G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5
G00000218 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000069966 (Ensembl human gene)
10681 (Entrez Gene)
378 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNB5 (GeneCards)
604447 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4401 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O14775 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • GB5

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity.

    Hosgood HD, Zhang L, Shen M, Berndt SI, Vermeulen R, Li G, Yin S, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Rothman N, Chanock S, Smith M and Lan Q

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7240, USA. hosgoodd@mail.nih.gov

    Introduction: Benzene is an established human haematotoxin, with substantial interindividual variation in benzene-induced toxicity.

    Methods: To further examine if genetic variation contributes to benzene haematotoxicity, we analysed 1023 tagSNPs in 121 gene regions important for benzene metabolism, haematopoiesis, leukaemia and lymphoma among 250 workers exposed to benzene and 140 unexposed controls in a cross-sectional study carried out in China. Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and total white blood cell (WBC) count and its subtypes, adjusting for potential confounders and occupational exposure to benzene and toluene among exposed workers. The minp test assessed the association on the gene region level. The false discovery rate method was used to control for multiple comparisons.

    Results: VEGF (minp = 0.0030) and ERCC3 (minp = 0.0042) were the most significantly associated gene regions with altered WBC counts among benzene-exposed workers, after accounting for multiple comparisons. Highly significant changes were also found for WBC subtype counts, including granulocytes, CD4+ T cells and lymphocytes for VEGF and granulocytes and NK cells for ERCC3. Further, in workers exposed to <1 ppm, a SNP in VEGF was associated with changes in WBC and granulocyte counts, and SNPs in ERCC3 were associated with changes in WBC, NK cell and granulocyte counts.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in VEGF, which plays an important role in blood vessel growth, and ERCC3, which is a member of the DNA repair pathway and is responsible for repairing bulky DNA adducts formed by chemicals, may contribute to individual susceptibility to benzene-induced haematotoxicity at relatively low levels of benzene exposure.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 CA999999; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES001896, P30ES01896, P42 ES004705, P42ES04705, R01 ES006721, R01ES06721

    Occupational and environmental medicine 2009;66;12;848-53

  • Role of molecular chaperones in G protein beta5/regulator of G protein signaling dimer assembly and G protein betagamma dimer specificity.

    Howlett AC, Gray AJ, Hunter JM and Willardson BM

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.

    The G protein betagamma subunit dimer (Gbetagamma) and the Gbeta5/regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) dimer play fundamental roles in propagating and regulating G protein pathways, respectively. How these complexes form dimers when the individual subunits are unstable is a question that has remained unaddressed for many years. In the case of Gbetagamma, recent studies have shown that phosducin-like protein 1 (PhLP1) works as a co-chaperone with the cytosolic chaperonin complex (CCT) to fold Gbeta and mediate its interaction with Ggamma. However, it is not known what fraction of the many Gbetagamma combinations is assembled this way or whether chaperones influence the specificity of Gbetagamma dimer formation. Moreover, the mechanism of Gbeta5-RGS assembly has yet to be assessed experimentally. The current study was undertaken to directly address these issues. The data show that PhLP1 plays a vital role in the assembly of Ggamma2 with all four Gbeta1-4 subunits and in the assembly of Gbeta2 with all twelve Ggamma subunits, without affecting the specificity of the Gbetagamma interactions. The results also show that Gbeta5-RGS7 assembly is dependent on CCT and PhLP1, but the apparent mechanism is different from that of Gbetagamma. PhLP1 seems to stabilize the interaction of Gbeta5 with CCT until Gbeta5 is folded, after which it is released to allow Gbeta5 to interact with RGS7. These findings point to a general role for PhLP1 in the assembly of all Gbetagamma combinations and suggest a CCT-dependent mechanism for Gbeta5-RGS7 assembly that utilizes the co-chaperone activity of PhLP1 in a unique way.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY012287, R01 EY012287; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM078550, R01 GM078550

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;24;16386-99

  • Gbeta5 is required for normal light responses and morphology of retinal ON-bipolar cells.

