G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001408
Gene symbol
PRKCA (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
protein kinase C, alpha
Orthologue
G00000159 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Gene
ENSG00000154229 (Ensembl human gene)
5578 (Entrez Gene)
307 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PRKCA (GeneCards)
Literature
176960 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9393 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3844 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P17252 (UniProt)

Literature (487)

Pubmed - other

  • PKC-alpha controls MYD88-dependent TLR/IL-1R signaling and cytokine production in mouse and human dendritic cells.

    Langlet C, Springael C, Johnson J, Thomas S, Flamand V, Leitges M, Goldman M, Aksoy E and Willems F

    Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Charleroi, Belgium.

    Conventional PKC (cPKC)-alpha regulates TRIF-dependent IFN response factor 3 (IRF3)-mediated gene transcription, but its role in MyD88-dependent TLR signaling remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that PKC-alpha is induced by several MyD88-dependent TLR/IL-1R ligands and regulates cytokine expression in human and murine DC. First, inhibition of cPKC activity in human DC by cPKC-specific inhibitors, Gö6976 or HBDDe, downregulated the production of classical inflammatory/immunomodulatory cytokines induced by TLR2, TLR5 or IL-1R but not by TLR3 stimulation. Similarly, dominant negative PKC-alpha repressed Pam(3)CSK(4) induced NF-kappaB- and AP-1-driven promoter activities in TLR2-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 T cells. Dominant negative PKC-alpha inhibited NF-kappaB reporter activity mediated by overexpression of MyD88 but not TRIF. Unexpectedly, BM-derived DC from PKC-alpha(-/-) mice exhibited decreased TNF-alpha and IL-12p40 production induced by both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent ligands. Furthermore, PKC-alpha is coupled to TLR2 signaling proximal to MyD88 since MAPK and IkappaB kinase-alpha/beta phosphorylations and IkappaBalpha degradation were inhibited in PKC-alpha(-/-) BM-derived DC. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PKC-alpha physically interacts with Pam(3)CSK(4) activated TLR2 in WT but not in MyD88(-/-) DC. Collectively this study identifies a species-specific role of PKC-alpha as a key component that controls MyD88-dependent cytokine gene expression in human and mouse but differentially regulates production of TRIF-dependent cytokines.

    European journal of immunology 2010;40;2;505-15

  • Caveolin-1 promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Ewing's sarcoma cells by modulating PKCalpha phosphorylation.

    Tirado OM, MacCarthy CM, Fatima N, Villar J, Mateo-Lozano S and Notario V

    Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Bellvitge, Centre d'Oncología Molecular, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) has been implicated in the regulation of several signaling pathways and in oncogenesis. Previously, we identified CAV1 as a key determinant of the oncogenic phenotype and tumorigenic activity of cells from tumors of the Ewing's Sarcoma Family (ESFT). However, the possible CAV1 involvement in the chemotherapy resistance commonly presented by an ESFT subset has not been established to date. This report shows that CAV1 expression determines the sensitivity of ESFT cells to clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents. Analyses of endogenous CAV1 levels in several ESFT cells and ectopic CAV1 expression into ESFT cells expressing low endogenous CAV1 showed that the higher the CAV1 levels, the greater their resistance to drug treatment. Moreover, results from antisense- and shRNA-mediated gene expression knockdown and protein re-expression experiments demonstrated that CAV1 increases the resistance of ESFT cells to doxorubicin (Dox)- and cisplatin (Cp)-induced apoptosis by a mechanism involving the activating phosphorylation of PKCalpha. CAV1 knockdown in ESFT cells led to decreased phospho(Thr(638))-PKCalpha levels and a concomitant sensitization to apoptosis, which were reversed by CAV1 re-expression. These results were recapitulated by PKCalpha knockdown and re-expression in ESFT cells in which CAV1 was previously knocked down, thus demonstrating that phospho(Thr(638))-PKCalpha acts downstream of CAV1 to determine the sensitivity of ESFT cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. These data, along with the finding that CAV1 and phospho(Thr(638))-PKCalpha are co-expressed in approximately 45% of ESFT specimens tested, imply that targeting CAV1 and/or PKCalpha may allow the development of new molecular therapeutic strategies to improve the treatment outcome for patients with ESFT.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA051008, P30-CA-CA51008, R01 CA134727, R01 CA134727-02, R01-CA134727

    International journal of cancer 2010;126;2;426-36

  • Downregulation of protein kinase C-alpha enhances intracellular survival of Mycobacteria: role of PknG.

    Chaurasiya SK and Srivastava KK

    Division of Microbiology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001, India. shivendrachaurasiya@gmail.com

    Background: Intracellular trafficking of mycobacteria is comprehensively dependent on the unusual regulation of host proteins. Recently, we have reported that infection of macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Rv) selectively downregulates the expression of PKCalpha while infection by Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) does not.

    Results: Based on our earlier study, we have extrapolated for the first time that knockdown of PKCalpha, impairs phagocytosis of mycobacteria by macrophages while their intracellular survival is drastically increased. Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Ra) have also been shown to downregulate the expression of PKCalpha during the infection. Since PknG is uniquely expressed in BCG, Ra, Rv but not in MS and has been reported to promote intracellular survival of mycobacteria, led us to believe that PknG may be involved in such downregulation of PKCalpha. THP-1 cells infected with recombinant MS expressing PknG (MS-G), showed significant reduction in PKCalpha expression. In normal THP-1 cells survival of MS-G was enhanced as compared to MS, while their behavior in PKCalpha deficient cells could not be distinguished. The results strongly demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacteria recognize and then inhibit PKCalpha to circumvent phagocytosis and the hostile environment of macrophages. We emphasize that, this inhibition is controlled by PknG.

    Conclusions: All together, our data reveal a mechanism that shows substantial interdependence of PKCalpha with PknG, in sustaining mycobacterial infection.

    BMC microbiology 2009;9;271

  • PKC alpha affects cell cycle progression and proliferation in human RPE cells through the downregulation of p27kip1.

    Gao Q, Tan J, Ma P, Ge J, Liu Y, Sun X and Zhou L

    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. gaoqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    Purpose: Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the regulation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated which of these isozymes could be responsible for the cell cycle and proliferation in human RPE cells.

    Methods: The effect of PKC activators on human RPE cell cycle progression was tested by flow cytometry. To identify the isoform of PKC responsible for the increased progression of the cells through the cell cycle, we monitored the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the subcellular localization of the nine PKC isoforms expressed in RPE cells. To evaluate the molecular mechanism by which PKC(alpha) induces cell cycle progression, we examined the transcript, protein, and cellular levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins using RT-PCR, western blotting, and a confocal microscope, respectively.

    Results: We demonstrated that PKC activation by PMA affected cell cycle progression in RPE cells. Of the nine PKC isoforms that were present in RPE cells, we found PKC(alpha) was both necessary and sufficient to promote cell cycle progression after being stimulated with PMA. Decreased PKC(alpha) expression resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation. The only cell cycle-regulatory molecule whose expression was rapidly altered and decreased by PKC(alpha) activity was the cyclin- dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(kip1).

    Conclusions: These results suggest that PKC(alpha) affects cell cycle progression and proliferation in human RPE cells through the downregulation of p27(kip1).

    Molecular vision 2009;15;2683-95

  • Protein kinase C alpha-dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis.

    Haughian JM, Reno EM, Thorne AM and Bradford AP

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Section of Basic Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado, Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCalpha, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCalpha protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCalpha knockdown increased levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(Cip1/WAF1) (p21) and p27(Kip1) (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCalpha knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). PKCalpha knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting that PKCalpha regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCalpha expression, with foci of elevated PKCalpha staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCalpha signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK-dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCalpha may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 104875, R01 CA104875, R01 CA104875-05

    International journal of cancer 2009;125;11;2556-64

  • The IGF-I receptor can alter the matrix metalloproteinase repertoire of tumor cells through transcriptional regulation of PKC-{alpha}.

    Li S, Zhang D, Yang L, Burnier JV, Wang N, Lin R, Lee ER, Glazer RI and Brodt P

    Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    The IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) was identified as a tumor progression factor, but its role in invasion and metastasis has been the subject of some controversy. Previously we reported that in murine lung carcinoma M-27 cells, overexpression of IGF-IR increased the synthesis and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. In contrast, we show here that in these and other cells, IGF-IR overexpression reduced the constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-inducible expression of three protein kinase C (PKC)-regulated metalloproteinases, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13, in cultured cells as well as in vivo in sc tumors. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the effect of IGF-IR on PKC expression and activity using wild-type and IGF-IR-overexpressing (M-27(IGFIR)) tumor cells. Our results show that overexpression and activation of IGF-IR reduced PKC-alpha expression, PKC activity, and downstream ERK1/2 signaling, and these effects were reversed in cells expressing kinase (Y(1131,1135,1136)F) or C-terminal (Y(1250/51)F) domain mutants of IGF-IR. This reduction was due to transcriptional down-regulation of PKC-alpha as evidenced by reduced PKC-alpha mRNA expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and a blockade of PKC-alpha promoter activation as revealed by a reporter gene assay. Finally, reconstitution of PKC-alpha levels could restore MMP-9 expression levels in these cells. Collectively, these results show that IGF-IR can inhibit PKC-alpha gene transcription and thereby block the synthesis of PMA-regulated MMPs, suggesting that within the same cells, IGF-IR can act as both a positive and negative regulator of MMP expression and function.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 11423, MOP-81201

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2009;23;12;2013-25

  • Cell invasion of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by invasin and YadA requires protein kinase C, phospholipase C-gamma1 and Akt kinase.

    Uliczka F, Kornprobst T, Eitel J, Schneider D and Dersch P

    Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

    The outer membrane proteins YadA and invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis promote invasion into mammalian cells through beta(1)-integrins and trigger the production of interleukin (IL)-8. FAK, c-Src and the PI3 kinase were previously found to be important for both YadA- and invasin-promoted uptake. Here, we demonstrate that two different downstream effectors of PI3 kinase, Akt and phospholipase Cgamma1 are required for efficient cell invasion. Inhibition of Akt or phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma)1 by pharmaceutical agents as well as reduced expression of the isoforms Akt1 and Akt2, and of PLC-gamma1 by RNA interference decreased entry of YadA- and Inv-expressing bacteria significantly. In addition, we report that the conventional protein kinases C (PKC)alpha and -beta, positioned downstream of PLC-gamma1, are activated upon Inv- or YadA-promoted cell entry. They colocalize with intracellular bacteria and their depletion by siRNA treatment also resulted in a strong reduction of cell entry. In contrast, neither Akt nor PLC-gamma1, and the PKCs are essential for YadA- and Inv-mediated IL-8 synthesis and release. We conclude that YadA and invasin of Y. pseudotuberculosis both trigger similar signal transduction pathways during integrin-mediated phagocytosis into epithelial cells, which lead to the activation of Akt, PLC-gamma1, PKCalpha and -beta downstream of PI3 kinase, separate from the MAPK-dependent pathway that triggers IL-8 production.

    Cellular microbiology 2009;11;12;1782-801

  • Reactive oxygen species-generating mitochondrial DNA mutation up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha gene transcription via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase C/histone deacetylase pathway.

    Koshikawa N, Hayashi J, Nakagawara A and Takenaga K

    Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuoh-ku, Chiba 260-8717, Japan.

    Lewis lung carcinoma-derived high metastatic A11 cells constitutively overexpress hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha mRNA compared with low metastatic P29 cells. Because A11 cells exclusively possess a G13997A mutation in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene, we addressed here a causal relationship between the ND6 mutation and the activation of HIF-1alpha transcription, and we investigated the potential mechanism. Using trans-mitochondrial cybrids between A11 and P29 cells, we found that the ND6 mutation was directly involved in HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression. Stimulation of HIF-1alpha transcription by the ND6 mutation was mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. The up-regulation of HIF-1alpha transcription was abolished by mithramycin A, an Sp1 inhibitor, but luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1 was necessary but not sufficient for HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression in A11 cells. On the other hand, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, markedly suppressed HIF-1alpha transcription in A11 cells. In accordance with this, HDAC activity was high in A11 cells but low in P29 cells and in A11 cells treated with the ROS scavenger ebselene, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and the PKC inhibitor Ro31-8220. These results suggest that the ROS-generating ND6 mutation increases HIF-1alpha transcription via the PI3K-Akt/PKC/HDAC pathway, leading to HIF-1alpha protein accumulation in hypoxic tumor cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;48;33185-94

  • LeY oligosaccharide upregulates DAG/PKC signaling pathway in the human endometrial cells.

    Li Y, Ma K, Sun P, Liu S, Qin H, Zhu Z, Wang X and Yan Q

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Liaoning Provincial Core Lab of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, People's Republic of China.

    LeY oligosaccharide is stage specifically expressed by the embryo and uterine endometrium, and it plays important roles in embryo implantation. In addition to participating in the recognition and adhesion on fetal-maternal interface, LeY potentially regulates the expression of some implantation-related factors. However, it remains elusive whether it can mediate the involved signaling pathway. In this study, agarose-LeY beads were used to mimic the embryos, and the effects of LeY oligosaccharide on DAG/PKC signaling pathway was studied in human endometrial epithelial cells. Results showed that LeY could significantly trigger the activation of cPKCalpha and cPKCbeta2, and their translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. The cellular DAG content was also upregulated, and the activation of PLCgamma1 was promoted. On the contrary, DAG/PKC signaling pathway was significantly inhibited when anti-LeY antibody was used after confirmation of LeY expression in human endometrial epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. These results suggest that LeY oligosaccharide acts as a signal molecule to modulate DAG/PKC signaling pathway.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2009;331;1-2;1-7

  • Negative regulation of endogenous protein kinase Calpha on the dynamic change of carbachol-induced intracellular calcium response in different melanoma cells.

    Wang H, Yu YQ, Liao WJ, Wang ZR, Lv YJ, Zhang YG and Gao TW

    Department of Dermatology, Center of Dermatology of Chinese PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

    Regulations of intracellular protein kinase C (PKC) on carbachol (CCh)-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) responses were investigated in different stages of melanoma cells. We found that CCh (1 mM) significantly increased [Ca(2+)]i with 6-, 4-, 4-, and 25-folds intensities in WM793B, 451Lu, SK-MEL-5, and A2058 melanoma cells, respectively. Pretreatment of phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 2 microM), an activator of intracellular PKC, significantly suppressed CCh-induced peak reactions in WM793B, SK-MEL-5, and A2058 cells. RT-PCR data showed that mRNA levels of PKCalpha were 12-, 4-, 6-, and 0.9-folds higher in above four melanoma cells. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting to PKCalpha in WM793B cells enhanced CCh-induced peak calcium reactions. Present data indicated that CCh-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses were dynamically changed in different stages of melanoma progression. Moreover, intracellular PKCalpha activated by exogenous agonist and expressed through endogenous gene transcription negatively regulated CCh-induced calcium responses. The functional analysis on the relationship between CCh-induced calcium response and endogenous PKCalpha expression might be helpful to predict the development of melanoma.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;221;2;276-82

  • PKC(alpha) and PKC(epsilon) differentially regulate Legionella pneumophila-induced GM-CSF.

    Vardarova K, Scharf S, Lang F, Schmeck B, Opitz B, Eitel J, Hocke AC, Slevogt H, Flieger A, Hippenstiel S, Suttorp N and N'guessan PD

    Dept of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany. dje_philippe.nguessan@charite.de

    Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. The human alveolar epithelium is an effective barrier for inhaled microorganisms and actively participates in the initiation of innate host defense. Although secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is essential for the elimination of invading Legionella spp., mechanisms of Legionella pneumophila-induced release of this cytokine are widely unknown. In this study, we have demonstrated a toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR5-dependent release of GM-CSF in L. pneumophila-infected human alveolar epithelial cells. GM-CSF secretion was not dependent on the bacteria type II or type IV secretion system. Furthermore, an increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity, particularly PKC(alpha) and PKC(epsilon), was noted. Blocking of PKC(alpha) and PKC(epsilon) activity or expression, but not of PKC(beta), PKC(delta), PKC(eta), PKC(theta), and PKC(zeta), significantly reduced the synthesis of GM-CSF in infected cells. While PKC(alpha) was critical for the initiation of a nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated GM-CSF expression, PKC(epsilon) regulated GM-CSF production via activator protein 1. Thus, differential regulation of GM-CSF, production by PKC isoforms, contributes to the host response in Legionnaires' disease.

    The European respiratory journal 2009;34;5;1171-9

  • H3 histamine receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase Calpha inhibits the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Francis H, Onori P, Gaudio E, Franchitto A, DeMorrow S, Venter J, Kopriva S, Carpino G, Mancinelli R, White M, Meng F, Vetuschi A, Sferra R and Alpini G

    Scott & White Digestive Disease Research Center, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76504, USA. hfrancis@tamu.edu

    Histamine regulates functions via four receptors (HRH1, HRH2, HRH3, and HRH4). The d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))/Ca(2+)/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates cholangiocarcinoma growth. We evaluated the role of HRH3 in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth. Expression of HRH3 in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cell lines, normal cholangiocytes, and human tissue arrays was measured. In Mz-ChA-1 cells stimulated with (R)-(alpha)-(-)-methylhistamine dihydrobromide (RAMH), we measured (a) cell growth, (b) IP(3) and cyclic AMP levels, and (c) phosphorylation of PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms. Localization of PKCalpha was visualized by immunofluorescence in cell smears and immunoblotting for PKCalpha in cytosol and membrane fractions. Following knockdown of PKCalpha, Mz-ChA-1 cells were stimulated with RAMH before evaluating cell growth and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo experiments were done in BALB/c nude mice. Mice were treated with saline or RAMH for 44 days and tumor volume was measured. Tumors were excised and evaluated for proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of PKCalpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, VEGF receptor 2, and VEGF receptor 3. HRH3 expression was found in all cells. RAMH inhibited the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells. RAMH increased IP(3) levels and PKCalpha phosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. RAMH induced a shift in the localization of PKCalpha expression from the cytosolic domain into the membrane region of Mz-ChA-1 cells. Silencing of PKCalpha prevented RAMH inhibition of Mz-ChA-1 cell growth and ablated RAMH effects on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo, RAMH decreased tumor growth and expression of VEGF and its receptors; PKCalpha expression was increased. RAMH inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by PKCalpha-dependent ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. Modulation of PKCalpha by histamine receptors may be important in regulating cholangiocarcinoma growth.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK062975, DK076898, DK58411, K01 DK078532, R01 DK054811, R01 DK054811-08, R01 DK058411, R01 DK062975, R01 DK062975-04, R01 DK076898, R01 DK076898-02

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2009;7;10;1704-13

  • Mutation of protein kinase C phosphorylation site S1076 on alpha-subunits affects BK(Ca) channel activity in HEK-293 cells.

