G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001464
Gene symbol
GNAI2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2
Orthologue
G00000215 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000114353 (Ensembl human gene)
2771 (Entrez Gene)
363 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNAI2 (GeneCards)
Literature
139360 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4385 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P04899 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • GIP

Literature (94)

Pubmed - other

  • Characterization and distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human intestinal mucosa.

    Valet P, Senard JM, Devedjian JC, Planat V, Salomon R, Voisin T, Drean G, Couvineau A, Daviaud D, Denis C et al.

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, (INSERM) U317, Institut Louis Bugnard, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

    The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan > chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells.

  • Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population.

    So HC, Fong PY, Chen RY, Hui TC, Ng MY, Cherny SS, Mak WW, Cheung EF, Chan RC, Chen EY, Li T and Sham PC

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

    Chromosome 3p was reported by previous studies as one of the regions showing strong evidence of linkage with schizophrenia. We performed a fine-mapping association study of a 6-Mb high-LD and gene-rich region on 3p in a Southern Chinese sample of 489 schizophrenia patients and 519 controls to search for susceptibility genes. In the initial screen, 4 SNPs out of the 144 tag SNPs genotyped were nominally significant (P < 0.05). One of the most significant SNPs (rs3732530, P = 0.0048) was a non-synonymous SNP in the neuroglycan C (NGC, also known as CSPG5) gene, which belongs to the neuregulin family. The gene prioritization program Endeavor ranked NGC 8th out of the 129 genes in the 6-Mb region and the highest among the genes within the same LD block. Further genotyping of NGC revealed 3 more SNPs to be nominally associated with schizophrenia. Three other genes (NRG1, ErbB3, ErbB4) involved in the neuregulin pathways were subsequently genotyped. Interaction analysis by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) revealed a significant two-SNP interaction between NGC and NRG1 (P = 0.015) and three-SNP interactions between NRG1 and ErbB4 (P = 0.009). The gene NGC is exclusively expressed in the brain. It is implicated in neurodevelopment in rats and was previously shown to promote neurite outgrowth. Methamphetamine, a drug that may induce psychotic symptoms, was reported to alter the expression of NGC. Taken together, these results suggest that NGC may be a novel candidate gene, and neuregulin signaling pathways may play an important role in schizophrenia.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010;153B;1;103-13

  • Purification and functional reconstitution of monomeric mu-opioid receptors: allosteric modulation of agonist binding by Gi2.

    Kuszak AJ, Pitchiaya S, Anand JP, Mosberg HI, Walter NG and Sunahara RK

    Departments of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. .

    Despite extensive characterization of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), the biochemical properties of the isolated receptor remain unclear. In light of recent reports, we proposed that the monomeric form of MOR can activate G proteins and be subject to allosteric regulation. A mu-opioid receptor fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YMOR) was constructed and expressed in insect cells. YMOR binds ligands with high affinity, displays agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate binding to Galpha(i), and is allosterically regulated by coupled G(i) protein heterotrimer both in insect cell membranes and as purified protein reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer in the form of high density lipoprotein particles. Single-particle imaging of fluorescently labeled receptor indicates that the reconstituted YMOR is monomeric. Moreover, single-molecule imaging of a Cy3-labeled agonist, [Lys(7), Cys(8)]dermorphin, illustrates a novel method for studying G protein-coupled receptor-ligand binding and suggests that one molecule of agonist binds per monomeric YMOR. Together these data support the notion that oligomerization of the mu-opioid receptor is not required for agonist and antagonist binding and that the monomeric receptor is the minimal functional unit in regard to G protein activation and strong allosteric regulation of agonist binding by G proteins.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P60 DK020572, P60-DK020572; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM068603, GM07767, GM0810, R01 GM068603, R01 GM081025, T32 GM007767

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;39;26732-41

  • GNAI2 and regulators of G protein signaling as a potential Noonan syndrome mechanism.

    Huang X, Fu Y, Charbeneau RA and Neubig RR

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, 1301 MSRB III, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    Noonan syndrome (NS OMIM 163950) is a relatively common autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized by short stature, specific facial features, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Approximately 50-66% of cases have defined mutations in the K-ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway that lead to constitutive signaling, but a significant number remain unexplained. We hypothesize that enhanced signaling through Galpha(i2) (from the GNAI2 gene) may also produce a NS-like phenotype. This is based on a recently described mouse model in which RGS-mediated inhibition of Galpha(i2) is prevented by a knock-in mutation (G184S) that blocks RGS binding [Huang et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006;26:6870-9]. The mice have short body length, cardiac hypertrophy, a triangular face with wide-set eyes and ears, and hematologic alterations. There is a slight increase in ERK activation and a pronounced enhancement of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in MEFs from these mice suggesting that abnormal increases in Galpha(i2) signaling could represent a novel upstream mechanism for NS. This suggests a novel set of candidate genes for NS (GNAI2 and RGS proteins) and if validated could have important implications for therapy as well.

    Medical hypotheses 2009;73;1;56-9

  • The specific activation of TRPC4 by Gi protein subtype.

    Jeon JP, Lee KP, Park EJ, Sung TS, Kim BJ, Jeon JH and So I

    Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-799, Republic of Korea.

    The classical type of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) is a molecular candidate for Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in mammalian cells. Especially, TRPC4 has the similar properties to Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) activated by muscarinic stimulation in visceral smooth muscles. In visceral smooth muscles, NSCCs activated by muscarinic stimulation were blocked by anti-Galphai/o antibodies. However, there is still no report which Galpha proteins are involved in the activation process of TRPC4. Among Galpha proteins, only Galphai protein can activate TRPC4 channel. The activation effect of Galphai was specific for TRPC4 because Galphai has no activation effect on TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPV6. Coexpression with muscarinic receptor M2 induced TRPC4 current activation by muscarinic stimulation with carbachol, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin. These results suggest that Galphai is involved specifically in the activation of TRPC4.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;377;2;538-543

  • Roles of G protein and beta-arrestin in dopamine D2 receptor-mediated ERK activation.

    Quan W, Kim JH, Albert PR, Choi H and Kim KM

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Kwang-Ju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

    ERK activation by dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) has been extensively characterized in various cell types including brain tissues. However, the involvement of beta-arrestin in the D(2)R-mediated ERK activation is not clear yet. Three different strategies were employed in this study to determine the roles of G protein or beta-arrestin in D(2)R-mediated ERK activation. The cellular level of beta-arrestins was reduced by RNA interference and pertussis toxin-insensitive Gi proteins were used to identify the G protein involved. Finally point mutations of D(2)R in which coupling with G protein was abolished but the interaction with beta-arrestin was increased, were employed to determine whether the affinity between D(2)R and beta-arrestin is a critical factor for beta-arrestin-mediated ERK activation. Our results show that G(i2) protein is involved in D(2)R-mediated ERK activation but beta-arrestins are either not involved or play minor role.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;377;2;705-709

  • Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations.

    Ruggeri RM, Santarpia L, Curtò L, Torre ML, Galatioto M, Galatioto S, Trimarchi F and Cannavò S

    Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy. rmruggeri@unime.it

    Background: Mutations of the genes encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs) and of the inhibiting Gi2 protein (GNAS1 and GNAI2 genes, respectively) have been described in various endocrine neoplasias, including pituitary tumors.

    Aim: To search for mutations of GNAS1 and GNAI2 in a continuous series of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) patients neurosurgically treated.

    The surgical samples of 22 patients who have been defined and characterized on a clinical, biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical point of view have been processed for investigating the presence of the above mutations by PCR amplification of the hot spots exons 8 and 9 of GNAS1, and exons 5 and 6 of GNAI2, followed by direct sequencing. Moreover, the promoter region of GNAI2, in order to assess the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), was investigated in the same series.

    Results: A CGT>TGT mutation at codon 201 of GNAS1 gene in a single case of NFPA was found, but no mutation of GNAI2A was demonstrated.

    Conclusions: This finding suggests and confirms that G-protein mutations are rare and not crucial in NFPA development. Additionally, we found a silent SNP at codon 318 in the promoter of the Gi2alpha gene in one out of the 22 NFPA.

    Journal of endocrinological investigation 2008;31;11;946-9

  • Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Luttrell LM

    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, 816 CSB, P.O. Box 250624, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. luttrell@musc.edu

    As the most diverse type of cell surface receptor, the importance heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to clinical medicine cannot be overestimated. Visual, olfactory and gustatory sensation, intermediary metabolism, cell growth and differentiation are all influenced by GPCR signals. The basic receptor-G protein-effector mechanism of GPCR signaling is tuned by a complex interplay of positive and negative regulatory events that amplify the effect of a hormone binding the receptor or that dampen cellular responsiveness. The association of heptahelical receptors with a variety of intracellular partners other than G proteins has led to the discovery of potential mechanisms of GPCR signaling that extend beyond the classical paradigms. While the physiologic relevance of many of these novel mechanisms of GPCR signaling remains to be established, their existence suggests that the mechanisms of GPCR signaling are even more diverse than previously imagined.

    Molecular biotechnology 2008;39;3;239-64

  • Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.

    Lambert NA

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2300, USA. nlambert@mcg.edu

    Heterotrimeric G proteins dissociate into their component Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits when these proteins are activated in solution. Until recently, it has not been known if subunit dissociation also occurs in cells. The development of optical methods to study G protein activation in live cells has made it possible to demonstrate heterotrimer dissociation at the plasma membrane. However, subunit dissociation is far from complete, and many active [guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound] heterotrimers are intact in a steady state. This unexpectedly reluctant dissociation calls for inclusion of a GTP-bound heterotrimeric state in models of the G protein cycle and places renewed emphasis on the relation between subunit dissociation and effector activation.

    Science signaling 2008;1;25;re5

  • Role of a Galphai2 protein splice variant in the formation of an intracellular dopamine D2 receptor pool.

    López-Aranda MF, Acevedo MJ, Gutierrez A, Koulen P and Khan ZU

    Neurobiology Laboratory, CIMES, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Campus Teatinos s/n, 29071-Malaga, Spain.

    Treatment of D2-receptor-expressing cells with specific drugs upregulates the receptor number at the cell surface independently of protein synthesis, leading to the concept of an intracellular receptor pool. However, how this pool is operating is still an enigma. Here, we report that a splice variant of the Galphai2 protein, protein sGalphai2, plays a crucial role in the maintenance of this D2-receptor pool. Co-expression of sGi2 with D2 receptor reduced receptor localization to cell surface by one-third. This effect is associated with specific intracellular protein-protein interaction and the formation of a sGi2-D2-receptor complex. It has been suggested that the formation of this complex serves to prevent D2 receptors from reaching the cell membrane. Treatment of D2-receptor-expressing cells with agonists increased the number of cell surface D2 receptors and coincided with a reduction in these receptors from intracellular complexes, suggesting that agonist treatment released D2 receptors from the complex allowing them to localize to the cell membrane. Thus, in addition to elucidating how the intracellular pool of D2 receptor functions, our findings uncover a novel mechanism regulating the density of cell surface D2 receptors.

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 13;2171-8

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL and Hamm HE

    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6600, USA.

    Heptahelical receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways by catalyzing GTP for GDP exchange on the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit (G alpha). Despite the crucial role of this process in cell signaling, little is known about the mechanism of G protein activation. Here we explore the structural basis for receptor-mediated GDP release using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Binding to the activated receptor (R*) causes an apparent rigid-body movement of the alpha5 helix of G alpha that would perturb GDP binding at the beta6-alpha5 loop. This movement was not observed when a flexible loop was inserted between the alpha5 helix and the R*-binding C terminus, which uncouples R* binding from nucleotide exchange, suggesting that this movement is necessary for GDP release. These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha.

    Nature structural & molecular biology 2006;13;9;772-7

  • G-protein alpha subunit interaction and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the dual GoLoco motif protein PCP-2 (Purkinje cell protein-2).

    Willard FS, McCudden CR and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, CB# 7365, 1106 Mary Ellen Jones Building, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7365, USA. fwillard@med.unc.edu

    Purkinje cell protein-2 (PCP-2; L7/GPSM4) is a GoLoco motif-containing protein that is specifically expressed in Purkinje and retinal ON bipolar cells. An alternative splice variant of PCP-2 has recently been isolated which contains two GoLoco motifs. Although the second GoLoco motif (GL2) of PCP-2 has been reported to interact with Galpha-subunits, a complete biochemical analysis of each individual motif of PCP-2 has not been performed. We demonstrate that the first GoLoco motif (GL1) of PCP-2 is equipotent as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) towards Galphai1 and Galphai2, while it has sevenfold lower GDI activity for Galphai3 and greater than 20-fold lower GDI activity against Galphao. In contrast we found PCP-2 GL2 to be essentially equipotent as a GDI for all Galphai subunits, but it had negligible activity toward Galphao. Using co-immunoprecipitation from COS-7 cells, we found that PCP-2 was only able to interact with Galphai1 but not Galphao nor Galpha-subunits from other families (Galphas, Galphaq, or Galpha12). Mutational analysis of a non-canonical residue (glycine 24) in human PCP-2 GL1 provided evidence for heterogeneity in mechanisms of Galphai interactions with GoLoco motifs. Collectively, the data demonstrate that PCP-2 is a comparatively weak GoLoco motif protein that exhibits highest affinity interactions and GDI activity toward Galphai1, Galphai2, and Galphai3 subunits.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM065533, R01 GM062338

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;8;1226-34

  • The -318 C>G single-nucleotide polymorphism in GNAI2 gene promoter region impairs transcriptional activity through specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor and is associated with high blood pressure in Caucasians from Italy.

    Menzaghi C, Paroni G, De Bonis C, Soccio T, Marucci A, Bacci S and Trischitta V

    Unit of Endocrinology, Scientific Institute Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Inhibiting Galpha subunit 2 protein, which is encoded by the GNAI2 gene, is suggested to be pathogenic for essential hypertension and/or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether GNAI2 variations modulate the risk for these abnormalities. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at the GNAI2 locus were identified. Because of either low allelic frequency or unlikely biologic relevance (i.e., synonymous or intronic), six SNP were not studied further. The -318C>G SNP (allelic frequency 6%) in the promoter region was studied for association with adiposity, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP, fasting insulin and glucose, and lipids levels in 655 nondiabetic Caucasians from Italy. As compared with individuals who carry the C/C genotype, G carriers (i.e., individuals who carry either the G/G or the C/G genotype) had higher SBP (117.8 +/- 16 versus 113.6 +/- 12.6 mmHg; P = 0.010) and were at increased risk for hypertension (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.5). Compared with the C, the G allele had 2.5-fold reduced transcriptional activity in transfected HEK293 cells. As predicted by the TRANSFAC database, competition with YY1 or Sp1 transcription factors specifically reduced the binding of HeLa cell nuclear proteins to -318C or -318G allele, respectively, as indicated by shifted electrophoretic mobility. A "supershift" of the nuclear proteins/-318G allele complex was observed after anti-Sp1 was added but not anti-YY1 antibody. The GNAI2 -318 C>G SNP impairs transcriptional activity through specific binding of Sp1 and is associated with high SBP in Caucasians from Italy.

