G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
muscle RAS oncogene homolog
G00000225 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000158186 (Ensembl human gene)
22808 (Entrez Gene)
538 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MRAS (GeneCards)
608435 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7227 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O14807 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • M-RAs
  • R-RAS3
  • RRAS3

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • New susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease on chromosome 3q22.3.

    Erdmann J, Grosshennig A, Braund PS, König IR, Hengstenberg C, Hall AS, Linsel-Nitschke P, Kathiresan S, Wright B, Trégouët DA, Cambien F, Bruse P, Aherrahrou Z, Wagner AK, Stark K, Schwartz SM, Salomaa V, Elosua R, Melander O, Voight BF, O'Donnell CJ, Peltonen L, Siscovick DS, Altshuler D, Merlini PA, Peyvandi F, Bernardinelli L, Ardissino D, Schillert A, Blankenberg S, Zeller T, Wild P, Schwarz DF, Tiret L, Perret C, Schreiber S, El Mokhtari NE, Schäfer A, März W, Renner W, Bugert P, Klüter H, Schrezenmeir J, Rubin D, Ball SG, Balmforth AJ, Wichmann HE, Meitinger T, Fischer M, Meisinger C, Baumert J, Peters A, Ouwehand WH, Italian Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Working Group, Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Cardiogenics Consortium, Deloukas P, Thompson JR, Ziegler A, Samani NJ and Schunkert H

    Medizinische Klinik II, Universität zu Lübeck, 23538 Lübeck, Germany. j.erdmann@cardiogenics.eu

    We present a three-stage analysis of genome-wide SNP data in 1,222 German individuals with myocardial infarction and 1,298 controls, in silico replication in three additional genome-wide datasets of coronary artery disease (CAD) and subsequent replication in approximately 25,000 subjects. We identified one new CAD risk locus on 3q22.3 in MRAS (P = 7.44 x 10(-13); OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11-1.19), and suggestive association with a locus on 12q24.31 near HNF1A-C12orf43 (P = 4.81 x 10(-7); OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11).

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation; Medical Research Council; NCRR NIH HHS: U54 RR020278, U54RR020278; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL056931, R01 HL056931-02, R01 HL056931-03, R01 HL056931-04, R01 HL087676, R01HL087676; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 089061

    Nature genetics 2009;41;3;280-2

  • Neither replication nor simulation supports a role for the axon guidance pathway in the genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    Li Y, Rowland C, Xiromerisiou G, Lagier RJ, Schrodi SJ, Dradiotis E, Ross D, Bui N, Catanese J, Aggelakis K, Grupe A and Hadjigeorgiou G

    Celera, Alameda, California, United States of America. yonghong.li@celera.com

    Susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interaction with each other. Statistical models including multiple variants in axon guidance pathway genes have recently been purported to be capable of predicting PD risk, survival free of the disease and age at disease onset; however the specific models have not undergone independent validation. Here we tested the best proposed risk panel of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two PD sample sets, with a total of 525 cases and 518 controls. By single marker analysis, only one marker was significantly associated with PD risk in one of our sample sets (rs6692804: P = 0.03). Multi-marker analysis using the reported model found a mild association in one sample set (two sided P = 0.049, odds ratio for each score change = 1.07) but no significance in the other (two sided P = 0.98, odds ratio = 1), a stark contrast to the reported strong association with PD risk (P = 4.64x10(-38), odds ratio as high as 90.8). Following a procedure similar to that used to build the reported model, simulated multi-marker models containing SNPs from randomly chosen genes in a genome wide PD dataset produced P-values that were highly significant and indistinguishable from similar models where disease status was permuted (3.13x10(-23) to 4.90x10(-64)), demonstrating the potential for overfitting in the model building process. Together, these results challenge the robustness of the reported panel of genetic markers to predict PD risk in particular and a role of the axon guidance pathway in PD genetics in general.

    PloS one 2008;3;7;e2707

  • The M-Ras-RA-GEF-2-Rap1 pathway mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha dependent regulation of integrin activation in splenocytes.