    Zhu S, Browning DD, White RE, Fulton D and Barman SA

    Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are important modulators of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle membrane potential, and phosphorylation of BK(Ca) channels by protein kinases regulates pulmonary arterial smooth muscle function. However, little is known about the effect of phosphorylating specific channel subunits on BK(Ca) channel activity. The present study was done to determine the effect of mutating protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site serine 1076 (S1076) on transfected human BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, a heterologous expression system devoid of endogenous BK(Ca) channels. Results showed that mutating S1076 altered the effect of PKC activation on BK(Ca) channels in HEK-293 cells. Specifically, the phospho-deficient mutation BK(Ca)-alpha(S1076A)/beta(1) attenuated the excitatory effect of the PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on BK(Ca) channels, whereas the phospho-mimetic mutation BK(Ca)-alpha(S1076E)/beta(1) increased the excitatory effect of PMA on BK(Ca) channels. In addition, the phospho-null mutation S1076A blocked the activating effect of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) on BK(Ca) channels. Collectively, these results suggest that specific putative PKC phosphorylation site(s) on human BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunits influences BK(Ca) channel activity, which may subsequently alter pulmonary vascular smooth muscle function and tone.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-64779, HL-68026

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2009;297;4;L758-66

  • Phosphorylation of the influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 by PKC is crucial for apoptosis promoting functions in monocytes.

    Mitzner D, Dudek SE, Studtrucker N, Anhlan D, Mazur I, Wissing J, Jänsch L, Wixler L, Bruns K, Sharma A, Wray V, Henklein P, Ludwig S and Schubert U

    Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.

    The 11(th) influenza A virus (IAV) protein PB1-F2 is encoded by an alternative reading frame of the PB1 polymerase gene and found in the nucleus, cytosol and at the mitochondria of infected cells, the latter is consistent with experimental evidence for its pro-apoptotic function. Here, the function of PB1-F2 as a phosphoprotein was characterized. PB1-F2 derived from isolate IAV(PR8) and synthetic fragments thereof were phosphorylated in vitro by purified protein kinase C (PKC) and cellular extract. Constitutively active PKCalpha interacts with PB1-F2 in yeast two-hybrid assays. (32)P radiolabelling of transfected 293T cells revealed that phosphorylation of PB1-F2 is sensitive to inhibitors of PKC and could be increased by the PKC activator PMA. ESI-MS analysis and cellular expression of PB1-F2 mutants identified the positions Ser-35 as the major and the Thr-27 as an alternative PKC phosphorylation site. Infection of MDCK cells with recombinant IAV(PR8) lacking these PKC sites abrogated phosphorylation of PB1-F2 in vivo. Furthermore, infection of primary human monocytes with mutant viruses lacking these PB1-F2 phosphorylation sites resulted in impaired caspase 3 activation and reduced progeny virus titres, indicating that the integrity of the identified phosphorylation sites is crucial for a cell-specific function of PB1-F2 during virus replication.

    Cellular microbiology 2009;11;10;1502-16

  • Role for protein kinase C-alpha in keratinocyte growth arrest.

    Jerome-Morais A, Rahn HR, Tibudan SS and Denning MF

    Loyola University Medical Center, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Skin Cancer Research Program, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.

    Multiple protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been associated with the epidermal keratinocyte (KC) granular layer differentiation program. Here we show PKCalpha membrane localization and substrate phosphorylation in the first suprabasal KCs of normal human epidermis, suggesting activation in vivo in the lower spinous layers where terminal differentiation-associated growth arrest occurs. To determine if PKCalpha is sufficient for KC growth arrest, we expressed a constitutively active PKCalpha (PKCalpha Delta22-28) in normal human KCs and observed growth arrest and accumulation of cells in G1. PKCalpha Delta22-28 inhibited DNA synthesis through the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, downregulation of PKCalpha in an in vitro organotypic epidermis resulted in increased basal and suprabasal proliferation marker expression, decreased differentiation, and reduced epidermal stratification. Together these results indicate that PKCalpha activation is both necessary and sufficient to trigger irreversible growth arrest during human KC differentiation.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2009;129;10;2365-75

  • Tumor-endothelium cross talk blocks recruitment of neutrophils to endothelial cells: a novel mechanism of endothelial cell anergy.

    Blaheta RA, Powerski M, Hudak L, Juengel E, Jonas D, von Knethen A, Doerr HW and Cinatl J

    Zentrum der Chirurgie, Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    Tumor cells have evolved effective strategies to escape the host immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether tumor cells can condition endothelial cells in a specific manner to prevent subsequent adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and/or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma tumor cells were established in coculture on opposite sides of porous transwell filters. After 24 hours with and without HUVEC conditioning, PMNs or PBLs were added to the HUVEC monolayer. Adhesion to conditioned HUVEC versus adhesion to nonconditioned HUVEC was compared. Effects on endothelial CD44v4, CD44v5, CD44v7, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) adhesion receptor expression were analyzed by flow cytometry, intracellular signaling proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes quantified by Western blot analysis. Endothelial conditioning led to a distinct reduction in PMN but not in PBL adhesion to HUVEC. CD44 was significantly reduced, whereas ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 were not altered during HUVEC conditioning. Antibody blockade against CD44v4, CD44v5, and CD44v7 inhibited PMN but not PBL binding. The observed effects were caused by direct tumor cell-HUVEC contact because addition of isolated tumor cell membrane fragments but not of soluble cell culture supernatant to HUVEC induced the CD44 receptor loss. PKCalpha activity was strongly enhanced in conditioned HUVEC. Blocking PKC prevented the reduction in PMN binding, indicating that this protein is involved in PMN adhesion regulation. A novel tumor escape strategy is presented here. Cell contact-dependent adhesion of tumor cells to the vascular wall promotes down-regulation of endothelial CD44 receptor expression, impairing an effective neutrophil attack.

    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 2009;11;10;1054-63

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Regulation of folate receptor internalization by protein kinase C alpha.

    Elnakat H, Gonit M, Salazar MD, Zhang J, Basrur V, Gunning W, Kamen B and Ratnam M

    Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Medical University of Ohio, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43614, USA.

    The glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored folate receptor (FR) mediates selective delivery of a broad range of experimental drugs to the receptor-rich tumors, but molecular mechanisms controlling FR internalization have not been adequately studied. FR quantitatively recycles between the cell surface and endocytic compartments via a Cdc42-dependent pinocytic pathway. Protein kinase C (PKC) activators including diacylglycerol and phorbol ester have previously been reported to increase the proportion of FR on the cell surface. Here we identify the alpha-subtype of PKC as the mediator of phorbol ester action on FR recycling and provide evidence that activated PKCalpha is recruited to FR-rich membrane microdomains where, in association with its receptor RACK1, it inhibits FR internalization; the activation state of Cdc42 remains unaltered. We also show that the PKC substrate, annexin II, is required for FR internalization. The studies clarify a molecular mechanism for the regulation of FR recycling through PKC which could potentially be exploited for effective drug delivery.

    Biochemistry 2009;48;34;8249-60

  • SH2D4A regulates cell proliferation via the ERalpha/PLC-gamma/PKC pathway.

    Li T, Li W, Lu J, Liu H, Li Y and Zhao Y

    Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

    SH2D4A, comprising a single SH2 domain, is a novel protein of the SH2 signaling protein family. We have previously demonstrated SH2D4A is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues and is located in the cytoplasm. In this study we investigated the function of SH2D4A in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells using interaction analysis, cell proliferation assays, and kinase activity detection. SH2D4A was found to directly bind to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), and prevent the recruitment of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) to ERalpha. Moreover, we observed its inhibitory effects on estrogen-induced cell proliferation, involving the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. Together, these findings suggested that SH2D4A inhibited cell proliferation by suppression of the ERalpha/PLC-gamma/PKC signaling pathway. SH2D4A may be useful for the development of a new anti-cancer drug acting as an ER signaling modulator.

    BMB reports 2009;42;8;516-22

  • Protein kinase Calpha-responsive polymeric carrier: its application for gene delivery into human cancers.

    Tomiyama T, Kang JH, Toita R, Niidome T and Katayama Y

    Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    For cancer-targeting gene delivery, we applied a protein kinase C (PKC)alpha-responsive polymeric carrier to human cancers (U-87 MG [human glioblastoma-astrocytoma, epithelial-like cell line] and A549 [human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line]). Two polymers, one a PKCalpha-responsive polymer (PPC[S]) containing the phosphorylation site serine, and the other a negative control polymer (PPC[A]), in which the serine was substituted with alanine, were synthesized. No cytotoxicity of the polymer was identified. When the complexes were transfected into cancer cells or tissues in which PKCalpha was hyper-activated, the luciferase expression from the PPC(S)/plasmid (pDNA) complex was higher than that from the PPC(A)/pDNA complex. These results show that the phosphorylation of complex by PKCalpha in cancer cells leads to high gene expression and that our system can be used as a human cancer cell-targeting gene delivery system.

    Cancer science 2009;100;8;1532-6

  • A new mechanism of SOX9 action to regulate PKCalpha expression in the intestine epithelium.

    Dupasquier S, Abdel-Samad R, Glazer RI, Bastide P, Jay P, Joubert D, Cavaillès V, Blache P and Quittau-Prévostel C

    CNRS, UMR 5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, 34094, Montpellier, France.

    Variations of protein kinase C (PKC) expression greatly influence the proliferation-to-differentiation transition (PDT) of intestinal epithelial cells and might have an important impact on intestinal tumorigenesis. We demonstrate here that the expression of PKCalpha in proliferating intestinal epithelial cells is repressed both in vitro and in vivo by the SOX9 transcription factor. This repression does not require DNA binding of the SOX9 high-mobility group (HMG) domain but is mediated through a new mechanism of SOX9 action requiring the central and highly conserved region of SOXE members. Because SOX9 expression is itself upregulated by Wnt-APC signaling in intestinal epithelial cells, the present study points out this transcription factor as a molecular link between the Wnt-APC pathway and PKCalpha. These results provide a potential explanation for the decrease of PKCalpha expression in colorectal cancers with constitutive activation of the Wnt-APC pathway.

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 13;2191-6

  • PRKCA: a positional candidate gene for body mass index and asthma.

    Murphy A, Tantisira KG, Soto-Quirós ME, Avila L, Klanderman BJ, Lake S, Weiss ST and Celedón JC

    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Asthma incidence and prevalence are higher in obese individuals. A potential mechanistic basis for this relationship is pleiotropy. We hypothesized that significant linkage and candidate-gene association would be found for body mass index (BMI) in a population ascertained on asthma affection status. Linkage analysis for BMI was performed on 657 subjects in eight Costa Rican families enrolled in a study of asthma. Family-based association studies were conducted for BMI with SNPs within a positional candidate gene, PRKCA. SNPs within PRKCA were also tested for association with asthma. Association studies were conducted in 415 Costa Rican parent-child trios and 493 trios participating in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Although only modest evidence of linkage for BMI was obtained for the whole cohort, significant linkage was noted for BMI in females on chromosome 17q (peak LOD = 3.39). Four SNPs in a candidate gene in this region (PRKCA) had unadjusted association p values < 0.05 for BMI in both cohorts, with the joint p value for two SNPs remaining significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (rs228883 and rs1005651, joint p values = 9.5 x 10(-)(5) and 5.6 x 10(-)(5)). Similarly, eight SNPs had unadjusted association p values < 0.05 for asthma in both populations, with one SNP remaining significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (rs11079657, joint p value = 2.6 x 10(-)(5)). PRKCA is a pleiotropic locus that is associated with both BMI and asthma and that has been identified via linkage analysis of BMI in a population ascertained on asthma.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: K23 HG003983, K23 HG3983; NHLBI NIH HHS: K01 HL004370, K01 HL04370, P01 HL083069, R01 HL 086601, R01 HL086601, R37 HL066289, R37 HL66289, T32 HL007427, T32 HL07427, U01 HL065899, U01 HL075419, U01 HL65899

    American journal of human genetics 2009;85;1;87-96

  • Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) regulates growth and invasion of endometrial cancer cells.

    Haughian JM and Bradford AP

    Division of Basic Reproductive Science, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

    The etiology of endometrial cancers remains poorly understood, particularly with respect to signal transduction pathways underlying the development and progression of the more aggressive, type II steroid-independent tumors. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) regulates cellular processes critical to malignancy and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancers. The objective of these studies was to determine the functional role of PKCalpha in endometrial cancer cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion. PKCalpha expression in endometrial cancer cell lines was examined by Western blotting. PKCalpha levels were increased in type II HEC-50, HEC-1-A and HEC-1-B cell lines relative to the type I Ishikawa and RL-95-2 lines. Retroviral constructs were used to either overexpress PKCalpha or selectively knockdown levels by shRNA in Ishikawa and HEC 50 cells, respectively. Knockdown of PKCalpha expression in HEC-50 cells resulted in a diminished growth rate and attenuation of anchorage-independent growth. Correspondingly, Ishikawa cells overexpressing PKCalpha protein exhibited increased proliferation, resistance to growth factor deprivation and enhanced anchorage-independent growth. Consistent with the observed changes in cell proliferation, PKCalpha also modulated cyclin D1 promoter activity in both cell lines. A reduction in PKCalpha levels rendered HEC-50 cells significantly less invasive, whereas PKCalpha overexpression enhanced invasion of Ishikawa cells. These data indicate that PKCalpha promotes growth and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, suggesting that PKCalpha dependent signaling pathways could provide novel prognostic indicators or therapeutic targets, particularly in clinically aggressive type II endometrial tumors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 104875

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;220;1;112-8

  • Celastrol binds to ERK and inhibits FcepsilonRI signaling to exert an anti-allergic effect.

    Kim Y, Kim K, Lee H, Han S, Lee YS, Choe J, Kim YM, Hahn JH, Ro JY and Jeoung D

    School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Republic of Korea.

    The role of celastrol, a triterpene extracted from the Chinese "Thunder of God Vine," in allergic inflammation was investigated. Celastrol decreased the secretion of beta-hexosaminidase, decreased the release of histamine, decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines and decreased calcium influx and cell adhesion in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Exposure to celastrol decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and the ERK kinase activity was decreased in RBL2H3 cells. A molecular dynamics simulation showed binding of celastrol to a large pocket in ERK2, which serves as the ATP-binding site. Exposure to celastrol inhibited the interaction between immunoglobulin Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRIgamma) and ERK and inhibited interaction between FcepsilonRIgamma and protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta). Antigen stimulation induced an interaction between Rac1 and ERK as well as an interaction between Rac1 and PKCdelta. Inhibition of ERK decreased Rac1 activity and inhibition of Rac1 decreased ERK activity in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Celastrol regulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins through inhibition of PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and Rac1 in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Exposure to celatrol inhibited PKCdelta activity in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Celastrol exerted a negative effect on FcepsilonRIbeta signaling by inhibiting the interaction between heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and proteins, such as, FcepsilonRIbeta, Akt and PKCalpha. Celastrol exerted a negative effect on in vivo atopic dermatitis induced by 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), which requires ERK. Celastrol also showed an inhibitory effect on skin inflammation induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in Balb/c mice. In summary, celastrol binds to ERK and inhibits FcepsilonRI signaling to exert an anti-inflammatory effect.

    European journal of pharmacology 2009;612;1-3;131-42

  • Common polymorphism in the phosphatase PHLPP2 results in reduced regulation of Akt and protein kinase C.

    Brognard J, Niederst M, Reyes G, Warfel N and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0721, USA.

    PHLPP2 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2) terminates Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) activity by specifically dephosphorylating these kinases at a key regulatory site, the hydrophobic motif (Ser-473 in Akt1). Here we identify a polymorphism that results in an amino acid change from a Leu to Ser at codon 1016 in the phosphatase domain of PHLPP2, which reduces phosphatase activity toward Akt both in vitro and in cells, in turn resulting in reduced apoptosis. Depletion of endogenous PHLPP2 variants in breast cancer cells revealed the Ser-1016 variant is less functional toward both Akt and PKC. In pair-matched high grade breast cancer samples we observed retention of only the Ser allele from heterozygous patients (identical results were observed in a pair-matched normal and tumor cell line). Thus, we have identified a functional polymorphism that impairs the activity of PHLPP2 and correlates with elevated Akt phosphorylation and increased PKC levels.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM067946

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;22;15215-23

  • Activation of ROS/NF-kappaB and Ca2+/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1beta-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    Luo SF, Chang CC, Lee IT, Lee CW, Lin WN, Lin CC and Yang CM

    Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1beta-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1beta enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKCalpha (Gö6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-kappaB (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKCalpha, Src, p47(phox), p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1beta stimulated NF-kappaB and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKCalpha/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca2+/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-kappaB and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1beta induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

    Toxicology and applied pharmacology 2009;237;1;8-21

  • PI3Kgamma controls oxidative bursts in neutrophils via interactions with PKCalpha and p47phox.

    Lehmann K, Müller JP, Schlott B, Skroblin P, Barz D, Norgauer J and Wetzker R

    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.

    Neutrophils release reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of the innate inflammatory immune response. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma), which is induced by the bacterial peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), has been identified as an essential intracellular mediator of ROS production. However, the complex signalling reactions that link PI3Kgamma with ROS synthesis by NADPH oxidase have not yet been described in detail. We found that activation of neutrophils by fMLP triggers the association of PI3Kgamma with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha). Specific inhibition of PI3Kgamma suppresses fMLP-mediated activation of PKCalpha activity and ROS production, suggesting that the protein kinase activity of PI3Kgamma is involved. Our data suggest that the direct interaction of PI3Kgamma with PKCalpha forms a discrete regulatory module of fMLP-dependent ROS production in neutrophils.

