G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001466
Gene symbol
GNB2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2
Orthologue
G00000217 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023610 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000172354 (Ensembl human gene)
2783 (Entrez Gene)
26 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNB2 (GeneCards)
Literature
139390 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4398 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P62879 (UniProt)

Literature (35)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Identification of Gnr1p, a negative regulator of G alpha signalling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and its complementation by human G beta subunits.

    Goddard A, Ladds G, Forfar R and Davey J

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. A.D.Goddard@warwick.ac.uk

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the response of eukaryotic cells to a wide variety of stimuli, traditionally mediating their effects through heterotrimeric G proteins comprised of G alpha, G beta and G gamma subunits. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an established tool for GPCR research, possessing two G alpha-dependent signalling cascades. A complete G alpha beta gamma complex has been characterised for the glucose-sensing pathway, but only the G alpha subunit, Gpa1p, has been identified in the pheromone-response pathway. Here, we report the use of the yeast two-hybrid system to identify a novel protein, Gnr1p, which interacts with Gpa1p. Gnr1p is predicted to contain seven WD repeats and to adopt a structure similar to typical G beta subunits. Disruption and overexpression studies reveal that Gnr1p negatively regulates the pheromone-response pathway but is not required for signalling. Human G beta subunits complement the loss of Gnr1p, functioning as negative regulators of G alpha signalling in fission yeast.

    Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B 2006;43;12;840-51

  • The molecular basis for T-type Ca2+ channel inhibition by G protein beta2gamma2 subunits.

    DePuy SD, Yao J, Hu C, McIntire W, Bidaud I, Lory P, Rastinejad F, Gonzalez C, Garrison JC and Barrett PQ

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Gbetagamma, a ubiquitous second messenger, relays external signals from G protein-coupled receptors to networks of intracellular effectors, including voltage-dependent calcium channels. Unlike high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, the inhibition of low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels is subtype-dependent and mediated selectively by Gbeta(2)-containing dimers. Yet, the molecular basis for this exquisite selectivity remains unknown. Here, we used pure recombinant Gbetagamma subunits to establish that the Gbeta(2)gamma(2) dimer can selectively reconstitute the inhibition of alpha(1H) channels in isolated membrane patches. This inhibition is the result of a reduction in channel open probability that is not accompanied by a change in channel expression or an alteration in active-channel gating. By exchanging residues between the active Gbeta(2) subunit and the inactive Gbeta(1) subunit, we identified a cluster of amino acids that functionally distinguish Gbeta(2) from other Gbeta subunits. These amino acids on the beta-torus identify a region that is distinct from those regions that contact the Galpha subunit or other effectors.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 36977, R01 HL036977; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 19952, R01 DK019952

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;39;14590-5

  • Ataxin 10 induces neuritogenesis via interaction with G-protein beta2 subunit.

    Waragai M, Nagamitsu S, Xu W, Li YJ, Lin X and Ashizawa T

    Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0539, USA.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is a dominantly inherited disorder caused by an intronic ATTCT pentanucleotide repeat expansion. The ATXN10 gene encodes a novel protein, ataxin 10, known previously as E46L, which is widely expressed in the brain. Ataxin 10 deficiency has been shown recently to cause increased apoptosis in primary cerebellar cultures, thus implicated in SCA10 pathogenesis. The biologic functions of ataxin 10 remain largely unknown. By using yeast-two-hybrid screening of a human brain cDNA library, we identified the G-protein beta2 subunit (Gbeta2) as an ataxin 10 binding partner, and the interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells in culture. Overexpression of ataxin 10 in PC12 cells induced neurite extension and enhanced neuronal differentiation induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, coexpression of ataxin 10 and Gbeta2 potently activated the Ras-MAP kinase-Elk-1 cascade. Dominant negative Ras or inhibitor of MEK-1/2 (U0126) aborted this activation, and blocked morphologic changes, whereas inhibition of TrkA receptor by K252a had no effects. Our data suggest that the ataxin 10-Gbeta2 interaction represents a novel mechanism for inducing neuritogenesis in PC12 cells by activating the Ras-MAP kinase-Elk-1 cascade.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS041547, R01 NS041547-06A1, R01-NS041547

    Journal of neuroscience research 2006;83;7;1170-8

  • Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.