    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2006;17;4 Suppl 2;S115-9

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Transcriptional activation of the human Galphai2 gene promoter through nuclear factor-kappaB and antioxidant response elements.

    Arinze IJ and Kawai Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Meharry Medical College, 1005 David B. Todd Jr., Blvd, Nashville, Tennessee 37208-3599, USA. iarinze@mmc.edu

    Very little is known regarding molecular mechanism(s) underlying transcriptional regulation of any G-protein gene despite the importance of G-protein expression in modulating cellular processes. Here we show that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which induce oxidative stress in cells, up-regulate transcription of Galpha(i2) in K562 cells. Redox-sensing chemicals abrogated this transcriptional effect. A dominant negative I-kappaB double mutant (S32A/S36A) suppressed PMA-induced transcription by 54-62%, suggesting involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). SN50, a cell-permeable peptide that inhibits nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors (such as NF-kappaB), inhibited PMA- and tBHQ-induced transcription. Deletion of an NF-kappaB-binding motif that maps at +10/+19 in the promoter resulted in 55-60% suppression of PMA-induced transcription, and 81% suppression of tBHQ-induced transcription. Mutation of an antioxidant response element (ARE) that maps at -84/-76 in the promoter resulted in 51 and 86% decrease in PMA- and tBHQ-induced transcription, respectively. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this element formed complexes with the transcription factors NF-E2p45 and Nrf2 that are prototypic for binding to the ARE, as well as with c-Fos, which can also interact with the ARE. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated recruitment of these transcription factors to the promoter. Exogenously transfected Nrf2 transactivated the Galpha(i2) gene promoter; the cytoskeleton-associated protein, Keap1, abrogated this effect. Taken together, the present studies reveal that transcription factors that bind NF-kappaB and/or antioxidant response elements play an activating role in the transcription of the human Galpha(i2) gene.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: S06-GM08037-32

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;9786-95

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Increased expression of Gi-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and Gi in atrium of elderly diabetic subjects.

    Richardson MD, Kilts JD and Kwatra MM

    Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    In an ongoing investigation of the effects of age on G protein-coupled receptor signaling in human atrial tissue, we have found that the density of atrial muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) increases with age but reaches statistical significance only in patients with diabetes. Moreover, we find that in elderly subjects of similar ages, those with diabetes have 1.7-fold higher levels of Galpha(i2) and twofold higher levels of Gbeta(1). Diabetes does not affect other atrial G proteins, including Galpha(i3,) Galpha(s), Galpha(o), and Gbeta(2). These data represent the first demonstration of an increase in a G(i)-coupled receptor, Galpha(i2), and Gbeta(1), in atrium of patients with diabetes. These findings suggest a molecular explanation for the increased risk of cardiac disease in patients with diabetes, because increased signaling through G(i) has been shown to lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG00029, AG15817

    Diabetes 2004;53;9;2392-6

  • CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins.

    Mueller A and Strange PG

    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK.

    The interaction of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, expressed in recombinant cells, with different G proteins was investigated and CCR5 was found to interact with Gi, Go and Gq species. Interaction with Gi leads to G protein activation, whereas Gq does not seem to be activated. Additionally, CCR5 activation also leads to phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Activation of JAK2 is independent of Gi or Gq activation. Gi protein activation was not prevented by inhibition of JAK, showing that heterotrimeric G protein activation and activation of the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are independent of each other.

    FEBS letters 2004;570;1-3;126-32

  • Abnormal regulation of G protein alpha(i2) subunit in skin fibroblasts from insulin-resistant hypertensive individuals.

    Baritono E, Ceolotto G, Papparella I, Sartori M, Ciccariello L, Iori E, Calò L, Pessina AC and Semplicini A

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova Medical School, Padova, Italy.

    Background: Studies in experimental animals and human cells have demonstrated increased intracellular calcium (Ca(i2) signalling and Galphai signal transduction associated with hypertension. We have recently shown that angiotensin II-induced mobilization of Ca(i2) is enhanced in fibroblasts from hypertensive individuals in comparison with that in normotensive individuals and that it is blunted by insulin and pertussis toxin in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant, patients. This suggests that G(i)-mediated signal transduction is reduced in insulin-resistant hypertension.

    Objective: To investigate the expression and regulation of Galpha(i2) subunit in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant hypertensive individuals.

    Methods: G protein alpha(i2) subunit mRNA was measured in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant hypertension, by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We also investigated the effects of short-term exposure to fetal calf serum, angiotensin II and insulin, alone and in combination, on the expression of Galpha(i2) in vitro. Spectrofluorophotometric measurement of free Cai was performed in monolayers of 24 h serum-deprived cells in basal conditions and after exposure to angiotensin II, with and without pre-incubation with insulin.

    Results: Expression of Galpha(i2) was significantly greater in fibroblasts from hypertensive individuals than in normotensive individuals and the increase was unrelated to age and body mass. The difference was largely accounted for by greater values in insulin-sensitive than in insulin-resistant hypertensive individuals. In fibroblasts from those with insulin-sensitive hypertension, angiotensin II and insulin were additive to fetal calf serum in increasing the expression of Galpha(i2). In these patients, insulin blunted the angiotensin-II induced Cai transient. In contrast, in those with insulin-resistant hypertension, Galpha(i2) was lower and unresponsive to angiotensin II and insulin. Finally, in fibroblasts from insulin-resistant patients, insulin was unable to reduce the angiotensin II-induced Cai peak.

    Conclusions: A subnormal Galpha(i2)-mediated signal transduction may be involved in the pathogenesis of cellular insulin resistance in hypertension. This novel Galpha(i2)-mediated signal transduction associated with insulin sensitivity in fibroblasts may help to control excessive angiotensin II signalling.

    Journal of hypertension 2004;22;4;783-92

  • Calcium-sensing receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation requires Galphai2 coupling and dynamin-independent receptor internalization.

    Holstein DM, Berg KA, Leeb-Lundberg LM, Olson MS and Saunders C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229-3900, USA.

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) recently has been shown to activate MAP kinase (ERK1/2) in various cell types as well as in heterologous expression systems. In this study we show that the CaR agonist NPS R-467 (1 microm), which does not activate the CaR by itself, robustly activates ERK1/2 in the presence of a low concentration of Ca(2+) (0.5 mm CaCl(2)) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells permanently expressing the human CaR (HEK-hCaR). Ca(2+) (4 mm) also activates ERK1/2 but with differing kinetics. CaR-dependent ERK1/2 activation begins to desensitize to 4 mm Ca(2+) after 10 min, whereas there is no desensitization to NPS R-467/CaCl(2) as late as 4 h. Moreover, recovery from desensitization occurs as rapidly as 30 min with 4 mm CaCl(2). Pretreatment of HEK-hCaR cells with concanavalin A (250 microg/ml) to block CaR internalization completely eliminated the NPS R-467/CaCl(2)-mediated ERK1/2 activation but did not block the 2-min time point of 4 mm Ca(2+)-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Neither dominant-negative dynamin (K44A) nor dominant-negative beta-arrestin inhibited ERK1/2 activation by either CaR agonist treatment, suggesting that CaR-elicited ERK1/2 signaling occurs via a dynamin-independent pathway. Pertussis toxin pretreatment partially attenuated the 4 mm Ca(2+)-ERK1/2 activation; this attenuated activity was completely restored by co-expression of the Galpha(i2) (C351I) but not Galpha(i1) (C351I) or Galpha(i3) (C351I) G proteins, PTX-insensitive G protein mutants. Taken together, these data suggest that both 4 mm Ca(2+) and NPS R-467/CaCl(2) activate ERK1/2 via distinguishable pathways in HEK-hCaR cells and may represent a nexus to differentially regulate differentiation versus proliferation via CaR activation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-02852, DK-43879

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;11;10060-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Distribution of C-terminal splice variant of G alpha i2 in rat and monkey brain.

    Khan ZU and Gutierrez A

    Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina y Centro de Investigaciones Medico Sanitarias, Universidad de Malaga, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Malaga, Spain. zkhan@uma.es

    The significance of Galphai2 in neural signal transmission is well defined. However, the function of its alternative splice variant named sGi2 is unknown. Therefore here, we have studied the localization of sGi2 protein in rat and monkey brain at light and electron microscopy level. We found that this novel protein is widely expressed in rat and monkey brain regions, which are known to play crucial role in brain functions. Hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, thalamus, striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and dopaminergic cell groups of substantia nigra, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb showed strong labeling with anti-sGi2. At subcellular level, sGi2 protein was localized in intracellular compartments, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria and nucleus. This protein was also found localized extra-synaptically in both axons and spines, which were making excitatory as well as inhibitory synaptic contacts. Moreover, the frequent localization of sGi2 protein in neck of spines further suggests that this protein may not engage directly in neuronal signal transmission but could influence other participating proteins of this process.

    Neuroscience 2004;127;4;833-43

  • Lipid lowering by pravastatin increases parasympathetic modulation of heart rate: Galpha(i2), a possible molecular marker for parasympathetic responsiveness.

    Welzig CM, Shin DG, Park HJ, Kim YJ, Saul JP and Galper JB

    The Children's Heart Program, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

    Background: We have previously demonstrated in an in vitro model for lipid lowering that lipoprotein depletion resulted in a marked increase in the negative chronotropic response to the acetylcholine analogue carbamylcholine. In this study we used heart rate variability analysis to determine the effect of lipid lowering by statins on the response of the heart to parasympathetic stimulation. In parallel, we examined whether changes in parasympathetic responsiveness correlated with changes in the expression of Galpha(i2), a molecular component of the parasympathetic signaling pathway in the heart.

    Patients were randomized in a crossover study of pravastatin and simvastatin. R-R interval analysis of Holter monitor studies demonstrated that in patients treated initially with pravastatin, the peak high-frequency power fraction during sleep, which reflects parasympathetic modulation of heart rate, increased by 24.0+/-5.02% (SEM, n=13, P<0.001) compared with the untreated control value. Simvastatin had no significant effect. Western blot analysis of lymphocytes from patients treated with pravastatin demonstrated a 90.1+/-27.3% (n=10, P=0.009) increase in Galpha(i2) expression, whereas simvastatin had no effect. Relative changes in Galpha(i2) correlated significantly with the changes in the fraction of high-frequency power (rho=0.574, P=0.016).

    Conclusions: Taken together with our in vitro data, these data are the first to suggest that cholesterol lowering by pravastatin might increase the response of the heart to parasympathetic stimulation and that changes in Galpha(i2) expression might serve as a molecular marker for this effect.

    Circulation 2003;108;22;2743-6

  • RGS16 inhibits signalling through the G alpha 13-Rho axis.

    Johnson EN, Seasholtz TM, Waheed AA, Kreutz B, Suzuki N, Kozasa T, Jones TL, Brown JH and Druey KM

    Molecular Signal Transduction Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institute of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

    G alpha 13 stimulates the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho, such as p115Rho-GEF. Activated Rho induces numerous cellular responses, including actin polymerization, serum response element (SRE)-dependent gene transcription and transformation. p115Rho-GEF contains a Regulator of G protein Signalling domain (RGS box) that confers GTPase activating protein (GAP) activity towards G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 (ref. 3). In contrast, classical RGS proteins (such as RGS16 and RGS4) exhibit RGS domain-dependent GAP activity on G alpha i and G alpha q, but not G alpha 12 or G alpha 13 (ref 4). Here, we show that RGS16 inhibits G alpha 13-mediated, RhoA-dependent reversal of stellation and SRE activation. The RGS16 amino terminus binds G alpha 13 directly, resulting in translocation of G alpha 13 to detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and reduced p115Rho-GEF binding. RGS4 does not bind G alpha 13 or attenuate G alpha 13-dependent responses, and neither RGS16 nor RGS4 affects G alpha 12-mediated signalling. These results elucidate a new mechanism whereby a classical RGS protein regulates G alpha 13-mediated signal transduction independently of the RGS box.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM36927

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;12;1095-103

  • Oxidized human neuroglobin acts as a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor.

    Wakasugi K, Nakano T and Morishima I

    Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan. kei@wakasugi.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a newly discovered vertebrate heme protein that is expressed in the brain and can reversibly bind oxygen. It has been reported that Ngb expression levels increase in response to oxygen deprivation and that it protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. In the present study, we tried to clarify the neuroprotective role of Ngb under oxidative stress in vitro. By surface plasmon resonance, we found that ferric Ngb, which is generated spontaneously as a result of the rapid autoxidation, binds exclusively to the GDP-bound form of the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G protein (Galphai). In GDP dissociation assays or guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding assays, ferric Ngb behaved as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), inhibiting the rate of exchange of GDP for GTP. The interaction of GDP-bound Galphai with ferric Ngb will liberate Gbetagamma, leading to protection against neuronal death. In contrast, ferrous ligand-bound Ngb under normoxia did not have GDI activities. Taken together, we propose that human Ngb may be a novel oxidative stress-responsive sensor for signal transduction in the brain.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36505-12

  • Identification of tetratricopeptide repeat 1 as an adaptor protein that interacts with heterotrimeric G proteins and the small GTPase Ras.

    Marty C, Browning DD and Ye RD

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    The biological functions of heterotrimeric G proteins and small GTPases are modulated by both extracellular stimuli and intracellular regulatory proteins. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screening, we identified tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1), a 292-amino-acid protein with three TPR motifs, as a Galpha16-binding protein. The interaction was confirmed both in vitro and in transfected mammalian cells, where TPR1 also binds to several other Galpha proteins. TPR1 was found to interact with Ha-Ras preferentially in its active form. Overexpression of TPR1 promotes accumulation of active Ras. TPR1 was found to compete with the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of Raf-1 for binding to the active Ras, suggesting that it may also compete with Ras GTPase-activating protein, thus contributing to the accumulation of GTP-bound Ras. Expression of Galpha16 strongly enhances the interaction between TPR1 and Ras. Removal of the TPR1 N-terminal 112 residues abolishes potentiation by Galpha16 while maintaining the interaction with Galpha16 and the ability to discriminate active Ras from wild-type Ras. We have also observed that LGN, a Galphai-interacting protein with seven TPR motifs, binds Ha-Ras. Thus, TPR1 is a novel adaptor protein for Ras and selected Galpha proteins that may be involved in protein-protein interaction relating to G-protein signaling.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI33503, AI40176, R01 AI033503, R01 AI040176, R56 AI033503, R56 AI040176

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;11;3847-58

  • Sp family of transcription factors is involved in valproic acid-induced expression of Galphai2.