    Rao A, Dallman R, Henderson S and Chen CK

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA.

    Gbeta5 exists as two splice variants, Gbeta5-S and Gbeta5-L, which interact with and stabilize the R7 members of the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGSs): RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11. Although the role of Gbeta5-L and RGS9-1 is established in photoreceptors, the physiological functions of Gbeta5-S and other R7 RGS proteins remain unclear. We found that the electroretinogram of Gbeta5-/- mice lacks the b-wave component and that Gbeta5-S and RGS11 colocalize with Go alpha at the tips of the ON-bipolar cell dendrites. Unexpectedly, we found a significant reduction in the number of synaptic triads in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of the Gbeta5-/- mice, which is evident at postnatal day 14. Transgenic expression of Gbeta5-L in rods failed to rescue the b-wave or the OPL defects. These results indicate that Gbeta5-S is indispensable for OPL integrity and normal light responses of the retina.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1P30CA16059; NEI NIH HHS: EY013811; NINDS NIH HHS: 5P30NS047463

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;51;14199-204

  • Identification of Gnr1p, a negative regulator of G alpha signalling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and its complementation by human G beta subunits.

    Goddard A, Ladds G, Forfar R and Davey J

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. A.D.Goddard@warwick.ac.uk

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the response of eukaryotic cells to a wide variety of stimuli, traditionally mediating their effects through heterotrimeric G proteins comprised of G alpha, G beta and G gamma subunits. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an established tool for GPCR research, possessing two G alpha-dependent signalling cascades. A complete G alpha beta gamma complex has been characterised for the glucose-sensing pathway, but only the G alpha subunit, Gpa1p, has been identified in the pheromone-response pathway. Here, we report the use of the yeast two-hybrid system to identify a novel protein, Gnr1p, which interacts with Gpa1p. Gnr1p is predicted to contain seven WD repeats and to adopt a structure similar to typical G beta subunits. Disruption and overexpression studies reveal that Gnr1p negatively regulates the pheromone-response pathway but is not required for signalling. Human G beta subunits complement the loss of Gnr1p, functioning as negative regulators of G alpha signalling in fission yeast.

    Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B 2006;43;12;840-51

  • R7BP augments the function of RGS7*Gbeta5 complexes by a plasma membrane-targeting mechanism.

    Drenan RM, Doupnik CA, Jayaraman M, Buchwalter AL, Kaltenbronn KM, Huettner JE, Linder ME and Blumer KJ

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    The RGS7 (R7) family of G protein regulators, Gbeta5, and R7BP form heterotrimeric complexes that potently regulate the kinetics of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Reversible palmitoylation of R7BP regulates plasma membrane/nuclear shuttling of R7*Gbeta5*R7BP heterotrimers. Here we have investigated mechanisms whereby R7BP controls the function of the R7 family. We show that unpalmitoylated R7BP undergoes nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling and that a C-terminal polybasic motif proximal to the palmitoylation acceptor sites of R7BP mediates nuclear localization, palmitoylation, and plasma membrane targeting. These results suggest a novel mechanism whereby palmitoyltransferases and nuclear import receptors both utilize the C-terminal domain of R7BP to determine the trafficking fate of R7*Gbeta5*R7BP heterotrimers. Analogous mechanisms may regulate other signaling proteins whose distribution between the plasma membrane and nucleus is controlled by palmitoylation. Lastly, we show that cytoplasmic RGS7*Gbeta5*R7BP heterotrimers and RGS7*Gbeta5 heterodimers are equivalently inefficient regulators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling relative to plasma membrane-bound heterotrimers bearing palmitoylated R7BP. Therefore, R7BP augments the function of the complex by a palmitoylation-regulated plasma membrane-targeting mechanism.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075632; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM44592, GM51466; NINDS NIH HHS: NS30888, R01 NS030888

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;38;28222-31

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with beta5 subunit of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein.