    Oh JH, Yang JO, Hahn Y, Kim MR, Byun SS, Jeon YJ, Kim JM, Song KS, Noh SM, Kim S, Yoo HS, Kim YS and Kim NS

    Laboratory of Human Genomics, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon , 305-333, Korea.

    To elucidate the genetic events associated with gastric cancer, 124,704 cDNA clones were collected from 37 human gastric cDNA libraries, including 20 full-length enriched cDNA libraries of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues from Korean patients. An analysis of the collected ESTs revealed that 97,930 high-quality ESTs coalesced into 13,001 clusters, of which 11,135 clusters (85.6%) were annotated to known ESTs. The analysis of the full-length cDNAs also revealed that 4862 clusters (51.7%) contained at least one putative full-length cDNA clone with an initiation codon, with the average length of the 5' UTR of 140 bp. A large number appear to have a diverse transcription start site (TSS). An examination of the TSS of some genes, such as TEGT and GAPD, using 5' RACE revealed that the predicted TSSs are actually found in human gastric cancer cells and that several TSSs differ depending on the specific gastric cell line. Furthermore, of the human gastric ESTs, 766 genes (9.5%) were present as putative alternatively spliced variants. Confirmation of the predicted spliced isoforms using RT-PCR showed that the predicted isoforms exist in gastric cancer cells and some isoforms coexist in gastric cell lines. These results provide potentially useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with gastric oncogenesis.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;12;942-54

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • G protein beta interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and suppresses its transcriptional activity in the nucleus.

    Kino T, Tiulpakov A, Ichijo T, Chheng L, Kozasa T and Chrousos GP

    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. kinot@mail.nih.gov

    Extracellular stimuli that activate cell surface receptors modulate glucocorticoid actions via as yet unclear mechanisms. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor-activated WD-repeat Gbeta interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), comigrates with it into the nucleus and suppresses GR-induced transactivation of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes. Association of Ggamma with Gbeta is necessary for this action of Gbeta. Both endogenous and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused Gbeta2 and Ggamma2 proteins were detected in the nucleus at baseline, whereas a fraction of EGFP-Gbeta2 and DsRed2-GR comigrated to the nucleus or the plasma membrane, depending on the exposure of cells to dexamethasone or somatostatin, respectively. Gbeta2 was associated with GR/glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) in vivo and suppressed activation function-2-directed transcriptional activity of the GR. We conclude that the Gbetagamma complex interacts with the GR and suppresses its transcriptional activity by associating with the transcriptional complex formed on GR-responsive promoters.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;169;6;885-96

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Interaction of retroviral Tax oncoproteins with tristetraprolin and regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression.

    Twizere JC, Kruys V, Lefèbvre L, Vanderplasschen A, Collete D, Debacq C, Lai WS, Jauniaux JC, Bernstein LR, Semmes OJ, Burny A, Blackshear PJ, Kettmann R and Willems L

    Biologie cellulaire et moléculaire, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques, Gembloux, Belgium.

    Background: The Tax oncoproteins are transcriptional regulators of viral expression involved in pathogenesis induced by complex leukemogenic retroviruses (or delta-retroviruses, i.e., primate T-cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus). To better understand the molecular pathways leading to cell transformation, we aimed to identify cellular proteins interacting with Tax.

    Methods: We used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify interacting cellular proteins. Interactions between Tax and candidate interacting cellular proteins were confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy. Functional interactions between Tax and one interacting protein, tristetraprolin (TTP), were assessed by analyzing the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which is regulated by TTP, in mammalian cells (HeLa, D17, HEK 293, and RAW 264.7) transiently transfected with combinations of intact and mutant Tax and TTP.

    Results: We obtained seven interacting cellular proteins, of which one, TTP, was further characterized. Tax and TTP were found to interact specifically through their respective carboxyl-terminal domains. The proteins colocalized in the cytoplasm in a region surrounding the nucleus of HeLa cells. Furthermore, coexpression of Tax was associated with nuclear accumulation of TTP. TTP is an immediate-early protein that inhibits expression of TNF-alpha at the post-transcriptional level. Expression of Tax reverted this inhibition, both in transient transfection experiments and in stably transfected macrophage cell lines.