    Arinze IJ and Kawai Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208-3599, USA. iarinze@mail.mmc.edu

    Valproic acid-induced gene expression has been attributed to the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1). Using K562 cells, we have studied valproic acid-induced transcription from the human Galpha(i2) gene promoter, which lacks AP-1-binding motifs. We find that valproic acid-induced expression of Galpha(i2) is inhibited by mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with Sp1 binding to GC boxes in DNA. Three Sp1-binding sequences, located at +68/+75, -50/-36, and -92/-85 in the promoter, accounted for about 60% of this transcriptional effect, as judged by transient transfection assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that these sites bind members of the Sp family of transcription factors. Binding to DNA was inhibited by mithramycin A and was greater in nuclear extracts from cells treated with valproic acid than in control cells. Okadaic acid, calyculin A, and fostriecin, which are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase, suppressed the transcriptional response to valproic acid. This inhibitory effect was not observed when promoter constructs containing mutations in the referenced Sp1-binding sites were used for transfections. In nuclear extracts from cells cultured in the presence of these inhibitors, the binding of Sp1/Sp3 to DNA probes was much less than in control cells. Alkaline phosphatase treatment of nuclear extracts resulted in enhanced binding of Sp proteins to the DNA probes. These results are consistent with the idea that dephosphorylating conditions enhanced Sp binding to the DNA probes as well as Sp-mediated transcription induced by valproic acid. This study demonstrates that the gene expression-inducing effect of valproic acid occurs, in part, through the Sp family of transcription factors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;20;17785-91

  • Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor.

    Tall GG, Krumins AM and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390-9041, USA.

    The activation of heterotrimeric G proteins is accomplished primarily by the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of ligand-bound G protein-coupled receptors. The existence of nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factors for G proteins has also been postulated. Yeast two-hybrid screens with Galpha(o) and Galpha(s) as baits were performed to identify binding partners of these proteins. Two mammalian homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein Ric-8 were identified in these screens: Ric-8A (Ric-8/synembryn) and Ric-8B. Purification and biochemical characterization of recombinant Ric-8A revealed that it is a potent guanine nucleotide exchange factor for a subset of Galpha proteins including Galpha(q), Galpha(i1), and Galpha(o), but not Galpha(s). The mechanism of Ric-8A-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange was elucidated. Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8356-62

  • Modulation of G(ialpha(2)) signaling by the axonal guidance molecule UNC5H2.

    Komatsuzaki K, Dalvin S and Kinane TB

    Pediatric Pulmonary Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Jackson 14-GRJ 1416, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    The G protein, G(ialpha(2)), regulates a number of cellular functions including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The transduction of signal depends on the ability of the alpha subunit to cycle between a GDP bound and an active GTP bound state capable of interacting with intracellular enzymes. Here, we now report the novel interaction of gip2 (constitutively activated G(ialpha(2))) with the cytoplasmic domain of UNC5H2. Like G(ialpha(2)), we found that UNC5H2 is widely expressed particularly in cells which migrate. UNC5H2 binds G(ialpha(2)) when it is charged with GTP. The interaction of G(ialpha(2)) and UNC5H2 liberated adenylyl cyclase from G(ialpha(2)) inhibition. Thus, by sequestering the alpha subunit, UNC5H2 is a novel inhibitor of G(ialpha(2)) thereby increasing intracellular cAMP levels. The expression of UNC5H2 in the brain and immune system suggests that this novel inhibitor of G protein signaling may have broad significance for axonal guidance and chemotaxis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;297;4;898-905

  • Cloning and characterization of a novel regulator of G protein signalling in human platelets.

    Gagnon AW, Murray DL and Leadley RJ

    Cardiovascular Drug Discovery, Aventis Pharmaceuticals, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

    In an effort to understand the modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signalling in platelets, we sought to identify which regulators of G protein signalling proteins (RGSs) are present in human platelets. Using degenerate oligonucleotides, we performed RT-PCR with human platelet and megakaryocytic cell line RNA. In addition to confirming the presence of several known RGS transcripts, we found a novel RGS domain-containing transcript in platelet RNA. Northern blot analysis of multiple human tissues indicates that this transcript is most abundantly expressed in platelets compared to other tissues examined. Full-length cloning of this novel RGS, which we now term RGS18, demonstrates that this transcript is predicted to encode a 235-amino acid protein that is most closely related to RGS5 (46% identity) and that has approximately 30-40% identity to other RGS proteins. RGS18 is expressed in platelet, leukocyte, and megakaryocyte cell lines and binds to endogenous Galphai1, Galphai2, Galphai3, and Galphaq but not Galphaz, Galphas or Galpha12 in vitro.

    Cellular signalling 2002;14;7;595-606

  • Agonists activate Gi1 alpha or Gi2 alpha fused to the human mu opioid receptor differently.

    Massotte D, Brillet K, Kieffer B and Milligan G

    Département des Récepteurs et Protéines Membranaires, CNRS UPR 9050, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France. massotte@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr

    As preferential coupling of opioid receptor to various inhibitory Galpha subunits is still under debate, we have investigated the selectivity of the human mu opioid receptor fused to a pertussis toxin insensitive C351I Gi1 alpha or C352I Gi2 alpha in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Overall agonist binding affinities were increased for both fusion constructs when compared to the wild type receptor. [35 S]GTPgammaS binding was performed on pertussis toxin treated cells to monitor coupling efficiency of the fusion constructs. Upon agonist addition hMOR-C351I Gi1 a exhibited an activation profile similar to the non-fused receptor while hMOR-C352I Gi2 alpha was poorly activated. Interestingly no correlation could be drawn between agonist binding affinity and efficacy. Upon agonist addition, forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, as measured using a reporter gene assay, was inhibited by signals transduced via the fused Gi1 alpha and Gi2 alpha mainly. In contrast both fusion constructs were able to initiate ERK-MAPK phosphorylation via coupling to endogenous G proteins only. In conclusion our data indicate that hMOR couples more efficiently to Gi1 alpha than Gi2 alpha and that the coupling efficacy is clearly agonist-dependent.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2002;81;6;1372-82

  • Impaired interactions between mouse Eyal harboring mutations found in patients with branchio-oto-renal syndrome and Six, Dach, and G proteins.

    Ozaki H, Watanabe Y, Ikeda K and Kawakami K

    Department of Biology, Jichi Medical School, Kawachi, Tochigi, Japan.

    Mutations in the EYA1 gene are responsible for branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome as well as for other ocular defects. Most of the mutations are located within or in the vicinity of the EYA domain, which is highly conserved in the EYA protein family. The EYA domain is required for protein-protein interactions, which are important to the biological function of EYA proteins. To determine how EYA1 mutations cause BOR syndrome and/or ocular defects, we tested the effects of Eya1 mutations on interactions with Six. Dach, and G proteins by mammalian two-hybrid and GST-pulldown assays. Defective interactions were noted between BOR-type mutations S486P and L504R of Eya1 and Dach1, G proteins, and some Six proteins. These mutations impaired the activation of transcription from a Six-responsive gene, myogenin, with Six5. S486P and L504R showed an altered digestion pattern with trypsin, and L504R also decreased the sensitivity to V8 protease digestion and produced a peptide fragment with a different M(r). Our results suggest that defective protein-protein interactions of the mutations in the EYA domain underlie BOR syndrome and that SIX, DACH, and/or G proteins are possibly involved in the pathogenic processes.

    Journal of human genetics 2002;47;3;107-16

  • Stimulation of T-Cell activation by CXCL12/stromal cell derived factor-1 involves a G-protein mediated signaling pathway.

    Nanki T and Lipsky PE

    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1820, USA.

    Recently we found that CXCL12/SDF-1 is a costimulator of peripheral CD4+ T cells. In this study, we report that CXCL12 alone induced expression of activation markers by peripheral CD4+ memory T cells and costimulated activation marker expression by anti-CD3 stimulated peripheral CD4+ naive and CD4+ memory T cells as well as by peripheral CD8+ T cells. The stimulation by CXCL12 was inhibited by Pertussis Toxin (PTX), but not by anti-CD25 mAb. CXCL12 also induced enhancement of IL-2 production and proliferation by anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ memory T cells, but not by CD4+ naive T cells. PTX inhibited the enhancement of IL-2 production and proliferation, whereas anti-CD25 mAb inhibited proliferation, but not IL-2 production. Thus, CXCL12 upregulated T-cell activation, and a G-coupled protein mediated signaling pathway was necessary for stimulation of T cells by CXCL12.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-39169

    Cellular immunology 2001;214;2;145-54

  • RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity.

    Kimple RJ, De Vries L, Tronchère H, Behe CI, Morris RA, Gist Farquhar M and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Caro 1f40 lina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA.

    The regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits and are thus recognized as key modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. RGS12 and RGS14 contain not only the hallmark RGS box responsible for GTPase-accelerating activity but also a single G alpha(i/o)-Loco (GoLoco) motif predicted to represent a second G alpha interaction site. Here, we describe functional characterization of the GoLoco motif regions of RGS12 and RGS14. Both regions interact exclusively with G alpha(i1), G alpha(i2), and G alpha(i3) in their GDP-bound forms. In GTP gamma S binding assays, both regions exhibit guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity, inhibiting the rate of exchange of GDP for GTP by G alpha(i1). Both regions also stabilize G alpha(i1) in its GDP-bound form, inhibiting the increase in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence stimulated by AlF(4)(-). Our results indicate that both RGS12 and RGS14 harbor two distinctly different G alpha interaction sites: a previously recognized N-terminal RGS box possessing G alpha(i/o) GAP activity and a C-terminal GoLoco region exhibiting G alpha(i) GDI activity. The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07386, DK17780; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07040, GM62338; NIMH NIH HHS: F30 MH064319, F30 MH064319-04

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;31;29275-81

  • Stimulation by n6-cyclopentyladenosine of A1 adenosine receptors, coupled to galphai2 protein subunit, has a capacitative effect on human spermatozoa.

    Allegrucci C, Liguori L and Minelli A

    Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche e Biotecnologie Molecolari, Sezione Biochimica Cellulare, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italia.

    The effects of selective A(1) receptor agonist on human spermatozoa were examined to verify physiological responses and to investigate the signal transduction pathway. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine on uncapacitated spermatozoa did not induce spontaneous acrosome reaction after 5 h capacitation, whereas the number of capacitated spermatozoa, assessed by lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction with Pisum sativum agglutinin staining, was significantly increased. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine was also added to capacitated human spermatozoa to find out whether the agonist could induce the acrosome reaction. Results, although statistically significant, could not be considered biologically significant. A1-Mediated capacitation was followed by the increase of tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein subset ranging between M(r) = 200 000 and 30 000. Stimulation of A1 receptor with the selective agonist elicited an agonist-induced inositol phospholipid hydrolysis leading to a transient rise of inositol triphosphate (IP3). This increase was not induced by A(1) receptor antagonist and was blocked by phospholipase C inhibitor. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that the A(1) receptor is coupled to Galphai2 subunit suggesting that the activation of phospholipase C is mediated by betagamma subunits. In conclusion, the A(1) adenosine receptor in human spermatozoa is coupled to Galphai2, signals via IP3, and affects the capacitative status of ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Biology of reproduction 2001;64;6;1653-9

  • Specific involvement of G(alphai2) with epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in rat hepatocytes, and the inhibitory effect of chronic ethanol.

    Zhang BH, Ho V and Farrell GC

    Storr Liver Unit, Department of Medicine and Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney at Westmead Hospital, NSW 214, Westmead, Australia.

    We have previously shown that chronic alcohol consumption inhibits liver regeneration by impairing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-operated phospholipase C-(gamma1) (PLC-(gamma1)) activation and the resultant rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)](i). In hepatocytes, activation of PLC-(gamma1) by EGFR requires involvement of a pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G(alphai)) as an intermediate. In the present study, we first identified the G(alphai) protein isoform associated with the activated EGFR, and then examined whether the toxic effect of alcohol on EGFR signaling and liver cell proliferation was exerted on this association. In cultured hepatocytes from control rats, EGF rapidly induced association between EGFR and G(alphai2) but not other G(alphai) isoforms. In hepatocytes from rats fed alcohol for 16 weeks, EGF failed to stimulate this association of G(alphai2) with the EGFR. The impairment of EGFR-G(alphai2) complex formation caused by alcohol was associated with a decreased level of G(alphai2) in the plasma membrane fraction (approximately 50% control). Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(alphai) function, produced an analogous disruption of the association between G(alphai2) and the EGFR, as well as inhibiting EGF-induced DNA synthesis. It is concluded that, in hepatocytes, G(alphai2) is specific among G(alphai) isoforms in coupling activation of the EGFR to other signaling pathways that control cell proliferation. Impaired coupling of G(alphai2) of EGFR could contribute to the mechanism by which chronic alcohol exposure inhibits liver regeneration.

    Biochemical pharmacology 2001;61;8;1021-7

  • Coupling of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor tyrosine kinase to Gi2 in human intestinal smooth muscle: Gbetagamma -dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and growth.

    Kuemmerle JF and Murthy KS

    Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. jkuemmerle@hsc.vcu.edu

    Endogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) stimulates growth of cultured human intestinal smooth muscle by activating distinct mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In Rat1 and Balb/c3T3 fibroblasts and in neurons the IGF-I receptor is coupled to an inhibitory G protein, G(i), which mediates G(beta)gamma-dependent MAP kinase activation. The present study determined whether in normal human intestinal smooth muscle cells the IGF-I receptor activates a heterotrimeric G protein and the role of G protein activation in mediating IGF-I-induced growth. IGF-I elicited IGF-I receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in the specific activation of G(i2). G(beta)gamma subunits selectively mediated IGF-I-dependent MAP kinase activation; G(alpha)i2 subunits selectively mediated IGF-I-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. IGF-I-stimulated MAP kinase activation and growth were inhibited by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i)/G(o) activation. Cyclic AMP inhibits growth of human intestinal muscle cells. IGF-I inhibited both basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. This inhibition was attenuated in the presence of pertussis toxin. IGF-I stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, in contrast to MAP kinase activation, occurred independently of G(i2) activation. These data suggest that IGF-I specifically activates G(i2), resulting in concurrent G(beta)gamma-dependent stimulation of MAP kinase activity and growth, and G(alpha)i2-dependent inhibition of cAMP levels resulting in disinhibition of cAMP-mediated growth suppression.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK49691

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;10;7187-94

  • Characterization of RGS5 in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Zhou J, Moroi K, Nishiyama M, Usui H, Seki N, Ishida J, Fukamizu A and Kimura S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

    RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) serve as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits and negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. In this study, we characterized biochemical properties of RGS5 and its N terminal (1-33)-deleted mutant (deltaN-RGS5). RGS5 bound to G alpha(i1), G alpha(i2), G alpha(i3), G alpha(o) and G alpha(q) but not to G alpha(s) and G alpha13 in the presence of GDP/AIF4-, and accelerated the catalytic rate of GTP hydrolysis of G alpha(i3) subunit. When expressed in 293T cells stably expressing angiotensin (Ang) AT1a receptors (AT1a-293T cells), RGS5 suppressed Ang II- and endothelin (ET)-1-induced intracellular Ca2+ transients. The effect of RGS5 was concentration-dependent, and the slope of the concentration-response relationship showed that a 10-fold increase in amounts of RGS5 induced about 20-25% reduction of the Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, a comparison study of three sets of 293T cells with different expression levels of AT1a receptors showed that RGS5 inhibited Ang II-induced responses more effectively in 293T cells with the lower density of AT1a receptors, suggesting that the degree of inhibition by RGS proteins reflects the ratio of amounts of RGS proteins to those of activated G alpha subunits after receptor stimulation by agonists. When expressed in AT1a-293T cells, deltaN-RGS5 was localized almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction, and exerted the inhibitory effects as potently as RGS5 which was present in both membrane and cytosolic fractions. Studies on relationship between subcellular localization and inhibitory effects of RGS5 and deltaN-RGS5 revealed that the N terminal (1-33) of RGS5 plays a role in targeting this protein to membranes, and that the N terminal region of RGS5 is not essential for exerting activities.

