G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
growth associated protein 43
G00000242 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000172020 (Ensembl human gene)
2596 (Entrez Gene)
65 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GAP43 (GeneCards)
162060 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4140 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P17677 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • B-50
  • PP46

Literature (42)

Pubmed - other

  • Coordinated expression of HuD and GAP-43 in hippocampal dentate granule cells during developmental and adult plasticity.

    Bolognani F, Tanner DC, Nixon S, Okano HJ, Okano H and Perrone-Bizzozero NI

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. fbolognani@salud.unm.edu

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein HuD binds to and stabilizes the GAP-43 mRNA. In this study, we characterized the expression of HuD and GAP-43 mRNA in the hippocampus during two forms of neuronal plasticity. During post-natal development, maximal expression of both molecules was found at P5 and their levels steadily decreased thereafter. At P5, HuD was also present in the subventricular zone, where it co-localized with doublecortin. In the adult hippocampus, the basal levels of HuD and GAP-43 were lower than during development but were significantly increased in the dentate gyrus after seizures. The function of HuD in GAP-43 gene expression was confirmed using HuD-KO mice, in which the GAP-43 mRNA was significantly less stable than in wild type mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that HuD plays a role in the post-transcriptional control of GAP-43 mRNA in dentate granule cells during developmental and adult plasticity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS30255

    Neurochemical research 2007;32;12;2142-51

  • Growth-associated protein 43-positive sensory nerve fibers accompanied by immature vessels are located in or near peritoneal endometriotic lesions.

    Mechsner S, Schwarz J, Thode J, Loddenkemper C, Salomon DS and Ebert AD

    Endometriosis Research Center Berlin, Department of Gynecology, Berlin, Germany.

    Objective: To investigate the topographical relationship between nerve fibers and peritoneal endometriotic lesions and to determine the origin of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers.

    Design: Retrospective nonrandomized study.

    Setting: University hospital endometriosis research center.

    Premenopausal women with histologically confirmed endometriosis were selected (n = 73). Peritoneal endometriotic lesions (n = 106) and unaffected peritoneal biopsies from patients without endometriosis (n = 9) were obtained.

    Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of neurofilament, substance P, smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, growth-associated protein 43, nerve growth factor, and neutrophin-3 in peritoneal endometriotic lesion samples from women with symptomatic endometriosis and in peritoneal samples from women without endometriosis.

    Pain-conducting substance-P-positive nerve fibers were found to be directly colocalized with human peritoneal endometriotic lesions in 74.5% of all cases. The endometriosis-associated nerve fibers are accompanied by immature blood vessels within the stroma. Nerve growth factor and neutrophin-3 are expressed by endometriotic cells. Growth-associated protein 43, a marker of neural outgrowth and regeneration, is expressed in endometriosis-associated nerve fibers but not in existing peritoneal nerves.

    The data provide the first evidence of direct contact between sensory nerve fibers and peritoneal endometriotic lesions. This implies that the fibers play an important role in the etiology of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that peritoneal endometriotic cells exhibit neurotrophic properties.

    Fertility and sterility 2007;88;3;581-7

  • Functional cooperation between TrkA and p75(NTR) accelerates neuronal differentiation by increased transcription of GAP-43 and p21(CIP/WAF) genes via ERK1/2 and AP-1 activities.

    Diolaiti D, Bernardoni R, Trazzi S, Papa A, Porro A, Bono F, Herbert JM, Perini G and Della Valle G

    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

    The biological complexity of NGF action is achieved by binding two distinct neurotrophin receptors, TrkA and p75(NTR). While several reports have provided lines of evidence on the interaction between TrkA and p75(NTR) at the plasma membrane, much fewer data are available on the consequence of such an interaction in terms of intracellular signaling. In this study, we have focused on how p75(NTR) may affect TrkA downstream signaling with respect to neuronal differentiation. Here, we have shown that cooperation between p75(NTR) and TrkA results in an increased NGF-mediated TrkA autophosphorylation, leads to a sustained activation of ERK1/2 and accelerates neurite outgrowth. Interestingly, neurite outgrowth is concomitant with a selective enhancement of the AP-1 activity and the transcriptional activation of genes such as GAP-43 and p21(CIP/WAF), known to be involved in the differentiation process. Collectively, our results unveil a functional link between the specific expression profile of neurotrophin receptors in neuronal cells and the NGF-mediated regulation of the differentiation process possibly through a persistent ERKs activation and the selective control of the AP-1 activity.

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;14;2980-92

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin alterations in the dentate gyrus of patients with schizophrenia.

    Chambers JS, Thomas D, Saland L, Neve RL and Perrone-Bizzozero NI

    Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 915 Camino de Salud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

    Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) expression is critical for the proper establishment of neural circuitry, a process thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated decreased GAP-43 levels in post-mortem tissue from the entire hippocampal formation of affected individuals. In the present study, we used immunocytochemical techniques to localize alterations in GAP-43 protein to specific synapses. GAP-43 distribution was compared to that of synaptophysin, another synaptic protein known to be altered in schizophrenia. The levels and distribution of GAP-43 and synaptophysin proteins were measured in the dentate gyrus of subjects with schizophrenia and sex-, age-, and postmortem interval-matched normal controls and subjects with bipolar disorder. Tissue from subjects was provided by the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center. In control subjects, GAP-43 immunostaining was prominent in synaptic terminals in the inner molecular layer and hilar region. Subjects with schizophrenia had significant decreases in GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the hilus (p<0.05, paired t-test) and inner molecular layer (p<0.05, paired t-test) but not in the outer molecular layer. In the same tissues, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the inner and outer molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (both p<0.01 by paired t-test), but not in the hilus. In contrast to patients with schizophrenia, GAP-43 and synaptophysin levels in subjects with bipolar disorder did not differ from controls. Given the relationship of GAP-43 and synaptophysin with the development and plasticity of synaptic connections, the observed alterations in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia may be related to cognitive deficits associated with this illness.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH 31862; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 31862

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2005;29;2;283-90

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cytokine, chemokine and growth factor gene profiling of cultured human astrocytes after exposure to proinflammatory stimuli.