    Conclusion: Tax, through its interactions with the TTP repressor, indirectly increases TNF-alpha expression. This observation is of importance for the cell transformation process induced by leukemogenic retroviruses, because TNF-alpha overexpression plays a central role in pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5 R29 CA73783, R01 CA076595

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003;95;24;1846-59

  • Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG and Huber PA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56045

    Experimental cell research 2003;289;2;211-21

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism.

    Jiang G and Zhang BB

    Department of Metabolic Disorders and Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratory, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA.

    As a counterregulatory hormone for insulin, glucagon plays a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in vivo in both animals and humans. To increase blood glucose, glucagon promotes hepatic glucose output by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in a concerted fashion via multiple mechanisms. Compared with healthy subjects, diabetic patients and animals have abnormal secretion of not only insulin but also glucagon. Hyperglucagonemia and altered insulin-to-glucagon ratios play important roles in initiating and maintaining pathological hyperglycemic states. Not surprisingly, glucagon and glucagon receptor have been pursued extensively in recent years as potential targets for the therapeutic treatment of diabetes.

    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2003;284;4;E671-8

  • Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 IN Gbeta.

    Cuello F, Schulze RA, Heemeyer F, Meyer HE, Lutz S, Jakobs KH, Niroomand F and Wieland T

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fakultät für Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Maybachstrasse 14-16, D-68169 Mannheim, Germany.

    G protein betagamma dimers can be phosphorylated in membranes from various tissues by GTP at a histidine residue in the beta subunit. The phosphate is high energetic and can be transferred onto GDP leading to formation of GTP. Purified Gbetagamma dimers do not display autophosphorylation, indicating the involvement of a separate protein kinase. We therefore enriched the Gbeta-phosphorylating activity present in preparations of the retinal G protein transducin and in partially purified G(i/o) proteins from bovine brain. Immunoblots, autophosphorylation, and enzymatic activity measurements demonstrated enriched nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B in both preparations, together with residual Gbetagamma dimers. In the retinal NDPK B-enriched fractions, a Gbeta-specific antiserum co-precipitated phosphorylated NDPK B, and an antiserum against the human NDPK co-precipitated phosphorylated Gbetagamma. In addition, the NDPK-containing fractions from bovine brain reconstituted the phosphorylation of purified Gbetagamma. For identification of the phosphorylated histidine residue, bovine brain Gbetagamma and G(t)betagamma were thiophosphorylated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate, followed by digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C and trypsin, separation of the resulting peptides by gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively, and sequencing of the radioactive peptides. The sequence information produced by both methods identified specific labeled fragments of bovine Gbeta(1) that overlapped in the heptapeptide, Leu-Met-Thr-Tyr-Ser-His-Asp (amino acids 261-267). We conclude that NDPK B forms complexes with Gbetagamma dimers and contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP via intermediately phosphorylated His-266 in Gbeta(1) subunits.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7220-6

  • The role of G protein beta subunits in the release of ATP from human erythrocytes.

    Sprague RS, Bowles EA, Olearczyk JJ, Stephenson AH and Lonigro AJ

    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, MO 63104, USA. spraguer@slu.edu

    Previously, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from human erythrocytes in response to mechanical deformation and that this release requires activation of a signal-transduction pathway involving adenylyl cyclase and the heterotrimeric G protein, Gs. Here we investigate the role of heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gi subtype in the release of ATP from human erythrocytes. In addition, we determined the profile of heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits present in these erythrocyte membranes. The activity of Gi was stimulated by incubation of erythrocytes (20% hematocrit) with mastoparin (10 microM). ATP release was measured using the luciferin/luciferase assay. Heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits present in erythrocyte membranes were resolved using gel electrophoresis and subunit specific antibodies. Incubation of human erythrocytes with mastoparan (an activator of Gi/o) resulted in a 4.1 +/- 0.6-fold increase in ATP present in the medium (P<0.01). Human erythrocyte membranes stain positively for beta subunit types 1, 2, 3 and 4, all of which been reported to activate of some isoforms of adenylyl cyclase. Activation of the heterotrimeric G protein, Gi, results in ATP release from erythrocytes. This effect is may be related to the activity of beta subunits associated with this G protein in the human erythrocyte.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-39226, HL-51298, HL-52675

    Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 2002;53;4 Pt 1;667-74

  • G beta association and effector interaction selectivities of the divergent G gamma subunit G gamma(13).