    Life sciences 2001;68;13;1457-69

  • CB1 receptor-G protein association. Subtype selectivity is determined by distinct intracellular domains.

    Mukhopadhyay S and Howlett AC

    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells inhibits adenylate cyclase, and this response can be mimicked by a peptide corresponding to the juxtamembrane C-terminal domain (CB(1)401-417). Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding to G proteins can be stimulated by both peptide CB(1)401-417 and peptides corresponding to the third intracellular loop [Howlett, A.C., Song, C., Berglund, B.A., Wilken, G.H. & Pigg, J.J. (1998) Mol. Pharmacol. 53, 504-510; Mukhopadhyay, S., Cowsik, S.M., Welsh, W.J. & Howlett, A.C. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3447-3455]. In Chaps-solubilized N18TG2 membranes, the CB1 receptor coimmunoprecipitated with all three Gi subtypes. Pertussis toxin significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor-G alpha(i) association and attenuated the CB(1)401-417-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase. CB(1)401-417 significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor association with G alpha(i3), but not with G alpha(i1) or G alpha(i2). In contrast, third intracellular loop peptides significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor association with G alpha(i1) and G alpha(i2), but not G alpha(i3). These interactions are specific for the CB(1) receptor because a peptide corresponding to the juxtamembrane C-terminal domain of the CB(2) receptor failed to compete for the association of the CB1 receptor with any of the Gi alpha subtypes, and was not able to activate Gi proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase. These studies indicate that different domains of the CB(1) receptor direct the interaction with specific G protein subtypes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: K05-DA00182, R01 DA003690, R01-DA03690

    European journal of biochemistry 2001;268;3;499-505

  • Identification of the platelet ADP receptor targeted by antithrombotic drugs.

    Hollopeter G, Jantzen HM, Vincent D, Li G, England L, Ramakrishnan V, Yang RB, Nurden P, Nurden A, Julius D and Conley PB

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Platelets have a crucial role in the maintenance of normal haemostasis, and perturbations of this system can lead to pathological thrombus formation and vascular occlusion, resulting in stroke, myocardial infarction and unstable angina. ADP released from damaged vessels and red blood cells induces platelet aggregation through activation of the integrin GPIIb-IIIa and subsequent binding of fibrinogen. ADP is also secreted from platelets on activation, providing positive feedback that potentiates the actions of many platelet activators. ADP mediates platelet aggregation through its action on two G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes. The P2Y1 receptor couples to Gq and mobilizes intracellular calcium ions to mediate platelet shape change and aggregation. The second ADP receptor required for aggregation (variously called P2Y(ADP), P2Y(AC), P2Ycyc or P2T(AC)) is coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. The molecular identity of the Gi-linked receptor is still elusive, even though it is the target of efficacious antithrombotic agents, such as ticlopidine and clopidogrel and AR-C66096 (ref. 9). Here we describe the cloning of this receptor, designated P2Y12, and provide evidence that a patient with a bleeding disorder has a defect in this gene. Cloning of the P2Y12 receptor should facilitate the development of better antiplatelet agents to treat cardiovascular diseases.

    Nature 2001;409;6817;202-7

  • Coupling of dopamine receptor subtypes to multiple and diverse G proteins.

    Sidhu A and Niznik HB

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurochemistry, Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA. sidhua@odrge.odr.georgetown.edu

    The family of five dopamine receptors subtypes activate cellular effector systems through G proteins. Historically, dopamine receptors were thought to only stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, by coupling to either G(s)alpha or G(i)alpha, respectively. Recent studies in transfected cells, reviewed here, have shown that multiple and highly diverse signaling pathways are activated by specific dopamine receptor subtypes. This multiplicity of signaling responses occurs through selective coupling to distinct G proteins and each of the receptors can interact with more than one G protein. Although some of the multiple coupling of dopamine receptors to different G proteins occurs from within the same family of G proteins, these receptors can also couple to G proteins belonging to different families. Such multiple interactions between receptors and G proteins elicits functionally distinct physiological effects which acts to enhance and subsequently suppress the original receptor response, and to activate apparently distinct signaling pathways. In the brain, where coexpression of functionally distinct receptors in heterogeneous cells further adds to the complexity of dopamine signaling, minor alterations in receptor/G protein coupling states during either development or in adults, may underlie the imbalanced signaling seen in dopaminergic-linked diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-29685, NS-34914

    International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 2000;18;7;669-77

  • Functional reconstitution of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and G(i) activation.

    Hansen JL, Servant G, Baranski TJ, Fujita T, Iiri T and Sheikh SP

    Laboratory for Molecular Cardiology and the Department of Medicine B, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

    On the basis of the patterns of conserved amino acid sequence, the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor belongs to the family of serpentine receptors, which relay signals from extracellular stimuli to heterotrimeric G proteins. However, the AT(2) receptor signal transduction mechanisms are poorly understood. We have measured AT(2)-triggered activation of purified heterotrimeric proteins in urea-extracted membranes from cultured COS-7 cells expressing the recombinant receptor. This procedure removes contaminating GTP-binding proteins without inactivating the serpentine receptor. Binding studies using [(125)I] angiotensin (Ang) II revealed a single binding site with a K(d)=0.45 and a capacity of 627 fmol/mg protein in the extracted membranes. The AT(2) receptor caused a rapid activation of alpha(i) and alpha(o) but not of alpha(q) and alpha(s), as measured by radioactive guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding. Activation required the presence of activated receptors, betagamma, and alpha subunits. As a first step aimed at developing an in vitro assay to examine AT(2) receptor pharmacology, we tested a battery of Ang II-related ligands for their ability to promote AT(1) or AT(2) receptor-catalyzed G(i) activation. Two proteolytic fragments of Ang II, Ang III and Ang1-7, also promoted activation of alpha(i) through the AT(2) receptor. Furthermore, we found that [Sar(1),Ala(8)]Ang II is an antagonist for both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors and that CPG42112 behaves as a partial agonist for the AT(2) receptor. In combination with previous observations, these results show that the AT(2) receptor is fully capable of activating G(i) and provides a new tool for exploring AT(2) receptor pharmacology and interactions with G-protein trimers.

    Circulation research 2000;87;9;753-9

  • The alpha subunits of Gz and Gi interact with the eyes absent transcription cofactor Eya2, preventing its interaction with the six class of homeodomain-containing proteins.

    Fan X, Brass LF, Poncz M, Spitz F, Maire P and Manning DR

    Departments of Pharmacology, Medicine and Pathology, and Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Yeast two-hybrid techniques were used to identify possible effectors for the heterotrimeric G protein G(z) in human bone marrow cells. Eya2, a human homologue of the Drosophila Eya transcription co-activator, was identified. Eya2 interacts with activated Galpha(z) and at least one other member of the Galpha(i) family, Galpha(i2). Interactions were confirmed in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down assays. Regions of Eya2-mediating interaction were mapped to the C-terminal Eya consensus domain. Eya2 is an intrinsically cytosolic protein that is translocated to the nucleus by members of the Six homeodomain-containing family of proteins. Activated Galpha(z) and Galpha(i2) prevent Eya2 translocation and inhibit Six/Eya2-mediated activation of a reporter gene controlled through the MEF3/TATA promoter. Although G proteins are known to regulate the activity of numerous transcription factors, this regulation is normally achieved indirectly via one or more intermediates. We show here a novel functional regulation of a co-activator directly by G protein subunits.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45181

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;41;32129-34

  • Activation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by a ras-related protein. Implications for signal integration.

    Cismowski MJ, Ma C, Ribas C, Xie X, Spruyt M, Lizano JS, Lanier SM and Duzic E

    OSI Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York 10591, the Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA. mcismowski@neurocrine.com

    Utilizing a functional screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we identified mammalian proteins that activate heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways in a receptor-independent fashion. One of the identified activators, termed AGS1 (for activator of G-protein signaling), is a human Ras-related G-protein that defines a distinct subgroup of the Ras superfamily. Expression of AGS1 in yeast and in mammalian cells results in specific activation of Galpha(i)/Galpha(o) heterotrimeric signaling pathways. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro properties of AGS1 are consistent with it functioning as a direct guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Galpha(i)/Galpha(o). AGS1 thus presents a unique mechanism for signal integration via heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS24821

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;31;23421-4

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysophosphatidic acid receptor, Edg-7, expressed in prostate.

    Im DS, Heise CE, Harding MA, George SR, O'Dowd BF, Theodorescu D and Lynch KR

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

    Two G protein-coupled receptors (Edg-2) and (Edg-4) for the lysolipid phosphoric acid mediator lysophosphatidic acid have been described by molecular cloning. However, the calcium-mobilizing receptor Edg-4 is not expressed in some cell lines that exhibit robust calcium responses to this ligand, thus predicting the existence of additional receptor subtypes. We report here on the characterization of a third human lysophosphatidic acid receptor subtype, Edg-7, which mediates lysophosphatidic acid-evoked calcium mobilization. In a rat hepatoma Rh7777 cell line that lacks endogenous responses to lysophosphatidic acid, this lipid mediator, but not others, evokes calcium transients when the cells have been transfected with Edg-7 or Edg-4 DNAs. Furthermore, frog oocytes exhibit a calcium-mediated chloride conductance in response to mammalian-selective lysophosphatidic acid mimetics after injection of Edg-7 mRNA. Edg-7-expressing Rh7777 cells do not show inhibition of forskolin-driven rises in cAMP in response to lysophosphatidic acid. However, membranes from HEK293T cells cotransfected with Edg-7 and G(i2)alpha protein DNAs show lysophosphatidic acid dose-dependent increases in [gamma-(35)S]GTP binding with an EC(50) value of 195 nM. When we used this assay to compare various synthetic LPA analogs at Edg-2, Edg-4, and Edg-7 receptors, we found that ethanolamine-based compounds, which are full LPA mimetics at Edg-2 and Edg-4, exhibit little activity at the Edg-7 receptor. Edg-7 RNA was detected in extracts of several rat and human tissues including prostate. Together, our data indicate that Edg-7 is a third lysophosphatidic acid receptor that couples predominantly to G(q/11)alpha proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R21CA69848; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM52722, T32GM07055

    Molecular pharmacology 2000;57;4;753-9

  • PAR1 thrombin receptor-G protein interactions. Separation of binding and coupling determinants in the galpha subunit.

    Swift S, Sheridan PJ, Covic L and Kuliopulos A

    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Division of Hematology, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Signal transfer between the protease-activated PAR1 thrombin receptor and membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins is mediated by protein-protein interactions. We constructed a yeast signaling system that resolves domain-specific functions of binding from coupling in the Galpha subunit. The endogenous yeast Galpha subunit, Gpa1, does not bind to PAR1 and served as a null structural template. N- and C-terminal portions of mammalian G(i2) and G(16) were substituted back into the Gpa1 template and gain-of-function assessed. The C-terminal third of G(16), but not of G(i2), provides sufficient interactions for coupling to occur with PAR1. The N-terminal two-thirds of G(i2) also contains sufficient determinants to bind and couple to PAR1 and overcome the otherwise negative or missing interactions supplied by the C-terminal third of Gpa1. Replacement of the N-terminal alpha-helix of G(i2), residues 1-34, with those of Gpa1 abolishes coupling but not binding to PAR1 or to betagamma subunits. These data support a model that the N-terminal alphaN helix of the Galpha subunit is physically interposed between PAR1 and the Gbeta subunit and directly assists in transferring the signal between agonist-activated receptor and G protein.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL57905; NIGMS NIH HHS: R29GM52926

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;4;2627-35

  • Dual signaling of human Mel1a melatonin receptors via G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins.

    Brydon L, Roka F, Petit L, de Coppet P, Tissot M, Barrett P, Morgan PJ, Nanoff C, Strosberg AD and Jockers R

    CNRS-UPR 0415 and Université Paris VII, Institut Cochin de Génétique Moléculaire, Paris, France.

    Mel 1a melatonin receptors belong to the super-family of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. So far, interest in Mel 1a receptor signaling has focused mainly on the modulation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway via pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins. To further investigate signaling of the human Mel 1a receptor, we have developed an antibody directed against the C terminus of this receptor. This antibody detected the Mel 1a receptor as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa in immunoblots after separation by SDS-PAGE. It also specifically precipitated the 2-[125I]iodomelatonin (125I-Mel)-labeled receptor from Mel 1a-transfected HEK 293 cells. Coprecipitation experiments showed that G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins couple to the Mel 1a receptor in an agonist-dependent and guanine nucleotide-sensitive manner. Coupling was selective since other G proteins present in HEK 293 cells, (G(i1), G(o), G(s), G(z), and G12) were not detected in receptor complexes. Coupling of the Mel 1a receptor to G(i) and G(q) was confirmed by inhibition of high-affinity 125I-Mel binding to receptors with subtype-selective G protein alpha-subunit antibodies. G(i2) and/or G(i3) mediated adenylyl cyclase inhibition while G(q/11) induced a transient elevation in cytosolic calcium concentrations in HEK 293 cells stably expressing Mel 1a receptors. Melatonin-induced cytosolic calcium mobilization via PTX-insensitive G proteins was confirmed in primary cultures of ovine pars tuberalis cells endogenously expressing Mel 1a receptors. In conclusion, we report the development of the first antibody recognizing the cloned human Mel 1a melatonin receptor protein. We show that Mel 1a receptors functionally couple to both PTX-sensitive and PTX-insensitive G proteins. The previously unknown signaling of Mel 1a receptors through G(q/11) widens the spectrum of potential targets for melatonin.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1999;13;12;2025-38

  • The luteinizing hormone receptor activates phospholipase C via preferential coupling to Gi2.