    Yoshikawa Y, Satoh T, Tamura T, Wei P, Bilasy SE, Edamatsu H, Aiba A, Katagiri K, Kinashi T, Nakao K and Kataoka T

    Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

    The Rap1 small GTPase has been implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion downstream of various chemokines and cytokines in many aspects of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the mechanism for Rap1 regulation in the adhesion signaling remains unclear. RA-GEF-2 is a member of the multiple-member family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rap1 and characterized by the possession of a Ras/Rap1-associating domain, interacting with M-Ras-GTP as an effector, in addition to the GEF catalytic domain. Here, we show that RA-GEF-2 is specifically responsible for the activation of Rap1 that mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-triggered integrin activation. In BAF3 hematopoietic cells, activated M-Ras potently induced lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)-mediated cell aggregation. This activation was totally abrogated by knockdown of RA-GEF-2 or Rap1. TNF-alpha treatment activated LFA-1 in a manner dependent on M-Ras, RA-GEF-2, and Rap1 and induced activation of M-Ras and Rap1 in the plasma membrane, which was accompanied by recruitment of RA-GEF-2. Finally, we demonstrated that M-Ras and RA-GEF-2 were indeed involved in TNF-alpha-stimulated and Rap1-mediated LFA-1 activation in splenocytes by using mice deficient in RA-GEF-2. These findings proved a crucial role of the cross-talk between two Ras-family GTPases M-Ras and Rap1, mediated by RA-GEF-2, in adhesion signaling.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;8;2949-59

  • Germline gain-of-function mutations in SOS1 cause Noonan syndrome.

    Roberts AE, Araki T, Swanson KD, Montgomery KT, Schiripo TA, Joshi VA, Li L, Yassin Y, Tamburino AM, Neel BG and Kucherlapati RS

    Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Noonan syndrome, the most common single-gene cause of congenital heart disease, is characterized by short stature, characteristic facies, learning problems and leukemia predisposition. Gain-of-function mutations in PTPN11, encoding the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause approximately 50% of Noonan syndrome cases. SHP2 is required for RAS-ERK MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade activation, and Noonan syndrome mutants enhance ERK activation ex vivo and in mice. KRAS mutations account for <5% of cases of Noonan syndrome, but the gene(s) responsible for the remainder are unknown. We identified missense mutations in SOS1, which encodes an essential RAS guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (RAS-GEF), in approximately 20% of cases of Noonan syndrome without PTPN11 mutation. The prevalence of specific cardiac defects differs in SOS1 mutation-associated Noonan syndrome. Noonan syndrome-associated SOS1 mutations are hypermorphs encoding products that enhance RAS and ERK activation. Our results identify SOS1 mutants as a major cause of Noonan syndrome, representing the first example of activating GEF mutations associated with human disease and providing new insights into RAS-GEF regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37CA49152; NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR02172; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE16140

    Nature genetics 2007;39;1;70-4

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Identification and characterization of rain, a novel Ras-interacting protein with a unique subcellular localization.

    Mitin NY, Ramocki MB, Zullo AJ, Der CJ, Konieczny SF and Taparowsky EJ

    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2054, USA.

    The Ras small GTPase functions as a signaling node and is activated by extracellular stimuli. Upon activation, Ras interacts with a spectrum of functionally diverse downstream effectors and stimulates multiple cytoplasmic signaling cascades that regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to the association of Ras with the plasma membrane, recent studies have established an association of Ras with Golgi membranes. Whereas the effectors of signal transduction by activated, plasma membrane-localized Ras are well characterized, very little is known about the effectors used by Golgi-localized Ras. In this study, we report the identification of a novel Ras-interacting protein, Rain, that may serve as an effector for endomembrane-associated Ras. Rain does not share significant sequence similarity with any known mammalian proteins, but contains a Ras-associating domain that is found in RalGDS, AF-6, and other characterized Ras effectors. Rain interacts with Ras in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo, requires an intact Ras core effector-binding domain for this interaction, and thus fits the definition of a Ras effector. Unlike other Ras effectors, however, Rain is localized to perinuclear, juxta-Golgi vesicles in intact cells and is recruited to the Golgi by activated Ras. Finally, we found that Rain cooperates with activated Raf and causes synergistic transformation of NIH3T3 cells. Taken together, these observations support a role for Rain as a novel protein that can serve as an effector of endomembrane-localized Ras.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09634, CA42978; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR41115; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM08737

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;21;22353-61

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • R-Ras3/M-Ras induces neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells through cell-type-specific activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