    The Biochemical journal 2009;419;3;603-10

  • Sphingosine kinase as an oncogene: autocrine sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates ML-1 thyroid carcinoma cell migration by a mechanism dependent on protein kinase C-alpha and ERK1/2.

    Bergelin N, Blom T, Heikkilä J, Löf C, Alam C, Balthasar S, Slotte JP, Hinkkanen A and Törnquist K

    Department of Biology, Abo Akademi University, BioCity, Tykistökatu 6, 20520 Turku, Finland.

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces migration of the human thyroid follicular carcinoma cell line ML-1 by activation of S1P(1) and S1P(3) receptors, G(i) proteins, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Because sphingosine kinase isoform 1 (SK) recently has been implicated as an oncogene in various cancer cell systems, we investigated the functions of SK in the migration, proliferation and adhesion of the ML-1 cell line. SK overexpressing ML-1 cells show an enhanced secretion of S1P, which can be attenuated, by inhibiting SK activity and a multidrug-resistant transport protein (ATP-binding cassette transporter). Furthermore, overexpression of SK enhances serum-induced migration of ML-1 cells, which can be attenuated by blocking ATP-binding cassette transporter and SK, suggesting that the migration is mediated by autocrine signaling through secretion of S1P. Inhibition of protein kinase C alpha, with both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and small molecular inhibitors attenuates migration in SK overexpressing cells. In addition, SK-overexpressing cells show an impaired adhesion, slower cell growth, and an up-regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, as compared with cells expressing a dominant-negative SK. Taken together, we present evidence suggesting that SK enhances migration of ML-1 cells by an autocrine mechanism and that the S1P-evoked migration is dependent on protein kinase C alpha, ERK1/2, and SK.

    Endocrinology 2009;150;5;2055-63

  • ADAM-10-mediated N-cadherin cleavage is protein kinase C-alpha dependent and promotes glioblastoma cell migration.

    Kohutek ZA, diPierro CG, Redpath GT and Hussaini IM

    Departments of Pathology and Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. zsk3k@virginia.edu

    MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and the related "a disintegrin and metalloproteinases" (ADAMs) promote tumorigenesis by cleaving extracellular matrix and protein substrates, including N-cadherin. Although N-cadherin is thought to regulate cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, its role has not been characterized in glioblastomas (GBMs). In this study, we investigated the expression and function of posttranslational N-cadherin cleavage in GBM cells as well as its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). N-Cadherin cleavage occurred at a higher level in glioblastoma cells than in non-neoplastic astrocytes. Treatment with the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased N-cadherin cleavage, which was reduced by pharmacological inhibitors and short interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for ADAM-10 or PKC-alpha. Furthermore, treatment of GBM cells with PMA induced the translocation of ADAM-10 to the cell membrane, the site at which N-cadherin was cleaved, and this translocation was significantly reduced by the PKC-alpha inhibitor Gö6976 [12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo[2,3-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole] or PKC-alpha short hairpin RNA. In functional studies, N-cadherin cleavage was required for GBM cell migration, as depletion of N-cadherin cleavage by N-cadherin siRNA, ADAM-10 siRNA, or a cleavage-site mutant N-cadherin, decreased GBM cell migration. Together, these results suggest that N-cadherin cleavage is regulated by a PKC-alpha-ADAM-10 cascade in GBM cells and may be involved in mediating GBM cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 90851, R01 CA090851, R01 CA090851-06A2, R01 CA090851-09; NINDS NIH HHS: F31 NS 063644, F31 NS063644, F31 NS063644-01

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;14;4605-15

  • IL-1 beta induces urokinase-plasminogen activator expression and cell migration through PKC alpha, JNK1/2, and NF-kappaB in A549 cells.

    Cheng CY, Hsieh HL, Sun CC, Lin CC, Luo SF and Yang CM

    Department of Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the urokinase plasminogen-activator (uPA) system and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. Several reports have shown that the levels of IL-1 beta and MMPs in plasma of the patients with lung cancer are significantly elevated and link to the invasion of tumor cells. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-1 beta-induced expression of uPA participated in lung cancer progression. In this study, IL-1 beta significantly induced uPA expression and activity via PKC alpha-dependent JNK1/2 and NIK cascades, linking to IKK alpha/beta activation, p65 translocation and transcription activity, using pharmacological inhibitors and transfection with dominant negative mutants and siRNAs. IL-1 beta-induced uPA protein and mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitors of JNK1/2 (SP600125), PKC (Ro31-8220, Gö6976), or NF-kappaB (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of PKC alpha, NIK, and IKK beta, and siRNAs of JNK1/2 and p65. IL-1 beta stimulated PKC alpha translocation to plasma membrane leading to phosphorylation of JNK1/2, which was attenuated by PKC inhibitors and transfection with shRNAs of JNK1/2, but not by helenalin. In addition, IL-1beta stimulated p65 phosphorylation and translocation into nucleus concomitant with I kappaB alpha phosphorylation and I kappaB alpha degradation, which was mediated via activation of PKC alpha-dependent JNK1/2-NIK/IKK beta cascade. These results demonstrated that in A549 cells, activation of p50/p65 heterodimer through sequential activation of PKC alpha-JNK-NIK-IKK beta-NF-kappaB was required for IL-1 beta-induced uPA expression associated with migration of tumor cells.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;219;1;183-93

  • Investigation of the marine compound spongistatin 1 links the inhibition of PKCalpha translocation to nonmitotic effects of tubulin antagonism in angiogenesis.

    Rothmeier AS, Ischenko I, Joore J, Garczarczyk D, Fürst R, Bruns CJ, Vollmar AM and Zahler S

    Department of Pharmacy, Center for Drug Research, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

    The aims of the study were to meet the demand of new tubulin antagonists with fewer side effects by characterizing the antiangiogenic properties of the experimental compound spongistatin 1, and to elucidate nonmitotic mechanisms by which tubulin antagonists inhibit angiogenesis. Although tubulin-inhibiting drugs and their antiangiogenic properties have been investigated for a long time, surprisingly little is known about their underlying mechanisms of action. Antiangiogenic effects of spongistatin 1 were investigated in endothelial cells in vitro, including functional cell-based assays, live-cell imaging, and a kinome array, and in the mouse cornea pocket assay in vivo. Spongistatin 1 inhibited angiogenesis at nanomolar concentrations (IC(50): cytotoxicity>50 nM, proliferation 100 pM, migration 1.0 nM, tube formation 1.0 nM, chemotaxis 1.0 nM, aortic ring sprouting 500 pM, neovascularization in vivo 10 microg/kg). Further, a kinome array and validating data showed that spongistatin 1 inhibits the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), an essential kinase in angiogenesis, and its translocation to the membrane. Thus, we conclude that PKCalpha might be an important target for the antiangiogenic effects of tubulin antagonism. In addition, the data from the kinase array suggest that different tubulin antagonists might have individual intracellular actions.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2009;23;4;1127-37

  • Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation regulates the cell cycle-inhibitory function of the p73 carboxy terminus transactivation domain.

    Nyman U, Vlachos P, Cascante A, Hermanson O, Zhivotovsky B and Joseph B

    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

    The transcription factor p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling the distinct roles for p73 in these two processes have remained unclear. Here, we report that p73 is able to induce cell cycle arrest independently of its amino-terminal transactivation domain, whereas this domain is crucial for p73 proapoptotic functions. We also characterized a second transactivation domain in the carboxy terminus of p73 within amino acid residues 381 to 399. This carboxy terminus transactivation domain was found to preferentially regulate genes involved in cell cycle progression. Moreover, its activity is regulated throughout the cell cycle and modified by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation at serine residue 388. Our results suggest that this novel posttranslational modification within the p73 carboxy terminus transactivation domain is involved in the context-specific guidance of p73 toward the selective induction of cell cycle arrest.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;7;1814-25

  • Antisense expression of PKCalpha improved sensitivity of SGC7901/VCR cells to doxorubicin.

    Wu DL, Sui FY, Du C, Zhang CW, Hui B, Xu SL, Lu HZ and Song GJ

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Jiaxing College, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang Province, China. wudalong66@sina.com

    Aim: To explore whether antisense blocking of protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) would reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the vincristine (VCR)-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/VCR.

    Methods: SGC7901/VCR cells expressing antisense PKCalpha, SGC7901/VCR/aPKC, were established by transfection with a recombinant plasmid reversely inserted with PKCalpha cDNA. Empty vector (PCI-neo)-transfected cell clones, SGC7901/VCR/neo, served as the control. Western blot method was used to detect PKCalpha content in SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells, using PKCalpha-specific antibody. The sensitivity of SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells to doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro was determined by MTT assay. The uptake of DOX in these cells was detected with fluorescence spectrophotometer.

    Results: Western blot analysis showed that the PKCalpha protein level was about 8.7-fold higher in SGC7901/VCR cells than that in SGC7901 cells, whereas the protein expression of PKCalpha was reduced by 78% in SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells when compared with the SGC7901/VCR cells. SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells had a 4.2-fold increase in DOX cytotoxicity, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase of DOX accumulation in comparison with SGC a1a 7901/VCR cells.

    Conclusion: PKCalpha positively regulates MDR in SGC7901 cells, and inhibition of PKCalpha can partially attenuate MDR in human gastric cancer cells.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2009;15;10;1259-63

  • Endothelial factors mediate aldosterone release via PKA-independent pathways.

    Ansurudeen I, Willenberg HS, Kopprasch S, Krug AW, Ehrhart-Bornstein M and Bornstein SR

    Department of Medicine III, Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Technology, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Ishrath.Ansurudeen@uniklinikum-dresden.de

    Aldosterone synthesis is primarily regulated by angiotensin II and potassium ions. In addition, endothelial cell-secreted factors have been shown to regulate mineralocorticoid release. We analyzed the pathways that mediate endothelial cell-factor-induced aldosterone release from adrenocortical cells, NCI-H295R using endothelial cell-conditioned medium (ECM). The cAMP antagonist Rp-cAMP caused a 44% decrease in the ECM-induced aldosterone release but inhibition of cAMP-dependent PKA had no effect on aldosterone release. Interestingly, inhibition of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac with brefeldin-A decreased the ECM-induced aldosterone release by 45%. Similarly, inhibition of p38 MAP-kinase; PI-3-kinase and PKB significantly reduced the ECM-induced aldosterone release whereas inhibition of ERK1/2 and PKC did not decrease aldosterone release. These results provide evidence for the existence of a cAMP-dependent but PKA-independent pathway in mediating the ECM-induced aldosterone release and the significant influence of more than one signaling mechanism.

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2009;300;1-2;66-70

  • The actin-cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin is regulated during osteosarcoma metastasis by PKC.

    Ren L, Hong SH, Cassavaugh J, Osborne T, Chou AJ, Kim SY, Gorlick R, Hewitt SM and Khanna C

    Tumor and Metastasis Biology Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) protein family and links F-actin to the cell membrane following phosphorylation. Ezrin has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several cancers including the pediatric solid tumors, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. In this study, we were surprised to find that ezrin was not constitutively phosphorylated but rather was dynamically regulated during metastatic progression in osteosarcoma. Metastatic osteosarcoma cells expressed phosphorylated ERM early after their arrival in the lung, and then late in progression, only at the invasive front of larger metastatic lesions. To pursue mechanisms for this regulation, we found that inhibitors of PKC (protein kinase C) blocked phosphorylation of ezrin, and that ezrin coimmunoprecipitated in cells with PKCalpha, PKCiota and PKCgamma. Furthermore, phosphorylated forms of ezrin and PKC had identical expression patterns at the invasive front of pulmonary metastatic lesions in murine and human patient samples. Finally, we showed that the promigratory effects of PKC were linked to ezrin phosphorylation. These data are the first to suggest a dynamic regulation of ezrin phosphorylation during metastasis and to connect the PKC family members with this regulation.

    Oncogene 2009;28;6;792-802

  • Protein kinase C isoenzymes differentially regulate the differentiation-dependent expression of adhesion molecules in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Szegedi A, Páyer E, Czifra G, Tóth BI, Schmidt E, Kovács L, Blumberg PM and Bíró T

    Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

    Epidermal expression of adhesion molecules such as desmogleins (Dsg) and cadherins is strongly affected by the differentiation status of keratinocytes. We have previously shown that certain protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms differentially alter the growth and differentiation of human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes. In this paper, using recombinant overexpression and RNA interference, we define the specific roles of the different PKC isoenzymes in modulation of expression of adhesion molecules in HaCaT keratinocytes. The level of Dsg1, a marker of differentiating keratinocytes, was antagonistically regulated by two Ca-independent 'novel' nPKC isoforms; i.e. it increased by the differentiation-promoting nPKCdelta and decreased by the growth-promoting nPKCepsilon. The expression of Dsg3 (highly expressed in proliferating epidermal layers) was conversely regulated by these isoenzymes, and was also inhibited by the differentiation inducer Ca-dependent 'conventional' cPKCalpha. Finally, the expression of P-cadherin (a marker of proliferating keratinocytes) was regulated by all of the examined PKCs, also in an antagonistic manner (inhibited by cPKCalpha/nPKCdelta and stimulated by cPKCbeta/nPKCepsilon). Collectively, the presented results strongly argue for the marked, differential, and in some instances antagonistic roles of individual Ca-dependent and Ca-independent PKC isoforms in the regulation of expression of adhesion molecules of desmosomes and adherent junctions in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Experimental dermatology 2009;18;2;122-9

  • Regulation of human organic anion transporter 1 by ANG II: involvement of protein kinase Calpha.

    Li S, Duan P and You G

    Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT1 by ANG II in kidney COS-7 cells. ANG II induced a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of hOAT1 transport activity. Such inhibition mainly resulted from a decreased cell surface expression without a change in total cell expression of the transporter, kinetically revealed as a decreased maximal velocity without significant change in Michaelis constant. ANG II-induced inhibition of hOAT1 activity could be prevented by treating hOAT1-expressing cells with staurosporine, a general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. To obtain further information on which PKC isoform mediates ANG II regulation of hOAT1 activity, cellular distribution of various PKC isoforms was examined in cells treated with or without ANG II. We showed that ANG II treatment resulted in a significant translocation of PKCalpha from cytosol to membrane, and such translocation was blocked by treating hOAT1-expressing cells with Gö-6976, a PKCalpha-specific inhibitor. We further showed that ANG II-induced inhibition of hOAT1 activity and retrieval of hOAT1 from the cell surface could also be prevented by treating hOAT1-expressing cells with Gö-6976. We concluded that ANG II inhibited hOAT1 activity through activation of PKCalpha, which led to the redistribution of the transporter from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK060034, R01-DK 60034; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01-GM-079123

    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2009;296;2;E378-83

  • EGFR signals to mTOR through PKC and independently of Akt in glioma.

    Fan QW, Cheng C, Knight ZA, Haas-Kogan D, Stokoe D, James CD, McCormick F, Shokat KM and Weiss WA

    Department of Neurology, University of California, 533 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Amplification of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) occurs commonly in glioblastoma, leading to activation of downstream kinases including phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here, we show that phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream substrate rpS6 (ribosomal protein S6) are robust biomarkers for the antiproliferative effect of EGFR inhibitors. Inhibition of EGFR signaling correlated with decreased abundance of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and rpS6 (p-rpS6) in cells wild type for the gene encoding PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10), a negative regulator of PI3K. In contrast, inhibition of EGFR signaling failed to affect p-mTOR or p-rpS6 in cells mutant for PTEN, which are resistant to EGFR inhibitors. Although the abundance of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) decreased in response to inhibition of EGFR signaling, Akt was dispensable for signaling between EGFR and mTOR. We identified an Akt-independent pathway linking EGFR to mTOR that was critically dependent on protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with these observations, the abundance of EGFR generally correlated with phosphorylation of rpS6 and PKC in primary human glioblastoma tumors, and correlated poorly with phosphorylation of Akt. Inhibition of PKC led to decreased viability of glioma cells regardless of PTEN or EGFR status, suggesting that PKC inhibitors should be tested in glioma. These findings underline the importance of signaling between EGFR and mTOR in glioma, identify PKCalpha as essential to this network, and question the necessity of Akt as a critical intermediate coupling EGFR and mTOR in glioma.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA097257, P50 CA097257-07

    Science signaling 2009;2;55;ra4

  • PCPH/ENTPD5 expression confers to prostate cancer cells resistance against cisplatin-induced apoptosis through protein kinase Calpha-mediated Bcl-2 stabilization.

    Villar J, Quadri HS, Song I, Tomita Y, Tirado OM and Notario V

    Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, DC 20057-1482, USA.