    Kühn B and Gudermann T

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Binding of lutropin/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) to its cognate receptor results in the activation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. This divergent signaling of the LH receptor is based on the independent activation of distinct G protein subfamilies, i.e. , Gs, Gi, and potentially also Gq. To examine the selectivity of LH receptor coupling to phospholipase C beta-activating G proteins, we used an in vivo reconstitution system based on the coexpression of the LH receptor and different G proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In this paper, we describe a refined expression strategy for the LH receptor in insect cells. The receptor protein was inserted into the cell membrane at an expression level of 0.8 pmol/mg of membrane protein. Sf9 cells expressing the LH receptor responded to hCG challenge with a concentration-dependent accumulation of intracellular cAMP (EC50 = 630 nM) but not of inositol phosphates, whereas stimulation of the histamine H1 receptor in Sf9 cells led to increased phospholipase C (PLC) activity. Immunoblotting experiments using G protein-specific antisera revealed the absence of quantitative amounts of alpha i in Sf9 cells, whereas alpha s and alpha q/11 were detected. We therefore attempted to restore the hCG-dependent PLC activation by infection of Sf9 cells with viruses encoding the LH receptor and different G protein alpha subunits. HCG stimulation of cells coexpressing the LH receptor and exogenous alpha i2 resulted in stimulation of PLC activity. In cells coinfected with an alpha i3-baculovirus, hCG challenge led to a minor activation of PLC, whereas no hCG-dependent PLC stimulation was observed in cells coexpressing alpha i1. Most notably, coinfection with baculoviruses encoding alpha q or alpha 11 did not reproduce the PLC activation by the LH receptor. Thus, the murine LH receptor activates adenylyl cyclase via Gs and PLC via selective coupling to Gi2.

    Biochemistry 1999;38;38;12490-8

  • Genetic screens in yeast to identify mammalian nonreceptor modulators of G-protein signaling.

    Cismowski MJ, Takesono A, Ma C, Lizano JS, Xie X, Fuernkranz H, Lanier SM and Duzic E

    Cadus Pharmaceutical Corporation, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown 10591, NY, USA.

    We describe genetic screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae designed to identify mammalian nonreceptor modulators of G-protein signaling pathways. Strains lacking a pheromone-responsive G-protein coupled receptor and expressing a mammalian-yeast Galpha hybrid protein were made conditional for growth upon either pheromone pathway activation (activator screen) or pheromone pathway inactivation (inhibitor screen). Mammalian cDNAs that conferred plasmid-dependent growth under restrictive conditions were identified. One of the cDNAs identified from the activator screen, a human Ras-related G protein that we term AGS1 (for activator of G-protein signaling), appears to function by facilitating guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange on the heterotrimeric Galpha. A cDNA product identified from the inhibitor screen encodes a previously identified regulator of G-protein signaling, human RGS5.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS24821

    Nature biotechnology 1999;17;9;878-83

  • Expression of GTPase-deficient Gialpha2 results in translocation of cytoplasmic RGS4 to the plasma membrane.

    Druey KM, Sullivan BM, Brown D, Fischer ER, Watson N, Blumer KJ, Gerfen CR, Scheschonka A and Kehrl JH

    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1876, USA.

    The members of a recently identified protein family termed regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) act as GTPase-activating proteins for certain Galpha subunits in vitro, but their physiological effects in cells are uncertain in the face of similar biochemical activity and overlapping patterns of tissue expression. Consistent with its activity in in vitro GTPase-activating protein assays, RGS4 interacts efficiently with endogenous proteins of the Gi and Gq subclasses of Galpha subunits but not with G12alpha or Gsalpha. Unlike other RGS proteins such as RGS9, RGS-GAIP, and Sst2p, which have been reported to be largely membrane-associated, a majority of cellular RGS4 is found as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm. However, the expression of a GTPase-deficient Gialpha subunit (Gialpha2-Q204L) resulted in the translocation of both wild type RGS4 and a non-Gialpha-binding mutant (L159F) to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that RGS4 may be recruited to the plasma membrane indirectly by G-protein activation and that multiple RGS proteins within a given cell might be differentially localized to determine a physiologic response to a G-protein-linked stimulus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38452

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;29;18405-10

  • The mammalian calcium-binding protein, nucleobindin (CALNUC), is a Golgi resident protein.

    Lin P, Le-Niculescu H, Hofmeister R, McCaffery JM, Jin M, Hennemann H, McQuistan T, De Vries L and Farquhar MG

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA.

    We have identified CALNUC, an EF-hand, Ca2+-binding protein, as a Golgi resident protein. CALNUC corresponds to a previously identified EF-hand/calcium-binding protein known as nucleobindin. CALNUC interacts with Galphai3 subunits in the yeast two-hybrid system and in GST-CALNUC pull-down assays. Analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that the EF-hand and intervening acidic regions are the site of CALNUC's interaction with Galphai3. CALNUC is found in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. The membrane pool is tightly associated with the luminal surface of Golgi membranes. CALNUC is widely expressed, as it is detected by immunofluorescence in the Golgi region of all tissues and cell lines examined. By immunoelectron microscopy, CALNUC is localized to cis-Golgi cisternae and the cis-Golgi network (CGN). CALNUC is the major Ca2+-binding protein detected by 45Ca2+-binding assay on Golgi fractions. The properties of CALNUC and its high homology to calreticulin suggest that it may play a key role in calcium homeostasis in the CGN and cis-Golgi cisternae.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 58689; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 17780, R01 DK017780

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;141;7;1515-27

  • Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia due to a somatic cell mutation in G protein subunitalphai2.

    Lerman BB, Dong B, Stein KM, Markowitz SM, Linden J and Catanzaro DF

    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, 10021, USA. blerman@mail.med.cornell.edu

    Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is a generic term that describes the various forms of ventricular arrhythmias that occur in patients without structural heart disease and in the absence of the long QT syndrome. Many of these tachycardias are focal in origin, localize to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), terminate in response to beta blockers, verapamil, vagal maneuvers, and adenosine, and are thought to result from cAMP-mediated triggered activity. DNA was prepared from biopsy samples obtained from myocardial tissue from a patient with adenosine-insensitive idiopathic ventricular tachycardia arising from the RVOT. Genomic sequences of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 were determined after amplification by PCR and subcloning. A point mutation (F200L) in the GTP binding domain of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 was identified in a biopsy sample from the arrhythmogenic focus. This mutation was shown to increase intracellular cAMP concentration and inhibit suppression of cAMP by adenosine. No mutations were detected in Galphai2 sequences from myocardial tissue sampled from regions remote from the origin of tachycardia, or from peripheral lymphocytes. These findings suggest that somatic cell mutations in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway occurring during myocardial development may be responsible for some forms of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-56139

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1998;101;12;2862-8

  • Insulin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in human adipocyte plasma membranes is mediated by Galphai2.

    Krieger-Brauer HI, Medda PK and Kather H

    Klinisches Institut für Herzinfarktforschung an der Medizinischen Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Bergheimerstrasse 58, Heidelberg 69115, Germany.

    Human fat cells possess a multireceptor-linked H2O2-generating system that is activated by insulin. Previous studies revealed that manganese was the sole cofactor required for a hormonal regulation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in vitro. In this report it is shown that the synergistic activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation by Mn2+ and insulin was blocked by GDPbetaS (guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)), pertussis toxin and COOH-terminal anti-Galphai1-2 or the corresponding peptide. Consistently, manganese could be replaced by micromolar concentrations of GTPgammaS (guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)), which increased NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation by 20-40%. Insulin shifted the dose response curve for GTPgammaS to the left (>10-fold) and increased the maximal response. In the presence of 10 microM GTPgammaS, the hormone was active at picomolar concentrations, indicating that insulin acted via its cognate receptor. The insulin receptor and Gi were co-adsorbed on anti-Galphai and anti-insulin receptor beta-subunit (anti-IRbeta) affinity columns. Partially purified insulin receptor preparations contained Galphas, Galphai2, and Gbetagamma (but no Galphai1 or Galphai3). The functional nature of the insulin receptor-Gi2 complex was made evident by insulin's ability to modulate labeling of Gi by bacterial toxins. Insulin action was mimicked by activated Galphai, but not by Galphao or Gbetagamma, indicating that insulin's signal was transduced via Galphai2. Thus, NADPH oxidase is the first example of an effector system that is coupled to the insulin receptor via a heterotrimeric G protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;15;10135-43

  • Characterization of a novel mammalian RGS protein that binds to Galpha proteins and inhibits pheromone signaling in yeast.

    Chen C, Zheng B, Han J and Lin SC

    Regulatory Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Republic of Singapore.

    Genetic studies of molecules that negatively regulate G-coupled receptor functions have led to the identification of a large gene family with an evolutionarily conserved domain, termed the RGS domain. It is now understood that RGS proteins serve as GTPase-activating proteins for subfamilies of the heterotrimeric G-proteins. We have isolated from mouse pituitary a full-length cDNA clone encoding a novel member of the RGS protein family, termed RGS16, as well as the full-length cDNA of mRGS5 and mRGS2. Tissue distribution analysis shows that the novel RGS16 is predominantly expressed in liver and pituitary, and that RGS5 is preferentially expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast, RGS2 is widely expressed. Genetic analysis using the pheromone response halo assay and FUS1 gene induction assay show that overexpression of the RGS16 gene dramatically inhibits yeast response to alpha-factor, whereas neither RGS2 nor RGS5 has any discernible effect on pheromone sensitivity, pointing to a possible functional diversity among RGS proteins. In vitro binding assays reveal that RGS5 and RGS16 bind to Galphai and Galphao subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins, but not to Galphas. Based on mutational analysis of the conserved residues in the RGS domain, we suggest that the G-protein binding and GTPase-activating protein activity may involve distinct functional structures of the RGS proteins, indicating that RGS proteins may exert a dual function in the attenuation of signaling via G-coupled receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;13;8679-85

  • GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits.

    De Vries L, Elenko E, Hubler L, Jones TL and Farquhar MG

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0651, USA.

    GAIP (G Alpha Interacting Protein) is a member of the recently described RGS (Regulators of G-protein Signaling) family that was isolated by interaction cloning with the heterotrimeric G-protein G alpha i3 and was recently shown to be a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). In AtT-20 cells stably expressing GAIP, we found that GAIP is membrane-anchored and faces the cytoplasm, because it was not released by sodium carbonate treatment but was digested by proteinase K. When Cos cells were transiently transfected with GAIP and metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine, two pools of GAIP--a soluble and a membrane-anchored pool--were found. Since the N terminus of GAIP contains a cysteine string motif and cysteine string proteins are heavily palmitoylated, we investigated the possibility that membrane-anchored GAIP might be palmitoylated. We found that after labeling with [3H]palmitic acid, the membrane-anchored pool but not the soluble pool was palmitoylated. In the yeast two-hybrid system, GAIP was found to interact specifically with members of the G alpha i subfamily, G alpha i1, G alpha i2, G alpha i3, G alpha z, and G alpha o, but not with members of other G alpha subfamilies, G alpha s, G alpha q, and G alpha 12/13. The C terminus of G alpha i3 is important for binding because a 10-aa C-terminal truncation and a point mutant of G alpha i3 showed significantly diminished interaction. GAIP interacted preferentially with the activated (GTP) form of G alpha i3, which is in keeping with its GAP activity. We conclude that GAIP is a membrane-anchored GAP with a cysteine string motif. This motif, present in cysteine string proteins found on synaptic vesicles, pancreatic zymogen granules, and chromaffin granules, suggests GAIP's possible involvement in membrane trafficking.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689, F32 CA066289; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK17780, R01 DK017780; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07752, T32 GM007752

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;26;15203-8

  • Direct evidence for two distinct G proteins coupling with thrombin receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-EP cells.

    Ogino Y, Tanaka K and Shimizu N

    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

    Thrombin receptor-G protein coupling was investigated in the human epithelial neuroblastoma cell line, SH-EP. In these cells, both alpha-thrombin and thrombin receptor peptides, SFLLRNP (one-letter amino-acid code), which are newly exposed following cleavage by alpha-thrombin, stimulated GTPase activity about 2-fold over basal activity. Pertussis toxin treatment only partially attenuated alpha-thrombin- and SFLLRNP-stimulated GTPase activity by 50%, whereas antibody raised against synthetic heptapeptide SFLLRNP blocked alpha-thrombin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis more than 80%. Immunoprecipitation studies using this antibody showed that both Gi2, a subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) mediating inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and Gq/G11, a G protein mediating stimulation of phospholipase C, were activated by alpha-thrombin. These data suggest that in these cells the thrombin receptor activates pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins simultaneously and directly couples to Gi2 and Gq/G11, which mediate different signaling pathways.

    European journal of pharmacology 1996;316;1;105-9

  • Identification and cDNA cloning of a novel human mosaic protein, LGN, based on interaction with G alpha i2.

    Mochizuki N, Cho G, Wen B and Insel PA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0636, USA.

    We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, Gi2. We screened a human B cell cDNA library with full-length G alpha i2 and isolated four positive colonies, one of which expressed the 44-kDa COOH terminus of a previously unrecognized 677-amino acid (aa) protein. A full-length clone was isolated from a HeLa cell cDNA library. The deduced protein contains 10 Leu-Gly-Asn repeats, and thus we named it LGN. Computer analysis indicates that LGN is a mosaic protein with seven repeated sequences of about 40 aa in length at its N-terminal end, and four repeated sequences of about 34 aa at its C-terminal end. Each of the two repeat regions shows substantial similarity to proteins found in other organisms. RT-PCR analysis of human tissues showed that the mRNA of LGN was ubiquitously expressed. The specificity of interaction between G alpha i2 and LGN was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay using recombinant proteins. These data indicate that the yeast two-hybrid system can identify novel proteins, such as LGN, that interact with G alpha proteins. As a mosaic protein, LGN shows similarity with portions of proteins from many species and thus may define a new protein family.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL35018; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM31987, GM40781; ...

    Gene 1996;181;1-2;39-43

  • Identification of G-protein binding sites of the human interleukin-8 receptors by functional mapping of the intracellular loops.

    Damaj BB, McColl SR, Neote K, Songqing N, Ogborn KT, Hébert CA and Naccache PH

    Le Centre de Recherche en Rhumatologie et Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada.