    Kimmelman AC, Nuñez Rodriguez N and Chan AM

    The Derald H. Ruttenberg Cancer Center, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    R-Ras3/M-Ras is a novel member of the Ras subfamily of GTP-binding proteins which has a unique expression pattern highly restricted to the mammalian central nervous system. In situ hybridization using an R-Ras3 cRNA probe revealed high levels of R-Ras3 transcripts in the hippocampal region of the mouse brain as well as a pattern of expression in the cerebellum that was distinct from that of H-Ras. We found that R-Ras3 was activated by nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor as well as by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GRP but not by epidermal growth factor. Ectopic expression of either R-Ras3 or GRP in PC12 cells induced efficient neuronal differentiation. The ability of NGF as well as GRP to promote differentiation of PC12 cells was attenuated by an R-Ras3 dominant-negative mutant. Furthermore, the biological action of R-Ras3 in PC12 cells was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Interestingly, whereas R-Ras3 was unable to mediate efficient activation of MAPK activity in NIH 3T3 cells, it was able to do so in PC12 cells. This cell-type specificity is in stark contrast to that of H-Ras, which can stimulate the MAPK pathway in both cell types. Indeed, this pattern of MAPK activation could be explained by the fact that R-Ras3 was unable to activate c-Raf, while it bound and stimulated the neuronal Raf isoform, B-Raf, in PC12 cells. Thus, R-Ras3 is implicated in a novel pathway of neuronal differentiation by coupling specific trophic factors to the MAPK cascade through the activation of B-Raf.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66654, CA78207, CA78509, T32 CA078207; NIMH NIH HHS: MH59771, R01 MH059771

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;16;5946-61

  • The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1.

    Ortiz-Vega S, Khokhlatchev A, Nedwidek M, Zhang XF, Dammann R, Pfeifer GP and Avruch J

    Diabetes Unit and Medical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, MA 02114, USA.

    Nore and RASSF1A are noncatalytic proteins that share 50% identity over their carboxyterminal 300 AA, a segment that encompasses a putative Ras-Rap association (RA) domain. RASSF1 is expressed as several splice variants, each of which contain an RA domain, however the 340 AA RASSF1A, but not the shorter RASSF1C variant, is a putative tumor suppressor. Nore binds to Ras and several Ras-like GTPases in a GTP dependent fashion however neither RASSF1 (A or C) or the C. elegans Nore/RASSF1 homolog, T24F1.3 exhibit any interaction with Ras or six other Ras-like GTPases in a yeast two-hybrid expression assay. A low recovery of RASSF1A (but not RASSF1C) in association with RasG12V is observed however on transient expression in COS cells. Nore and RASSF1A can each efficiently homodimerize and heterodimerize with each other through their nonhomologous aminoterminal segments. Recombinant RASSF1C exhibits a much weaker ability to homodimerize or heterodimerize; thus the binding of RASSF1C to Nore is very much less than the binding of RASSF1A to Nore. The association of RASSF1A with RasG12V in COS cells appears to reflect the heterodimerization of RASSF1A with Nore, inasmuch the recovery of RASSF1A with RasG12V is increased by concurrent expression of full length Nore, and abolished by expression of Nore deleted of its RA domain. The preferential ability of RASSF1A to heterodimerize with Nore and thereby associate with Ras-like GTPases may be relevant to its putative tumor suppressor function.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: T32DK07028

    Oncogene 2002;21;9;1381-90

  • Identification and characterization of RA-GEF-2, a Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor that serves as a downstream target of M-Ras.

    Gao X, Satoh T, Liao Y, Song C, Hu CD, Kariya Ki K and Kataoka T

    Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Japan.