    Blake BL, Wing MR, Zhou JY, Lei Q, Hillmann JR, Behe CI, Morris RA, Harden TK, Bayliss DA, Miller RJ and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina Neuroscience Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA.

    G gamma(13) is a divergent member of the G gamma subunit family considered to be a component of the gustducin G-protein heterotrimer involved in bitter and sweet taste reception in taste bud cells. G gamma(13) contains a C-terminal asparagine-proline-tryptophan (NPW) tripeptide, a hallmark of RGS protein G gamma-like (GGL) domains which dimerize exclusively with G beta(5) subunits. In this study, we investigated the functional range of G gamma(13) assembly with G beta subunits using multiple assays of G beta association and G beta gamma effector modulation. G gamma(13) was observed to associate with all five G beta subunits (G beta(1-5)) upon co-translation in vitro, as well as function with all five G beta subunits in the modulation of Kir3.1/3.4 (GIRK1/4) potassium and N-type (alpha(1B)) calcium channels. Multiple G beta/G gamma(13) pairings were also functional in cellular assays of phospholipase C (PLC) beta 2 activation and inhibition of G alpha(q)-stimulated PLC beta 1 activity. However, upon cellular co-expression of G gamma(13) with different G beta subunits, only G beta(1)/G gamma(13), G beta(3)/G gamma(13), and G beta(4)/G gamma(13) pairings were found to form stable dimers detectable by co-immunoprecipitation under high-detergent cell lysis conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that G gamma(13) forms functional G beta gamma dimers with a range of G beta subunits. Coupled with our detection of G gamma(13) mRNA in mouse and human brain and retina, these results imply that this divergent G gamma subunit can act in signal transduction pathways other than that dedicated to taste reception in sensory lingual tissue.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM29536, GM62338; NIMH NIH HHS: MH001896; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33826, NS39553, R01 NS039553

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;52;49267-74

  • Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs.

    Suzuki H, Fukunishi Y, Kagawa I, Saito R, Oda H, Endo T, Kondo S, Bono H, Okazaki Y and Hayashizaki Y

    Laboratory for Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.

    We have developed a novel assay system for systematic analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that is characteristic of a PCR-mediated rapid sample preparation and a high-throughput assay system based on the mammalian two-hybrid method. Using gene-specific primers, we successfully constructed the assay samples by two rounds of PCR with up to 3.6 kb from the first-round PCR fragments. In the assay system, we designed all the steps to be performed by adding only samples, reagents, and cells into 384-well assay plates using two types of semiautomatic multiple dispensers. The system enabled us examine more than 20,000 assay wells per day. We detected 145 interactions in our pilot study using 3500 samples derived from mouse full-length enriched cDNAs. Analysis of the interaction data showed both several significant interaction clusters and predicted functions of a few uncharacterized proteins. In combination with our comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA clone bank covering a large part of the whole genes, our high-throughput assay system will discover many interactions to facilitate understanding of the function of uncharacterized proteins and the molecular mechanism of crucial biological processes, and also enable completion of a rough draft of the entire PPI panel in certain cell types or tissues of mouse within a short time.

    Genome research 2001;11;10;1758-65

  • The G protein subunit gene families.

    Downes GB and Gautam N

    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Genomics 1999;62;3;544-52

  • Selective association of G protein beta(4) with gamma(5) and gamma(12) subunits in bovine tissues.