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is considered to be a major mediator of the inflammatory response. Recent evidence indicates that a direct physical association occurs between IL-8 receptors and the alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Gi(alpha)2) upon stimulation of human neutrophils by IL-8. In the present study, we identified by site-directed mutagenesis key residues within the three intracellular loops of the IL-8RA receptor involved in the interaction with Gi(alpha)2. We first systematically mutated, in groups of two to four, all the residues in the three intracellular loops of the IL-8 type A receptor to alanine and analyzed the mutant receptors transiently expressed in 293 cells. Four residues in the second intracellular loop (Y136, L137, I139, V140) and one residue in the third intracellular loop (M241) were shown to be crucial for mediating calcium signaling in response to IL-8. Other residues in the second and third intracellular loops were also found to affect IL-8RA-mediated signaling, but to a lesser extent. These effects were not due to lower expression or low IL-8 binding affinities to the mutated receptors. Mutagenesis of the residues in the first intracellular loop had only weak effects on the mobilization of calcium induced by IL-8. We then used a coimmunoprecipitation protocol with anti-Gi(alpha)2 antibodies to determine the involvement of the two regions defined above in Gi(alpha)2 coupling to IL-8 type A receptors. Whereas the anti-Gi(alpha)2 antibodies coimmunoprecipitated IL-8 receptors in the wild-type cells, this interaction was lost in cells expressing mutated receptors that affected intracellular calcium mobilization. The peptides corresponding to the regions of the type A receptor found to be critical for Gi(alpha)2 coupling and induction of intracellular calcium mobilization were next introduced into cells expressing wild-type IL-8RA or IL-8RB to assess their role in coupling Gi(alpha)2 to both IL-8 receptors. The results obtained in the latter experiments suggest that the same regions of the second intracellular loop (Y136, L137, I139, V140) and of the third intracellular loop (M241) are critically involved in the coupling of both IL-8RA and IL-8 RB to Gi(alpha)2 as well as to a downstream effector (or effectors) involved in calcium mobilization.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1996;10;12;1426-34

  • Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone receptor to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C.

    Herrlich A, Kühn B, Grosse R, Schmid A, Schultz G and Gudermann T

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Thielallee 69-73, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.

    Binding of lutropin/choriogonadotropin to its cognate receptor results in the activation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. The mechanism underlying the generation of this bifurcating signal is presently not known. To analyze the coupling mechanism of the LH receptor, activated G proteins were labeled with [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide and identified by selective immunoprecipitation. In membranes of bovine corpora lutea and of L cells stably expressing the murine LH receptor (LHR cells), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) led to incorporation of the label into alphas and alphai2. Stimulation of LHR cells or of L cells expressing the M5 muscarinic receptor (LM5 cells) with the respective agonist resulted in activation of phospholipase C in both cell lines. However, alphaq and alpha11 were only labeled upon stimulation of the M5 muscarinic receptor. Agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization and inositol phosphate accumulation were partially sensitive to pertussis toxin, and the expression of the betagamma-stimulable phospholipase C isoforms beta2 and beta3 could be demonstrated in LHR cells. Overexpression of phospholipase C-beta2 led to increased hCG-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation, and expression of a beta-ARK1 C-terminal polypeptide effectively suppressed hCG-mediated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis. Thus, the LH receptor couples to both Gs and Gi, and betagamma-subunits released from either G protein contribute to the stimulation of phospholipase C-beta isoforms.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;28;16764-72

  • The AT2 receptor selectively associates with Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 in the rat fetus.

    Zhang J and Pratt RE

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5246, USA.

    The effects of angiotensin II are mediated by a family of seven transmembrane receptors. In the adult, the majority of the receptors are of the AT1 isoform, which is coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins (either Gqalpha or Gialpha). In contrast, the AT2 receptor is expressed at low 145f levels in the adult but is the major form expressed in the fetal and neonatal animal. Previous results have failed to show G protein coupling of the AT2 receptor in the fetus. We now provide evidence that the AT2 receptor is G protein-coupled. An antibody that binds several Galpha subunits immunoselected angiotensin II receptor-Galpha complexes. In addition, Gialpha1-3 antibody, which recognizes Gialpha1, Gialpha2 and Gialpha3, also co-immunoselect the AT2 receptor. Anti-Gialpha2 and anti-Gialpha3 antibodies were both able to co-immunoselected AT2 receptor-Gialpha complexes, but consistent with the lack of Gialpha1 in the fetal extracts, anti-Gialpha1 antibodies did not nor did any other G protein-directed antisera. The finding that AT2 receptor couples to both Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 raises the possibility that selective interactions between AT2 receptor and different G proteins may result in specific cellular effects mediated by AT2 stimulation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 42663, HL 48638

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;25;15026-33

  • Direct or C5a-induced activation of heterotrimeric Gi2 proteins in human neutrophils is associated with interaction between formyl peptide receptors and the cytoskeleton.

    Särndahl E, Bokoch GM, Boulay F, Stendahl O and Andersson T

    Department of Cell Biology, Linköping University, S-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

    The binding of ligands to N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors in human neutrophils results in a rapid association of these receptors with a cytoskeletal fraction and a specific activation and release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from this fraction. In the present study we could show that pretreating neutrophils with GDPbetaS prevented the fMet-Leu-Phe-induced association of its receptor with a cytoskeletal fraction and also blocked the release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from the same cytoskeletal fraction. In contrast, direct activation of Gi2 proteins by addition of GTPgammaS or AlF4- not only caused a release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from the cytoskeleton but also an association of formyl peptide receptors with the cytoskeleton. The receptor for complement fragment 5a, which transduces its signaling through the same Gi2 protein, triggers both a release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from the cytoskeleton fraction and, of even greater interest, an association between formyl peptide receptors and the cytoskeleton. The close relationship between the activation and release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from the cytoskeleton and the association of formyl peptide receptors with the cytoskeleton might, however, not be a matter of protein-protein exchange, since the increased binding of formyl peptide receptors to the cytoskeleton occurs more rapidly than the release of Gi2 alpha-subunits from the cytoskeleton. The present findings suggest a possible mechanism for the initiation of formyl peptide receptor desensitization during neutrophil locomotion.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 39434

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;25;15267-71

  • Physical association of Gi2alpha with interleukin-8 receptors.

    Damaj BB, McColl SR, Mahana W, Crouch MF and Naccache PH

    Centre de Recherche en Rhumatologie et Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 4G2, Canada.

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response, belongs to a family of chemokines that includes NAP-2 (neutrophil-activating peptide-2) and Gro-alpha and whose biological activities are directed to a great extent toward neutrophils. Two distinct receptors have been described with overlapping, but not identical, binding affinities for IL-8, NAP-2, and Gro-alpha. This study was designed to examine the intracellular pathways activated upon the occupation of each of the IL-8 receptors (IL-8R). The formation of a physical coupling between IL-8 receptors and the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins was tested in neutrophils by examining the presence of the former in anti-Galpha immune precipitates. The addition of IL-8 to a suspension of human neutrophils led to a time-dependent detection of IL-8 in anti-Gi2alpha (raised against amino acids 159-168 (LERIAQSDYI) of Gi2alpha) and anti-Gtalpha (raised against the COOH-terminal 10 amino acids (KENLKDCGLF) of Gtalpha), but not anti-Gq, immunoprecipitates. Similar results were obtained in human 293 cells stably transfected with IL-8RA or IL-8RB. The peptide derived from the COOH-terminal sequence of Gt inhibited the co-immunoprecipitation of IL-8R and Gi observed in response to the anti-Gtalpha and anti-Gi2alpha antibodies. On the other hand, the Gi2alpha peptide only inhibited the immunoprecipitation induced by the anti-Gi2alpha antibody. Peptides derived from Gi1alpha or Gi3alpha had no effect in this assay. The introduction of the anti-Gi2alpha or anti-Gtalpha antibodies or their neutralizing peptides, but not the Gi1alpha or Gi3alpha peptides, into 293 IL-8RA or 293 IL-8RB cells completely blocked the calcium responses obtained upon stimulation with IL-8. These results demonstrate that the occupation of either type of IL-8 receptor leads to a physical coupling to the alpha-subunit of Gi2. In addition, the use of the subunit-specific peptides identified two functionally important but distinct regions of Gialpha, one involved in receptor/Gialpha interaction (KENLKDCGLF) and the other mediating downstream signal transmission (LERIAQSDYI). Finally, the results of this study also validate the use of the transfected 293 cell line as a model for the study of the signal transduction pathway(s) initiated by IL-8.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;22;12783-9

  • Co-purification and direct interaction of Ras with caveolin, an integral membrane protein of caveolae microdomains. Detergent-free purification of caveolae microdomains.

    Song KS, Li Shengwen, Okamoto T, Quilliam LA, Sargiacomo M and Lisanti MP

    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142-1479, USA.

    Caveolae are plasma membrane specializations that have been implicated in signal transduction. Caveolin, a 21-24-kDa integral membrane protein, is a principal structural component of caveolae membranes in vivo. G protein alpha subunits are concentrated in purified preparations of caveolae membranes, and caveolin interacts directly with multiple G protein alpha subunits, including G(s), G(o), and G(i2). Mutational or pharmacologic activation of G alpha subunits prevents the interaction of caveolin with G proteins, indicating that inactive G alpha subunits preferentially interact with caveolin. Here, we show that caveolin interacts with another well characterized signal transducer, Ras. Using a detergent-free procedure for purification of caveolin-rich membrane domains and a polyhistidine tagged form of caveolin, we find that Ras and other classes of lipid-modified signaling molecules co-fractionate and co-elute with caveolin. The association of Ras with caveolin was further evaluated using two distinct in vitro binding assays. Wild-type H-Ras interacted with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-caveolin fusion proteins but not with GST alone. Using a battery of GST fusion proteins encoding distinct regions of caveolin, Ras binding activity was localized to a 41-amino acid membrane proximal region of the cytosolic N-terminal domain of caveolin. In addition, reconstituted caveolin-rich membranes (prepared with purified recombinant caveolin and purified lipids) interacted with a soluble form of wild-type H-Ras but failed to interact with mutationally activated soluble H-Ras (G12V). Thus, a single amino acid change (G12V) that constitutively activates Ras prevents or destabilizes this interaction. These results clearly indicate that (i) caveolin is sufficient to recruit soluble Ras onto lipid membranes and (ii) membrane-bound caveolin preferentially interacts with inactive Ras proteins. In direct support of these in vitro studies, we also show that recombinant overexpression of caveolin in intact cells is sufficient to functionally recruit a nonfarnesylated mutant of Ras (C186S) onto membranes, overcoming the normal requirement for lipid modification of Ras. Taken together, these observations suggest that caveolin may function as a scaffolding protein to localize or sequester certain caveolin-interacting proteins, such as wild-type Ras, within caveolin-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-63139; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-50443

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;16;9690-7

  • Insulin action impaired by deficiency of the G-protein subunit G ialpha2.

    Moxham CM and Malbon CC

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research Program, University Medical Center, SUNY/Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA.

    Integration of information between tyrosine kinase and G-protein-mediated pathways is necessary, but remains poorly understood. Here we use cells from transgenic mice harbouring inducible expression of RNA antisense to the gene encoding G ialpha2 to show that G ialpha2 is critical for insulin action. G ialpha2 deficiency in adipose tissue and liver produces hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and resistance to insulin in vivo. Insulin resistance affects glucose-transporter activity and recruitment, counterregulation of lipolysis, and activation of glycogen synthase, all of which are cardinal responses to insulin. G ialpha2 deficiency increases protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity and attenuates insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS (insulin-receptor substrate 1) in vivo. G ialpha2 deficiency creates a model for insulin resistance characteristic of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), implicating G ialpha2 as a positive regulator of insulin action.

    Nature 1996;379;6568;840-4

  • The human thyrotropin receptor: a heptahelical receptor capable of stimulating members of all four G protein families.

    Laugwitz KL, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont JE and Schultz G

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Thyrotropin is the primary hormone that, via one heptahelical receptor, regulates thyroid cell functions such as secretion, specific gene expression, and growth. In human thyroid, thyrotropin receptor activation leads to stimulation of the adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C cascades. However, the G proteins involved in thyrotropin receptor action have been only partially defined. In membranes of human thyroid gland, we immunologically identified alpha subunits of the G proteins Gs short, Gs long, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, G(o) (Go2 and another form of Go, presumably Go1), Gq, G11, G12, and G13. Activation of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor by bovine TSH led to increased incorporation of the photoreactive GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide into immunoprecipitated alpha subunits of all G proteins detected in thyroid membranes. This effect was receptor-dependent and not due to direct G protein stimulation because it was mimicked by TSH receptor-stimulating antibodies of patients suffering from Grave disease and was abolished by a receptor-blocking antiserum from a patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism. The TSH-induced activation of individual G proteins occurred with EC50 values of 5-50 milliunits/ml, indicating that the activated TSH receptor coupled with similar potency to different G proteins. When human thyroid slices were pretreated with pertussis toxin, the TSH receptor-mediated accumulation of cAMP increased by approximately 35% with TSH at 1 milliunits/ml, indicating that the TSH receptor coupled to Gs and G(i). Taken together, these findings show that, at least in human thyroid membranes, in which the protein is expressed at its physiological levels, the TSH receptor resembles a naturally occurring example of a general G protein-activating receptor.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;1;116-20

  • Identification and subcellular distribution of the Gi-proteins in the enterocytic-differentiated adenocarcinoma cell-line, Caco-2.

    Lacombe C, Viallard V, Schaak S and Paris H

    INSERM U317, Institut Louis-Bugnard, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

    As evidenced by pertussis toxin-catalysed [32P]ADP-ribosylation, immunoblotting and Northern blot, the human adenocarcinoma intestinal cell line Caco-2 expresses Gi2 and Gi3 proteins. The localization of these two Gis within the cell was investigated by using subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy on intact cell layer. A brush-border rich fraction and a pellet containing the remaining cellular membranes were prepared. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of both alpha i2 and alpha i3 in these two preparations. Immunofluorescence studies performed on intact cells grown on Transwell filters and viewed by confocal microscopy further confirmed the localization of alpha i3-subunit on basolateral as well as on apical membranes. In contrast, alpha i2-subunit was shown to accumulate mainly in the intra-cellular compartment while only faint staining of the plasma membrane was detectable. Based upon double-labelling experiments with antibody against rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), there is a strong possibility that intra-cellular sites of alpha i2-subunit correspond to association with RER membranes.

    Biology of the cell 1996;88;3;123-9

  • The human platelet ADP receptor activates Gi2 proteins.

    Ohlmann P, Laugwitz KL, Nürnberg B, Spicher K, Schultz G, Cazenave JP and Gachet C

    INSERM U.311, Etablissement de Transfusion Sanguine de Strasbourg, France.