    Meeuwsen S, Persoon-Deen C, Bsibsi M, Ravid R and van Noort JM

    Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands. S.Meeuwsen@pg.tno.nl

    Astrocytes play key roles in CNS development, inflammation, and repair by producing a wide variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Understanding the regulation of this network is important for a full understanding of astrocyte functioning. In this study, expression levels of 268 genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and their receptors were established in cultured human adult astrocytes using cDNA arrays. Also, changes in this gene profile were determined following stimulation with TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and IFNgamma. The data obtained reveal a highly reproducible pattern of gene expression not only between different astrocyte cultures from a single source, but also between astrocytes from different donors. They also identify several gene products not previously described for human astrocytes, including a.o. IL-17, CD70, CD147, and BIGH3. When stimulated with TNFalpha astrocytes respond with increased expression of several genes, notably including those encoding the chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), and CXCL8 (IL-8), growth factors including BMP-2A, BMP-3, neuromodulin (GAP43), BDNF, and G-CSF, and receptors such as the CRF receptor, the calcitonin receptor (CTR), and TKT. The response to IL-1beta involves largely the same range of genes, but responses were blunted in comparison to the TNFalpha response. Treatment with IFNgamma had no or only marginal effects on expression of any of the 268 genes analyzed. Astrocytes treated with a mixture of all three stimuli together displayed responses that are largely similar to those found in response to TNFalpha or IL-1beta alone, with only few additional synergistic effects.

    Glia 2003;43;3;243-53

  • GAP43 stimulates inositol trisphosphate-mediated calcium release in response to hypotonicity.

    Caprini M, Gomis A, Cabedo H, Planells-Cases R, Belmonte C, Viana F and Ferrer-Montiel A

    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Alicante, Spain.

    The identification of osmo/mechanosensory proteins in mammalian sensory neurons is still elusive. We have used an expression cloning approach to screen a human dorsal root ganglion cDNA library to look for proteins that respond to hypotonicity by raising the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). We report the unexpected identification of GAP43 (also known as neuromodulin or B50), a membrane-anchored neuronal protein implicated in axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, as an osmosensory protein that augments [Ca(2+)](i) in response to hypotonicity. Palmitoylation of GAP43 plays an important role in the protein osmosensitivity. Depletion of intracellular stores or inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) activity abrogates hypotonicity-evoked, GAP43-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) elevations. Notably, hypotonicity promoted the selective association of GAP43 with the PLC-delta(1) isoform, and a concomitant increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) formation. Collectively, these findings indicate that hypo-osmotic activation of GAP43 induces Ca(2+) release from IP(3)-sensitive intracellular stores. The osmosensitivity of GAP43 furnishes a mechanistic framework that links axon elongation with phospho inositide metabolism, spontaneous triggering of cytosolic Ca(2+) transients and the regulation of actin dynamics and motility at the growth cone in response to temporal and local mechanical forces.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;12;3004-14

  • Distribution of GAP-43 nerve fibers in the skin of the adult human hand.

    Verzé L, Viglietti-Panzica C, Maurizo S, Sica M and Panzica G

    Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Forensic Medicine, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy. laura.verze@unito.it

    Skin is an important region of somatic sensory input, and is one of the most innervated areas of the human body. In this study, we investigated in human hand skin the distribution of nervous structures immunoreactive for the growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and the protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). GAP-43 is a neuronal presynaptic membrane protein that is generally considered to be a marker of neuronal plasticity. PGP 9.5 is a neuron-specific soluble protein that is widely used as general marker for the peripheral nervous system. The entire neural network of the dermis and epidermis was stained with antibody to PGP 9.5. In the dermis, there were fewer GAP-43-immunostained nerve fibers than PGP 9.5-immunostained nerve fibers, whereas in the epidermis the numbers were equal. Only some Merkel cells and Meissner corpuscles were GAP-43-immunoreactive. In conclusion, our results show that GAP-43 protein is expressed in a subset of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve structures.

    The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology 2003;272;1;467-73

  • Mass spectrometric analysis of GAP-43/neuromodulin reveals the presence of a variety of fatty acylated species.

    Liang X, Lu Y, Neubert TA and Resh MD

    Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    GAP-43 (neuromodulin) is a protein kinase C substrate that is abundant in developing and regenerating neurons. Thioester-linked palmitoylation at two cysteines near the GAP-43 N terminus has been implicated in directing membrane binding. Here, we use mass spectrometry to examine the stoichiometry of palmitoylation and the molecular identity of the fatty acid(s) attached to GAP-43 in vivo. GAP-43 expressed in either PC12 or COS-1 cells was acetylated at the N-terminal methionine. Approximately 35% of the N-terminal GAP-43 peptides were also modified by palmitate and/or stearate on Cys residues. Interestingly, a variety of acylated species was detected, in which one of the Cys residues was acylated by either palmitate or stearate, or both Cys residues were acylated by palmitates or stearates or a combination of palmitate and stearate. Depalmitoylation of membrane-bound GAP-43 did not release the protein from the membrane, implying that additional forces function to maintain membrane binding. Indeed, mutation of four basic residues within the N-terminal domain of GAP-43 dramatically reduced membrane localization of GAP-43 without affecting palmitoylation. These data reveal the heterogeneous nature of S-acylation in vivo and illustrate the power of mass spectrometry for identification of key regulatory protein modifications.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1 S10 RR14662-01; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM/CA 57966

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;36;33032-40

  • Poly(A) tail length-dependent stabilization of GAP-43 mRNA by the RNA-binding protein HuD.