    Prostate cancer (PCa) frequently develops antiapoptotic mechanisms and acquires resistance to anticancer drugs. Therefore, identifying PCa drug resistance determinants should facilitate designing more effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Recently, we described that the PCPH protein becomes highly expressed in human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and in PCa, and that the functional interaction between PCPH and protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) increases the invasiveness of human PCa. Here, we report that the functional interaction between PCPH and a different PKC isoform, PKCalpha, confers resistance against cisplatin-induced apoptosis to PCa cells. This interaction elicits a mechanism ultimately resulting in the posttranslational stabilization and subsequent elevated expression of Bcl-2. Stable knockdown of either PCPH, mt-PCPH, or PKCalpha in PCa cells decreased Ser70-phosphorylated Bcl-2 and total Bcl-2 protein, thereby increasing their cisplatin sensitivity. Conversely, forced expression of the PCPH protein or, in particular, of the mt-PCPH oncoprotein increased the levels of phosphorylated PKCalpha concurrently with those of Ser70-phosphorylated and total Bcl-2 protein, thus promoting cisplatin resistance. Consistently, Bcl-2 knockdown sensitized PCa cells to cisplatin treatment and, more importantly, reversed the cisplatin resistance of PCa cells expressing the mt-PCPH oncoprotein. Moreover, reexpression of Bcl-2 in PCPH/mt-PCPH knockdown PCa cells reversed the cisplatin sensitization caused by PCPH or mt-PCPH down-regulation. These findings identify PCPH and mt-PCPH as important participants in the chemotherapy response of PCa cells, establish a role for PCPH-PKCalpha-Bcl-2 functional interactions in the drug response process, and imply that targeting PCPH expression before, or simultaneously with, chemotherapy may improve the treatment outcome for PCa patients.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA 51008, P30 CA051008, R01 CA 64472, R01 CA064472, R01 CA064472-12, R01 CA064472-12S1

    Cancer research 2009;69;1;102-10

  • PDGF receptor activation induces p120-catenin phosphorylation at serine 879 via a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

    Brown MV, Burnett PE, Denning MF and Reynolds AB

    Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    p120-catenin (p120) is required for cadherin stability and is thought to have a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Several lines of evidence suggest that S/T phosphorylation may regulate p120 activity, but the upstream kinases involved have not been established, nor has a discreet measurable function been assigned to an individual site. To approach these issues, we have generated p120 phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies to several individual phosphorylation sites and are using them to pinpoint upstream kinases and signaling pathways that control p120 activity. Protein Kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a signaling intermediate in several cadherin-associated cellular activities. Signaling events that activate PKC induce rapid phosphorylation at p120 Serine 879 (S879), suggesting that p120 activity is regulated, in part, by one or more PKC isoforms. Here, we find that physiologic activation of a G-protein coupled receptor (i.e., endothelin receptor), as well as several Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, induce rapid and robust p120 phosphorylation at S879, suggesting that these pathways crosstalk to cadherin complexes via p120. Using Va2 cells and PDGF stimulation, we show for the first time that PDGFR-mediated phosphorylation at this site is dependent on PKCalpha, a conventional PKC isoform implicated previously in disruption of adherens junctions.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA055724, CA111947, R01 CA055724, R01 CA055724-18, R01 CA111947, R01 CA111947-05, T32 CA009592; NIAMS NIH HHS: P30AR41943

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;1;39-49

  • PKCalpha activation downregulates ATM and radio-sensitizes androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Truman JP, Rotenberg SA, Kang JH, Lerman G, Fuks Z, Kolesnick R, Marquez VE and Haimovitz-Friedman A

    Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

    We previously demonstrated that treatment of human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and CWR22-Rv1 with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known protein kinase C (PKC) activator, decreases ATM protein levels, thus de-repressing the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and promoting apopt 1f40 osis as well as radio-sensitizing these cells.(1) Here we show that PKCalpha mediates the TPA effect on ATM expression, since ATM suppression and apoptosis induced by either TPA or diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone), both inducing PKCalpha activation,(2) are abrogated in LNCaP cells following transfection of a kinase-dead PKCalpha mutant (KD-PKCalpha). Similarly, KD-PKCalpha blocks the apoptotic response elicited by combination of TPA and radiation, whereas expression of constitutively active PKCalpha is sufficient to sensitize cells to radiation alone, without a need to pre-treat the cells with TPA. These findings identify CS activation as a downstream event of PKCalpha activity in LNCaP cells. Similar results were obtained in CWR22-Rv1 cells with DAG-lactone treatment. Using the LNCaP orthotopic prostate model it is shown that treatment with TPA or DAG-lactone induces significant reduction in tumor ATM levels coupled with tumor growth delay. Furthermore, while fractionated radiation alone produces significant tumor growth delay, pretreatment with TPA or DAG-lactone significantly potentiates tumor cure. These findings support a model in which activation of PKCalpha downregulates ATM, thus relieving CS repression by ATM and enhancing apoptosis via ceramide generation. This model may provide a basis for the design of new therapies in prostate cancer.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA085704, R01 CA105125, R01 CA85704

    Cancer biology & therapy 2009;8;1;54-63

  • Role of protein kinase Calpha in regulation of [Ca2+](I) and force in human myometrium.

    Fomin VP, Kronbergs A, Gunst S, Tang D, Simirskii V, Hoffman M and Duncan RL

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA. vfomin@udel.edu

    Recent findings implicate protein kinase C in regulation of contraction of uterine musc 1f40 le (myometrium). However, the role of protein kinase C isoforms in myometrial contraction remains uncertain. Therefore, this study examined protein kinase Calpha's role in regulation of contraction and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](I)) of myometrium from term pregnant women. The authors demonstrated that protein kinase Calpha inhibitor Go6976 decreased the amplitude of potassium chloride-induced myometrial contractions in a time-dependent manner. The treatment of the myometrial strips with protein kinase Calpha-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides decreased the potassium chloride-induced contraction and [Ca2+](I) response to 39.3% + 6.8% and 50.0% + 3.3%, respectively, compared to control. The sense oligonucleotides treatment did not significantly change the potassium chloride responses (89.8% + 6.8% and 93.9% + 4.5% of the control for the contraction and [Ca2+](I), respectively). These data, coupled with the observation that protein kinase Calpha levels are elevated in the pregnant myometrium, suggest the involvement of protein kinase Calpha in regulation of human uterine contraction.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL029289, R01 HL029289-23, R01 HL074099, R01 HL075388; NICHD NIH HHS: 1 R55 HD45802-01A1

    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 2009;16;1;71-9

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • Phosphorylation of farnesoid X receptor by protein kinase C promotes its transcriptional activity.

    Gineste R, Sirvent A, Paumelle R, Helleboid S, Aquilina A, Darteil R, Hum DW, Fruchart JC and Staels B

    GENFIT, Loos-Lez-Lille, France.

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and is activated by bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, or synthetic ligands such as GW4064. FXR is implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Posttranslational modifications regulating its activity have not been investigated yet. Here, we demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition impairs ligand-mediated regulation of FXR target genes. Moreover, in a transactivation assay, we show that FXR transcriptional activity is modulated by PKC. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate , a PKC activator, induces the phosphorylation of endogenous FXR in HepG2 cells and PKCalpha phosphorylates in vitro FXR in its DNA-binding domain on S135 and S154. Mutation of S135 and S154 to alanine residues reduces in cell FXR phosphorylation. In contrast to wild-type FXR, mutant FXRS135AS154A displays an impaired PKCalpha-induced transactivation and a decreased ligand-dependent FXR transactivation. Finally, phosphorylation of FXR by PKC promotes the recruitment of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha. In conclusion, these findings show that the phosphorylation of FXR induced by PKCalpha directly modulates the ability of agonists to activate FXR.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;22;11;2433-47

  • Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase regulates superoxide generation from the enzyme.

    Chen CA, Druhan LJ, Varadharaj S, Chen YR and Zweier JL

    Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    In the vasculature, nitric oxide (NO) is generated by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in a calcium/calmodulin-dependent reaction. With oxidative stress, the critical cofactor BH(4) is depleted, and NADPH oxidation is uncoupled from NO generation, leading to production of (O(2)*). Although phosphorylation of eNOS regulates in vivo NO generation, the effects of phosphorylation on eNOS coupling and O(2)* generation are unknown. Therefore, we phosphorylated recombinant BH(4)-free eNOS in vitro using native kinases and determined O(2)* generation using EPR spin trapping. Phosphorylation of Ser-1177 by Akt led to an increase (>50%) in maximal O(2)* generation from eNOS. Moreover, Ser-1177 phosphorylation greatly altered the Ca(2+) sensitivity of eNOS, such that O(2)* generation became largely Ca(2+)-independent. In contrast, phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr-495 by protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) had no effect on maximum activity or calcium sensitivity but decreased calmodulin binding and increased association with caveolin. In endothelial cells, eNOS-dependent O(2)* generation was stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor that induced phosphorylation of Ser-1177. With PKC activation that led to phosphorylation of Thr-495, no inhibition of O(2)* generation occurred. As such, phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-1177 is pivotal in the direct regulation of O(2)* and NO generation, altering both the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the enzyme and rate of product formation, whereas phosphorylation of Thr-495 indirectly affects this process through regulation of the calmodulin and caveolin interaction. Thus, Akt-mediated phosphorylation modulates eNOS uncoupling and greatly increases O(2)* generation from the enzyme at low Ca(2+) concentrations, and PKCalpha-mediated phosphorylation alters the sensitivity of the enzyme to other negative regulatory signals.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL38324, HL63744, HL65608, HL83237, R01 HL083237

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;40;27038-47

  • Heat-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by TRPV1 through PKCalpha signaling in HaCaT cells.

    Lee YM, Li WH, Kim YK, Kim KH and Chung JH

    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is considered a key initiator of collagen degradation in inflammatory responses. A heat-gated channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), induces release of proinflammatory mediators. TRPV1 channels have been localized to the epidermis and we have recently suggested that they act as mediators of heat-induced MMP-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling of TRPV1 in MMP-1 regulation by heat shock in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Methods: Heat shock-induced MMP-1 expression was decreased by treatment with TRPV1 inhibitor. The heat-induced MMP-1 expression was suppressed by Gö6976 [calcium-dependent inhibitor] and staurosporine (ST, broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor), while rottlerin (ROT, calcium-independent PKCdelta inhibitor) had no effect. Also, transfection of PKCalpha siRNA decreased MMP-1 expression, whereas MMP-1 expression was not significantly affected in cells transfected with negative control siRNA, PKCbeta siRNA or PKCdelta siRNA.

    Results: We demonstrated that heat shock failed to induce MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells cultured in calcium-free media. The heat-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by Gö6976 and ST, but not by ROT. We also found that heat-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK in HaCaT cells, but capsazepine and ruthenium red had no effect on this activation. In addition to the role of TRPV1 in heat-induced MMP-1 expression, we also found that heat increased TRPV1 proteins in human skin in vivo.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that TRPV1 mediates heat shock-induced MMP-1 expression via calcium-dependent PKCalpha signaling in HaCaT cells.

    Experimental dermatology 2008;17;10;864-70

  • Membrane ERalpha-dependent activation of PKCalpha in endometrial cancer cells by estradiol.

    Yang JZ, O'Flatharta C, Harvey BJ and Thomas W

    Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Hospital, Tongji University, 536 Chang-Le Road, Shanghai, PR China.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the oestrogen receptor subtypes ERalpha and ERbeta in mediating the non-genomic effects of 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) in two human endometrial cancer cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A) expressing different levels of these receptor subtypes. Western blotting analysis using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies showed that physiological concentrations of E(2) rapidly (<20 min) activated PKCalpha, but not PKCdelta in the RL95-2 cell line. E(2) had no effect on PKCalpha or PKCdelta activity in the HEC-1A cell line and suppressed basal levels of PKA activity in both cell lines. PKCalpha activation coincided with its membrane translocation. ERalpha was detected in the RL95-2 cell line by Western blotting and RT-PCR but not in the HEC-1A cells, which did express ERbeta. A selective ERalpha agonist PPT had the same effect as E(2) on PKCalpha activation in the RL95-2 cells, but the selective ERbeta agonist DPN had no such effect. A 46kDa variant of ERalpha increased in abundance in the cell membrane within 20 min of E(2) treatment suggesting that ERalpha mediated the E(2) non-genomic effects on PKCalpha through the formation of a membrane associated signalling complex.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 060809/Z/00

    Steroids 2008;73;11;1110-22

  • Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells requires protein kinase C-alpha activation.

    A, Wu CH, Prasadarao NV, Kwon-Chung KJ, Chang YC, Ouyang Y, Shackleford GM and Huang SH

    Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. ajong@chla.usc.edu

    Pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a predilection for the central nervous system causing devastating meningoencephalitis. Traversal of C. neoformans across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of C. neoformans. Our previous studies have shown that the CPS1 gene is required for C. neoformans adherence to the surface protein CD44 of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the BBB. In this report, we demonstrated that C. neoformans invasion of HBMEC was blocked in the presence of G109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and by overexpression of a dominant-negative form of PKCalpha in HBMEC. During C. neoformans infection, phosphorylation of PKCalpha was induced and the PKC enzymatic activity was detected in the HBMEC membrane fraction. Our results suggested that the PKCalpha isoform might play a crucial role during C. neoformans invasion. Immunofluorescence microscopic images showed that induced phospho-PKCalpha colocalized with beta-actin on the membrane of HBMEC. In addition, cytochalasin D (an F-filament-disrupting agent) inhibited fungus invasion into HBMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockage of PKCalpha function attenuated actin filament activity during C. neoformans invasion. These results suggest a significant role of PKCalpha and downstream actin filament activity during the fungal invasion into HBMEC.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 AI000057-34; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI040635, R01-AI40635; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS047599, R01 NS047599-04, R01-NS047599

    Cellular microbiology 2008;10;9;1854-65

  • Toll-like receptor 3 triggers apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells through a PKC-alpha-dependent mechanism.

    Paone A, Starace D, Galli R, Padula F, De Cesaris P, Filippini A, Ziparo E and Riccioli A

    Department of Histology and Medical Embryology, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a key role in the innate immune system particularly in inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Recent reports strongly indicate that they play important roles in cancer cells. Prostate cancer represents one of the most common cancer for which no cure is available once metastatic and androgen refractory. Since TLR3 has been recently suggested as a possible therapeutic target in some cancer cell lines, we studied TLR3 expression and functionality in two human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. We report that both cell lines express TLR3 and that the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and induces inhibition of proliferation as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate the involvement of TLR3 in poly (I:C)-induced effects. We also show that a novel interferon-independent pathway involving protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha activation, upstream of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase, is responsible for poly (I:C) pro-apoptotic effects on LNCaP cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a role of PKC-alpha in poly (I:C)-mediated apoptosis. The comprehension of the mechanisms underlying TLR3-mediated apoptosis can contribute tools to develop new agonists useful for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Carcinogenesis 2008;29;7;1334-42

  • Protein kinase Calpha-induced derepression of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene transcription through ERK-mediated release of HDAC1/Sin3A repressor complex from Sp1 sites.

    Liao M, Zhang Y and Dufau ML

    Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4510, USA.

    LH receptor (LHR) gene transcription is subject to repression/derepression through various modes and multiple effectors. Epigenetic silencing and activation of the LHR is achieved through coordinated regulation at both histone and DNA levels. The LHR gene is subject to repression by deacetylation and methylation at its promoter region, where a HDAC/mSin3A repressor complex is anchored at Sp1 sites. The present studies revealed that protein kinase C (PKC) alpha/ERK signaling is important for the activation of LHR promoter activity, and the increase of endogenous transcripts induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) in HeLa cells. Whereas these effects were attributable to PKCalpha activity, the ERK pathway was the downstream effector in LHR activation. PMA caused a significant enhancement of Sp1 phosphorylation at serine residue (s), which was blocked by PKCalpha or ERK inhibition. The interaction of activated phosphorylated ERK with Sp1 and ERK's association with the LHR promoter points to Sp1 as a direct target of ERK. After Sp1 phosphorylation, the HDAC1/mSin3A repressor complex dissociated from Sp1 sites, histone 3 was acetylated, and transcription factor II B and RNA polymerase II were recruited. In addition, overexpression of a constitutively active PKCalpha (PKCalpha CA) strongly activated LHR transcription in MCF-7 cells (devoid of PKCalpha), induced Sp1 phosphorylation at serine residue (s) and caused derecruitment of HDAC1/mSin3A complex from the promoter. These effects were negated by cotransfection of a dominant-negative PKCalpha. In conclusion, these studies have revealed a novel regulatory signaling mechanism of transcriptional control in which the LHR is derepressed through PKCalpha/ERK-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation, causing the release of HDAC1/mSin3A complex from the promoter.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;22;6;1449-63

  • Plakophilin 2: a critical scaffold for PKC alpha that regulates intercellular junction assembly.

    Bass-Zubek AE, Hobbs RP, Amargo EV, Garcia NJ, Hsieh SN, Chen X, Wahl JK, Denning MF and Green KJ

    Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Plakophilins (PKPs) are armadillo family members related to the classical cadherin-associated protein p120(ctn). PKPs localize to the cytoplasmic plaque of intercellular junctions and participate in linking the intermediate filament (IF)-binding protein desmoplakin (DP) to desmosomal cadherins. In response to cell-cell contact, PKP2 associates with DP in plaque precursors that form in the cytoplasm and translocate to nascent desmosomes. Here, we provide evidence that PKP2 governs DP assembly dynamics by scaffolding a DP-PKP2-protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) complex, which is disrupted by PKP2 knockdown. The behavior of a phosphorylation-deficient DP mutant that associates more tightly with IF is mimicked by PKP2 and PKC alpha knockdown and PKC pharmacological inhibition, all of which impair junction assembly. PKP2 knockdown is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of PKC substrates, raising the possibility that global alterations in PKC signaling may contribute to pathogenesis of congenital defects caused by PKP2 deficiency.

    Funded by: NCI NIH H 1f40 HS: R01 CA122151; NCI NIH HHS: R01CA122151, T32 CA009560, T32CA009560; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR041836, R01 AR043380, R01AR41836, R01AR43380; NIDCR NIH HHS: 1R01DE016905, R01 DE016905

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;181;4;605-13

  • Overexpression of protein kinase Calpha mRNA may be an independent prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma.

    Lin KY, Fang CL, Uen YH, Chang CC, Lou HY, Hsieh CR, Tiong C, Pan S and Chen SH

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

    The variability of the prognosis of gastric carcinoma drives extensive researches for novel prognostic markers. The aims of this study were to correlate the expression of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) mRNA with clinicopathological parameters and to evaluate the significant value of PKCalpha in gastric carcinoma prognosis.

    Methods: PKCalpha mRNA levels were analyzed in tumor/non-tumor pairs of gastric tissues from surgical specimens of 41 patients with gastric carcinoma employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of PKCalpha in gastric carcinoma was also examined using immunohistochemistry.

    Results: PKCalpha mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in gastric carcinoma (P = 0.007). Overexpression of PKCalpha mRNA was correlated with distant metastasis (P = 0.040). Patients with high PKCalpha mRNA expression had a significantly poorer overall survival compared with patients with low PKCalpha mRNA expression (P = 0.0113). The uni-variate Cox regression analysis showed that high PKCalpha mRNA expression (P = 0.0363) and depth of invasion (P = 0.0443) were two significant prognostic markers for gastric carcinoma. In backward stepwise multi-variate analysis, PKCalpha mRNA overexpression was also proved to be an independent prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma (P = 0.0275).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that overexpression of PKCalpha mRNA has correlation with distant metastasis and may be an independent prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma.