    The Ras family small GTPase Rap is regulated by an array of specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in response to upstream stimuli. RA-GEF-1 was identified as a novel Rap GEF, which possesses a Ras/Rap1-associating (RA) domain. Here we report a protein closely related to RA-GEF-1, named RA-GEF-2. Like RA-GEF-1, a putative cyclic nucleotide monophosphate-binding domain, a Ras exchanger motif, a PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 domain, and an RA domain in addition to the GEF catalytic domain are found in RA-GEF-2. However, RA-GEF-2 displays a different tissue distribution profile from that of RA-GEF-1. RA-GEF-2 stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange of both Rap1 and Rap2, but not Ha-Ras. The RA domain of RA-GEF-2 binds to M-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner, but not to other Ras family GTPases tested, including Ha-Ras, N-Ras, Rap1A, Rap2A, R-Ras, RalA, Rin, Rit, and Rheb, in contrast to the RA domain of RA-GEF-1, which specifically binds to Rap1. In accordance with this, RA-GEF-2 colocalizes with activated M-Ras in the plasma membrane in COS-7 cells, suggesting a role of RA-GEF-2 in the regulation of Rap1 and Rap2, particularly in the plasma membrane. In fact, an increase in the level of the GTP-bound form of plasma membrane-located Rap1 was observed when coexpressed with RA-GEF-2 and activated M-Ras. Thus, RA-GEF-2 acts as a GEF for Rap1 and Rap2 downstream of M-Ras in the plasma membrane, whereas RA-GEF-1 exerts Rap GEF function in perinuclear compartments including the Golgi apparatus.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;45;42219-25

  • Identification of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rap1 GTPase. Regulation of MR-GEF by M-Ras-GTP interaction.

    Rebhun JF, Castro AF and Quilliam LA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

    Although the Ras subfamily of GTPases consists of approximately 20 members, only a limited number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that couple extracellular stimuli to Ras protein activation have been identified. Furthermore, no novel downstream effectors have been identified for the M-Ras/R-Ras3 GTPase. Here we report the identification and characterization of three Ras family GEFs that are most abundantly expressed in brain. Two of these GEFs, MR-GEF (M-Ras-regulated GEF, KIAA0277) and PDZ-GEF (KIAA0313) bound specifically to nucleotide-free Rap1 and Rap1/Rap2, respectively. Both proteins functioned as Rap1 GEFs in vivo. A third GEF, GRP3 (KIAA0846), activated both Ras and Rap1 and shared significant sequence homology with the calcium- and diacylglycerol-activated GEFs, GRP1 and GRP2. Similarly to previously identified Rap GEFs, C3G and Smg GDS, each of the newly identified exchange factors promoted the activation of Elk-1 in the LNCaP prostate tumor cell line where B-Raf can couple Rap1 to the extracellular receptor-activated kinase cascade. MR-GEF and PDZ-GEF both contain a region immediately N-terminal to their catalytic domains that share sequence homology with Ras-associating or RalGDS/AF6 homology (RA) domains. By searching for in vitro interaction with Ras-GTP proteins, PDZ-GEF specifically bound to Rap1A- and Rap2B-GTP, whereas MR-GEF bound to M-Ras-GTP. C-terminally truncated MR-GEF, lacking the GEF catalytic domain, retained its ability to bind M-Ras-GTP, suggesting that the RA domain is important for this interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the interaction of M-Ras-GTP with MR-GEF in vivo. In addition, a constitutively active M-Ras(71L) mutant inhibited the ability of MR-GEF to promote Rap1A activation in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that M-Ras may inhibit Rap1 in order to elicit its biological effects.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;45;34901-8

  • R-Ras3, a brain-specific Ras-related protein, activates Akt and promotes cell survival in PC12 cells.

    Kimmelman AC, Osada M and Chan AM

    The Derald H Ruttenberg Cancer Center, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    The GTP-binding protein, R-Ras3/M-Ras, is a novel member of the Ras subfamily of GTPases which shows highest sequence similarity to the TC21 gene. R-Ras3 is highly expressed in both human and mouse brain and ectopic expression of a constitutively active mutant of R-Ras3 induces cellular transformation in NIH3T3 cells. To gain further insight into the normal cellular function of R-Ras3, we examined the ability of R-Ras3 in activating several known intracellular signaling cascades. We observed that R-Ras3 is a relatively weak activator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERKs) when compared to the H-Ras oncogene. On the contrary, both R-Ras3 and H-Ras activated the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to a similar extent. Under similar experimental conditions, R-Ras3 significantly stimulated one of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) downstream substrates, Akt/PKB/RAC (Akt), which has been extensively implicated in mediating cell survival signaling. The activation of Akt by R-Ras3 was most likely to be PI3-K-dependent since this biochemical event was blocked by the pharmacological inhibitors, Wortmannin and LY294002, as well as by a dominant negative mutant of PI3-K. More importantly, R-Ras3 affinity-precipitated PI3-K from cell extracts in a GTP-dependent manner, and associated lipid kinase activity was readily detectable in R-Ras3 immune complexes. The biological significance of R-Ras3 in inducing Akt kinase activity is evidenced by the ability of an activated R-Ras3 to confer cell survival in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. As expected, this biological activity of R-Ras3 was also abrogated by the addition of LY294002. Thus, R-Ras3 represents a novel G-protein which may play a role in cell survival of neural-derived cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66654, CA78509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH59771; ...