    Beckel-Mitchener AC, Miera A, Keller R and Perrone-Bizzozero NI

    Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-5223, USA.

    The neuronal ELAV-like RNA-binding protein HuD binds to a regulatory element in the 3'-untranslated region of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) mRNA. Here we report that overexpression of HuD protein in PC12 cells stabilizes the GAP-43 mRNA by delaying the onset of mRNA degradation and that this process depends on the size of the poly(A) tail. Using a polysome-based in vitro mRNA decay assay, we found that addition of recombinant HuD protein to the system increased the half-life of full-length, capped, and polyadenylated GAP-43 mRNA and that this effect was caused in part by a decrease in the rate of deadenylation of the mRNA. This stabilization was specific for GAP-43 mRNA containing the HuD binding element in the 3'-untranslated region and a poly(A) tail of at least 150 A nucleotides. In correlation with the effect of HuD on GAP-43 mRNA stability, we found that HuD binds GAP-43 mRNAs with long tails (A150) with 10-fold higher affinity than to those with short tails (A30). We conclude that HuD stabilizes the GAP-43 mRNA through a mechanism that is dependent on the length of the poly(A) tail and involves changes in its affinity for the mRNA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM52576; NINDS NIH HHS: NS30255

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;31;27996-8002

  • GAP-43 is critical for normal development of the serotonergic innervation in forebrain.

    Donovan SL, Mamounas LA, Andrews AM, Blue ME and McCasland JS

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    Serotonergic (5-HT) axons from the raphe nuclei are among the earliest afferents to innervate the developing forebrain. The present study examined whether GAP-43, a growth-associated protein expressed on growing 5-HT axons, is necessary for normal 5-HT axonal outgrowth and terminal arborization during the perinatal period. We found a nearly complete failure of 5-HT immunoreactive axons to innervate the cortex and hippocampus in GAP-43-null (GAP43-/-) mice. Abnormal ingrowth of 5-HT axons was apparent on postnatal day 0 (P0); quantitative analysis of P7 brains revealed significant reductions in the density of 5-HT axons in the cortex and hippocampus of GAP43-/- mice relative to wild-type (WT) controls. In contrast, 5-HT axon density was normal in the striatum, septum, and amygdala and dramatically higher than normal in the thalamus of GAP43-/- mice. Concentrations of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and norepinephrine were decreased markedly in the anterior and posterior cerebrum but increased in the brainstem of GAP43-/- mice. Cell loss could not account for these abnormalities, because unbiased stereological analysis showed no significant difference in the number of 5-HT dorsal raphe neurons in P7 GAP43-/- versus WT mice. The aberrant 5-HT innervation pattern persisted at P21, indicating a long-term alteration of 5-HT projections to forebrain in the absence of GAP-43. In heterozygotes, the density and morphology of 5-HT axons was intermediate between WT and homozygous GAP43-/- mice. These results suggest that GAP-43 is a key regulator in normal pathfinding and arborization of 5-HT axons during early brain development.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24061, HD24448, HD24605; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES08131; NINDS NIH HHS: NS31829, NS40779

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;9;3543-52

  • Antisense promoter of human L1 retrotransposon drives transcription of adjacent cellular genes.

    Speek M

    Center for Gene Technology, Tallinn Technical University, and National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn EE12618, Estonia. smart@kbfi.ee

    In the human genome, retrotranspositionally competent long interspersed nuclear elements (L1Hs) are involved in the generation of processed pseudogenes and mobilization of unrelated sequences into existing genes. Transcription of each L1Hs is initiated from its internal promoter but may also be driven from the promoters of adjacent cellular genes. Here I show that a hitherto unknown L1Hs antisense promoter (ASP) drives the transcription of adjacent genes. The ASP is located in the L1Hs 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and works in the opposite direction. Fifteen cDNAs, isolated from a human NTera2D1 cDNA library by a differential screening method, contained L1Hs 5'UTRs spliced to the sequences of known genes or non-proteincoding sequences. Four of these chimeric transcripts, selected for detailed analysis, were detected in total RNA of different cell lines. Their abundance accounted for roughly 1 to 500% of the transcripts of four known genes, suggesting a large variation in the efficiency of L1Hs ASP-driven transcription. ASP-directed transcription was also revealed from expressed sequence tag sequences and confirmed by using an RNA dot blot analysis. Nine of the 15 randomly selected genomic L1Hs 5'UTRs had ASP activities about 7- to 50-fold higher than background in transient transfection assays. ASP was assigned to the L1Hs 5'UTR between nucleotides 400 to 600 by deletion and mutation analysis. These results indicate that many L1Hs contain active ASPs which are capable of interfering with normal gene expression, and this type of transcriptional control may be widespread.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;6;1973-85

  • Integration of porcine chromosome 13 maps.

    Van Poucke M, Yerle M, Tuggle C, Piumi F, Genêt C, Van Zeveren A and Peelman LJ

    Department of Animal Nutrition, Genetics, Breeding and Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

    In order to expand the comparative map between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and porcine chromosome 13 (SSC13), seven genes from HSA3 were mapped on SSC13 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), viz. ACAA1, ACPP, B4GALT4, LTF, MYLK, PDHB and RARB. With a view to integrating this expanded comparative map with the existing SSC13 linkage map, we used the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine Radiation Hybrid panel (IMpRH) to localize more precisely and to order 15 genes on the SSC13 map, viz. ACPP, ADCY5, APOD, BCHE, CD86, DRD3, GAP43, PCCB, RAF1, RHO, SI, TF, TFRC, TOP2B and ZNF148. In this way, we were able to create an integrated map, containing 38 type I and 81 type II markers, by correlating the linkage, radiation hybrid (RH) and cytogenetic maps of SSC13. This integrated map will give us the opportunity to take maximal advantage of the comparative mapping strategy for positional candidate cloning of genes responsible for economically important traits.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 2001;93;3-4;297-303

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • Quantitative comparison of growth-associated protein GAP-43, neuron-specific enolase, and protein gene product 9.5 as neuronal markers in mature human intestine.