    Asano T, Morishita R, Ueda H and Kato K

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi 480-0392, Japan. toasano@inst-hsc.pref.aichi.jp

    The beta and gamma subunits of G proteins are tightly bound under physiological conditions, and so far, seven beta and 11 gamma subunit isoforms have been found. The relative abilities of the beta and gamma subunits to associate with each other have been studied using transfected cell assays, in vitro translation and the yeast two-hybrid system, but have not been fully characterized in various tissues. In the present study, we demonstrated the selectivity of association of the beta with gamma isoforms in bovine tissues. Immunoprecipitation of betagamma complexes from tissue extracts with antibodies against various gamma subunits and subsequent analyses revealed that beta(4) associated with the gamma subunits with the following rank order of selectivity: gamma(5) > gamma(12) > gamma(2) > gamma(3), while beta(2) bound to gamma(2), gamma(3), and gamma(12) more selectively than to gamma(5). By contrast, beta(1) associated with all gamma subunits without significant selectivity. Analyses of purified betagamma complexes containing various gamma isoforms revealed beta subunit compositions similar to those found in the immunoprecipitates. Particular combinations of beta and gamma subunit isoforms may contribute to maintaining efficient and specific signal transduction mediated by G proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;30;21425-9

  • CCG repeats in cDNAs from human brain.

    Kleiderlein JJ, Nisson PE, Jessee J, Li WB, Becker KG, Derby ML, Ross CA and Margolis RL

    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

    Expansion mutations of trinucleotide repeats and other units of unstable DNA have been proposed to account for at least some of the genetic susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, autism, and panic disorder. To generate additional candidate genes for these and other disorders, cDNA libraries from human brain were probed at high stringency for clones containing CCG, CGC, GCC, CGG, GCG, and GGC repeats (referred to collectively as CCG repeats). Some 18 cDNAs containing previously unpublished or uncharacterized repeats were characterized for chromosomal locus, repeat length polymorphism, and similarity to genes of known function. The cDNAs were also compared with the 37 human genes with eight or more consecutive CCG triplets in GenBank. The repeats were mapped to a number of loci, including 1p34, 2p11.2, 2q30-32, 3p21, 3p22, 4q35, 6q22, 7qter, 13p13, 17q24, 18p11, 19p13.3, 20q12, 20q13.3, and 22q12. Length polymorphism was detected in 50% of the repeats. The newly cloned cDNAs include a complete transcript of human neurexin-1B, a portion of BCNG-1 (a newly described brain-specific ion channel), a previously unreported polymorphic repeat located in the 5' UTR region of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) beta2 subunit, and a human version of the mouse proline-rich protein 7. This list of cDNAs should expedite the search for expansion mutations associated with diseases of the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH01275, MH50763

    Human genetics 1998;103;6;666-73

  • Large-scale sequencing of two regions in human chromosome 7q22: analysis of 650 kb of genomic sequence around the EPO and CUTL1 loci reveals 17 genes.

    Glöckner G, Scherer S, Schattevoy R, Boright A, Weber J, Tsui LC and Rosenthal A

    Department of Genome Analysis, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMB), 07745 Jena, Germany.

    We have sequenced and annotated two genomic regions located in the Giemsa negative band q22 of human chromosome 7. The first region defined by the erythropoietin (EPO) locus is 228 kb in length and contains 13 genes. Whereas 3 genes (GNB2, EPO, PCOLCE) were known previously on the mRNA level, we have been able to identify 10 novel genes using a newly developed automatic annotation tool RUMMAGE-DP, which comprises >26 different programs mainly for exon prediction, homology searches, and compositional and repeat analysis. For precise annotation we have also resequenced ESTs identified to the region and assembled them to build large cDNAs. In addition, we have investigated the differential splicing of genes. Using these tools we annotated 4 of the 10 genes as a zonadhesin, a transferrin homolog, a nucleoporin-like gene, and an actin gene. Two genes showed weak similarity to an insulin-like receptor and a neuronal protein with a leucine-rich amino-terminal domain. Four predicted genes (CDS1-CDS4) CDS that have been confirmed on the mRNA level showed no similarity to known proteins and a potential function could not be assigned. The second region in 7q22 defined by the CUTL1 (CCAAT displacement protein and its splice variant) locus is 416 kb in length and contains three known genes, including PMSL12, APS, CUTL1, and a novel gene (CDS5). The CUTL1 locus, consisting of two splice variants (CDP and CASP), occupies >300 kb. Based on the G, C profile an isochore switch can be defined between the CUTL1 gene and the APS and PMSL12 genes.