    Oncogene 2000;19;16;2014-22

  • M-Ras, a widely expressed 29-kD homologue of p21 Ras: expression of a constitutively active mutant results in factor-independent growth of an interleukin-3-dependent cell line.

    Ehrhardt GR, Leslie KB, Lee F, Wieler JS and Schrader JW

    The Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

    M-Ras, a recently identified homologue of p21 Ras, is widely expressed, with levels of the 29-kD protein in spleen, thymus, and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts equaling or exceeding those of p21 Ras. A G22V mutant of M-Ras was constitutively active and its expression in an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent mast cell/megakaryocyte cell line resulted in increased survival in the absence of IL-3, increased growth in IL-4, and, at high expression levels, in factor-independent growth. Expression of M-Ras G22V, however, had a negative effect on growth in the presence of IL-3, suggesting that M-Ras has both positive and negative effects on growth. Expression of M-Ras G22V in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts resulted in morphological transformation and growth to higher cell densities. M-Ras G22V induced activation of the c-fos promoter, and bound weakly to the Ras-binding domains of Raf-1 and RalGDS. Expression of a mutant of M-Ras G22V that was no longer membrane-bound partially inhibited (40%) activation of the c-fos promoter by N-Ras Q61K, suggesting that M-Ras shared some, but not all, of the effectors of N-Ras. An S27N mutant of M-Ras, like the analogous H-Ras S17N mutant, was a dominant inhibitor of activation of the c-fos promoter by constitutively active Src Y527F, suggesting that M-Ras and p21 Ras shared guanine nucleotide exchange factors and are likely to be activated in parallel. Moreover, M-Ras was recognized by the monoclonal anti-Ras antibody Y13-259, commonly used to study the function and activity of p21 Ras. Mammalian M-Ras and a Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue exhibit conserved structural features, and these are likely to mediate activation of distinctive signaling paths that function in parallel to those downstream of p21 Ras.

    Blood 1999;94;7;2433-44

  • Interleukin-9-induced expression of M-Ras/R-Ras3 oncogene in T-helper clones.

    Louahed J, Grasso L, De Smet C, Van Roost E, Wildmann C, Nicolaides NC, Levitt RC and Renauld JC

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch, Belgium.

    In an attempt to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in interleukin-9 (IL-9) activities, representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to identify messages that are induced by IL-9 in a murine T-helper-cell clone. One of the isolated genes encodes for the newly described M-Ras or R-Ras3, which is part of the Ras gene superfamily. M-Ras expression was found to be induced by IL-9 but not IL-2 or IL-4 in various murine T-helper-cell clones, and this induction seems to be dependent on the JAK/STAT pathway. Contrasting with the potent upregulation of M-Ras expression, M-Ras was not activated by IL-9 at the level of guanosine triphosphate/guanosine diphosphate (GTP/GDP) binding. However, IL-3 increased GTP binding to M-Ras, suggesting that M-Ras induction might represent a new mechanism of cooperativity between cytokines such as IL-3 and IL-9. Constitutively activated M-Ras mutants induced activation of Elk transcription factor by triggering the MAP kinase pathway and allowed for IL-3-independent proliferation of BaF3 cells. Taken together, these results show that cytokines such as IL-9 can regulate the expression of a member of the RAS family possibly involved in growth-factor signal transduction.

    Blood 1999;94;5;1701-10

  • M-Ras/R-Ras3, a transforming ras protein regulated by Sos1, GRF1, and p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein, interacts with the putative Ras effector AF6.