    Vento P and Soinila S

    Second Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

    This study was performed to compare GAP-43, PGP 9.5, synaptophysin, and NSE as neuronal markers in the human intestine. GAP-43-immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant in all layers of the ileum and colon. GAP-43 partially co-localized partially with every neuropeptide (VIP, substance P, galanin, enkephalin) studied. All neuropeptide-immunoreactive fibers also showed GAP-43 reactivity. By blind visual estimation, the numbers of GAP-43-immunoreactive fibers in the lamina propria were greater than those of PGP 9.5, synaptophysin, or NSE. In the muscle layer, visual estimation indicated that the density of GAP-43-immunoreactive fiber profiles was slightly greater than that of the others. The number and intensity of GAP-43-, PGP 9.5-, and NSE-immunoreactive fibers were estimated in sections of normal human colon and ileum using computerized morphometry. In the colon, the numbers of GAP-43-immunoreactive nerve profiles per unit area and their size and intensity were significantly greater than the values for PGP and NSE. A similar trend was observed in the ileum. Neuronal somata lacked or showed only weak GAP-43 immunoreactivity, variable PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity, no synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and moderate to strong NSE immunoreactivity. We conclude that GAP-43 is the superior marker of nerve fibers in the human intestine, whereas NSE is the marker of choice for neuronal somata. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:1405-1415, 1999)

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 1999;47;11;1405-16

  • Can GAP-43 interact with brain spectrin?

    Riederer BM and Routtenberg A

    Institut de Biologie Cellulaire et de Morphologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 9, 1005, Lausanne, Switzerland. beatmichel.riederer@ibcm.unil.ch

    The growth-associated and presynaptic protein GAP-43 is important for axonal growth during brain development, for synaptic plasticity and in axonal regeneration [Benowitz, Routtenberg, TINS 12 (1987) 527]. It has been speculated that such growth may be mediated by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the interaction of GAP-43 with proteins of the presynaptic terminals is poorly characterized. Here, we analyze GAP-43 binding to cytoskeletal proteins by two different biochemical assays, by blot overlay and sedimentation. We find that immobilized brain spectrin (BS) is able to bind GAP-43. In contrast, little binding was observed to microtubule proteins and other elements of the cytoskeleton. Since GAP-43 is located presynaptically, it may bind to the presynaptic form of BS (SpIISigma1). It is attractive to think that such an interaction would participate in the structural plasticity observed in growth cones and adult synapses.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;71;2;345-8

  • Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes.

    Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ and Lander ES

    Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. lander@genome.wi.mit.edu

    A major goal in human genetics is to understand the role of common genetic variants in susceptibility to common diseases. This will require characterizing the nature of gene variation in human populations, assembling an extensive catalogue of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and performing association studies for particular diseases. At present, our knowledge of human gene variation remains rudimentary. Here we describe a systematic survey of SNPs in the coding regions of human genes. We identified SNPs in 106 genes relevant to cardiovascular disease, endocrinology and neuropsychiatry by screening an average of 114 independent alleles using 2 independent screening methods. To ensure high accuracy, all reported SNPs were confirmed by DNA sequencing. We identified 560 SNPs, including 392 coding-region SNPs (cSNPs) divided roughly equally between those causing synonymous and non-synonymous changes. We observed different rates of polymorphism among classes of sites within genes (non-coding, degenerate and non-degenerate) as well as between genes. The cSNPs most likely to influence disease, those that alter the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein, are found at a lower rate and with lower allele frequencies than silent substitutions. This likely reflects selection acting against deleterious alleles during human evolution. The lower allele frequency of missense cSNPs has implications for the compilation of a comprehensive catalogue, as well as for the subsequent application to disease association.

    Nature genetics 1999;22;3;231-8

  • Association of GAP-43 with detergent-resistant membranes requires two palmitoylated cysteine residues.

    Arni S, Keilbaugh SA, Ostermeyer AG and Brown DA

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5215, USA.

    GAP-43 is an abundant protein in axonal growth cones of developing and regenerating neurons. We found that GAP-43 was enriched in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) isolated by Triton X-100 extraction from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and could be detected in detergent-insoluble plasma membrane remnants after extraction of cells in situ. GAP-43 is palmitoylated at Cys-3 and Cys-4. Mutation of either Cys residue prevented association with DRMs. A hybrid protein containing the first 20 amino acid residues of GAP-43 fused to beta-galactosidase was targeted to DRMs even more efficiently than GAP-43 itself. We conclude that tandem palmitoylated Cys residues can target GAP-43 to DRMs, defining a new signal for DRM targeting. We propose that tandem or closely spaced saturated fatty acyl chains partition into domains or "rafts" in the liquid-ordered phase, or a phase with similar properties, in cell membranes. These rafts are isolated as DRMs after detergent extraction. The brain-specific heterotrimeric G protein Go, which may be regulated by GAP-43 in vitro, was also enriched in DRMs from PC12 cells. Targeting of GAP-43 to rafts may function to facilitate signaling through Go. In addition, raft association may aid in sorting of GAP-43 into axonally directed vesicles in the trans-Golgi network.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 47897

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;43;28478-85

  • The neuronal growth-associated protein GAP-43 interacts with rabaptin-5 and participates in endocytosis.

