H and Schubert D

    Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Modifier of cell adhesion protein (MOCA; previously called presenilin [PS] binding protein) is a DOCK180-related molecule, which interacts with PS1 and PS2, is localized to brain areas involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, and is lost from the soluble fraction of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Because PS1 has been associated with gamma-secretase activity, MOCA may be involved in the regulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Here we show that the expression of MOCA decreases both APP and amyloid beta-peptide secretion and lowers the rate of cell-substratum adhesion. In contrast, MOCA does not lower the secretion of amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP) or several additional type 1 membrane proteins. The phenotypic changes caused by MOCA are due to an acceleration in the rate of intracellular APP degradation. The effect of MOCA expression on the secretion of APP and cellular adhesion is reversed by proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that MOCA directs nascent APP to proteasomes for destruction. It is concluded that MOCA plays a major role in APP metabolism and that the effect of MOCA on APP secretion and cell adhesion is a downstream consequence of MOCA-directed APP catabolism. This is a new mechanism by which the expression of APP is regulated.

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;158;1;79-89

  • Presenilin binding protein is associated with neurofibrillary alterations in Alzheimer's disease and stimulates tau phosphorylation.

    Chen Q, Yoshida H, Schubert D, Maher P, Mallory M and Masliah E

    Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    A novel presenilin binding protein, PBP, has recently been identified. PBP is localized to the particulate fraction of extracts of Alzheimer's disease brain but is found in the soluble fractions of brain from age matched normal controls. It is shown here that PBP is associated with neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease brain. In addition, the expression of PBP increases the phosphorylation of tau in cultured cells. Therefore PBP may have a regulatory role in tau phosphorylation and in the genesis of neurofibrillary tangles.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG05131, AG10689, P50 AG005131

    The American journal of pathology 2001;159;5;1597-602

  • Isolation and characterization of novel presenilin binding protein.

    Kashiwa A, Yoshida H, Lee S, Paladino T, Liu Y, Chen Q, Dargusch R, Schubert D and Kimura H

    Salk Institute for Biological Studies Department of Pathology, University of California, La Jolla, California, USA.

    Approximately 50% of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are linked to the presenilin (PS) gene. This suggests that an altered function of mutated PSs accounts for a fundamental process leading to AD. Here we identify a new PS binding protein, PBP, which is highly expressed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. immunohistochemical studies and cell fractionation analysis show that PBP redistributes from cytoplasm to membranes in the presence of PS. In addition, PBP is deficient in the soluble fraction of sporadic AD brains.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;75;1;109-16

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Nakajima D, Ohira M, Seki N, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long transcripts, we newly determined the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones which were screened on the basis of the potentiality of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA libraries used were the fractions with average insert sizes from 5.3 to 7.0 kb of the size-fractionated cDNA libraries from human brain. The randomly sampled clones were single-pass sequenced from both the ends to select clones that are not registered in the public database. Then their protein-coding potentialities were examined by an in vitro transcription/translation system, and the clones that generated proteins larger than 60 kDa were entirely sequenced. Each clone gave a distinct open reading frame (ORF), and the length of the ORF was roughly coincident with the approximate molecular mass of the in vitro product estimated from its mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The average size of the cDNA clones sequenced was 6.1 kb, and that of the ORFs corresponded to 1200 amino acid residues. By computer-assisted analysis of the sequences with DNA and protein-motif databases (GenBank and PROSITE databases), the functions of at least 73% of the gene products could be anticipated, and 88% of them (the products of 64 clones) were assigned to the functional categories of proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid managing, and cell structure/motility. The expression profiles in a variety of tissues and chromosomal locations of the sequenced clones have been determined. According to the expression spectra, approximately 11 genes appeared to be predominantly expressed in brain. Most of the remaining genes were categorized into one of the following classes: either the expression occurs in a limited number of tissues (31 genes) or the expression occurs ubiquitously in all but a few tissues (47 genes).

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1997;4;2;141-50

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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