    We have previously shown that platelet ADP receptors are coupled to G-proteins by measuring the binding of [35S]guanosine-5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTP gamma S) to human platelet membranes stimulated with ADP. In order to identify the activated G-proteins, we used an approach which combines photolabelling of receptor-activated G-proteins with 4-azidoanilido-[alpha-32P]GTP and immunoprecipitation of the G-protein alpha-subunits with subtype-specific antibodies. Stimulation of human platelet membranes with ADP resulted in an increase in 4-azidoanilido-[alpha-32P]GTP incorporation into the immunoprecipitates of G alpha i but not of G alpha q proteins, whereas stimulation with the thromboxane analogue U46619 resulted in an increase in 4-azidoanilido-[alpha-32P]GTP incorporation into the immunoprecipitates of G alpha q but not of G alpha i proteins, and thrombin activated both G-proteins. This effect of ADP was concentration dependent and inhibited by the class P2 purinoceptor (P2T) antagonist ATP. Using specific antisera against subtypes of Gi proteins, we found that ADP stimulated labelling of the G alpha 12 immunoprecipitate, but not of the G alpha 13 precipitate. G alpha i1 was not detectable by immunoblotting of platelet membrane proteins. These data suggest that ADP inhibits cAMP formation by activation of G alpha 12 proteins and add evidence in support of the hypothesis that human platelet ADP receptors do not activate PLC through Gq activation.

    The Biochemical journal 1995;312 ( Pt 3);775-9

  • The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.

    Wall MA, Coleman DE, Lee E, Iñiguez-Lluhi JA, Posner BA, Gilman AG and Sprang SR

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235, USA.

    The crystallographic structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1(GDP)beta 1 gamma 2 (at 2.3 A) reveals two nonoverlapping regions of contact between alpha and beta, an extended interface between beta and nearly all of gamma, and limited interaction of alpha with gamma. The major alpha/beta interface covers switch II of alpha, and GTP-induced rearrangement of switch II causes subunit dissociation during signaling. Alterations in GDP binding in the heterotrimer (compared with alpha-GDP) explain stabilization of the inactive conformation of alpha by beta gamma. Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46371; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    Cell 1995;83;6;1047-58

  • Analysis of the relative interactions between the alpha 2C10 adrenoceptor and the guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins G(o)1 alpha and Gi 2 alpha following co-expression of these polypeptides in rat 1 fibroblasts.

    Grassie MA and Milligan G

    Molecular Pharmacology Group, University of Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.

    Rat 1 fibroblasts which had been transfected to express the human alpha 2C10 adrenoceptor (clone 1C) were further co-transfected with a plasmid containing the hygromycin-B-resistance gene and a plasmid containing a cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the rat pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein G(o)1. In clone 3 the receptor was expressed at some 2.2 pmol/mg of membrane protein, and G(o)1 alpha at approx. 100 pmol/mg of membrane protein. The interaction of these two polypeptides and that between the receptor and Gi2 alpha (endogenously expressed at some 50 pmol/mg of membrane protein) were studied. Agonist activation of G(o)1 alpha was observed in membranes of the alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor(+)-G(o)1 alpha+ cells (clone 3), but not in alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor(+)-G(o)alpha-cells (clone 1C), whereas similar agonist-dependent activation of Gi2 alpha was observed in both cell types. alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor activation of G(o)1 alpha and Gi2 alpha in clone-3 membranes was produced with similar agonist-dose-effect curves. These observations indicate that the receptor interacts with equivalent affinity with each of these G-proteins. Agonist-dependent cholera-toxin-catalysed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of G(o)1 alpha was terminated when the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was added subsequent to agonist-induced initiation of the reaction and release of GDP, demonstrating the conformational requirement for this reaction to be the ternary complex of agonist-occupied receptor and guanine-nucleotide-denuded G-protein.

    The Biochemical journal 1995;306 ( Pt 2);525-30

  • Molecular identification of guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins which couple to endothelin receptors.

    Takigawa M, Sakurai T, Kasuya Y, Abe Y, Masaki T and Goto K

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

    The coupling of two endothelin receptor subtypes (ET(A) and ETB) to several types of guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein) was examined. Two subtypes of receptor cDNAs were transfected alone or together with four different G protein alpha subunit cDNAs in COS-7 cells. In ET(A) receptor-transfected cells, endothelin-1 (ET-1) activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C as measured by the production of phosphatidylinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. ETB-receptor-transfected cells also produced Ins(1,4,5)P3 on stimulation by ET-1. The ET-1-induced production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 was markedly higher in G alpha q-cotransfected or G alpha 11-cotransfected cells than in cells transfected with each receptor alone. ET-1 also stimulated production of cAMP in ET(A) or ETB receptor-transfected cells. The production of cAMP was synergistically amplified by G alpha s co-transfection with each receptor. In contrast, when G alpha i2 was co-transfected with the ET(A) or ETB receptor, ET-1 displayed an inhibitory action on forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Pertussis-toxin treatment of the G alpha i2-transfected cells resulted in abolition of the endothelin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation. These observations indicate that both ET(A) and ETB receptors are able to couple to Gq, G11, Gs and Gi2, and suggest that endothelin receptors stimulat b7b e multiple effectors via several types of G protein simultaneously. The overall effects induced by endothelin may differ in cell types depending on the level of expression of each G-protein subtype in the cell.

    European journal of biochemistry 1995;228;1

  • G-protein mutations in human pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting adenomas.

    Williamson EA, Ince PG, Harrison D, Kendall-Taylor P and Harris PE

    Department of Medicine, Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Activating mutations of Gs alpha (gsp) and Gi2 alpha (gip) have been described in various endocrine neoplastic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of gsp and gip mutations in human adrenocorticotrophin hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Adrenocorticotrophin hormone production and secretion by pituitary corticotroph cells is under stimulatory control by corticotrophin-releasing factor, acting via the production of cyclic AMP. Interference with this regulatory pathway as a result of G-protein dysfunction could lead to disordered corticotroph cell function and growth. We have studied 32 corticotroph adenomas for the presence of gsp and gip mutations using site-directed oligonucleotide hybridization of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. G-protein gene mutations were identified in three (9%) tumours: gsp mutations were demonstrated in two tumours at codon 227, and a gip mutation was identified in one 10f8 tumour at codon 179. We did not observe a correlation between tumour phenotype and the presence of G-protein gene mutations. We conclude that G-protein gene mutations are an uncommon abnormality in corticotroph adenomas.

    European journal of clinical investigation 1995;25;2;128-31

  • Regulation of cAMP-mediated gene transcription by wild type and mutated G-protein alpha subunits. Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by muscarinic receptor-activated and constitutively activated G(o) alpha.

    Migeon JC, Thomas SL and Nathanson NM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

    We have used a luciferase reporter gene under the transcriptional control of a cAMP response element (CRE) to monitor the effects of G-protein alpha subunits on cAMP-regulated gene expression and to examine muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) functional coupling to G-proteins. Expression in JEG-3 cells of a mutationally activated Gi alpha-2 in which glutamine 205 is replaced with leucine (Q205L) decreased forskolin-stimulated expression from the CRE-luciferase gene by up to 75%. Similarly, mutation of glycine 43 (corresponding to glycine 12 in p21ras) to valine decreased forskolin-stimulated expression from the CRE-luciferase gene by a maximum of 50%, indicating that this mutation activates the G-protein and is potentially oncogenic. Transfection of the activated Q205L G(o) alpha subunit decreased forskolin stimulation of CRE-luciferase expression. Transfected wild type G(o) alpha was also able to couple the m4 mAChR receptor to inhibition of AC. The amino-terminal myristoylation site was removed from wild type Gi alpha-2 and Q205L Gi alpha-2 by changing glycine 2 to alanine (G2A). Gi alpha-2 with the G2A and Q205L mutations was unable to decrease forskolin stimulation of CRE-mediated luciferase activity. Furthermore, G2A Gi alpha-2 was unable to couple the m4 mAChR to inhibition of AC. Thus, myristoylation is required both for the function of constitutively active Q205L Gi alpha-2 and for receptor-mediated activation of wild type Gi alpha-2.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07108, GM07750; NINDS NIH HHS: NS07332

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;46;29146-52

  • Stabilization of C5a receptor--G-protein interactions through ligand binding.

    Wennogle LP, Conder L, Winter C, Braunwalder A, Vlattas S, Kramer R, Cioffi C and Hu SI

    Research Department, CIBA-GEIGY Pharmaceuticals Division, Summit, New Jersey 07901.

    Binding of biotin-C5a to the C5a receptor in membrane fragments followed by detergent solubilization and purification with streptavidin-agarose affinity chromatography resulted in the isolation of a receptor complex with associated G-proteins. In contrast, when receptor was detergent-solubilized in the absence of C5a and purified by affinity chromatography with Affigel-C5a, G-proteins did not copurify. Since the results indicate that receptor ligation stabilized the receptor--G-protein interaction to allow purification of the complex, the findings emphasize the dynamic nature of the C5a receptor-effector interactions. When biotin-C5a-ligated receptor was purified from a mouse cell line overexpressing recombinant human receptor, both Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 subunits copurified, confirming that multiple transducing systems are linked to the C5a receptor. The method of stabilization of receptor-transducer complexes offers the opportunity to further elaborate the interactions of the C5a receptor with diverse transducing elements and second messenger systems.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 1994;55;3;380-8

  • Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein.

    Lambright DG, Noel JP, Hamm HE and Sigler PB

    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    The 1.8 A crystal structure of transducin alpha.GDP, when compared to that of the activated complex with GTP-gamma S, reveals the nature of the conformational changes that occur on activation of a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit. Structural changes initiated by direct contacts with the terminal phosphate of GTP propagate to regions that have been implicated in effector activation. The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily.

    Nature 1994;369;6482;621-8

  • Transfected muscarinic acetylcholine receptors selectively couple to Gi-type G proteins and Gq/11.

    Offermanns S, Wieland T, Homann D, Sandmann J, Bombien E, Spicher K, Schultz G and Jakobs KH

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Regulation of effector functions by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes is mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G proteins. In membranes from human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic acetycholine receptors, we detected the pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins Gi1, Gi2, and Gi3 and the pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins Gq/11 and Gs. Subtype-specific immunoprecipitation of G protein alpha subunits photolabeled with [alpha-32P] GTP azidoanilide, in the absence and presence of carbachol, revealed the selective coupling of activated muscarinic receptors to G protein subtypes. Gq/11 was activated via m1 and m3 receptors and Gi2 was activated via m2 receptors. All three receptors subtypes mediated the activation of Gi1 and Gi3. Effective activation of Gi1 and Gi3 via m1 and m3 receptors occurred only at high carbachol concentrations (EC50 about 10-20 microM), whereas carbachol with higher potency (EC50 about 1 microM) induced activation of all G1 subtypes via m2 receptors. Thus, coupling of muscarinic receptors and G protein subtypes was principally selective; however, activation of distinct G protein subtypes by different muscarinic receptors occurred with different efficacies.

    Molecular pharmacology 1994;45;5;890-8

  • Analysis of the expression of seven G protein alpha subunit genes in hematopoietic cells.

    Matsuoka M, Kaziro Y, Asano S and Ogata E

    Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Various heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins may have important functions in hematopoietic cells. There has been no comprehensive information, however, regarding their expression in various-lineage hematopoietic cells. In this report, the expression level of seven G protein alpha subunits (Gs alpha, Gi1 alpha, Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2, and Gx alpha) in 13 hematopoietic cell lines were analyzed by Northern blot analysis. Gi1 alpha, Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2, and Gx alpha, were expressed in a limited number of cell lines whereas Gs alpha, Gi2 alpha, and Gi3 alpha were expressed ubiquitously in nearly all cell lines tested. Gi1 alpha was expressed selectively in a pre-T cell line, P30/PHK among lymphoid-lineage cell lines and a myeloblastic cell line, KG-1 among myelomonocytoid cell lines. Go alpha-1 was expressed only in a chronic myelocytic-leukemia cell line, K-562, whereas Go alpha-2 was not expressed in any cell lines tested after ordinary exposure of autoradiography (within 4 days). Gx alpha was expressed abundantly in a rat basophilic-leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3, and expressed in K-562. A barely detectable amount of Gx alpha messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was found after a long exposure of autoradiography in several cell lines with megakaryoblastoid phenotype.

    The American journal of the medical sciences 1993;306;2;89-93

  • Elevated stimulatory and reduced inhibitory G protein alpha subunits in cerebellar cortex of patients with dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy.

    Kish SJ, Young T, Li PP, Siu KP, Robitaille Y, Ball MJ, Schut L and Warsh JJ

    Human Neurochemical Pathology Lab, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Although guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are one of the critical components of signal transduction units for various membrane receptor-mediated responses, little information is available regarding their status in brain of patients with neurodegenerative illnesses. We measured the immunoreactivity of G protein subunits (Gs alpha, Gi alpha, Go alpha, Gq/11 alpha, and G beta) in autopsied cerebellar and cerebral cortices of 10 end-stage patients with dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) who all had severe loss of Purkinje cell neurons and climbing fiber afferents in cerebellar cortex. Compared with the controls, the long-form Gs alpha (52-kDa species) immunoreactivity was significantly elevated by 52% (p < 0.01) in the cerebellar cortex of the OPCA patients, whereas the Gi1 alpha concentration was reduced by 35% (p < 0.02). No statistically significant differences were observed for Go alpha, Gi2 alpha, G beta 1, G beta 2, or Gq/11 alpha in cerebellar cortex or for any G protein subunit in the two examined cerebral cortical subdivisions (frontal and occipital). The cerebellar Gs alpha elevation could represent a compensatory response (e.g., sprouting, reactive synaptogenesis) by the remaining cerebellar neurons (granule cells?) to neuronal damage but also might contribute to the degenerative process, as suggested by the ability of Gs alpha, in some experimental preparations, to promote calcium flux. Further studies will be required to determine the actual functional consequences of the G protein changes in OPCA and whether the elevated Gs alpha is specific to OPCA cerebellum, because of its unique cellular pattern of morphological damage, or is found in brain of patients with other progressive neurodegenerative disorders.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS26034

    Journal of neurochemistry 1993;60;5;1816-20

  • Regional localization of the human G protein alpha i2 (GNAI2) gene: assignment to 3p21 and a related sequence (GNAI2L) to 12p12-p13.

    Magovcevic I, Ang SL, Seidman JG, Tolman CJ, Neer EJ and Morton CC

    Department of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    Gi alpha proteins, members of the G protein signal transduction family, include a small number of polypeptides: Gi alpha 1 (GNAI1), Gi alpha 2 (GNAI2), and Gi alpha 3 (GNAI3). A cDNA for the human GNAI2 gene has been isolated from a human T-cell library and is mapped by chromosomal in situ hybridization to the short arm of chromosome 3 at 3p21. A related sequence, GNAI2L, is mapped by in situ hybridization to the short arm of chromosome 12 at p12-p13. These mapping results are further supported by amplification of GNAI2-specific sequences in a monochromosomal human/rodent somatic cell hybrid containing only human chromosome 3. Of note, these assignments are to chromosome regions in which other G proteins reside. Localization of GNAI2 to 3p21 is of great interest as this region of the short arm of chromosome 3 is frequently involved in rearrangements in various human tumors.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC00871; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07337; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM36259

    Genomics 1992;12;1;125-9

  • Identification of G protein alpha-subunits in RINm5F cells and their selective interaction with galanin receptor.