    Neve RL, Coopersmith R, McPhie DL, Santeufemio C, Pratt KG, Murphy CJ and Lynn SD

    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Structural plasticity of nerve cells is a requirement for activity-dependent changes in the brain. The growth-associated protein GAP-43 is thought to be one determinant of such plasticity, although the molecular mechanism by which it mediates dynamic structural alterations at the synapse is not known. GAP-43 is bound by calmodulin when Ca2+ levels are low, and releases the calmodulin when Ca2+ levels rise, suggesting that calmodulin may act as a negative regulator of GAP-43 during periods of low activity in the neurons. To identify the function of GAP-43 during activity-dependent increases in Ca2+ levels, when it is not bound to calmodulin, we sought proteins with which GAP-43 interacts in the presence of Ca2+. We show here that rabaptin-5, an effector of the small GTPase Rab5 that mediates membrane fusion in endocytosis, is one such protein. We demonstrate that GAP-43 regulates endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Modulation of endocytosis by GAP-43, in association with rabaptin-5, may constitute a common molecular mechanism by which GAP-43 regulates membrane dynamics during its known roles in activity-dependent neurotransmitter release and neurite outgrowth.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;19;7757-67

  • Hippocampal and cortical growth-associated protein-43 messenger RNA in schizophrenia.

    Eastwood SL and Harrison PJ

    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.

    Growth-associated protein-43 is involved in maturational and plasticity-associated processes, and changes in growth-associated protein-43 expression are a marker of altered plasticity following experimental and neuropathological lesions. Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated growth-associated protein-43 mRNA in the medial temporal lobe and cerebral cortex in 11 normal subjects and 11 matched subjects with schizophrenia, a disorder in which perturbed neurodevelopment and aberrant plasticity are implicated. In the schizophrenia group, growth-associated protein-43 messenger RNA was decreased in the medial temporal lobe, primary visual cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus, but was unaltered in the superior temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Correlations of growth-associated protein-43 messenger RNA signal between areas were stronger and more numerous in the schizophrenics than in the controls, suggesting a more global regulation of growth-associated protein-43 expression. Finally, the ratio of growth-associated protein-43 messenger RNA to synaptophysin messenger RNA--a putative index of the production of new synapses--was decreased in the medial temporal lobe in the schizophrenics. Our findings imply that neuronal plasticity as indexed by growth-associated protein-43 expression is impaired, and perhaps aberrantly regulated, in schizophrenia. The data support the emerging view that the disease pathophysiology is one which affects the hippocampal and cortical circuitry and that the abnormalities are reflected in the altered expression of specific neuronal genes.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Neuroscience 1998;86;2;437-48

  • Subcellular localization of phosphoprotein B-50 in regenerating muscle. An immuno-electron microscopic study.

    Heuss D and Schlötzer-Schrehardt U

    Department of Neurology, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.

    Phosphoprotein B-50, also termed growth-associated protein GAP43, is a membrane-bound phosphoprotein expressed in neurons. It is particularly abundant during periods of axonal outgrowth in development and regeneration of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recently the expression of phosphoprotein B-50 in regenerating muscle fibers was reported and it was assumed that phosphoprotein B-50, in muscles, plays a role in the determination of the growth morphology of regenerating muscle fibers. Thus, phosphoprotein B-50 no longer can be regarded as a neuron-specific molecule. In this paper we study the subcellular localization of phosphoprotein B-50 in regenerating human skeletal muscle fibers by electron immunohistochemistry. Phosphoprotein B-50 immunoreactivity is randomly distributed over the nuclear and perinuclear area of regenerating muscle fibers. Previously, by light-microscopy phosphoprotein B-50 immunoreactivity was demonstrated on the inner face of the sarcolemma in hypotrophic type 1 fibers in congenital fiber type disproportion. It is this distribution of phosphoprotein B-50 in developmentally disordered myocytes in particular which allows an analogy to the corresponding results found for growing axons. But we did not find subsarcolemmal expression of B-50 in regenerating muscle fibers. Probably this indicates that there is a difference in B-50 expression between regeneration of muscle fibers and developmentally retarded/immature myofibers. The presented data suggest that phosphoprotein B-50 is inserted only stage-dependent in the extending sarcolemma of the growing muscle fiber. Analogously to the nervous system, phosphoprotein B-50 may serve a local function involving transmembrane signalling by means of calmodulin binding of phosphoprotein B-50 and/or phosphoprotein B-50 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.

    Neurological research 1998;20;4;360-4

  • Regulated binding of the protein kinase C substrate GAP-43 to the V0/C2 region of protein kinase C-delta.

    Dekker LV and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom.

    The interaction between protein kinase C-delta and its neuronal substrate, GAP-43, was studied. Two forms of protein kinase C-delta were isolated from COS cells and characterized by differences in gel mobility, GAP-43 binding, and specific GAP-43 and histone kinase activities. A slow migrating, low specific activity form of protein kinase C-delta bound directly to immobilized GAP-43. Binding was abolished in the presence of EGTA, suggesting Ca2+ dependence of the interaction. The free catalytic domain of protein kinase C-delta did not bind GAP-43, suggesting the existence of a binding site in the regulatory domain. Glutathione S-transferase-protein kinase C-delta regulatory domain fusion proteins were generated and tested for binding to GAP-43. The V0/C2-like amino-terminal domain was defined as the GAP-43-binding site. GAP-43 binding to this region is inhibited by EGTA and regulated at Ca2+ levels between 10(-7) and 10(-6) M. The interaction between protein kinase C-delta and GAP-43 was studied in intact cells by coexpression of the two proteins in human embryonic kidney cells followed by immunoprecipitation. Complex formation occurred only after treatment of the cells with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, indicating that elevation of intracellular Ca2+ is required for interaction in vivo. It is concluded that protein kinase C-delta interacts with GAP-43 through the V0/C2-like domain, outside the catalytic site, and that this interaction is modulated by intracellular Ca2+.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;19;12747-53

  • Analysis of the role of calmodulin binding and sequestration in neuromodulin (GAP-43) function.