    Lwa SH and Chen WN

    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Blk 1 Innovation Centre, 637722, Singapore. SHLwa@yahoo.com

    Background: To isolate cellular proteins interacting with hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX), from HepG2 cells infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    Results: HBV particles were produced in culture medium of HepG2 cells transfected with the mammalian expression vector containing the linear HBV genome, as assessed by commercially available ELISA assay. A cDNA library was made from these cells exposed to HBV. From yeast two hybrid screening with HBX as bait, human guanine nucleotide binding protein beta subunit 5L (GNbeta5) was isolated from the cDNA library constructed in this study as a new HBX-interacting protein. The HBX-GNbeta5 interaction was further supported by mammalian two hybrid assay.

    Conclusion: The use of a cDNA library constructed from HBV-transfected HepG2 cells has resulted in the isolation of new cellular proteins interacting with HBX.

    Virology journal 2005;2;76

  • Enhancement of pheromone response by RGS9 and Gbeta5 in yeast.

    Ajit SK and Young KH

    Neuroscience Discovery Research, Wyeth Research, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA.

    The G-protein gamma-subunit-like (GGL) domain present within a subfamily of RGS proteins binds specifically to Gbeta5. This interaction and resulting biological effect impacts the standard model of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. It has been hypothesized that the RGS/Gbeta5 may potentially substitute for Gbetagamma in the heterotrimeric complex. Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone responsive mating signaling pathway is primarily driven by Gbetagamma. We evaluated GGL containing RGS9 and RGS7 for functional complementation in a RGS (sst2Delta) knockout yeast strain. The potential of Gbeta5 to augment the function of these RGS proteins was also evaluated. While Gbeta5 had no effect on RGS7, coexpression of Gbeta5 with RGS9 enhanced cell cycle arrest, suggesting that under certain conditions, RGS9 and Gbeta5 may possibly function as betagamma dimer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Gbeta5 can complement a ste4Delta, the yeast beta-subunit, thus providing the first evidence of functional complementation of a mammalian Gbeta.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;324;2;686-91

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • R9AP, a membrane anchor for the photoreceptor GTPase accelerating protein, RGS9-1.

    Hu G and Wensel TG

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-9-1.G(beta 5) complex forms the GTPase accelerating protein for G(alpha t) in vertebrate photoreceptors. Although the complex is soluble when expressed in vitro, extraction of the endogenous protein from membranes requires detergents. The detergent extracts contain a complex of RGS9-1, G(beta 5), G(alpha t), and a 25-kDa phosphoprotein, R9AP (RGS9-1-Anchor Protein). R9AP is encoded by one intronless gene in both human and mouse. Full or partial cDNA or genomic clones were obtained from mice, cattle, human, zebrafish, and Xenopus laevis. R9AP mRNA was detected only in the retina, and the protein only in photoreceptors. R9AP binds to the N-terminal domain of RGS9-1, and anchors it to the disk membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane helix.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;15;9755-60

  • G beta association and effector interaction selectivities of the divergent G gamma subunit G gamma(13).

    Blake BL, Wing MR, Zhou JY, Lei Q, Hillmann JR, Behe CI, Morris RA, Harden TK, Bayliss DA, Miller RJ and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina Neuroscience Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA.