    Quilliam LA, Castro AF, Rogers-Graham KS, Martin CB, Der CJ and Bi C

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. lquillia@iupui.edu

    M-Ras is a Ras-related protein that shares approximately 55% identity with K-Ras and TC21. The M-Ras message was widely expressed but was most predominant in ovary and brain. Similarly to Ha-Ras, expression of mutationally activated M-Ras in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts or C2 myoblasts resulted in cellular transformation or inhibition of differentiation, respectively. M-Ras only weakly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), but it cooperated with Raf, Rac, and Rho to induce transforming foci in NIH 3T3 cells, suggesting that M-Ras signaled via alternate pathways to these effectors. Although the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor, PD98059, blocked M-Ras-induced transformation, M-Ras was more effective than an activated mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase mutant at inducing focus formation. These data indicate that multiple pathways must contribute to M-Ras-induced transformation. M-Ras interacted poorly in a yeast two-hybrid assay with multiple Ras effectors, including c-Raf-1, A-Raf, B-Raf, phosphoinositol-3 kinase delta, RalGDS, and Rin1. Although M-Ras coimmunoprecipitated with AF6, a putative regulator of cell junction formation, overexpression of AF6 did not contribute to fibroblast transformation, suggesting the possibility of novel effector proteins. The M-Ras GTP/GDP cycle was sensitive to the Ras GEFs, Sos1, and GRF1 and to p120 Ras GAP. Together, these findings suggest that while M-Ras is regulated by similar upstream stimuli to Ha-Ras, novel targets may be responsible for its effects on cellular transformation and differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63139, CA69577

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;34;23850-7

  • Identification and characterization of R-ras3: a novel member of the RAS gene family with a non-ubiquitous pattern of tissue distribution.

    Kimmelman A, Tolkacheva T, Lorenzi MV, Osada M and Chan AM

    The Derald H. Ruttenberg Cancer Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    Members of the Ras subfamily of GTP-binding proteins, including Ras (H-, K-, and N-), TC21, and R-ras have been shown to display transforming activity, and activating lesions have been detected in human tumors. We have identified an additional member of the Ras gene family which shows significant sequence similarity to the human TC21 gene. This novel human ras-related gene, R-ras3, encodes for a protein of 209 amino acids, and shows approximately 60-75% sequence identity in the N-terminal catalytic domain with members of the Ras subfamily of GTP-binding proteins. An activating mutation corresponding to the leucine 61 oncogenic lesion of the ras oncogenes when introduced into R-ras3, activates its transforming potential. R-ras3 weakly stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, but this effect is greatly potentiated by the co-expression of c-raf-1. By the yeast two-hybrid system, R-ras3 interacts only weakly with known Ras effectors, such as Raf and RalGDS, but not with RglII. In addition, R-ras3 displays modest stimulatory effects on trans-activation from different nuclear response elements which bind transcription factors, such as SRF, ETS/TCF, Jun/Fos, and NF-kappaB/Rel. Interestingly, Northern blot analysis of total RNA isolated from various tissues revealed that the 3.8 kilobasepair (kb) transcript of R-ras3 is highly restricted to the brain and heart. The close evolutionary conservation between R-ras3 and Ras family members, in contrast to the significant differences in its biological activities and the pattern of tissue expression, raise the possibility that R-ras3 may control novel cellular functions previously not described for other GTP-binding proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66654

    Oncogene 1997;15;22;2675-85

  • Novel small GTPase M-Ras participates in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton.

    Matsumoto K, Asano T and Endo T

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

    During an attempt to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle cell differentiation, we cloned cDNAs encoding a novel small GTPase from cDNA libraries of the mouse skeletal muscle cell line C2 and rat brain. It was designated as M-Ras due to the structural similarity to Ras family proteins. M-Ras contained conserved motifs for GDP/GTP-binding and GTPase activities, whereas it varied from the other Ras family proteins at several amino acids within the extended effector domain. From the C-terminal sequence, M-Ras is presumed to be anchored to the cell membrane with a geranylgeranyl group in combination with a polybasic region. Bacterially expressed recombinant M-Ras exerted the GTP-binding and GTPase activities. A mutant M-RasG22V was unable to hydrolyze bound GTP, indicating that it serves as a constitutively active form. Epitope-tagging experiments showed that M-Ras was concentrated on certain plasma membrane-associated structures. Transfection of M-Ras cDNA and microinjection of the M-RasG22V protein into fibroblasts induced formation of the peripheral microspikes. In addition, the actin stress fibers disappeared and instead numerous actin foci were formed in the injected cells. The transfected cells eventually exhibited dendritic appearances with microspikes. Consequently, M-Ras is likely to participate in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Oncogene 1997;15;20;2409-17

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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