    Gamby C, Waage MC, Allen RG and Baizer L

    R. S. Dow Neurological Sciences Institute, Good Samaritan Hospital and Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 97209, USA.

    We demonstrated previously that forced expression of the neuronal phosphoprotein neuromodulin (also known as GAP-43, F1, B-50, and p57) in mouse anterior pituitary AtT-20 cells enhances depolarization-mediated secretion and alters cellular morphology. Here we analyze the role of calmodulin binding by neuromodulin in these responses. In cells expressing wild-type neuromodulin, a complex with calmodulin that is sensitive to intracellular calcium and phosphorylation is localized to the plasma membrane. Transfection of several mutant forms of neuromodulin shows that the effects of this protein on secretion are dependent on both calmodulin binding and association with the plasma membrane. In contrast, the morphological changes depend only on membrane association. Thus, the multitude of effects of neuromodulin noted in previous studies may result from divergent properties of this protein.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS26806

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;43;26698-705

  • Use of a two-hybrid system to investigate molecular interactions of GAP-43.

    Chao S, Benowitz LI, Krainc D and Irwin N

    Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We used the 'interaction trap' (two-hybrid system) to identify polypeptides that interact with the neuronal phosphoprotein, GAP-43, in an intracellular environment. GAP-43 (neuromodulin, B-50, F1), a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate important for the growth and plasticity of neuronal connections, has been implicated in vitro in several signal transduction pathways. In the yeast-based cloning system, the only strong interaction that was detected between GAP-43 and the calcium effector protein, calmodulin (CaM). PKC phosphorylates GAP-43 on serine 41. When we changed this serine to an aspartate residue to mimic constitutive phosphorylation, the interaction with CaM was blocked. Surprisingly, the N-terminal third of GAP-43 alone bound CaM more strongly than did intact GAP-43, suggesting that the protein's C-terminus may play a role in modulating the interaction with CaM. These results, along with other recent findings, suggest a novel role for the interaction between GAP-43 and CaM.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 05690

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1996;40;2;195-202

  • Phosphorylation of GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa) by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of the protein kinase C gene family: differences between oligopeptide and polypeptide phosphorylation.

    Oehrlein SA, Parker PJ and Herget T

    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

    GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa; also known as neuromodulin, P-57, B-50 and F-1) is a neuronal calmodulin binding protein and a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate in mammalian brain. Here we describe the phosphorylation by and the site specificity of different PKC isotypes. The conventional PKC beta 1 and the novel PKCs delta and epsilon effectively phosphorylated recombinant GAP-43 in vitro; atypical PKC zeta did not. The K(m) values (between 0.6 and 2.3 microM) were very low, demonstrating a high-affinity interaction between kinase and substrate. All PKC isotypes were shown to phosphorylate serine-41 in GAP-43. When using a 19-amino-acid oligopeptide based on the GAP-43 phosphorylation site as substrate, there was a significant difference compared with polypeptide phosphorylation. The V(max) values of PKC beta 1 and PKC epsilon were much higher for this oligopeptide than for the complete protein (up to 10-fold); in contrast, their apparent affinities for the peptide were much lower (up to 100-fold) than for the intact GAP-43 polypeptide. Furthermore, phosphorylation of the GAP-43 oligopeptide by PKC beta 1 was more sensitive to a catalytic-site inhibitor than was phosphorylation of intact GAP-43. These results suggest that there are multiple sites of interaction between GAP-43 and PKC.

    The Biochemical journal 1996;317 ( Pt 1);219-24

  • GAP-43 mRNA expression in early development of human nervous system.

    Kanazir S, Ruzdijic S, Vukosavic S, Ivkovic S, Milosevic A, Zecevic N and Rakic L

    Department of Neurobiology and Immunology, University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

    The temporal and spatial distribution of GAP-43 mRNA in early human development, from 6 to 23 gestational weeks (g.w.), was examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. GAP-43 mRNA was expressed as early as 6 g.w. in all regions of developing nervous system, the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalic and telencephalic regions. Although the pronounced level of expression persisted during the entire examined period, the intensity of expression varied along the spatial axis over time. Analysis at the cellular level revealed that early on in development (6 g.w.) GAP-43 mRNA was expressed in the entire neuroblast population. With the onset of differentiation, at 13-23 g.w., GAP-43 mRNA expression had switched to the neurons that are in the process outgrowth. The highest level of GAP-43 mRNA expression was localized in the regions consisting of differentiating neurons, such as the cortical plate and intermediate zone of the telencephalic wall, and several delineated subcortical and thalamic nuclei. The spatial and temporal pattern of GAP-43 mRNA expression obtained suggests a possible dual role of GAP-43 in the development of the human nervous system: in the embryonic brain it could be involved in fundamental processes underlying cell proliferation; in the fetal brain its expression is specifically correlated with differentiation and the outgrowth of axons.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1996;38;1;145-55

  • Cloning and promoter analysis of the human B-50/GAP-43 gene.

    de Groen PC, Eggen BJ, Gispen WH, Schotman P and Schrama LH

    Division of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.