    Genome research 1998;8;10;1060-73

  • Immunohistochemical localization of G protein beta1, beta2, beta3, beta4, beta5, and gamma3 subunits in the adult rat brain.

    Liang JJ, Cockett M and Khawaja XZ

    CNS Disorders, Wyeth-Ayerst Research, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-8000, USA.

    The regional distributions of the G protein beta subunits (Gbeta1-beta5) and of the Ggamma3 subunit were examined by immunohistochemical methods in the adult rat brain. In general, the Gbeta and Ggamma3 subunits were widely distributed throughout the brain, with most regions containing several Gbeta subunits within their neuronal networks. The olfactory bulb, neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem exhibited light to intense Gbeta immunostaining. Negative immunostaining was observed in cortical layer I for Gbeta1 and layer IV for Gbeta4. The hippocampal dentate granular and CA1-CA3 pyramidal cells displayed little or no positive immunostaining for Gbeta2 or Gbeta4. No anti-Gbeta4 immunostaining was observed in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra or in the cerebellar granule cell layer and Purkinje cells. Immunoreactivity for Gbeta1 was absent from the cerebellar molecular layer, and Gbeta2 was not detected in the Purkinje cells. No positive Ggama3 immunoreactivity was observed in the lateral habenula, lateral septal nucleus, or Purkinje cells. Double-fluorescence immunostaining with anti-Ggamma3 antibody and individual anti-Gbeta1-beta5 antibodies displayed regional selectivity with Gbeta1 (cortical layers V-VI) and Gbeta2 (cortical layer I). In conclusion, despite the widespread overlapping distributions of Gbeta1-beta5 with Ggamma3, specific dimeric associations in situ were observed within discrete brain regions.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;71;1;345-55

  • Differential ability to form the G protein betagamma complex among members of the beta and gamma subunit families.

    Yan K, Kalyanaraman V and Gautam N

    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    We have determined the relative abilities of several members of the G protein beta and gamma subunit families to associate with each other using the yeast two-hybrid system. We show first that the mammalian beta1 and gamma3 fusion proteins form a complex in yeast and that formation of the complex activates the reporter gene for beta-galactosidase. Second, the magnitude of reporter activity stimulated by various combinations of beta and gamma subunit types varies widely. Third, the reporter activity evoked by a particular combination of beta and gamma subunit types is not correlated with the expression levels of these subunit types in the yeast cells. Finally, the reporter activity shows a direct relationship with the amount of hybrid betagamma complex formed in the cell as determined by immunoprecipitation. These results suggest that different beta and gamma subunit types interact with each other with widely varying abilities, and this in combination with the level of expression of a subunit type in a mammalian cell determines which G protein will be active in that cell. The strong preference of all gamma subunit types for the beta1 subunit type explains the preponderence of this subunit type in most G proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;12;7141-6

  • Isolation of cDNA clones encoding eight different human G protein gamma subunits, including three novel forms designated the gamma 4, gamma 10, and gamma 11 subunits.

    Ray K, Kunsch C, Bonner LM and Robishaw JD

    Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania 17822, USA.

    With the growing awareness that the G protein beta and gamma subunits directly regulate the activities of various enzymes and ion channels, the importance of identifying and characterizing these subunits is underscored. In this paper, we report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding eight different human gamma subunits, including three novel forms designated gamma 4, gamma 10, and gamma 11. The predicted protein sequence of gamma 4 shares the most identity (60-77%) with gamma 2, gamma 3, and gamma 7 and the least identity (38%) with gamma 1. The gamma 4 is modified by a geranylgeranyl group and is capable of interacting with both beta 1 and beta 2 but not with beta 3. The predicted protein sequence of gamma 10 shows only modest to low identity (35-53%) with the other known gamma subunits, with most of the differences concentrated in the N-terminal region, suggesting gamma 10 may interact with a unique subclass of alpha. The gamma 10 is modified by a geranylgeranyl group and is capable of interacting with beta 1 and beta 2 but not with beta 3. Finally, the predicted protein sequence of gamma 11 shows the most identity to gamma 1 (76% identity) and the least identity to the other known gamma (33-44%). Unlike most of the other known gamma subunits, gamma 11 is modified by a farnesyl group and is not capable of interacting with beta 2. The close resemblance of gamma 11 to gamma 1 raises intriguing questions regarding its function since the mRNA for gamma 11 is abundantly expressed in all tissues tested except for brain, whereas the mRNA for gamma 1 is expressed only in the retina where the protein functions in phototransduction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;37;21765-71

  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human anaphylatoxin C5a receptor.

