G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 9A
G00000197 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000158528 (Ensembl human gene)
55607 (Entrez Gene)
530 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PPP1R9A (GeneCards)
602468 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:14946 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9ULJ8 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • FLJ20068
  • KIAA1222
  • Neurabin-I

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Genomic imprinting of PPP1R9A encoding neurabin I in skeletal muscle and extra-embryonic tissues.

    Nakabayashi K, Makino S, Minagawa S, Smith AC, Bamforth JS, Stanier P, Preece M, Parker-Katiraee L, Paton T, Oshimura M, Mill P, Yoshikawa Y, Hui CC, Monk D, Moore GE and Scherer SW

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;8;601-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.

    Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, Osborne LR, Nakabayashi K, Herbrick JA, Carson AR, Parker-Katiraee L, Skaug J, Khaja R, Zhang J, Hudek AK, Li M, Haddad M, Duggan GE, Fernandez BA, Kanematsu E, Gentles S, Christopoulos CC, Choufani S, Kwasnicka D, Zheng XH, Lai Z, Nusskern D, Zhang Q, Gu Z, Lu F, Zeesman S, Nowaczyk MJ, Teshima I, Chitayat D, Shuman C, Weksberg R, Zackai EH, Grebe TA, Cox SR, Kirkpatrick SJ, Rahman N, Friedman JM, Heng HH, Pelicci PG, Lo-Coco F, Belloni E, Shaffer LG, Pober B, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Bruns GA, Korf BR, Quade BJ, Ligon AH, Ferguson H, Higgins AW, Leach NT, Herrick SR, Lemyre E, Farra CG, Kim HG, Summers AM, Gripp KW, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Winsor EJ, Grzeschik KH, Teebi A, Minassian BA, Kere J, Armengol L, Pujana MA, Estivill X, Wilson MD, Koop BF, Tosi S, Moore GE, Boright AP, Zlotorynski E, Kerem B, Kroisel PM, Petek E, Oscier DG, Mould SJ, Döhner H, Döhner K, Rommens JM, Vincent JB, Venter JC, Li PW, Mural RJ, Adams MD and Tsui LC

    Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca

    DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 38103; NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM061354

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5620;767-72

  • Neurabins recruit protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2 to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Terry-Lorenzo RT, Elliot E, Weiser DC, Prickett TD, Brautigan DL and Shenolikar S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Inhibitor-2 (I-2) bound protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) and several PP1-binding proteins from rat brain extracts, including the actin-binding proteins, neurabin I and neurabin II. Neurabins from rat brain lysates were sedimented by I-2 and its structural homologue, I-4. The central domain of both neurabins bound PP1 and I-2, and mutation of a conserved PP1-binding motif abolished neurabin binding to both proteins. Microcystin-LR, a PP1 inhibitor, also attenuated I-2 binding to neurabins. Immunoprecipitation of neurabin I established its association with PP1 and I-2 in HEK293T cells and suggested that PP1 mediated I-2 binding to neurabins. The C terminus of I-2, although not required for PP1 binding, facilitated PP1 recruitment by neurabins, which also targeted I-2 to polymerized F-actin. Mutations that attenuated PP1 binding to I-2 and neurabin I suggested distinct and overlapping sites for these two proteins on the PP1 catalytic subunit. Immunocytochemistry in epithelial cells and cultured hippocampal neurons showed that endogenous neurabin II and I-2 colocalized at actin-rich structures, consistent with the ability of neurabins to target the PP1.I-2 complex to actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell morphology.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56362; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41063

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;48;46535-43

  • Targeting protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the actin cytoskeleton: the neurabin I/PP1 complex regulates cell morphology.

    Oliver CJ, Terry-Lorenzo RT, Elliott E, Bloomer WA, Li S, Brautigan DL, Colbran RJ and Shenolikar S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Neurabin I, a neuronal actin-binding protein, binds protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K), both proteins implicated in cytoskeletal dynamics. We expressed wild-type and mutant neurabins fused to green fluorescent protein in Cos7, HEK293, and hippocampal neurons. Biochemical and cellular studies showed that an N-terminal F-actin-binding domain dictated neurabin I localization at actin cytoskeleton and promoted disassembly of stress fibers. Deletion of the C-terminal coiled-coil and sterile alpha motif domains abolished neurabin I dimerization and induced filopodium extension. Immune complex assays showed that neurabin I recruited an active PP1 via a PP1-docking sequence,(457)KIKF(460). Mutation of the PP1-binding motif or PP1 inhibition by okadaic acid and calyculin A abolished filopodia and restored stress fibers in cells expressing neurabin I. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the actin-binding domain attenuated protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of neurabin I. Modification of a major PKA site, serine-461, impaired PP1 binding. Finally, p70S6K was excluded from neurabin I/PP1 complexes and required the displacement of PP1 for recruitment to neurabin I. These studies provided new insights into the assembly and regulation of a neurabin I/PP1 complex that controls actin rearrangement to promote spine development in mammalian neurons.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042, P01 CA040042; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52054, R01 DK052054; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56362, R01 GM056362; NINDS NIH HHS: NS37508, NS41063, R01 NS041063

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;13;4690-701

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. nagase@kazusa.or.jp

    In order to obtain information on the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones of unknown human genes, which we named KIAA1193 to KIAA1292, from two sets of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The results of our particular strategy to select cDNA clones which have the potentiality of coding for large proteins in vitro revealed that the average sizes of the inserts and the corresponding open reading frames reached 5.2 kb and 2.8 kb (933 amino acid residues), respectively. By the computational analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences against the OWL and Pfam databases, 58 predicted gene products were classified into the following five functional categories: cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and metabolism. It was also found that 30 gene products had homologues in the public databases which were similar in sequence throughout almost their entire regions to the newly identified genes. The chromosomal loci of the genes were assigned by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of the genes were studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;5;337-45

  • Direct interaction of the trans-Golgi network membrane protein, TGN38, with the F-actin binding protein, neurabin.