    Journal of surgical oncology 2008;97;6;538-43

  • Protein kinase C alpha promotes angiogenic activity of human endothelial cells via induction of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Xu H, Czerwinski P, Hortmann M, Sohn HY, Förstermann U and Li H

    Department of Pharmacology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, D-55131 Mainz, Germany.

    Aims: Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis. However, downstream targets of PKC in endothelial cells are poorly defined.

    mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy 926 cells. siRNA was used to knockdown PKC isoforms and VEGF. Matrigel tube formation assay was used to analyse the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) enhanced the ability of HUVEC to organize into tubular networks when plated on Matrigel, a phenomenon that could be prevented by PKC inhibitors. PMA markedly increased the expression of VEGF in HUVEC and EA.hy 926 cells. The enhancement in VEGF expression was prevented by PKC inhibitors and by an inhibitor of the Erk1/2 pathway. PMA-induced tube formation was reduced by inhibition of the VEGF receptor kinase, or by VEGF knockdown. PMA led to an activation of PKC isoforms alpha, delta and epsilon in HUVEC. Knockdown of PKC alpha diminished PMA-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Also endothelial progenitor cells isolated from human peripheral blood showed enhanced VEGF expression and improved angiogenic activity in response to PKC activation. Moreover, incubation of HUVEC with VEGF led to PKC alpha activation and PKC-dependent VEGF upregulation.

    Conclusions: PKC alpha activation promotes angiogenic activity of human endothelial cells. This is likely to be largely mediated by induction of VEGF. VEGF enhances its own expression via a PKC alpha-dependent positive feedback mechanism.

    Cardiovascular research 2008;78;2;349-55

  • IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor signaling induced cell hypertrophy and atrial natriuretic peptide/BNP expression via Galphaq interaction and protein kinase C-alpha/CaMKII activation in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells.

    Chu CH, Tzang BS, Chen LM, Kuo CH, Cheng YC, Chen LY, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Kuo WW and Huang CY

    Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC.

    The role played by IGF-II in signal transduction through the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF2R) in heart tissue has been poorly understood. In our previous studies, we detected an increased expression of IGF-II and IGF2R in cardiomyocytes that had undergone pathological hypertrophy. We hypothesized that after binding with IGF-II, IGF2R may trigger intracellular signaling cascades involved in the progression of pathologically cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we used immunohistochemical analysis of the human cardiovascular tissue array to detect expression of IGF2R. In our study of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell cultures, we used the rhodamine phalloidin staining to measure the cell hypertrophy and western blot to measure the expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in cells treated with IGF-II. We found that a significant association between IGF2R overexpression and myocardial infarction. The treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells with IGF-II not only induced cell hypertrophy but also increased the protein level of ANP and BNP. Using Leu27IGF-II, an analog of IGF-II which interacts selectively with the IGF2R, to specifically activate IGF2R signaling cascades, we found that binding of Leu27IGF-II to IGF2R led to an increase in the phosphorylation of protein Kinase C (PKC)-alpha and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in a Galphaq-dependent manner. By the inhibition of PKC-alpha/CaMKII activity, we found that IGF-II and Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and upregulation of ANP and BNP were significantly suppressed. Taken together, this study provides a new insight into the effects of the IGF2R and its downstream signaling in cardiac hypertrophy. The suppression of IGF2R signaling pathways may be a good strategy to prevent the progression of pathological hypertrophy.

    The Journal of endocrinology 2008;197;2;381-90

  • NG2, a novel proapoptotic receptor, opposes integrin alpha4 to mediate anoikis through PKCalpha-dependent suppression of FAK phosphorylation.

    Joo NE, Watanabe T, Chen C, Chekenya M, Stallcup WB and Kapila YL

    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA.

    Disruption of cell-matrix interactions can lead to anoikis - apoptosis due to loss of matrix contacts. Altered fibronectin (FN) induces anoikis of primary human fibroblasts by a novel signaling pathway characterized by reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). However, the receptors involved are unknown. FAK phosphorylation is regulated by nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) receptor signaling through PKCalpha a point at which signals from integrins and proteoglycans may converge. We found that an altered FN matrix induced anoikis in fibroblasts by upregulating NG2 and downregulating integrin alpha4. Suppressing NG2 expression or overexpressing alpha4 rescued cells from anoikis. NG2 overexpression alone induced apoptosis and, by reducing FAK phosphorylation, increased anoikis induced by an altered matrix. NG2 overexpression or an altered matrix also suppressed PKCalpha expression, but overexpressing integrin alpha4 enhanced FAK phosphorylation independently of PKCalpha. Cotransfection with NG2 cDNA and integrin alpha4 siRNA did not lower PKCalpha and pFAK levels more than transfection with either alone. PKCalpha was upstream of FAK phosphorylation, as silencing PKCalpha decreased FAK phosphorylation. PKCalpha overexpression reversed this behavior and rescued cells from anoikis. Thus, NG2 is a novel proapoptotic receptor, and NG2 and integrin alpha4 oppositely regulate anoikis in fibroblasts. NG2 and integrin alpha4 regulate FAK phosphorylation by PKCalpha-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA095287, R01-CA95287; NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE013725, R01-DE13725

    Cell death and differentiation 2008;15;5;899-907

  • Association of missense variants of the PRKC, apoptosis, WT1, regulator (PAWR) gene with schizophrenia.

    Wang LH, Chen JY, Liou YJ, Wang YC, Lai IC, Liao DL and Chen CH

    Institute of Human Genetics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan.

    Abnormal dopamine signal transduction is implicated in the patho 4c0 physiology of schizophrenia. A recent study showed that prostate apoptosis response 4 protein (Par-4) interacts with dopamine D2 receptor and plays an important role in dopamine signaling. Par-4 knockout mice showed depression-like behavior, suggesting that Par-4 gene may be associated with mental disorders in human. The study was aimed to determine whether the PRKC, apoptosis, WT1, regulator gene (PAWR) that encodes the human homolog of Par-4 protein is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. We systematically screened for mutations at the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and all the exonic regions of the PAWR gene in a sample of Han Chinese schizophrenic patients from Taiwan. We identified two missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in strong linkage in our sample (D'=0.98), i.e. P78R at exon 2 and I199M at exon 3, respectively. SNP- and haplotype-based analysis showed that these two variants are associated with schizophrenia; there is an overrepresentation of RR homozygotes of P78R (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.05-3.83) and MM homozygotes of I199M (OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.95-3.54) in schizophrenic patients as compared to control subjects. When subjects were divided by gender, the association is 1f40 specifically with female patients (OR=2.94 for RR and OR=2.7 for MM), but not with male patients. Our results indicate that the PAWR gene is associated with schizophrenia in our population, and this study provides genetic evidence to support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2008;32;3;870-5

  • Protein kinase C alpha and zeta differentially regulate death-inducing signaling complex formation in cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis.

    Park JW, Kim HP, Lee SJ, Wang X, Wang Y, Ifedigbo E, Watkins SC, Ohba M, Ryter SW, Vyas YM and Choi AM

    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea.

    Cigarette smoke, a major risk factor in emphysema, causes cell death by incompletely understood mechanisms. Death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation is an initial event in Fas-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces DISC formation in human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and promotes DISC trafficking from the Golgi complex to membrane lipid rafts. We demonstrate a novel role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of DISC formation and trafficking. The PKC isoforms, PKCalpha, zeta, epsilon, and eta, were activated by CSE exposure. Overexpression of wild-type PKCalpha inhibited, while PKCzeta promoted, CSE-induced cell death. Dominant-negative (dn)PKCzeta protected against CSE-induced cell death by suppressing DISC formation and caspase-3 activation, while dnPKCalpha enhanced cell death by promoting these events. DISC formation was augmented by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K. CSE-induced Akt phosphorylation was reduced by dnPKCalpha, but it was increased by dnPKCzeta. Expression of PKCalpha in vivo inhibited DISC formation, caspase-3/8 activation, lung injury, and cell death after prolonged cigarette smoke exposure, whereas expression of PKCzeta promoted caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, CSE-induced DISC formation is differentially regulated by PKCalpha and PKCzeta via the PI3K/Akt pathway. These results suggest that modulation of PKC may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of smoke-related lung injury.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL 70807, R01 HL 079904, R01 HL 55330, R01 HL 60234; NIAID NIH HHS: K08 AI 51402, K08 AI051402

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;180;7;4668-78

  • RXR agonists inhibit high-glucose-induced oxidative stress by repressing PKC activity in human endothelial cells.

    Chai D, Wang B, Shen L, Pu J, Zhang XK and He B

    Cardiovascular Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

    Activation of retinoid X receptor (RXR) is known to exert antiatherogenic effects. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of the RXR agonists 9-cis-retinoic acid and SR11237 on high-glucose-induced oxidative stress in human endothelial cells. Our results demonstrated that high-glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was mainly mediated through its activation of the Nox4, gp91phox, and p22phox components of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Treatment of endothelial cells with RXR agonists resulted in significant inhibition of high-glucose-induced oxidative stress and expression of Nox4, gp91phox, and p22phox. The effect of RXR agonists was due to their inhibition of Rac-1 activation. Furthermore, RXR agonists rapidly inhibited high-glucose-induced activation of protein kinase C (PKC), an upstream activator of Rac-1. To study whether the rapid inhibitory effects of RXR agonists were mediated by RXR, we examined the effect of RXR downregulation by RXR siRNA. Our results showed that expression of RXR siRNA largely abrogated the effects of RXR agonists, suggesting the requirement of RXR expression. Interestingly, RXRalpha, which was diffusely distributed in HUVECs, accumulated mainly in the nucleus upon high glucose exposure. Treatment of cells with RXR agonists prevented the effect of high glucose. Thus, RXR ligands rapidly inhibit high-glucose-induced oxidative stress by antagonizing high-glucose-induced PKC activation, and cytoplasmic RXRalpha is implicated in this regulation.

    Free radical biology & medicine 2008;44;7;1334-47

  • Differential regulation of Moraxella catarrhalis-induced interleukin-8 response by protein kinase C isoforms.

    Slevogt H, Maqami L, Vardarowa K, Beermann W, Hocke AC, Eitel J, Schmeck B, Weimann A, Opitz B, Hippenstiel S, Suttorp N and N'Guessan PD

    Dept of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. hortense.slevogt@charite.de

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a major cause of infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease. In pulmonary epithelial cells, M. catarrhalis induces release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, which plays a pivotal role in orchestrating airway inflammation. The present study demonstrated that protein kinase (PK)C was activated by Moraxella infection and positively regulated M. catarrhalis-triggered nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and subsequent IL-8 release. Activation of the PKC/NF-kappaB signalling pathway was found to be dependent on expression of the Moraxella-specific ubiquitous surface protein A2. In addition, it was shown that specific isoforms of PKC play differential roles in the fine-tuning of the M. catarrhalis-induced NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression through controlling il8 promoter activity. Inhibition of PKCalpha and epsilon with chemical inhibitors or using short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing significantly suppressed, whereas inhibition of PKCtheta increased, the M. catarrhalis-induced IL-8 transcription and cytokine release. In conclusion, it was shown that Moraxella catarrhalis infection activates protein kinase C and its isoforms alpha, epsilon and theta, which differentially regulate interleukin-8 transcription in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    The European respiratory journal 2008;31;4;725-35

  • Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 2-induced apoptosis involves survivin expression, protein kinase C alpha activation and subcellular translocation of Smac in human small cell lung cancer cells.

    Xiao D, Wang K, Zhou J, Cao H, Deng Z, Hu Y, Qu X and Wen J

    Department of Pathology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China.

    To investigate the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) inhibits apoptosis in the human small cell lung cancer cell line H446 subjected to serum starvation, apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation. Survivin expression induced by FGF-2 and protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) translocation was detected by subcellular fractionation and Western blot analysis. In addition, FGF-2-induced release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. FGF-2 reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation and up-regulated survivin expression in H446 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. FGF-2 also inhibited the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm induced by serum starvation and increased PKC alpha translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. In addition, PKC inhibitor inhibited the expression of survivin. FGF-2 up-regulates the expression of survivin protein in H446 cells and blocks the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. PKC alpha regulated FGF-2-induced survivin expression. Thus, survivin, Smac, and PKC alpha might play important roles in the inhibition of apoptosis by FGF-2 in human small cell lung cancer cells.

    Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 2008;40;4;297-303

  • Protein kinase C alpha modulates liver X receptor alpha transactivation.

    Delvecch 1b76 io CJ and Capone JP

    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, BSB Room 101, L85 4KI, Hamilton, Ontario Canada.

    Liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), an oxysterol-activated nuclear hormone receptor, regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and inflammation. We show here that transactivation by LXRalpha in monkey kidney COS-1 (Cos-1) cells is decreased by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In transient co-transfection assays, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) suppressed LXR-dependent transactivation of LXR-responsive reporter genes or the natural promoter of the human ATP-binding cassette (ABC), ABCA1 gene. The decrease in LXR transactivation after PMA treatment was also observed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Moreover, endogenous LXR target genes, ABCA1 and sterol response element-binding protein-1c, were also decreased by PMA treatment in HEK293 cells as assessed by real-time PCR. The PMA-mediated decrease of LXR activity was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide and mimicked by constitutively active PKCalpha. Nuclear extracts treated with PMA show no decrease in LXRalpha DNA binding as assessed by mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Additionally, in vitro kinase assays demonstrate that PKCalpha can phosphorylate LXRalpha. Our findings reveal a mode of regulation of LXRalpha that may be relevant to disease conditions where aberrant PKC signaling is observed, such as diabetes.

    The Journal of endocrinology 2008;197;1;121-30

  • TGF-beta mediates PTEN suppression and cell motility through calcium-dependent PKC-alpha activation in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Chow JY, Dong H, Quach KT, Van Nguyen PN, Chen K and Carethers JM

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses growth via the TGF-beta-SMAD pathway but promotes growth in cancer cells with disrupted SMAD signaling and corresponds to an invasive phenotype. TGF-beta also downregulates the tumor suppressor PTEN that is rarely mutated in sporadic pancreatic cancer; this downregulation may mediate cell proliferation and invasiveness, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we examined whether TGF-beta modulation of PTEN was mediated by protein kinase C (PKC). We have previously demonstrated that SMAD4-null BxPc-3 pancreatic cancer cells treated with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml) suppressed PTEN expression and increased cell proliferation. TGF-beta-treated cells were examined for PKC activation and its coupling to PTEN expression, utilizing pharmacological and knockdown methods. Calcium mobilization and cell migration were also examined. In BxPc-3 cells, only two PKC isoforms were activated by TGF-beta, and PTEN downregulation by TGF-beta was specifically mediated by PKC-alpha. In parallel, TGF-beta rapidly induced an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium from intracellular stores, consistent with subsequent PKC-alpha activation. The TGF-beta-induced increase in cell migration was blocked by knockdown of PKC-alpha. Thus calcium-dependent PKC-alpha mediates TGF-beta-induced transcriptional downregulation of PTEN, and this pathway promotes cell migration in a SMAD4-null environment. The TGF-beta-PKC-alpha-PTEN cascade may be a key pathway for pancreatic cancer cells to proliferate and metastasize.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-067287, DK-080506, K01 DK073090, K01 DK073090-01A1, K01-DK-073090, R01 DK067287, R01 DK067287-02, R24 DK080506, R24 DK080506-02

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008;294;4;G899-905

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • S-Phase-specific activation of PKC alpha induces senescence in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Oliva JL, Caino MC, Senderowicz AM and Kazanietz MG

    Department of Pharmacology and Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6160, USA. jloliva@isciii.es

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been widely implicated in positive and negative control of cell proliferation. We have recently shown that treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) during G1 phase inhibits the progression into S 8be phase, an effect mediated by PKC delta-induced up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 Cip1. However, PMA treatment in asynchronously growing NSCLC cells leads to accumulation of cells in G2/M. Studies in post-G1 phases revealed that PMA induced an irreversible G2/M cell cycle arrest in NSCLC cells and conferred morphological and biochemical features of senescence, including elevated SA-beta-Gal activity and reduced telomerase activity. Remarkably, this effect was phase-specific, as it occurred only when PKC was activated in S, but not in G1, phase. Mechanistic analysis revealed a crucial role for the classical PKC alpha isozyme as mediator of the G2/M arrest and senescence, as well as for inducing p21(Cip1) an obligatory event for conferring the senescence phenotype. In addition to the unappreciated role of PKC isozymes, and specifically PKC alpha, in senescence, our data introduce the paradigm that discrete PKCs trigger distinctive responses when activated in different phases of the cell cycle via a common mechanism that involves p21 Cip1 up-regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-89202, CA-92537

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;9;5466-76

  • Protein kinase C alpha-CARMA3 signaling axis links Ras to NF-kappa B for lysophosphatidic acid-induced urokinase plasminogen activator expression in ovarian cancer cells.

    Mahanivong C, Chen HM, Yee SW, Pan ZK, Dong Z and Huang S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    We reported previously that a signaling pathway consisting of G(i)-Ras-NF-kappaB mediates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) upregulation in ovarian cancer cells. However, it is not clear what signaling components link Ras to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB for this LPA-induced event. In the present study, we found that treatment of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors including conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 abolished LPA-induced uPA upregulation in ovarian cancer cell lines tested, indicating the importance of cPKC activity in this LPA-induced event. Indeed, LPA stimulation led to the activation of PKCalpha and Ras-PKCalpha interaction. Although constitutively active mutants of PKCalpha (a cPKC), PKCtheta (a novel PKC (nPKC)) and PKCzeta (an atypical PKC (aPKC)) were all able to activate NF-kappaB and upregulate uPA expression, only dominant-negative PKCalpha mutant attenuated LPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and uPA upregulation. These results suggest that PKCalpha, rather than PKC isoforms in other PKC classes, participates in LPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and uPA upregulation in ovarian cancer cells. To determine the signaling components downstream of PKCalpha mediating LPA-induced uPA upregulation, we showed that forced expression of dominant-negative CARMA3 or silencing CARMA3, Bcl10 and MALT1 with specific siRNAs diminished these LPA-induced events. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PKCalpha/CARMA3 signaling axis is important in LPA-induced ovarian cancer cell in vitro invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA093926, R01 CA93926; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI043524, R01 AI043524-11

    Oncogene 2008;27;9;1273-80

  • Calcitonin promotes outgrowth of trophoblast cells on endometrial epithelial cells: involvement of calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation.