    Buhl AM, Osawa S and Johnson GL

    Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Denmark.

    The anaphylatoxin C5a receptor activates the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in human neutrophils. The signal pathways involved in Ras/Raf/MAP kinase activation in response to C5a and other chemoattractant receptors is poorly understood. Stimulation of the C5a receptor expressed in HEK293 cells results in modest MAP kinase activation, which is inhibited by pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of G(i). Coexpression of the C5a receptor and the G16 alpha subunit (alpha 16) results in the G16-mediated activation of phospholipase C beta and a robust MAP kinase activation. Pertussis toxin treatment of C5a receptor/alpha 16-cotransfected cells inhibits C5a stimulation of MAP kinase activity approximately 60% relative to the control response. Similarly, the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X inhibits activation of MAP kinase activation in C5a receptor/alpha 16-cotransfected cells by 60%; the protein kinase C inhibitor does not affect the modest C5a receptor response in the absence of alpha 16 expression. These results demonstrate that two independent signals are required for the maximal activation of MAP kinase by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK37871; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30324

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;34;19828-32

  • A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase.

    Pumiglia KM, LeVine H, Haske T, Habib T, Jove R and Decker SJ

    Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Division, Department of Signal Transduction, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, USA.

    Raf-1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase positioned downstream of Ras in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Using a yeast two-hybrid strategy to identify other proteins that interact with and potentially regulate Raf-1, we isolated a clone encoding the carboxyl-terminal half of the G beta 2 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. In vitro, purified G beta gamma subunits specifically bound to a GST fusion protein encoding amino acids 1-330 of Raf-1 (Raf/330). Binding assays with truncation mutants of GST-Raf indicate that the region located between amino acids 136 and 239 is a primary determinant for interaction with G beta gamma. In competition experiments, the carboxyl terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) blocked the binding of G beta gamma to Raf/330; however, the Raf-1-binding proteins, Ras and 14-3-3, had no effect. Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding between Raf/330 and G beta gamma revealed an affinity of interaction (Kd = 163 +/- 36 nM), similar to that seen between G beta gamma and beta ARK (Kd = 87 +/- 24 nM). The formation of native heterotrimeric G alpha beta gamma complexes, as measured by pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylation of G alpha, could be disrupted by increasing amounts of Raf/330, with an EC50 of approximately 200 nM, in close agreement with the estimated binding affinity. In vivo complexes of Raf-1 and G beta gamma were isolated from human embryonic kidney 293-T cells transfected with epitope-tagged G beta 2. The identification and characterization of this novel interaction raises several possibilities for signaling cross-talk between growth factor receptors and those receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55652

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;24;14251-4

  • G protein beta gamma subunits. Simplified purification and properties of novel isoforms.

    Ueda N, Iñiguez-Lluhi JA, Lee E, Smrcka AV, Robishaw JD and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.

    The beta and gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) form tightly associated complexes. To examine functional differences among the large number of possible combinations of unique beta and gamma subunits, we have synthesized and characterized beta gamma complexes containing gamma 5 and gamma 7, two widely distributed gamma subunits. When either gamma 5 or gamma 7 is expressed concurrently with beta 1 or beta 2 subunits in a baculovirus/Sf9 cell system, all four subunit complexes support pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of rGi alpha 1 (where "r" indicates recombinant), indicating formation of functional complexes. Each of the complexes was purified by subunit exchange chromatography, using the G203A mutant of rGi alpha 1 as the immobilized ligand. The purified preparations were compared with other recombinant beta gamma subunits, including beta 1 gamma 1 and beta 1 gamma 2, for their ability to modulate type I and II adenylyl cyclase activities; stimulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C beta; support pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of rGi alpha 1 and Go alpha; and inhibit steady-state GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by Gs alpha, Go alpha, and myristoylated rGi alpha 2. The results emphasize the unique properties of beta 1 gamma 1. The properties of the complexes containing gamma 5 or gamma 7 were similar to each other and to those of beta 1 gamma 2.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM31954, GM34497, GM39867; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;6;4388-95

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Direct selection: a method for the isolation of cDNAs encoded by large genomic regions.