    G gamma(13) is a divergent member of the G gamma subunit family considered to be a component of the gustducin G-protein heterotrimer involved in bitter and sweet taste reception in taste bud cells. G gamma(13) contains a C-terminal asparagine-proline-tryptophan (NPW) tripeptide, a hallmark of RGS protein G gamma-like (GGL) domains which dimerize exclusively with G beta(5) subunits. In this study, we investigated the functional range of G gamma(13) assembly with G beta subunits using multiple assays of G beta association and G beta gamma effector modulation. G gamma(13) was observed to associate with all five G beta subunits (G beta(1-5)) upon co-translation in vitro, as well as function with all five G beta subunits in the modulation of Kir3.1/3.4 (GIRK1/4) potassium and N-type (alpha(1B)) calcium channels. Multiple G beta/G gamma(13) pairings were also functional in cellular assays of phospholipase C (PLC) beta 2 activation and inhibition of G alpha(q)-stimulated PLC beta 1 activity. However, upon cellular co-expression of G gamma(13) with different G beta subunits, only G beta(1)/G gamma(13), G beta(3)/G gamma(13), and G beta(4)/G gamma(13) pairings were found to form stable dimers detectable by co-immunoprecipitation under high-detergent cell lysis conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that G gamma(13) forms functional G beta gamma dimers with a range of G beta subunits. Coupled with our detection of G gamma(13) mRNA in mouse and human brain and retina, these results imply that this divergent G gamma subunit can act in signal transduction pathways other than that dedicated to taste reception in sensory lingual tissue.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM29536, GM62338; NIMH NIH HHS: MH001896; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33826, NS39553, R01 NS039553

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;52;49267-74

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • The G protein subunit gene families.

    Downes GB and Gautam N

    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Genomics 1999;62;3;544-52

  • Regulators of G protein signaling 6 and 7. Purification of complexes with gbeta5 and assessment of their effects on g protein-mediated signaling pathways.

    Posner BA, Gilman AG and Harris BA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA.

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins that contain DEP (disheveled, EGL-10, pleckstrin) and GGL (G protein gamma subunit-like) domains form a subfamily that includes the mammalian RGS proteins RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11. We describe the cloning of RGS6 cDNA, the specificity of interaction of RGS6 and RGS7 with G protein beta subunits, and certain biochemical properties of RGS6/beta5 and RGS7/beta5 complexes. After expression in Sf9 cells, complexes of both RGS6 and RGS7 with the Gbeta5 subunit (but not Gbetas 1-4) are found in the cytosol. When purified, these complexes are similar to RGS11/beta5 in that they act as GTPase-activating proteins specifically toward Galpha(o). Unlike conventional G(betagamma) complexes, RGS6/beta5 and RGS7/beta5 do not form heterotrimeric complexes with either Galpha(o)-GDP or Galpha(q)-GDP. Neither RGS6/beta5 nor RGS7/beta5 altered the activity of adenylyl cyclases types I, II, or V, nor were they able to activate either phospholipase C-beta1 or -beta2. However, the RGS/beta5 complexes inhibited beta(1)gamma(2)-mediated activation of phospholipase C-beta2. RGS/beta5 complexes may contribute to the selectivity of signal transduction initiated by receptors coupled to G(i) and G(o) by binding to phospholipase C and stimulating the GTPase activity of Galpha(o).

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;43;31087-93

  • Fidelity of G protein beta-subunit association by the G protein gamma-subunit-like domains of RGS6, RGS7, and RGS11.

    Snow BE, Betts L, Mangion J, Sondek J and Siderovski DP

    Amgen Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G2C1.

    Several regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins contain a G protein gamma-subunit-like (GGL) domain, which, as we have shown, binds to Gbeta5 subunits. Here, we extend our original findings by describing another GGL-domain-containing RGS, human RGS6. When RGS6 is coexpressed with different Gbeta subunits, only RGS6 and Gbeta5 interact. The expression of mRNA for RGS6 and Gbeta5 in human tissues overlaps. Predictions of alpha-helical and coiled-coil character within GGL domains, coupled with measurements of Gbeta binding by GGL domain mutants, support the contention that Ggamma-like regions within RGS proteins interact with Gbeta5 subunits in a fashion comparable to conventional Gbeta/Ggamma pairings. Mutation of the highly conserved Phe-61 residue of Ggamma2 to tryptophan, the residue present in all GGL domains, increases the stability of the Gbeta5/Ggamma2 heterodimer, highlighting the importance of this residue to GGL/Gbeta5 association.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;11;6489-94

  • Gbeta5 prevents the RGS7-Galphao interaction through binding to a distinct Ggamma-like domain found in RGS7 and other RGS proteins.