    Li HY, Shen JT, Chang SP, Hsu WL and Sung YJ

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

    Embryo implantation is a complex process that requires coordinated trophoblast-endometrial interactions. During implantation, trophoblast cells of the attached blastocyst penetrate the luminal epithelium of the endometrium before invasion into the endometrial stroma. Previous studies demonstrated that calcitonin was actively secreted by rat and human endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) during the implantation window and targeted disruption of endometrial calcitonin expression dramatically decreased embryo implantation rates; however, the role and signal transduction of calcitonin in trophoblast-endometrial interactions remained unclear and are therefore examined in this study. BeWo trophoblast and RL95-2 EEC lines were used because they preserve many properties of their respective normal tissues. We co-cultured BeWo trophoblast spheroids with RL95-2 EEC monolayers to mimic the blastocyst-endometrial interaction, and found that most spheroids quickly attached to EEC monolayers and then progressively expanded, with marked displacement of EEC adjacent to the outgrowing trophoblast cells. Interestingly, pretreatment of EEC monolayers with calcitonin before the addition of spheroids significantly enhanced trophoblast expansion on EEC monolayers. Cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) levels in EEC increased rapidly upon exposure to calcitonin, and blockade of Ca(2+) release by BAPTA-AM effectively prevented the promoting effect of calcitonin on trophoblast expansion on EEC. The Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) was also activated in EEC after calcitonin treatment, and the PKC inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C could completely abolish calcitonin-induced augmentation of trophoblast expansion on EEC. Our results suggest that calcitonin promotes trophoblastic displacement of EEC through calcium mobilization and PKC activation, thereby facilitating embryo implantation.

    Placenta 2008;29;1;20-9

  • Post-transcriptional regulation of HSP70 expression following oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells: the potential involvement of the RNA-binding protein HuR.

    Amadio M, Scapagnini G, Laforenza U, Intrieri M, Romeo L, Govoni S and Pascale A

    Experimental and Applied Pharmacology Department, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

    Brain aging is associated with a progressive imbalance between intracellular concentration of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and cells ability to activate defensive genes. Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to act as a fundamental defensive mechanism for neurons exposed to an oxidant challenge, and its expression decreases during senescence. In the present report we show that the RNA-binding protein ELAV/HuR can affect, post-transcriptionally, the fate of HSP70 mRNA following H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. As a consequence of H(2)O(2) treatment (1mM for 30 minutes), HSP70 mRNA accumulates in the ribosomes associated to the cytoskeleton, where parallel Western blotting experiments reveal statistically significant increase for both HuR and HSP70 protein levels. We also confirm the capability of HuR to bind to HSP70 mRNA, and describe how the biological effect of this ELAV protein on the HSP70 mRNA could be due to a direct phosphorylation in serine/threonine residues of HuR itself by the early (10 minutes) H(2)O(2)-mediated activation of PKC alpha. Our findings shed light on the post-transcriptional regulation of HSP70 expression, suggesting the existence of a new molecular cascade -involving PKC/HuR/HSP70- that possibly represents an early event in the cellular response to H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The present results lead us to speculate that an impairment in this regulatory mechanism might directly contribute to the defective cellular response to oxidative stress, thus helping to dissect a potential tool useful to counteract some aspects associated to cerebral senescence.

    Current pharmaceutical design 2008;14;26;2651-8

  • Activation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by a Gemini vitamin D3 analogue is mediated by Ras/protein kinase C alpha.

    Lee HJ, Ji Y, Paul S, Maehr H, Uskokovic M and Suh N

    Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, and they play an important role for embryonic development, for bone and cartilage formation, and during carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that the novel Gemini vitamin D(3) analogue, Ro-438-3582 [Ro3582; 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-20S,21(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-23-yne-26,27-hexafluorocholecalciferol], inhibited cell proliferation and activated the BMP/Smad signaling pathway in MCF10AT1 breast epithelial cells. In this report, we investigated the upstream signaling pathways responsible for the activation of BMP/Smad signaling by Ro3582. Among seven different serine/threonine kinase inhibitors that we tested, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors blocked the effects of Ro3582 on the phosphorylation of Smad1/5, mRNA synthesis for BMP-2 and BMP-6, and cell growth in MCF10AT1 cells. Overexpression of PKC alpha, but not PKC epsilon, PKC delta or PKC zeta isoforms, increased Ro3582-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5, suggesting that PKC alpha mediates the activation of Smad signaling and inhibition of cell proliferation. Interestingly, the activation of Smad signaling by Ro3582 was shown in Ha-ras-transfected MCF10AT1 cells, but not in the parent cell line (MCF10A without Ras). Inhibiting Ras activity blocked the translocation of PKC alpha to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of Smad1/5 induced by Ro3582, indicating that Ras is necessary for the activation of PKC alpha and Smad signaling. In conclusion, Ro3582 inhibits cell proliferation and activates BMP/Smad signaling via a Ras and PKC alpha pathway in breast epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K22 CA 99990, R03 CA112642; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES005022

    Cancer research 2007;67;24;11840-7

  • Hog barn dust slows airway epithelial cell migration in vitro through a PKCalpha-dependent mechanism.

    Slager RE, Allen-Gipson DS, Sammut A, Heires A, DeVasure J, Von Essen S, Romberger DJ and Wyatt TA

    Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Section, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5300, USA.

    Agricultural work and other occupational exposures are responsible for approximately 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD involves airway remodeling in response to chronic lung inflammatory events and altered airway repair mechanisms. However, the effect of agricultural dust exposure on signaling pathways that regulate airway injury and repair has not been well characterized. A key step in this process is migration of airway cells to restore epithelial integrity. We have previously shown that agents that activate the critical regulatory enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) slow cell migration during wound repair. Based on this observation and direct kinase measurements that demonstrate that dust extract from hog confinement barns (HDE) specifically activates the PKC isoforms PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, we hypothesized that HDE would slow wound closure time in airway epithelial cells. We utilized the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and transfected BEAS-2B cell lines that express dominant negative (DN) forms of PKC isoforms to demonstrate that HDE slows wound closure in BEAS-2B and PKCepsilon DN cell lines. However, in PKCalpha DN cells, wound closure following HDE treatment is not significantly different than media-treated cells. These results suggest that the PKCalpha isoform is an important regulator of cell migration in response to agricultural dust exposure.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: K01 HL084684; NIOSH CDC HHS: R01 OH008539

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2007;293;6;L1469-74

  • Protein kinase C-dependent control of Bcl-x alternative splicing.

    Revil T, Toutant J, Shkreta L, Garneau D, Cloutier P and Chabot B

    RNA/RNP Group, Département de Microbiologie et d'Infectiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1H 5N4.

    The alternative splicing of Bcl-x generates the proapoptotic Bcl-x(S) protein and the antiapoptotic isoform Bcl-x(L). Bcl-x splicing is coupled to signal transduction, since ceramide, hormones, and growth factors alter the ratio of the Bcl-x isoforms in different cell lines. Here we report that the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and apoptotic inducer staurosporine switches the production of Bcl-x towards the x(S) mRNA isoform in 293 cells. The increase in Bcl-x(S) elicited by staurosporine likely involves signaling events that affect splicing decisions, because it requires active transcription and no new protein synthesis and is independent of caspase activation. Moreover, the increase in Bcl-x(S) is reproduced with more specific inhibitors of PKC. Alternative splicing of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene Axl is similarly affected by staurosporine in 293 cells. In contrast to the case for 293 cells, PKC inhibitors do not influence the alternative splicing of Bcl-x and Axl in cancer cell lines, suggesting that these cells have sustained alterations that uncouple splicing decisions from PKC-dependent signaling. Using minigenes, we show that an exonic region located upstream of the Bcl-x(S) 5' splice site is important to mediate the staurosporine shift in Bcl-x splicing. When transplanted to other alternative splicing units, portions of this region confer splicing modulation and responsiveness to staurosporine, suggesting the existence of factors that couple splicing decisions with PKC signaling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;24;8431-41

  • Amplitude control of protein kinase C by RINCK, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Chen D, Gould C, Garza R, Gao T, Hampton RY and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology, Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0721, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes play a central role in cellular signaling. Levels of PKC control the amplitude of agonist-induced signaling and alterations in these levels are associated with disease states, most notably cancer, yet mechanisms that control the turnover of the protein are poorly understood. Here we identify an E3 ligase that catalyzes the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PKC. Specifically, we identified a RING finger domain-containing protein, RINCK (for RING-finger protein that interacts with C kinase) from a yeast two-hybrid screen using the amino terminus of PKCbeta as bait. RINCK encodes a protein of 581 amino acids that contains a RING finger domain, a B-box, and two coiled-coil regions, the three domains that form the signature motif of the large family of diverse TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using tsA201 cells reveal that RINCK and PKC associate with each other in cells. Studies using fragments of PKCbeta reveal that this interaction is mediated by the C1A domain of PKC. RINCK induces the ubiquitination of PKC both in vitro and in cells. Overexpression of RINCK reduces the levels of PKC in cells, whereas genetic knockdown of endogenous RINCK increases the levels of PKC. This increase was observed for all PKC isozymes examined (including conventional, novel, and atypical). The RINCK-mediated degradation of PKC occurs independently of the classic phorbol ester-mediated down-regulation: genetic depletion of RINCK had no effect on the phorbol ester-mediated down-regulation and, additionally, up-regulated the levels of isozymes that cannot bind phorbol esters. Our data reveal a novel mechanism that provides amplitude control in PKC signaling through ubiquitination catalyzed by RINCK, an E3 ligase that specifically recognizes the C1 domain of PKC isoforms.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK54441

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;46;33776-87

  • Protein kinase C-alpha-mediated regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein and urokinase increases astrocytoma invasion.

    Amos S, Mut M, diPierro CG, Carpenter JE, Xiao A, Kohutek ZA, Redpath GT, Zhao Y, Wang J, Shaffrey ME and Hussaini IM

    Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. sa7h@virginia.edu

    Aggressive and infiltrative invasion is one of the hallmarks of glioblastoma. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is expressed by glioblastoma, but the role of this receptor in astrocytic tumor invasion remains poorly understood. We show that activation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) phosphorylated and down-regulated LRP expression. Pretreatment of tumor cells with PKC inhibitors, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, PKC-alpha small interfering RNA (siRNA), and short hairpin RNA abrogated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced down-regulation of LRP and inhibited astrocytic tumor invasion in vitro. In xenograft glioblastoma mouse model and in vitro transmembrane invasion assay, LRP-deficient cells, which secreted high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), invaded extensively the surrounding normal brain tissue, whereas the LRP-overexpressing and uPA-deficient cells did not invade into the surrounding normal brain. siRNA, targeted against uPA in LRP-deficient clones, attenuated their invasive potential. Taken together, our results strongly suggest the involvement of PKC-alpha/PI3K signaling pathways in the regulation of LRP-mediated astrocytoma invasion. Thus, a strategy of combining small molecule inhibitors of PKC-alpha and PI3K could provide a new treatment paradigm for glioblastomas.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA090851, R01 CA090851; NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL048807, P01HL48807; NINDS NIH HHS: NS035122, R01 NS035122, R01 NS035122-10, R29 NS035122

    Cancer research 2007;67;21;10241-51

  • Direct binding and activation of protein kinase C isoforms by aldosterone and 17beta-estradiol.

    Alzamora R, Brown LR and Harvey BJ

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Education and Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 9063, Dublin 9, Ireland. ralzamora@rcsi.ie

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a signal transduction protein that has been proposed to mediate rapid responses to steroid hormones. Previously, we have shown aldosterone directly activates PKCalpha whereas 17beta-estradiol activates PKCalpha and PKCdelta; however, neither the binding to PKCs nor the mechanism of action has been established. To determine the domains of PKCalpha and PKCdelta involved in binding of aldosterone and 17beta-estradiol, glutathione S-transferase fusion recombinant PKCalpha and PKCdelta mutants were used to perform in vitro binding assays with [(3)H]aldosterone and [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. 17beta-Estradiol bound both PKCalpha and PKCdelta but failed to bind PKC mutants lacking a C2 domain. Similarly, aldosterone bound only PKCalpha and mutants containing C2 domains. Thus, the C2 domain is critical for binding of these hormones. Binding affinities for aldosterone and 17beta-estradiol were between 0.5-1.0 nM. Aldosterone and 17beta-estradiol competed for binding to PKCalpha, suggesting they share the same binding site. Phorbol 12,13-dybutyrate did not compete with hormone binding; furthermore, they have an additive effect on PKC activity. EC(50) for activation of PKCalpha and PKCdelta by aldosterone and 17beta-estradiol was approximately 0.5 nM. Immunoblot analysis using a phospho-PKC antibody revealed that upon binding, PKCalpha and PKCdelta undergo autophosphorylation with an EC(50) in the 0.5-1.0 nm range. 17beta-Estradiol activated PKCalpha and PKCdelta in estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and HCC-38, respectively), suggesting estrogen receptor expression is not required for 17beta-estradiol-induced PKC activation. The present results provide first evidence for direct binding and activation of PKCalpha and PKCdelta by steroid hormones and the molecular mechanisms involved.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 06089/Z/00/Z, 06379/Z/01/Z

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2007;21;11;2637-50

  • Increased steady-state levels of CUGBP1 in myotonic dystrophy 1 are due to PKC-mediated hyperphosphorylation.

    Kuyumcu-Martinez NM, Wang GS and Cooper TA

    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a CTG expansion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of DMPK. The pathogenic mechanism involves an RNA gain of function in which the repeat-containing transcripts accumulate in nuclei and alter the functions of RNA-binding proteins such as CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). CUGBP1 levels are increased in DM1 myoblasts, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues and in some DM1 mouse models. However, the molecular mechanisms for increased CUGBP1 in DM1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that expression of DMPK-CUG-repeat RNA results in hyperphosphorylation and stabilization of CUGBP1. CUGBP1 is hyperphosphorylated in DM1 tissues, cells, and a DM1 mouse model. Activation of PKC is required for CUGBP1 hyperphosphorylation in DM1 cells, and PKCalpha and betaII directly phosphorylate CUGBP1 in vitro. These results indicate that inappropriate activation of the PKC pathway contributes to the pathogenic effects of a noncoding RNA.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL045565, R01 HL045565-17, R01HL45565; NIAMS NIH HHS: 1F32AR052630-01, F32 AR052630, R01 AR045653, R01 AR045653-09, R01AR45653

    Molecular cell 2007;28;1;68-78

  • The essentiality of PKCalpha and PKCbetaI translocation for CD14+monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and dendritic cells, respectively.

    Lin YF, Lee HM, Leu SJ and Tsai YH

    Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Human peripheral CD14(+)monocytes have been known to differentiate into monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) or dendritic cells (MoDCs) upon suitable stimulation. However, the key intracellular molecule(s) associated with their differentiation towards specific cell types was(were) not fully understood. This study was designated to determine the association of PKC isoenzymes with the differentiation of CD14(+)monocytes into MDMs or MoDCs. Purified human peripheral CD14(+)monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF, or GM-CSF plus IL-4 for 7 days to induce cell differentiation. The phenotypic changes were analyzed by Flow-Cytometry using various specific antibodies to cell type-specific surface markers. The immunological functions of these differentiated cells were determined by measuring the amounts of TNF-alpha secretion for MDMs, and the capacities of antigen-capturing and bacterial phagocytosis for MoDCs. The translocations of PKC isoenzymes in these cells from cytosol to plasma membrane were examined by Western Blot analysis and Confocal Microscopic observation. The treatment of CD14(+)monocytes with either GM-CSF or PMA elicited PKCalpha translocation and consequently induced their differentiation into MDMs. The inclusion of PKCalpha/beta(I) specific inhibitor, Go6976, greatly inhibited the GM-CSF-induced PKCalpha translocation and dose-dependently reduced the GM-CSF- induced MDM differentiation. On the other hand, the simultaneous pretreatment of CD14(+)monocytes with Go6976 and PKCbeta-specific inhibitor predominantly suppressed the GM-CSF/IL-4-induced generation of MoDCs. Further study demonstrated that GM-CSF/IL-4 selectively induced the translocation of PKCbeta(I), not PKCalpha or PKCbeta(II), in CD14(+)monocytes. In conclusion, the cell fate commitment of CD14(+)monocytes towards MDMs or MoDCs appears to be steered by the selective activation of PKCalpha or PKCbeta(I), respectively.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2007;102;2;429-41

  • Angiotensin II directly triggers endothelial exocytosis via protein kinase C-dependent protein kinase D2 activation.

    Ge X, Low B, Liang M and Fu J

    Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas 75708, USA.

    Angiotensin II (AII) has been reported to induce leukocyte adhesion to endothelium through up-regulation of P-selectin surface expression. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unknown. P-selectin is stored in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), large secretory granules, in endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the role of protein kinase D (PKD), a newly identified regulator of protein transport, in AII-induced WPB exocytosis and the resultant P-selectin surface expression. We demonstrated that PKD2 was rapidly activated by AII in endothelial cells through phosphorylation of the activation loop at Ser744/748. AII-induced PKD2 activation correlated with increased P-selectin surface expression. Furthermore, AII-regulated PKD2 activation is protein kinase C (PKC) alpha-dependent. Importantly, knock-down of either PKD2 or PKCalpha expression inhibited AII-mediated P-selectin surface expression and monocyte adhesion. Our findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of P-selectin surface expression via PKCalpha-dependent PKD2 activation could be an important mechanism in the early onset of AII-initiated endothelial adhesiveness.