    Lovett M, Kere J and Hinton LM

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Genelabs Inc., Redwood City, CA 94063.

    We have developed a strategy for the rapid enrichment and identification of cDNAs encoded by large genomic regions. The basis of this "direct selection" scheme is the hybridization of an entire library of cDNAs to an immobilized genomic clone. Nonspecific hybrids are eliminated and selected cDNAs are eluted. These molecules are then amplified and are either cloned or subjected to further selection/amplification cycles. This scheme was tested using a 550-kilobase yeast artificial chromosome clone that contains the EPO gene. Using this clone and a fetal kidney cDNA library, we have achieved a 1000-fold enrichment of EPO cDNAs in one cycle of enrichment. More significantly, we have further investigated one of the "anonymous" cDNAs that was selectively enriched. We confirmed that this cDNA was encoded by the yeast artificial chromosome. Its frequency in the starting library was 1 in 1 x 10(5) cDNAs and after selection comprised 2% of the selected library. DNA sequence analysis of this cDNA and of the yeast artificial chromosome clone revealed that this gene encodes the beta 2 subunit of the human guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins. Restriction mapping and hybridization data position this gene (GNB2) to within 30-70 kilobases of the EPO gene. The selective isolation and mapping of GNB2 confirms the feasibility of this direct selection strategy and suggests that it will be useful for the rapid isolation of cDNAs, including disease-related genes, across extensive portions of the human genome.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00368, R44 HG00508

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;21;9628-32

  • Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human.

    Blatt C, Eversole-Cire P, Cohn VH, Zollman S, Fournier RE, Mohandas LT, Nesbitt M, Lugo T, Jones DT, Reed RR et al.

    Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth, Israel.

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding alpha-subunit proteins, two different beta subunits, and one gamma subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The beta subunits were also assigned--GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extent of the G alpha gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases with genes corresponding to G proteins.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;20;7642-6

  • A second form of the beta subunit of signal-transducing G proteins.

    Gao B, Gilman AG and Robishaw JD

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) has been isolated that encodes a second form of the beta subunit of signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). The cDNA corresponds to a 1.8-kilobase mRNA, and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the encoded polypeptide consists of 340-amino acid residues with a Mr of 37,335. Although the deduced polypeptide is the same size as that reported previously for the beta subunit, 10% of the amino acid residues are different. Furthermore, the 5' and 3' non-translated regions of this cDNA show no significant homology with those reported previously for cDNAs that encode the beta subunit. These data refute prior conclusions that there is only one form of the G protein beta subunit.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM09731, GM34497

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;17;6122-5

  • Distinct forms of the beta subunit of GTP-binding regulatory proteins identified by molecular cloning.

    Fong HK, Amatruda TT, Birren BW and Simon MI

    Two distinct beta subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins have been identified by cDNA cloning and are referred to as beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. The bovine transducin beta subunit (beta 1) has been cloned previously. We have now isolated and analyzed cDNA clones that encode the beta 2 subunit from bovine adrenal, bovine brain, and a human myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60. The 340-residue Mr 37,329 beta 2 protein is 90% identical with beta 1 in predicted amino acid sequence, and it is also organized as a series of repetitive homologous segments. The major mRNA that encodes the bovine beta 2 subunit is 1.7 kilobases in length. It is expressed at lower levels than beta 1 subunit mRNA in all tissues examined. The beta 1 and beta 2 messages are expressed in cloned human cell lines. Hybridization of cDNA probes to bovine DNA showed that beta 1 and beta 2 are encoded by separate genes. The amino acid sequences for the bovine and human beta 2 subunit are identical, as are the amino acid sequences for the bovine and human beta 1 subunit. This evolutionary conservation suggests that the two beta subunits have different roles in the signal transduction process.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM10974, GM34236

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;11;3792-6

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000033 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H2 Human orthologues of cluster 2 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 13
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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