    Cormont M, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Van Obberghen E, Spiegel AM and Sharp GW

    Unit 145, National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Nice, France.

    Galanin, an inhibitor of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells, exerts its multiple effects through mechanisms that are sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX). G proteins have been characterized in RINm5F cells. By ADP ribosylation and immunoblotting, the alpha-subunits of Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, and two forms of Go were identified, Gi alpha 2 being predominant. As expected from a G protein-linked receptor, GTP and its nonhydrolyzable analogue GTP-gamma-S decreased tracer galanin binding to cell membranes. This resulted from a change in receptor affinity without any modification in the number of sites. Selective antibodies against the COOH-terminal decapeptide of the alpha-subunits of the Gi and Go proteins were used to block G protein interaction before we studied galanin binding. Antibody AS, which selectively recognizes Gi alpha 1 and Gi alpha 2, decreased tracer galanin binding to membranes at concentrations where there were no effects of other antibodies specifically directed against Gi alpha 3 or G alpha o. These data suggest that Gi1 and/or Gi2 interact with the galanin receptor and probably mediate the effects of galanin in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Diabetes 1991;40;9;1170-6

  • Evidence for opioid receptor-mediated activation of the G-proteins, Go and Gi2, in membranes of neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells.

    Offermanns S, Schultz G and Rosenthal W

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany.

    In membranes of neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells, the photoreactive GTP analog, [alpha-32P] GTP azidoanilide, was incorporated into 39-41-kDa proteins comigrating in urea-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with immunologically identified G-protein alpha-subunits, i.e. a 39-kDa Go alpha-subunit, a 40-kDa Gi2 alpha-subunit, and a 41-kDa Gi alpha-subunit of an unknown subtype. The synthetic opioid, D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE), stimulated photolabeling of the 39-41-kDa proteins. In the presence of GDP, which increased the ratio of agonist-stimulated to basal photolabeling, DADLE at a maximally effective concentration stimulated photolabeling of the 39- and the 40-kDa protein 2-3-fold. Somatostatin, adrenaline, and bradykinin were less potent than DADLE and, to varying degrees, stimulated photolabeling of the 40-kDa protein more than that of the 39-kDa protein. Prostaglandin E1 was inactive. The present data represent direct evidence for an activation of endogenous Go and Gi2 via opioid receptors and other receptors in the native membrane milieu.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;6;3365-8

  • G alpha i-G alpha s chimeras define the function of alpha chain domains in control of G protein activation and beta gamma subunit complex interactions.

    Osawa S, Dhanasekaran N, Woon CW and Johnson GL

    Division of Basic Sciences, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, Colorado 80206.

    Gs and Gi2 are G proteins whose alpha subunits are 65% homologous. Within the 355 amino acid alpha i2 polypeptide, substitution of residues Ile213-Lys319 with the corresponding alpha s region (Ile235-Arg356) generated a chimera that activated adenylyl cyclase, indicating that the alpha s activation domain resides within this 122 amino acid alpha s sequence. Mutation within alpha s residues Glu15-Pro144 resulted in an alpha s polypeptide having an enhanced rate of GDP dissociation. Mutation within two regions of the N-terminus influenced the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the alpha subunit polypeptide, a reaction controlled by the beta gamma subunit complex. The findings define the G protein alpha subunit N-terminus as a regulatory region controlling beta gamma subunit interactions and GDP dissociation independent of the GTPase and effector activation domains.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK37871; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30324

    Cell 1990;63;4;697-706

  • The alpha 2B adrenergic receptor of undifferentiated neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells, interacts directly with the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gi2.

    McClue SJ and Milligan G

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

    In membranes of undifferentiated neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15, the apparent specific binding of [3H]yohimbine measured in the presence of 1 microM noradrenaline, was increased substantially by the presence of the poorly hydrolysed analogue of GTP, guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) or by preincubation of membranes with antibodies against the C-terminal decapeptide of the alpha subunit of the G-protein Gi2. Such an effect was not produced by antibodies against the equivalent region of Go alpha Gi3 alpha or Gs alpha or from non-immune serum. By contrast, total specific binding of [3H]yohimbine was not modified by co-incubation with Gpp[NH]p or by preincubation with the antibodies from any of the anti-G protein antisera. These results demonstrate a direct interaction of the alpha 2B adrenergic receptor of NG108-15 cells with Gi2.

    FEBS letters 1990;269;2;430-4

  • Two G protein oncogenes in human endocrine tumors.

    Lyons J, Landis CA, Harsh G, Vallar L, Grünewald K, Feichtinger H, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kawasaki E, Bourne HR et al.

    Department of Human Genetics, Cetus Corporation, Emeryville CA 94608.

    Somatic mutations in a subset of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors convert the gene for the alpha polypeptide chain (alpha s) of Gs into a putative oncogene, termed gsp. These mutations, which activate alpha s by inhibiting its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, are found in codons for either of two amino acids, each of which is completely conserved in all known G protein alpha chains. The likelihood that similar mutations would activate other G proteins prompted a survey of human tumors for mutations that replace either of these two amino acids in other G protein alpha chain genes. The first gene so far tested, which encodes the alpha chain of Gi2, showed mutations that replaced arginine-179 with either cysteine or histidine in 3 of 11 tumors of the adrenal cortex and 3 of 10 endocrine tumors of the ovary. The mutant alpha i2 gene is a putative oncogene, referred to as gip2. In addition, gsp mutations were found in 18 of 42 GH-secreting pituitary tumors and in an autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma. These findings suggest that human tumors may harbor oncogenic mutations in various G protein alpha chain genes.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1990;249;4969;655-9

  • Hormonal regulation of Gi2 alpha-subunit phosphorylation in intact hepatocytes.

    Bushfield M, Murphy GJ, Lavan BE, Parker PJ, Hruby VJ, Milligan G and Houslay MD

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.

    Hepatocytes contain the Gi2 and Gi3 forms of the 'Gi-family' of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins), but not Gi1. The anti-peptide antisera AS7 and I3B were shown to immunoprecipitate Gi2 and Gi3 selectively, and the antiserum CS1 immunoprecipitated the stimulatory G-protein Gs. Treatment of intact, 32P-labelled hepatocytes with one of glucagon, TH-glucagon ([1-N-alpha-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]glucagon), Arg-vasopressin, angiotensin-II, the phorbol ester TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate) and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP elicited a time- and dose-dependent increase in the labelling of the alpha-subunit of immunoprecipitated Gi2 which paralleled the loss of ability of low concentrations of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ('Gi'-function). The immunoprecipitation of phosphorylated Gi-2 alpha-subunit by the antiserum AS7 was blocked in a dose-dependent fashion by the inclusion of the C-terminal decapeptide of transducin, but not that of Gz (a 'Gi-like' G-protein which lacks the C-terminal cysteine group which is ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in other members of the Gi family), in the immunoprecipitation assay. No labelling of the alpha-subunits of either Gi3 or Gs was observed. alpha-Gi2 was labelled in the basal state and this did not change over 15 min in the absence of ligand addition. In contrast to the monophasic dose-effect curves seen with vasopressin, angiotensin and TPA, the dose-effect curve for the glucagon-mediated increase in the labelling of alpha-Gi2 was markedly biphasic where the loss of Gi function paralleled the high-affinity component of the labelling of alpha-Gi2 caused by glucagon. TPA, TH-glucagon, angiotensin-II and vasopressin achieved similar maximal increases in the labelling of alpha-Gi2, which was approximately half that found after treatment of hepatocytes with either high glucagon concentrations (1 microM) or 8-bromocyclic AMP. Analysis of the phosphoamino acid content of immunoprecipitated alpha-Gi2 showed the presence of phosphoserine only. Incubation of hepatocyte membranes with [gamma-32P]ATP and purified protein kinase C, but not protein kinase A, led to the incorporation of label into immunoprecipitated alpha-Gi2. This labelling was abolished if membranes were obtained from cells which had received prior treatment with ligands shown to cause the phosphorylation of alpha-Gi2 in intact cells. We suggest that there are two possible sites for the phosphorylation of alpha-Gi2; one for C-kinase and the other for an unidentified kinase whose action is triggered by A-kinase activation.

    The Biochemical journal 1990;268;2;449-57

  • G-protein alpha-subunits in cytosolic and membranous fractions of human neutrophils.

    Rudolph U, Koesling D, Hinsch KD, Seifert R, Bigalke M, Schultz G and Rosenthal W

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    In plasma membranes of human neutrophils, we identified two major pertussis toxin substrates of 40 kDa Mr with pI values of 5.30 and 5.37. Only the acidic of the two substrates was also present in neutrophil cytosol. Two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps revealed a high degree of homology of cytosolic and particulate substrates. Purified G-protein beta gamma-complex stimulated pertussis toxin-catalyzed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of membranous and cytosolic substrates of neutrophils less than 2-fold and 6-fold, respectively. Hydrodynamic properties of the cytosolic substrate strongly suggested that it exists as a monomer. Purified G-protein beta gamma-complex increased the s20,w value of the cytosolic substrate from 3.3 S to 4.0 S. The GTP analogue, guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), promoted the release of pertussis toxin substrates from plasma membranes. An antiserum raised against a sequence specific for the Gi2 alpha-subunit reacted with 39-40 kDa proteins in plasma membranes and with an apparently single 40 kDa protein in cytosol. We conclude that neutrophil cytosol contains monomeric Gi2 alpha-subunits which--by interacting with hydrophobic beta gamma-complexes--may reversibly bind to the plasma membrane.

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 1989;63;1-2;143-53

  • Distribution of the alpha-subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi2 and its comparison to G alpha o.

    Lang JC and Costa T

    Abt. Neuropharmakologie, Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie, Martinsried, FRG.

    Site specific antisera against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence 3-17 of G alpha 12 have been raised and the specificity examined using purified homogeneous Go, Gi2 and Gi containing a 41 kDa alpha-subunit. The distribution of G alpha i2 was investigated in plasma membranes from different tissues and cells and compared to the distribution of G alpha o and other pertussis toxin sensitive G alpha. Considerable amounts of G alpha i2 were found in endocrine tissue especially in membranes from the adrenal and thyroid, in leucocytes and platelets where it constitutes the major, if not only, pertussis toxin-sensitive G alpha, as well as in some cell lines (C6, NG 108-15, S49 cyc-); erythrocytes contained a 41 kDa G alpha i which was different from G alpha i2. G alpha o was present abundantly in nervous tissue, adrenal medulla and cortex but also found in low amounts in other membranes except for lung, liver and blood cells. Subcellular fractionation of cardiac ventricular muscle demonstrated the presence of G alpha o and low amounts of G alpha i2 in sarcolemma, but only 41kDa G alpha i was present in sarcoplasmic reticulum. The importance of the distinct distribution in terms of signal transduction is discussed.

    Journal of receptor research 1989;9;4-5;313-29

  • Cloning and characterization of the human gene for the alpha-subunit of Gi2, a GTP-binding signal transduction protein.

    Weinstein LS, Spiegel AM and Carter AD

    Molecular Pathophysiology Section, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    We isolated and characterized human genomic clones encompassing the gene for the alpha-subunit of Gi2, a GTP-binding signal transduction protein abundantly expressed in myeloid cells. The gene is divided into 9 exons and spans 23.5 kb. Exons 2, 6 and 7 encode putative guanine nucleotide-binding domains that are highly conserved among GTP-binding proteins. A polyadenylation signal located within exon 9 predicts an mRNA size (approximately 2.3 kb) several hundred bases longer than that of published cDNAs, and consistent with the size seen on RNA blot hybridization. Primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis determined a major and several minor transcriptional start sites. The first exon and 5' flanking region are highly G + C rich, contain several GC boxes (SP1 transcription factor binding sites), a CAAT box, and lack a TATA box. The presumptive promoter region is thus similar to that of ras and other widely expressed genes.

    FEBS letters 1988;232;2;333-40

  • Presence of three distinct molecular species of Gi protein alpha subunit. Structure of rat cDNAs and human genomic DNAs.

    Itoh H, Toyama R, Kozasa T, Tsukamoto T, Matsuoka M and Kaziro Y

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have cloned a new species of rat Gi alpha (Gi3 alpha) cDNA and genomic DNAs for three distinct human Gi alpha proteins (Gi1 alpha, Gi2 alpha, and Gi3 alpha). Gi3 alpha cDNA codes for a protein of 354 amino acids (Mr 40,522) whose sequence is closely related but distinct from that of the previously isolated rat Gi alpha (Gi2 alpha). By screening the human genomic libraries with the two rat Gi alpha cDNAs as probes, clones encoding human Gi1 alpha, Gi2 alpha, and Gi3 alpha were isolated. The human Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha genes are composed of eight coding exons and seven introns and possess a completely identical exon-intron organization. Southern blot analysis indicates that a single copy of each Gi alpha gene is present per haploid human genome.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;14;6656-64

  • A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins.

    Beals CR, Wilson CB and Perlmutter RM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

    The guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins known as G proteins are receptor-associated signal-transduction molecules that are implicated in the control of a variety of metabolic processes. Recent evidence suggests that G proteins may mediate B-lymphocyte responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and may also transduce signals from the T-cell antigen receptor. Since these receptors are uniquely expressed on lymphoid cells, we used molecular cloning strategies to ask whether lymphocytes contain specialized G-protein alpha subunits to assist in signal transduction. Comparison of our two deduced human alpha i amino acid sequences with those previously determined for bovine and rodent G proteins permits the identification of three closely related but distinct types of alpha i molecules that comprise a small multigene family. Using gene-specific probes, we found that both of our alpha i genes are expressed in most cell types but in differing ratios. Our data support the view that a modest repertoire of extremely closely related G proteins mediates the transduction of signals derived from multiple different receptor molecules.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07266

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;22;7886-90

  • Human Gi protein alpha-subunit: deduction of amino acid structure from a cloned cDNA.

    Didsbury JR, Ho YS and Snyderman R

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit of Gi, the human adenylate cyclase inhibiting GTP-binding protein, has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a DNA clone complementary to Gi alpha mRNA from differentiated U937 cells. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 355 amino acids (Mr 40456). The amino acid sequence homology between human Gi alpha and rat, murine, and bovine Gi alpha is 98.6, 97.7 and 87.9% respectively. Differentiation of the U937 cells from monoblasts to monocyte-like cells resulted in a 3-fold increase in Gi alpha mRNA as well as a 3.6-fold increase in the 41 kDa pertussis toxin substrate presumed to be Gi alpha. Thus, increased levels of this G-protein are associated with monocyte differentiation and appear to be regulated transcriptionally.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29589; NCRR NIH HHS: 1 U41 RR-01685-03; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE03738

    FEBS letters 1987;211;2;160-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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