    Levay K, Cabrera JL, Satpaev DK and Slepak VZ

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology and Neuroscience Program, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

    The G protein beta subunit Gbeta5 deviates significantly from the other four members of Gbeta-subunit family in amino acid sequence and subcellular localization. To detect the protein targets of Gbeta5 in vivo, we have isolated a native Gbeta5 protein complex from the retinal cytosolic fraction and identified the protein tightly associated with Gbeta5 as the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein, RGS7. Here we show that complexes of Gbeta5 with RGS proteins can be formed in vitro from the recombinant proteins. The reconstituted Gbeta5-RGS dimers are similar to the native retinal complex in their behavior on gel-filtration and cation-exchange chromatographies and can be immunoprecipitated with either anti-Gbeta5 or anti-RGS7 antibodies. The specific Gbeta5-RGS7 interaction is determined by a distinct domain in RGS that has a striking homology to Ggamma subunits. Deletion of this domain prevents the RGS7-Gbeta5 binding, although the interaction with Galpha is retained. Substitution of the Ggamma-like domain of RGS7 with a portion of Ggamma1 changes its binding specificity from Gbeta5 to Gbeta1. The interaction of Gbeta5 with RGS7 blocked the binding of RGS7 to the Galpha subunit Galphao, indicating that Gbeta5 is a specific RGS inhibitor.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;5;2503-7

  • A G protein gamma subunit-like domain shared between RGS11 and other RGS proteins specifies binding to Gbeta5 subunits.

    Snow BE, Krumins AM, Brothers GM, Lee SF, Wall MA, Chung S, Mangion J, Arya S, Gilman AG and Siderovski DP

    Quantitative Biology Laboratory, Amgen Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C1.

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) toward the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric, signal-transducing G proteins. RGS11 contains a G protein gamma subunit-like (GGL) domain between its Dishevelled/Egl-10/Pleckstrin and RGS domains. GGL domains are also found in RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and the Caenorhabditis elegans protein EGL-10. Coexpression of RGS11 with different Gbeta subunits reveals specific interaction between RGS11 and Gbeta5. The expression of mRNA for RGS11 and Gbeta5 in human tissues overlaps. The Gbeta5/RGS11 heterodimer acts as a GAP on Galphao, apparently selectively. RGS proteins that contain GGL domains appear to act as GAPs for Galpha proteins and form complexes with specific Gbeta subunits, adding to the combinatorial complexity of G protein-mediated signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497, R01 GM034497, R37 GM034497

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;22;13307-12

  • Cloning and tissue distribution of the human G protein beta 5 cDNA.

    Jones PG, Lombardi SJ and Cockett MI

    Wyeth-Ayerst Research, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA. jonesp1@war.wyeth.com

    Heterotrimeric G proteins integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins. We have cloned the human beta 5 subunit from a human brain cDNA library. The clone has a 1059 bp open reading frame and is highly homologous to the murine clone. In contrast to the brain specific mouse beta 5, northern analysis showed it to be expressed in multiple tissues.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1998;1402;3;288-91

  • Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins: region-specific expression of nine subtypes in rat brain.

    Gold SJ, Ni YG, Dohlman HG and Nestler EJ

    Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA.