    We here report isolation of exon 1 and analysis of the human B-50 promoter. A human genomic lambda EMBL3 library was screened with a homologous PCR probe. Two independent clones were analyzed and partially sequenced: They contained up to 5 kb sequence upstream of the translation start site and approx 13 kb of intron 1 sequence. There was a high degree of homology between the rat and the human gene with 100% homology from -504 to -427, with respect to the translation start codon. However, relatively long GT and GA repeats as seen in the rat gene were absent. Various promoter-reporter constructs, containing 5.0 to 0.12 kb of the upstream region, were transfected into undifferentiated and neuroectodermally differentiated P19-EC. Two promoter activities were found. The minimal fragment with promoter activity still responsive to differentiation was the 0.22 kb construct, similar to rat promoter P2. We conclude that the human B-50 gene is expressed in a similar way to the rat B-50 gene, based on the presence of two transcripts, the high degree of homology between the rat and the human sequence, and the two promoter activities found in P19-EC cells.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 1995;6;2;109-19

  • Structure of the human gene for the neural phosphoprotein B-50 (GAP-43).

    Nielander HB, De Groen PC, Eggen BJ, Schrama LH, Gispen WH and Schotman P

    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Rudolf Magnus Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

    The genomic DNA encoding the exons for the human neural phosphoprotein B-50 (GAP-43) was isolated using rat-based cDNA probes and oligonucleotides. Exons 2 and 3 were isolated from a genomic library, exon 1 was amplified by PCR on total genomic DNA. The gene consists of 3 exons and 2 large introns. The first exon encodes the N-terminal 10 amino acids of B-50 involved in membrane association of the protein. Exon 2 encodes the main part of the protein with the sites for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and calmodulin binding, and includes a 10 amino acid residue insert not found in rodents. Exon 3 encodes the last 29 amino acid residues. The reported sequence extends the known cDNA structure to both the 5' and 3' ends. The 358 bp region upstream of the translational initiation codon, containing the main transcription starts, is purine-rich and does not include TATA or GC boxes. At the 3' end potential polyadenylation signals were found 510 bp and 584 bp downstream of the stopcodon in exon 3. The 5' end of the mRNA is heterogeneous in length, with primer extension products corresponding to a 5' untranslated region of 159 and 343 bases. Northern hybridizations, however, indicate that the majority of B-50 mRNA has a shorter 5' untranslated region, as was reported for the rat (Schrama et al., Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 18 (1992) 333.4). The structural organization of the human gene is similar to that described for the rat (Grabczyk et al., Eur. J. Neurosci. 2 (1990) 822-827), and both translated and untranslated regions show a high degree of sequence homology to the rat gene.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1993;19;4;293-302

  • Expression of growth-associated protein 43 and nerve growth factor receptor in human skin: a comparative immunohistochemical investigation.

    Fantini F and Johansson O

    Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    The growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) is a neuronal membrane protein involved in axonal growth and regeneration as well as in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. It is present in sensory and sympathetic neurons, where it is consistently associated with the expression of nerve growth factor receptor (NGFr). We investigated, by means of immunohistochemistry, the presence and distribution of the GAP43-immunoreactivity (IR) and of the NGFr-IR in the adult normal human skin from various body regions. In adjacent sections, a comparison with the distribution of the neuronal markers protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was performed. Our results indicate that in adult human skin 1) a GAP43-IR is morphologically present in epidermal and dermal nerve fibers; 2) a NGFr-IR is associated with neuronal as well as non-neuronal elements of cutaneous nerves; 3) the basal epidermal cell layer expresses a NGFr-IR, which is unevenly distributed according to the different body areas; and 4) there is suggestive evidence for a simultaneous expression of GAP43-, NGFr-, PGP 9.5-, SP-, and CGRP-IR in at least part of the cutaneous nerve fibers. The presence of GAP43-immunoreactive nerve fibers might be a marker of a continuous synaptic remodeling in adult skin, whereas the distribution of the NGFr-IR could be relevant for our understanding of the maintenance of the neuronal-target relationship(s).

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 1992;99;6;734-42

  • GAP-43, a protein associated with axon growth, is phosphorylated at three sites in cultured neurons and rat brain.

    Spencer SA, Schuh SM, Liu WS and Willard MB

    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    GAP-43 is a neuronal calmodulin-binding phosphoprotein that is concentrated in growth cones and presynaptic terminals. By sequencing tryptic and endoproteinase Asp-N phosphopeptides and directly determining the release of radioactive phosphate, we have identified three sites (serines 41 and 96 and threonine 172) that are phosphorylated, both in cultured neurons and in neonatal rat brain. These three sites account for most of the 32PO4 that was incorporated into GAP-43 in cultured neurons; 8-15% of each site was occupied with phosphate in GAP-43 isolated from neonatal rat brain. Phosphorylation of serine 41 in cultured neurons was stimulated by phorbol ester, indicating that it is the only site phosphorylated by protein kinase C. The resemblance of the sequence surrounding the other two sites suggests that they may be substrates for the same protein kinase. None of the sites phosphorylated by casein kinase II in vitro was phosphorylated in living cells or in neonatal rat brain. These results show that GAP-43 is a substrate for at least one protein kinase in addition to protein kinase C in living cells and brain.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EYO 2682

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;13;9059-64

  • Immunocytochemical detection of the growth-associated protein B-50 by newly characterized monoclonal antibodies in human brain and muscle.