    Stephens DJ and Banting G

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    TGN38 is a type I integral membrane protein that constitutively cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and plasma membrane. The cytosolic domain of TGN38 interacts with AP2 clathrin adaptor complexes via the tyrosine-containing motif (-SDYQRL-) to direct internalization from the plasma membrane. This motif has previously been shown to direct both internalization and subsequent TGN targeting of TGN38. We have used the cytosolic domain of TGN38 in a two-hybrid screen, and we have identified the brain-specific F-actin binding protein neurabin-I as a TGN38-binding protein. We demonstrate a direct interaction between TGN38 and the ubiquitous homologue of neurabin-I, neurabin-II (also called spinophilin). We have used a combination of yeast two-hybrid and in vitro protein interaction assays to show that this interaction is dependent on the serine (but not tyrosine) residue of the known TGN38 trafficking motif. We show that TGN38 interacts with the coiled coil region of neurabin in vitro and binds preferentially with the dimeric form of neurabin. TGN38 and neurabin also interact in vivo as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation from stably transfected PC12 cells. These data suggest that neurabin provides a direct physical link between TGN38-containing membranes and the actin cytoskeleton.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;42;30080-6

  • Regulation of neurabin I interaction with protein phosphatase 1 by phosphorylation.

    McAvoy T, Allen PB, Obaishi H, Nakanishi H, Takai Y, Greengard P, Nairn AC and Hemmings HC

    Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Neurabin I is a brain-specific actin-binding protein. Here we show that neurabin I binds protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and inhibits PP1 activity. Neurabin I interacted with PP1alpha in an overlay assay, in yeast two-hybrid interaction analysis, and in coprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Neurabin I also copurified with both the alpha and gamma isoforms of PP1. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-neurabin I fusion protein (residues 318-661) containing the putative PP1 binding domain (residues 456-460) inhibited PP1 activity (K(i) = 2.7 +/- 1.2 nM). This fusion protein was also rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA (K(m) = 6 microM) to a stoichiomtry of 1 mol/mol. The phosphorylated residue was identified as serine 461 by HPLC-MS analysis of a tryptic digest. Phosphorylation of GST-neurabin I (residues 318-661) by PKA significantly reduced its binding to PP1 by overlay and by glutathione-Sepharose coprecipitation assays. A 35-fold decrease in inhibitory potency was also observed using a S461E mutant, which mimics phosphorylation of S461. These findings identify a signaling mechanism involving the regulation of PP1 activity and localization mediated by the cAMP pathway.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899

    Biochemistry 1999;38;39;12943-9

  • Neurabin is a synaptic protein linking p70 S6 kinase and the neuronal cytoskeleton.

    Burnett PE, Blackshaw S, Lai MM, Qureshi IA, Burnett AF, Sabatini DM and Snyder SH

    Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase that plays a central role in the control of mRNA translation. It physiologically phosphorylates the S6 protein of the 40s ribosomal subunit in response to mitogenic stimuli and is a downstream component of the rapamycin-sensitive pathway, which includes the 12-kDa FK506 binding protein and includes rapamycin and the 12-kDa FK506 binding protein target 1. Here, we report the identification of neurabin (neural tissue-specific F-actin binding protein), a neuronally enriched protein of 1,095 amino acids that contains a PDZ domain and binds p70(S6k). We demonstrate the neurabin-p70(S6k) interaction by yeast two-hybrid analysis and biochemical techniques. p70(S6k) and neurabin coimmunoprecipitate from transfected HEK293 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of neurabin implicates its PDZ domain in the interaction with p70(S6k), and deletion of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids of p70(S6k) abrogates the interaction. Cotransfection of neurabin in HEK293 cells activates p70(S6k) kinase activity. The mRNA of neurabin and p70(S6k) show striking colocalization in brain sections by in situ hybridization. Subcellular fractionation of rat brain demonstrates that neurabin and p70(S6k) both localize to the soluble fraction of synaptosomes. By way of its PDZ domain, the neuronal-specific neurabin may target p70(S6k) to nerve terminals.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00074, K05 DA000074; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07309, T32 GM007309; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-18501, R01 MH018501, R37 MH018501

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;14;8351-6

  • Neurabin: a novel neural tissue-specific actin filament-binding protein involved in neurite formation.

    Nakanishi H, Obaishi H, Satoh A, Wada M, Mandai K, Satoh K, Nishioka H, Matsuura Y, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-22, Japan.

    We purified from rat brain a novel actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein of approximately 180 kD (p180), which was specifically expressed in neural tissue. We named p180 neurabin (neural tissue-specific F-actin- binding protein). We moreover cloned the cDNA of neurabin from a rat brain cDNA library and characterized native and recombinant proteins. Neurabin was a protein of 1,095 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 122,729. Neurabin had one F-actin-binding domain at the NH2-terminal region, one PSD-95, DlgA, ZO-1-like domain at the middle region, a domain known to interact with transmembrane proteins, and domains predicted to form coiled-coil structures at the COOH-terminal region. Neurabin bound along the sides of F-actin and showed F-actin-cross-linking activity. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that neurabin was highly concentrated in the synapse of the developed neurons. Neurabin was also concentrated in the lamellipodia of the growth cone during the development of neurons. Moreover, a study on suppression of endogenous neurabin in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons by treatment with an antisense oligonucleotide showed that neurabin was involved in the neurite formation. Neurabin is a candidate for key molecules in the synapse formation and function.

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;139;4;951-61

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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