    The recently discovered regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins potently modulate the functioning of heterotrimeric G-proteins by stimulating the GTPase activity of G-protein alpha subunits. The mRNAs for numerous subtypes of putative RGS proteins have been identified in mammalian tissues, but little is known about their expression in brain. We performed a systematic survey of the localization of mRNAs encoding nine of these RGSs, RGS3-RGS11, in brain by in situ hybridization. Striking region-specific patterns of expression were observed. Five subtypes, RGS4, RGS7, RGS8, RGS9, and RGS10 mRNAs, are densely expressed in brain, whereas the other subtypes (RGS3, RGS5, RGS6, and RGS11) are expressed at lower density and in more restricted regions. RGS4 mRNA is notable for its dense expression in neocortex, piriform cortex, caudoputamen, and ventrobasal thalamus. RGS8 mRNA is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cell layer as well as in several midbrain nuclei. RGS9 mRNA is remarkable for its nearly exclusive enrichment in striatal regions. RGS10 mRNA is densely expressed in dentate gyrus granule cells, superficial layers of neocortex, and dorsal raphe. To assess whether the expression of RGS mRNAs can be regulated, we examined the effect of an acute seizure on levels of RGS7, RGS8, and RGS10 mRNAs in hippocampus. Of the three subtypes, changes in RGS10 levels were most pronounced, decreasing by approximately 40% in a time-dependent manner in response to a single seizure. These results, which document highly specific patterns of RGS mRNA expression in brain and their ability to be regulated in a dynamic manner, support the view that RGS proteins may play an important role in determining the intensity and specificity of signaling pathways in brain as well as their adaptations to synaptic activity.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA08227; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM55316, R01 GM055316

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1997;17;20;8024-37

  • A novel form of the G protein beta subunit Gbeta5 is specifically expressed in the vertebrate retina.

    Watson AJ, Aragay AM, Slepak VZ and Simon MI

    Division of Biology, 147-75, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    The G protein beta subunit, Gbeta5, is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. In rodent brain, Gbeta5 is expressed as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 39,000 daltons (39 kDa). We have identified an additional Gbeta5 immunoreactive protein of apparent size 44 kDa in the vertebrate retina. Molecular cloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products revealed that the cDNA encoding the larger species of Gbeta5 (Gbeta5L) was identical to the shorter form with the addition of 126 base pairs of 5' DNA sequence potentially encoding an in-frame 42-amino acid extension. Sequencing of mouse Gbeta5 genomic clones demonstrated that the 126-base pair of retinal-specific coding material is derived from a hitherto undetected 5' exon. During sucrose density gradient fractionation of bovine retinas, the 44-kDa Gbeta5L protein co-purified with rod outer segment membranes. Incubation of rod outer segment membranes with the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide, GTPgammaS (guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate), which released the Gbeta subunit of transducin (Gbeta1), failed to remove Gbeta5L. The 39-kDa Gbeta5 protein displayed differential association with retinal and brain membranes. In the retina, Gbeta5 was present as a soluble protein and was undetectable in the membrane fraction, whereas in the brain approximately 70% of Gbeta5 was associated with cellular membranes. In transient COS-7 cell expression experiments, Gbeta5L formed functional Gbetagamma dimers and Galphabetagamma heterotrimers, and activated phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cbeta2 in a manner indistinguishable from the 39-kDa Gbeta5 protein. The cloning of the retinal-specific Gbeta5L cDNA suggests the existence of potentially novel G protein-mediated signaling cascades in photoreception.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34236

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;45;28154-60

  • Differential ability to form the G protein betagamma complex among members of the beta and gamma subunit families.

    Yan K, Kalyanaraman V and Gautam N

    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    We have determined the relative abilities of several members of the G protein beta and gamma subunit families to associate with each other using the yeast two-hybrid system. We show first that the mammalian beta1 and gamma3 fusion proteins form a complex in yeast and that formation of the complex activates the reporter gene for beta-galactosidase. Second, the magnitude of reporter activity stimulated by various combinations of beta and gamma subunit types varies widely. Third, the reporter activity evoked by a particular combination of beta and gamma subunit types is not correlated with the expression levels of these subunit types in the yeast cells. Finally, the reporter activity shows a direct relationship with the amount of hybrid betagamma complex formed in the cell as determined by immunoprecipitation. These results suggest that different beta and gamma subunit types interact with each other with widely varying abilities, and this in combination with the level of expression of a subunit type in a mammalian cell determines which G protein will be active in that cell. The strong preference of all gamma subunit types for the beta1 subunit type explains the preponderence of this subunit type in most G proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;12;7141-6

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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