    Journal of 163e pharmacological sciences 2007;105;2;168-76

  • In vitro evidence of the role of hemoglobin during vasospasm on the modifications of the expression of PKCalpha and zeta.

    Lefranc F, Lubicz B and Dewitte O

    Department of Neurosurgery, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. fllefran@ulb.ac.be

    The cellular events leading to cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly understood, although the family of protein kinase C (PKC) is already known to play crucial roles in this pathology. Hemoglobin (Hb) is one of the major causes of the cerebral vasospasm that follows SAH. In the present study we investigated whether Hb can in vitro regulate PKC expression in endothelial as opposed to smooth-muscle cells. The levels of expression of PKCalpha and PKCzeta were quantitatively determined by means of computer-assisted fluorescence microscopy in the A7r5 smooth-muscle rat cells and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hb significantly modified both calcium-dependent PKCalpha and calcium-independent PKCzeta expression in HUVECs and A7r5 smooth-muscle rat cells. Our data showed that, in vitro, Hb promptly and markedly modified the levels of expression of both calcium-dependent PKCalpha and calcium-independent PKCzeta. We are currently investigating the effects of specific PKC antagonists associated or not with calcium channel blockers on the expression of PKC and the in vivo severity of SAH-induced vasospasm. Our results encourage the prophylactic use of specific PKC isoform antagonists associated with calcium channel blockers early after SAH to prevent cerebral vasospasm.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2007;20;4;415-9

  • Protein Kinase C alpha is a marker for antiestrogen resistance and is involved in the growth of tamoxifen resistant human breast cancer cells.

    Frankel LB, Lykkesfeldt AE, Hansen JB and Stenvang J

    Department of Tumor Endocrinology, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Development of resistance to antiestrogen treatment in breast cancer patients is a serious therapeutic problem. The molecular mechanisms contributing to resistance are currently unclear; however it is known that increased activation of growth signaling pathways is involved. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) is associated with a diverse range of cancers and is previously shown to be overexpressed in three out of four antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell lines. In this study we investigated whether PKCalpha contributes to antiestrogen resistant growth. A panel of nine resistant cell lines was investigated, all of which displayed elevated levels of PKCalpha expression relative to parental MCF-7 cells. Stable PKCalpha overexpression in MCF-7 cells significantly reduced sensitivity to the antiestrogens, tamoxifen and ICI 182,780. Two resistant cell lines were chosen for further studies: tamoxifen resistant MCF-7/TAM(R)-1 (TAM(R)-1) and ICI 182,780 resistant MCF-7/182(R)-6 (182(R)-6). Treatment with the PKCalpha inhibitor Ro-32-0432 resulted in a preferential growth inhibition of these two cell lines relative to MCF-7 cells. Moreover, transient down-regulation of PKCalpha resulted in a 30-40% growth inhibition of TAM(R)-1 and 182(R)-6, while MCF-7 remained unaffected. Stable PKCalpha knock-down in TAM(R)-1 using small hairpin RNA, resulted in a tamoxifen sensitive "MCF-7-like" growth phenotype, while the same approach in 182(R)-6 cells did not alter their sensitivity to ICI 182,780. These results demonstrate a functional contribution of PKCalpha to tamoxifen resistant growth. Furthermore, our data suggest the potential for PKCalpha as a marker for antiestrogen resistance and as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of tamoxifen resistant breast cancer.

    Breast cancer research and treatment 2007;104;2;165-79

  • Protein kinase C alpha modulates microvascular reactivity in the human coronary and skeletal microcirculation.

    Sodha NR, Feng J, Clements RT, Bianchi C, Boodhwani M, Ramlawi B, Mieno S, Khabbaz KR and Sellk 1948 e FW

    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA.

    Background: Cardioplegic arrest (CP) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can lead to dysfunction in the coronary and skeletal microcirculation leading to impaired tissue perfusion. alpha-Adrenergic signaling pathways acting on these microcirculatory beds are thought to involve protein kinase C (PKC). We investigate here the role of the conventional PKCs in microvascular function in the setting of CP/CPB.

    Methods: Atrial and skeletal muscle was harvested from 30 patients undergoing cardiac surgery before and after CP/CPB. Microvessels were used for Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining against conventional PKCs. Microvascular constriction was assessed in pre- and post-CP/CPB samples in response to alpha-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine, with and without a PKC-alpha inhibitor or PKC-alpha activator. PKC activity was assessed in isolated microvessels.

    Results: Western blotting and immunostaining demonstrated only PKC-alpha in coronary and skeletal microvessels. CP/CPB diminished contractile responses to phenylephrine in coronary and skeletal samples. Inhibition of PKC-alpha reduced phenylephrine induced vasoconstriction in coronary and skeletal microvessels, whereas activation of PKC-alpha-augmented phenylephrine induced responses. PKC activity was decreased in coronary microvessels and to an even greater degree in skeletal microvessels after CP/CPB.

    Conclusions: PKC-alpha is the predominant conventional PKC present in the human coronary and skeletal microcirculation. It likely plays a key role in alpha-adrenergic signaling in microvessels and in the vasomotor dysfunction after CP/CPB.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL46716, T-32HL076130-02

    Surgery 2007;142;2;243-52

  • Differential phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by ERK and PKCalpha helps balance cell proliferation and migration.

    Makagiansar IT, Williams S, Mustelin T and Stallcup WB

    Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. irwan.makagiansar@emdbiosciences.com

    Two distinct Thr phosphorylation events within the cytoplasmic domain of the NG2 proteoglycan help regulate the cellular balance between proliferation and motility. Protein kinase Calpha mediates the phosphorylation of NG2 at Thr2256, resulting in enhanced cell motility. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylates NG2 at Thr2314, stimulating cell proliferation. The effects of NG2 phosphorylation on proliferation and motility are dependent on beta1-integrin activation. Differential cell surface localization of the two distinctly phosphorylated forms of NG2 may be the mechanism by which the NG2-beta1-integrin interaction promotes proliferation in one case and motility in the other. NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2314 colocalizes with beta1-integrin on microprotrusions from the apical cell surface. In contrast, NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2256 colocalizes with beta1-integrin on lamellipodia at the leading edges of cells. Thus, phosphorylation and the resulting site of NG2-integrin localization may determine the specific downstream effects of integrin signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA095287, R01 CA95287; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI035603, R01 AI053585, R01 AI055741, R01 AI35603, R01 AI53585, R01 AI55741; NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD025938, R01 HD25938

    The Journal of cell biology 2007;178;1;155-65

  • Insulin-like growth factor-I induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via PI3K, MAPK and PKC signaling pathways in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Cao Z, Liu LZ, Dixon DA, Zheng JZ, Chandran B and Jiang BH

    Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300, USA.

    Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with ovarian carcinogenesis and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I contributes to ovarian cancer development remain to be elucidated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a crucial player in the pathogenesis of human malignancies. Herein we showed that IGF-I efficiently induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2) biosynthesis at physiologically relevant concentrations in human ovarian cancer cells. IGF-I treatment significantly increased COX-2 transcriptional activation. IGF-I also stabilized COX-2 mRNA through the COX-2 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), which appeared independent of the conserved AU-rich elements. We next investigated the signaling pathways involved in IGF-I-induced COX-2 expression. We found that PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or LY294002 blocked COX-2 expression induced by IGF-I. Wortmannin treatment or a dominant negative PI3K mutant significantly inhibited IGF-I-induced COX-2 mRNA stabilization, but only slightly decreased COX-2 transcriptional activation. We showed that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs were required for IGF-I-induced COX-2 expression and that activation of both pathways by IGF-I increased COX-2 transcriptional activation and its mRNA stability. IGF-I stimulated PKC activation in the cells and pretreatment with PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide prevented IGF-I-induced COX-2 transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization, and inhibited COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IGF-I induces COX-2 expression in human ovarian cancer cells, which is mediated by three parallel signaling cascades--PI3K, MAPK, and PKC pathways that differentially regulate COX-2 expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 099925, CA 109460, CA 123675, CA 75911, R01 CA075911, R01 CA099925, R01 CA109460, R01 CA109460-02, R03 CA123675, R03 CA123675-02; NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR016440, P20 RR016440-050001

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;7;1542-53

  • Overexpression of protein kinase C alpha mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a potential marker of disease prognosis.

    Wu TT, Hsieh YH, Wu CC, Hsieh YS, Huang CY and Liu JY

    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Medical College, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Background: Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzyme family play a central role in the tumorigenesis of several tissues. However, little is known about subtype specific intracellular expression of PKC in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Methods: We investigated PKC isoforms mRNA expression in 42 HCC specimens using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the correlation between PKC isoforms expression and clinicopathologic parameters.

    Results: We found that PKCalpha, PKCdelta and PKCiota mRNA were significantly increased in HCCs as compared to the corresponding non-cancerous liver tissues. PKCalpha expression also significantly correlated with tumor size (P<0.05) and TNM stage (P<0.05), but PKCdelta and PKCiota did not. The log-rank analysis revealed that patients with higher PKCalpha mRNA expression in the HCC tissues had significantly shorter survival rate than patients with lower PKCalpha mRNA expression (P<0.01).

    Conclusions: Our results suggested that the PKCalpha may be a prognostic factor for the survival of patients with HCC.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2007;382;1-2;54-8

  • STAT3 and PKC differentially regulate telomerase activity during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells.

    Nakatake M, Kakiuchi Y, Sasaki N, Murakami-Murofushi K and Yamada O

    Humanities and Sciences School, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.

    Telomerase is active in immature somatic cells, but not in differentiated cells. However, the regulation during cell differentiation is not well understood. In this study, a human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562) was induced to differentiate into megakaryocytes by TPA, and erythroid by STI571. A human acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line (HL60) was also induced to differentiate into monocytes by TPA and VD3, and granulocyte by ATRA. TPA induced transient increase of telomerase activity (mainly nuclear fraction) during megakaryocytic differentiation, while the expression of hTERT decreased gradually throughout the same period. Pretreatment with PKC inhibitors inhibited the megakaryocytic differentiation, transient increase of telomerase activity, while recombinant PKC increased telomerase activity. ChIP assay resulted STAT3 and STAT5 dissociated from the hTERT promoter, indicating that STAT3 and STAT5 are one of the transcriptional regulators. These results suggest that telomerase activity is regulated by two mechanisms during megakaryocytic differentiation.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2007;6;12;1496-501

  • Protein kinase Calpha determines HER2 fate in breast carcinoma cells with HER2 protein overexpression without gene amplification.

    Magnifico A, Albano L, Campaner S, Campiglio M, Pilotti S, Ménard S and Tagliabue E

    Molecular Targeting Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Foundation IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

    In some HER2-positive breast tumors, cell surface overexpression of HER2 is not associated with gene amplification but may instead rest in altered gene transcription, half-life, or recycling of the oncoprotein. Here, we show that HER2 overexpression in HER2 2+ carcinomas is associated with neither an increase in gene transcription nor a deregulation in the ubiquitin-dependent pathways, but instead seems to be regulated by protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) activity. The stimulation of PKCalpha up-regulated HER2 expression, whereas PKCalpha inhibition by pharmacologic treatments and PKCalpha-specific small interfering RNA led to a dramatic down-regulation of HER2 levels only in breast cancer cells HER2 2+. Consistent with the in vitro data, our biochemical analysis of HER2 2+ human primary breast specimens revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated PKCalpha compared with HER2-negative tumors. Inhibition of HER2 activation by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib led to decreased levels of PKCalpha phosphorylation, clearly indicating a cross-talk between PKCalpha and HER2 molecules. These data suggest that HER2 overexpression in HER2 2+ carcinomas is due to an accumulation of the recycled oncoprotein to the cell surface induced by activated PKCalpha.

    Cancer research 2007;67;11;5308-17

  • A PKC-Sp1 signaling pathway induces early differentiation of human keratinocytes through upregulation of TSG101.

    You HL, Eng HL, Hsu SF, Chen CM, Ye TC, Liao WT, Huang MY, Baer R and Cheng JT

    Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien Hai Road, and Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80833, Republic of China.

    The TSG101 protein has been implicated in multiple biological functions including regulation of gene transcription, vesicular trafficking, cellular growth and differentiation. However, the cellular signals that control TSG101 functions are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TSG101 is upregulated during keratinocyte differentiation in both human foreskin tissue and reconstructed organotypic skin cultures. In addition, we found that TSG101 siRNA inhibits calcium-induced early differentiation of human foreskin keratinocytes, indicating an essential and downstream role for TSG101 in this process. Furthermore, the PKC agonist TPA promotes expression of TSG101 and keratin 10 in keratinocytes under low calcium conditions, while co-treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X blocks TPA-induced TSG101 and keratin 10 upregulation. Previous work has established that the TSG101 gene is controlled by a TATA-less promoter that harbors a Sp1-binding site. Here we show that both calcium and TPA activate PKC, stimulate phosphorylation of Sp1, and augment the activity of the TSG101 promoter in a manner dependent on its Sp1-binding site. Release of calcium from intracellular stores with thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor that elevates intracellular free Ca2+ without activating PKC, does not affect Sp1 phosphorylation and TSG101 promoter activity. Taken together, these data suggest that an intracellular calcium store independent PKC-Sp1 signaling pathway induces early keratinocyte differentiation through upregulation of TSG101.

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;6;1201-11

  • Protein kinase Calpha mediates feedback inhibition of EGF receptor transactivation induced by Gq-coupled receptor agonists.

    Santiskulvong C and Rozengurt E

    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1786, United States.

    While a great deal of attention has been focused on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation, it has been known for many years that the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR is inhibited in cells treated with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, a process termed EGFR transmodulation. Because many GPCR agonists that elicit EGFR transactivation also stimulate the Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, we hypothesized that PKC-mediated inhibition of EGFR transactivation operates physiologically as a feedback loop that regulates the intensity and/or duration of GPCR-elicited EGFR transactivation. In support of this hypothesis, we found that treatment of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells with the PKC inhibitors GF 109203X or Ro 31-8220 or chronic exposure of these cells to phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) to downregulate PKCs, markedly enhanced the increase in EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation induced by angiotensin II or vasopressin in these cells. Similarly, PKC inhibition enhanced EGFR transactivation in human colonic epithelial T84 cells stimulated with carbachol, as well as in bombesin-stimulated Rat-1 fibroblasts stably transfected with the bombesin receptor. Furthermore, cell treatment with inhibitors with greater spec 1f40 ificity towards PKCalpha, including Gö6976, Ro 31-7549 or Ro 32-0432, also increased GPCR-induced EGFR transactivation in IEC-18, T84 and Rat-1 cells. Transfection of siRNAs targeting PKCalpha also enhanced bombesin-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation in Rat-1 cells. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis that conventional PKC isoforms, especially PKCalpha, mediate feedback inhibition of GPCR-induced EGFR transactivation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK41301, R0-1 DK 55003, R0-1 DK 56930

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;6;1348-57

  • The role of PKC and PDK1 in monocyte lineage specification by Ras.

    Pearn L, Fisher J, Burnett AK and Darley RL

    Department of Haematology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

    Although hyperactivation of Ras is a common feature of myeloid malignancy, its role in subverting hematopoiesis is unclear. We have examined the influence of Ras on normal human uncommitted myeloid subsets and show that expression of this oncogene strongly favors monocyte lineage selection in bipotential granulocyte/macrophage progenitors while inhibiting colony formation in other uncommitted subsets. Ras also promoted monocytic differentiation but not the proliferation of these cells. The mechanism through which Ras drives monocyte lineage selection was dependent on PKC activity and Ras was found to promote the expression, membrane translocation, and phosphorylation of conventional and novel PKC isoforms. We further show that Ras promoted the expression of the AGC kinase master regulator, PDK1, which maintains the stability and activity of PKC isoforms. Consistent with this, overexpression of PDK1 itself promoted monocyte colony formation and translocation of PKC. Overexpression of PDK1 was found to be a common feature of acute myeloid leukemia (45% of patients) and was closely associated with hyperphosphorylation of PKC. These data demonstrate that Ras is able to promote monocyte lineage selection via PKC and show for the first time the involvement of the kinase master regulator, PDK1, in both lineage specification and in human leukemia.

    Blood 2007;109;10;4461-9

  • Proliferation of human breast cancer cells and anti-cancer action of doxorubicin and vinblastine are independent of PKC-alpha.

    Liu DS, Krebs CE and Liu SJ

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been considered for a potential target of anticancer chemotherapy. PKC-alpha has been associated with growth and metastasis of some cancer cells. However, the role of PKC-alpha in human breast cancer cell proliferation and anticancer chemotherapy remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether alterations of PKC-alpha by phorbol esters and PKC inhibitors could affect proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents. Exposure for 24 h to doxorubicin (DOX) and vinblastine (VIN) caused a concentration-dependent reduction in proliferation of MCF-7 cells. However, these two anticancer drugs altered cellular morphology and growth pattern in distinct manners. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 100 nM), which enhanced activities of PKC-alpha, increased cancer cell proliferation and attenuated VIN (1 microM)-induced cytotoxicity. These effects were not affected in the presence of 10 nM staurosporine. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 100 nM) that completely depleted PKC-alpha also enhanced cancer cell proliferation and attenuated VIN-induced cytotoxicity. Three potent PKC inhibitors, staurosporine (10 nM), chelerythrine (5 microM) and bisindolylmaleimide-I (100 nM), had no significant effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation; staurosporine and chelerythrine, but not bisindolylmaleimide-I, attenuated VIN-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, neither phorbol esters nor PKC inhibitors had an effect on cytotoxic effects of DOX (1 microM) on MCF-7 cell proliferation. Thus, these data suggest that MCF-7 cell proliferation or the anti-cancer action of DOX and VIN on breast cancer cells is independent of PKC-alpha.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2007;101;2;517-28

  • Prote 1f40 in kinase Calpha is differentially activated during neonatal and adult erythropoiesis and favors expression of a reporter gene under the control of the (A)gamma globin-promoter in cellular models of hemoglobin switching.