    Mercken M, Lübke U, Vandermeeren M, Gheuens J and Oestreicher AB

    Laboratory of Neurobiology, Born Bunge Foundation, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

    The growth-associated protein B-50 also termed GAP-43, F1, pp46, P-57 and neuromodulin is a nervous tissue-specific protein kinase C (PKC) substrate that is considered to play a major role in neurite formation, regeneration, and neuroplasticity. We describe the isolation of seven mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against B-50. The Mabs are produced against the bovine B-50, selected by ELISA for cross-reactivity with its human counterpart, and evaluated on Western blots in comparison with the well-characterized affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat-B-50. The Western blots show that the Mabs NM1, NM4, and NM6 recognize specifically the B-50 of bovine, human, and rat brain extract and the purified PKC phosphorylated and unphosphorylated rat B-50 isoforms. The Mabs NM2 and NM3 cross-react with bovine B-50 immunoreactive c-kinase substrate (BICKS), a protein sharing a 17 amino acid sequence homology with B-50. Two Mabs are useful for the detection of B-50 immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed human and rat brain tissues. In human specimen of the hippocampus, a characteristic neuropil distribution of B-50 is detected by the Mabs. In human muscle, Mabs reveal B-50 in nerve bundles and in axons at motor end plates. Thus, these Mabs are useful in investigating the function and localization of the B-50 protein.

    Journal of neurobiology 1992;23;3;309-21

  • Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II. Identification of phosphorylation sites and regulation by calmodulin.

    Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG and Storm DR

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington 98195.

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin-binding protein believed to play a role in regulation of neurite outgrowth and neuroplasticity. Neuromodulin is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and this phosphorylation prevents calmodulin from binding to neuromodulin (Alexander, K. A., Cimler, B. M., Meier, K. E. & Storm, D. R. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6108-6113). The only other protein kinase known to phosphorylate neuromodulin is casein kinase II (Pisano, M. R., Hegazy, M. G., Reimann, E. M. & Dokas, L. A. (1988) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 155, 1207-1212). Phosphoamino acid analyses revealed that casein kinase II modified serine and threonine residues in both native bovine and recombinant mouse neuromodulin. Two serines located in the C-terminal end of neuromodulin, Ser-192 and Ser-193, were identified as the major casein kinase II phosphorylation sites. Thr-88, Thr-89, or Thr-95 were identified as minor casein kinase II phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation by casein kinase II did not affect the ability of neuromodulin to bind to calmodulin-Sepharose. However, calmodulin did inhibit the phosphorylation of neuromodulin by casein kinase II with a Ki of 1-2 microM. Calmodulin inhibition of casein kinase II phosphorylation was due to calmodulin binding to neuromodulin rather than to the protein kinase. These data suggest that the minimal secondary and tertiary structure exhibited by neuromodulin may be sufficient to juxtapose its calmodulin-binding domain, located at the N-terminal end, with the neuromodulin casein kinase II phosphorylation sites at the C-terminal end of the protein. We propose that calmodulin regulates casein kinase II phosphorylation of neuromodulin by binding to neuromodulin and sterically hindering the interaction of casein kinase II with its phosphorylation sites on neuromodulin.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK42528; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 07270, GM 33708

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;16;10544-51

  • Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin.

    Apel ED, Byford MF, Au D, Walsh KA and Storm DR

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C has been shown to abolish the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin [Alexander, K. A., Cimler, B. M., Meier, K. E., & Storm, D. R. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6108-6113], and we have proposed that the concentration of free CaM in neurons may be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neuromodulin. The purpose of this study was to identify the protein kinase C phosphorylation site(s) in neuromodulin using recombinant neuromodulin as a substrate. Toward this end, it was demonstrated that recombinant neuromodulin purified from Escherichia coli and bovine neuromodulin were phosphorylated with similar Km values and stoichiometries and that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of both proteins abolished binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Recombinant neuromodulin was phosphorylated by using protein kinase C and [gamma-32P]ATP and digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Only one 32P-labeled tryptic peptide was generated from phosphorylated neuromodulin. The sequence of this peptide was IQASFR. The serine in this peptide corresponds to position 41 of the entire protein, which is adjacent to or contained within the calmodulin binding domain of neuromodulin. A synthetic peptide, QASFRGHITRKKLKGEK, corresponding to the calmodulin binding domain with a few flanking residues, including serine-41, was also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. We conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmodulin to neuromodulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-23606; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-15731, GM-33708; ...

    Biochemistry 1990;29;9;2330-5

  • Cloning of human GAP-43: growth association and ischemic resurgence.

    Ng SC, de la Monte SM, Conboy GL, Karns LR and Fishman MC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114.

    GAP-43 is a growth cone protein expressed in neurons especially during periods of axonal elongation. Poor repair in the adult mammalian CNS has been ascribed to restraints upon its expression. We have cloned human GAP-43 cDNA to investigate its potential involvement in neurological illness. Analysis of postmortem human brain tissue disclosed uniformly high expression of GAP-43 throughout the neonatal brain, whereas in the adult brain high levels of GAP-43 persist only in discrete regions. However, in the wake of ischemic injury in the adult brain, regions normally low in GAP-43 reexpress it at high levels, suggesting a role for GAP-43 in remodeling and repair of mature CNS neurons.

    Neuron 1988;1;2;133-9

  • Human GAP-43: its deduced amino acid sequence and chromosomal localization in mouse and human.

    Kosik KS, Orecchio LD, Bruns GA, Benowitz LI, MacDonald GP, Cox DR and Neve RL

    Department of Neurology (Neuroscience), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    The growth-associated protein (GAP-43) is considered a crucial component of an effective regenerative response in the nervous system. Its phosphorylation by protein kinase C correlates with long-term potentiation. Sequence analysis of human cDNAs coding for this protein shows that the human GAP-43 gene is highly homologous to the rat gene; this homology extends into the 3'-untranslated region. However, the human protein contains a 10 amino acid insert. Somatic cell hybrids demonstrate localization of the GAP-43 gene to human chromosome 3 and to mouse chromosome 16.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD18658; NINDS NIH HHS: NS00835, NS25830; ...

    Neuron 1988;1;2;127-32

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000032 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H1 Human orthologues of cluster 1 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 21
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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