    Di Baldassarre A, Di Rico M, Di Noia A, Bonfini T, Iacone A, Marchisio M, Miscia S, Alfani E, Migliaccio AR, Stamatoyannopoulos G and Migliaccio G

    Department of Biomorphology, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

    PKCalpha was found to be expressed (mRNA and protein) throughout the in vitro maturation of primary human erythroblasts but its activity (phosphorylation levels and nuclear localization) was consistently higher in cells derived from human neonatal rather than adult blood. Since the gamma/gamma + beta globin expression ratio represented the major difference between neonatal and adult erythroblasts (58 +/- 12 vs. 7 +/- 3, respectively), we tested the hypothesis that PKCalpha might affect gamma-globin expression by measuring the levels of (A)gamma- or beta-promoter-driven reporter activity in erythroid cells stably (GM979) or transiently (K562, primary adult and neonatal erythroblasts) transfected with a dual microLCRbetaprRluc(A)gammaprFluc reporter in the presence of transient expression of either the constitutively active (sPKCalpha) or catalytically inactive (iPKCalpha) PKCalpha. As further control, GM979 cells were incubated with the PKC inhibitor rottlerin (30 microM). In all the cells analyzed, sPKCalpha significantly increased (by two- to sixfold) the levels of luciferase activity driven by the (A)gamma-promoter and the (A)gamma-F/((A)gamma-F + 2beta-R) expression ratio. In GM979 cells, rottlerin inhibited (by 50%) the (A)gamma-driven luciferase activity and the (A)gamma-F/((A)gamma-F + 2beta-R) expression ratio. These results suggest that different PKC isoforms may exert ontogenetic-specific functions in erythropoiesis and that modulation of PKCalpha might affect the activity of (A)gamma-promoter-driven reporters.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2007;101;2;411-24

  • Galphaq-TRPC6-mediated Ca2+ entry induces RhoA activation and resultant endothelial cell shape change in response to thrombin.

    Singh I, Knezevic N, Ahmmed GU, Kini V, Malik AB and Mehta D

    Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    RhoA activation and increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration mediated by the activation of transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) both contribute to the thrombin-induced increase in endothelial cell contraction, cell shape change, and consequently to the mechanism of increased endothelial permeability. Herein, we addressed the possibility that TRPC signals RhoA activation and thereby contributes in actinomyosin-mediated endothelial cell contraction and increased endothelial permeability. Transduction of a constitutively active Galphaq mutant in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells induced RhoA activity. Preventing the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration by the inhibitor of Galphaq or phospholipase C and the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, abrogated thrombin-induced RhoA activation. Depletion of extracellular Ca2+ also inhibited RhoA activation, indicating the requirement of Ca2+ entry in the response. RhoA activation could not be ascribed to storeoperated Ca2+ (SOC) entry because SOC entry induced with thapsigargin or small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of TRPC1 expression, the predominant SOC channel in these endothelial cells, failed to alter RhoA activity. However, activation of receptor-operated Ca2+ entry by oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, the membrane permeable analogue of the Galphaq-phospholipase C product diacylglycerol, induced RhoA activity. Receptor-operated Ca2+ activation was mediated by TRPC6 because small interfering RNA-induced TRPC6 knockdown significantly reduced Ca2+ entry. TRPC6 knockdown also prevented RhoA activation, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and actin stress fiber formation as well as inter-endothelial junctional gap formation in response to either oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol or thrombin. TRPC6-mediated RhoA activity was shown to be dependent on PKCalpha activation. Our results demonstrate that Galphaq activation of TRPC6 signals the activation of PKCalpha, and thereby induces RhoA activity and endothelial cell contraction.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 45638, R01 HL071794, R01 HL084153; PHS HHS: 084153, 71794

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;11;7833-43

  • Coronin 1B coordinates Arp2/3 complex and cofilin activities at the leading edge.

    Cai L, Marshall TW, Uetrecht AC, Schafer DA and Bear JE

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Actin filament formation and turnover within the treadmilling actin filament array at the leading edge of migrating cells are interdependent and coupled, but the mechanisms coordinating these two activities are not understood. We report that Coronin 1B interacts simultaneously with Arp2/3 complex and Slingshot (SSH1L) phosphatase, two regulators of actin filament formation and turnover, respectively. Coronin 1B inhibits filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and this inhibition is attenuated by phosphorylation of Coronin 1B at Serine 2, a site targeted by SSH1L. Coronin 1B also directs SSH1L to lamellipodia where SSH1L likely regulates Cofilin activity via dephosphorylation. Accordingly, depleting Coronin 1B increases phospho-Cofilin levels, and alters lamellipodial dynamics and actin filament architecture at the leading edge. We conclude that Coronin 1B's coordination of filament formation by Arp2/3 complex and filament turnover by Cofilin is required for effective lamellipodial protrusion and cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54 CA 119343, CA 16086, P30 CA016086; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 067222, R01 GM067222, R01 GM083035, R01 GM083035-01

    Cell 2007;128;5;915-29

  • Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wissing J, Jänsch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Kéri G, Wehland J and Daub H

    Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. However, due to their relatively low abundance compared with the vast majority of cellular proteins, currently available proteomics techniques do not permit the comprehensive biochemical characterization of protein kinases. To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;3;537-47

  • Selective roles for alpha-PKC in positive signaling for O-(2) generation and calcium mobilization but not elastase release in differentiated HL60 cells.

    Korchak HM, Dorsey LB, Li H, Mackie D and Kilpatrick LE

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Joseph Stokes Jr. Research Institute of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. korchak@email.chop.edu

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes and Ca2+ mobilization have been implicated in phagocytic cell functions such as O(-)(2) generation. Ca/DG-dependent alpha-PKC and beta-PKC have similar substrate specificities and cofactor requirements in vitro. However it is not known if these isotypes play redundant or unique roles in the intact cell. In the present study, a role for alpha-PKC in positive signaling for fMet-Leu-Phe- and PMA-activated O(-)(2) generation was probed using an siRNA strategy in HL60 cells differentiated to a neutrophilic phenotype (dHL60 cells). A selective decrease in alpha-PKC in dHL60 cells attenuated O(-)(2) generation but not degranulation, and reduced ligand-induced phosphorylation of p47phox as previously shown for beta-PKC. However alpha-PKC, unlike beta-PKC, was a positive regulator of fMet-Leu-Phe-triggered Ca2+ uptake via SOCC (Store Operated Calcium Channels). The ability of a selective SOCC inhibitor, MRS1845, to decrease fMet-Leu-Phe induced Ca2+ uptake and O(-)(2) generation confirmed that Ca2+ uptake via SOCC was required for O(-)(2) generation. These results indicate that alpha-PKC and beta-PKC are required for optimal O(-)(2) generation, but play different roles in Ca2+ signaling for phagocytic responses such as O(-)(2) generation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 24840, R01 AI024840-18; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM64552

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2007;1773;3;440-9

  • PMA-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 is regulated by a PKCalpha-NF-kappaB cascade in human lung epithelial cells.

    Shin Y, Yoon SH, Choe EY, Cho SH, Woo CH, Rho JY and Kim JH

    School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea.

    Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is associated with airway remodeling and tissue injury in asthma. However, little is known about how MMP-9 is up-regulated in airway epithelial cells. In this study, we show that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induces MMP-9 expression via a protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-dependent signaling cascade in BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. Pretreatment with either GF109203X, a general PKC inhibitor, or Go6976, a PKCalpha/beta isozyme inhibitor, inhibited PMA-induced activation of the MMP-9 promoter, as did transient transfection with PKCalpha antisense oligonuclotides. PMA activated NF-kappaB by phosphorylating IkappaB in these cells and this was also inhibited by GF109203X and Go6976, suggesting that PKCa acts as an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB in PMA-induced MMP-9 induction. Our results indicate that a "PKCalpha-NF- kappaB"-dependent cascade is involved in the signaling leading to PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in the lung epithelium.

    Experimental & molecular medicine 2007;39;1;97-105

  • Differential activation of the PI 3-kinase effectors AKT/PKB and p70 S6 kinase by compound 48/80 is mediated by PKCalpha.

    Byrne RD, Rosivatz E, Parsons M, Larijani B, Parker PJ, Ng T and Woscholski R

    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. richard.byrne@cancer.org.uk

    The secretagogue compound 48/80 (c48/80) is a well known activator of calcium mediated processes and PKCs, and is a potent inducer of mast cell degranulation. As the latter process is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) mediated event, we wished to address whether or not c48/80 was an activator of PI 3-kinases. The data presented here reveal that c48/80 is an effective activator of PI 3-kinases as judged by the increased phosphorylation of PKB and p70(S6K) in fibroblasts in a PI 3-kinase dependent fashion. Compound 48/80 effectively translocates PKB to the plasma membrane and induces phosphorylation at serine 473 (S473), detected by fluorescence imaging of fixed cells. At higher concentrations the secretagogue is inhibitory towards PKB phosphorylation on S473. Conversely, p70(S6K) phosphorylation on T389 is unaffected at high doses. We provide evidence that the differential effect on the two PI 3-kinase effectors is due to activation of PKCalpha by c48/80, itself a PI 3-kinase dependent process. We conclude that compound 48/80 is an effective activator of PI 3-kinase dependent pathways, leading to the activation of effectors including PKB/Akt, p70(S6K) and PKCalpha. The latter is only activated by higher doses of c48/80 resulting in an inhibition of the c48/80 induced PKB phosphorylation, thus explaining the observed biphasic activation profile for PKB in response to this secretagogue.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000138

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;2;321-9

  • PKCalpha regulates phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of cPLA2 in vitro and in activated human monocytes.

    Li Q, Subbulakshmi V, Oldfield CM, Aamir R, Weyman CM, Wolfman A and Cathcart MK

    Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are potent regulators of the inflammatory response. We have observed that Group IV cPLA(2) activity is required for the production of superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) in human monocytes [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4) (1997) 2404-2411.]. We have previously identified PKCalpha as a kinase pathway required for monocyte O(2)(-) production [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (26) (1994) 17508-17515.]. We therefore investigated the potential interaction between PKCalpha and cPLA(2) by evaluating the requirement for specific PKC isoenzymes in the process of activating cPLA(2) enzymatic activity and protein phosphorylation upon monocyte activation. We first showed that general PKC inhibitors and antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) to the cPKC group of PKC enzymes inhibited cPLA(2) activity. To distinguish between PKCalpha and PKCbeta isoenzymes in regulating cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, we employed our previously characterized PKCalpha or PKCbeta isoenzyme-specific antisense ODN [Li Q., Subbulakshmi V., Fields A.P., Murray, N.R., Cathcart M.K., J. Biol. Chem. 274 (6) (1999) 3764-3771]. Suppression of PKCalpha expression, but not PKCbeta expression, inhibited cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. Additional studies ruled out a contribution by Erk1/2 to cPLA(2) phosphorylation and activation. We also found that cPLA(2) co-immunoprecipitated with PKCalpha and vice versa. In vitro studies demonstrated that PKCalpha could directly phosphorylate cPLA(2).and enhance enzymatic activity. Finally, we showed that addition of arachidonic acid restored the production of O(2)(-) in monocytes defective in either PKCalpha or cPLA(2) expression. Taken together, our data suggest that PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, is the predominant cPKC isoenzyme required for cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and maximal induction of cPLA(2) enzymatic activity upon activation of human monocytes. Our data also support the concept that the requirements for PKCalpha and cPLA(2) in O(2)(-) generation are solely due to their seminal role in generating arachidonic acid.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 018390; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 51068, HL 61971

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;2;359-66

  • aPKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates asymmetric membrane localization of the cell fate determinant Numb.

    Smith CA, Lau KM, Rahmani Z, Dho SE, Brothers G, She YM, Berry DM, Bonneil E, Thibault P, Schweisguth F, Le Borgne R and McGlade CJ

    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    In Drosophila, the partition defective (Par) complex containing Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) directs the polarized distribution and unequal segregation of the cell fate determinant Numb during asymmetric cell divisions. Unequal segregation of mammalian Numb has also been observed, but the factors involved are unknown. Here, we identify in vivo phosphorylation sites of mammalian Numb and show that both mammalian and Drosophila Numb interact with, and are substrates for aPKC in vitro. A form of mammalian Numb lacking two protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites (Numb2A) accumulates at the cell membrane and is refractory to PKC activation. In epithelial cells, mammalian Numb localizes to the basolateral membrane and is excluded from the apical domain, which accumulates aPKC. In contrast, Numb2A is distributed uniformly around the cell cortex. Mutational analysis of conserved aPKC phosphorylation sites in Drosophila Numb suggests that phosphorylation contributes to asymmetric localization of Numb, opposite to aPKC in dividing sensory organ precursor cells. These results suggest a model in which phosphorylation of Numb by aPKC regulates its polarized distribution in epithelial cells as well as during asymmetric cell divisions.

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;2;468-80

  • Protein kinase C-alpha antagonizes apoptosis induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors in multidrug resistant leukaemia cells.

    Castro-Galache MD, Menéndez-Gutiérrez MP, Carrasco Garcia E, Garcia-Morales P, Martinez-Lacaci I, Saceda M and Ferragut JA

    Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 03202 Elche, Alicante, Spain.

    Previous studies have documented that while several drug-resistant cells enter apoptosis upon treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (iHDACs), their drug-sensitive counterparts do not. In the present study, we have investigated at the molecular level why parental drug-sensitive tumor cells do not respond to Trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, two iHDACs that promote apoptosis in drug-resistant leukaemia cells. Taking murine leukaemia L1210 cells as a model, we have determined that: (i) PKC-alpha expression is more elevated in parental L1210 than in drug-resistant L1210/R cells, (ii) activation of PKC neutralizes iHDACs-mediated apoptosis in L1210/R cells, (iii) depletion of PKC in parental L1210 cells results in a positive response to iHDACs-mediated apoptosis, and (iv) transfection of a mutant constitutively active PKC-alpha form in L1210/R cells makes the cells refractory to apoptosis induction by iHDACs. These results allow us to conclude that activation/high expression of PKC-alpha protects parental drug-sensitive L1210 cells from iHDACs-mediated apoptosis. Thus, determination of PKC-alpha levels/activity in leukaemia seems to be relevant when choosing efficient chemotherapy protocols based on the use of apoptosis-inducing anticancer drugs.

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2007;39;10;1877-85

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Inositol hexaphosphate represses telomerase activity and translocates TERT from the nucleus in mouse and human prostate cancer cells via the deactivation of Akt and PKCalpha.

    Jagadeesh S and Banerjee PP

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3900 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has anti-proliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells, including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of anti-proliferative effects of IP6 is not entirely understood. Since the activation of telomerase is crucial for cells to gain immortality and proliferation ability, we examined the role of IP6 in the regulation of telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that IP6 represses telomerase activity in mouse and human prostate cancer cells dose-dependently. In addition, IP6 prevents the translocation of TERT to the nucleus. Since phosphorylation of TERT by Akt and/or PKCalpha is necessary for nuclear translocation, we examined phosphorylation of Akt and PKCalpha after IP6 treatments. Our results show that IP6 inhibits phosphorylation of Akt and PKCalpha. These results show for the first time that IP6 represses telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells by posttranslational modification of TERT via the deactivation of Akt and PKCalpha.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;349;4;1361-7

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • CXCR2 ligands and G-CSF mediate PKCalpha-induced intraepidermal inflammation.

    Cataisson C, Pearson AJ, Tsien MZ, Mascia F, Gao JL, Pastore S and Yuspa SH

    Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4255, USA.

    Transgenic mice overexpressing PKCalpha in the epidermis (K5-PKCalpha mice) exhibit an inducible severe intraepidermal neutrophilic inflammation and systemic neutrophilia when PKCalpha is activated by topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This inducible model of cutaneous inflammation was used to define mediators of skin inflammation that may have clinical relevance. Activation of cutaneous PKCalpha increased the production of the chemotactic factors cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in murine plasma. TPA treatment of cultured K5-PKCalpha keratinocytes also released KC and MIP-2 into culture supernatants through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. MIP-2 and KC mediated the infiltration of neutrophils into the epidermis, since this was prevented by ablating CXCR2 in K5-PKCalpha mice or administering neutralizing antibodies against KC or MIP-2. The neutrophilia resulted from PKCalpha-mediated upregulation of cutaneous G-CSF released into the plasma independent of CXCR2. These responses could be inhibited by topical treatment with a PKCalpha-selective inhibitor. Inhibiting PKCalpha also reduced the basal and TNF-alpha- or TPA-induced expression of C 1f40 XCL8 in cultured psoriatic keratinocytes, suggesting that PKCalpha activity may contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Thus, skin can be the source of circulating factors that have both local and systemic consequences, and these factors, their receptors, and possibly PKCalpha could be therapeutic targets for inhibition of cutaneous inflammation.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2006;116;10;2757-66

  • Mitogenic and drug-resistance mediating effects of PKCalpha require RLIP76.

    Singhal SS, Yadav S, Singhal J, Awasthi YC and Awasthi S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065, USA.

    PKCalpha-activation is a key signaling event governing cell growth, stress-resistance, and drug-resistance. Our recent studies demonstrated that DOX-resistance mediating effects of PKCalpha require the presence of RLIP76, and their concerted action is sufficient to explain intrinsic DOX-resistance of NSCLC [S.S. Singhal, D. Wickramarachchi, J. Singhal, S. Yadav, Y.C. Awasthi, et al., Determinants of differential doxorubicin sensitivity between SCLC and NSCLC. FEBS Lett. 580 (2006) 2258-2264]. Present studies were carried out to further explore the suggestion from the previous studies that the mitogenic effects of PKCalpha also require RLIP76. RLIP76-/- MEFs were resistant to PKCalpha-depletion mediated growth inhibition, as well as to the PKCalpha-dependent mitogen, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Augmenting cellular levels of RLIP76 using purified recombinant RLIP76 increased growth rate in all cells, and restored the sensitivity of RLIP76-/- MEFs to both inhibition through PKCalpha-depletion and stimulation through PMA. These results show that RLIP76 is a necessary down-stream effector for PKCalpha-mediated mitogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 104661, CA 77495, R01 CA077495, R01 CA104661; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES 012171, R01 ES012171, R01 ES012171-04

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;348;2;722-7

  • WISP-2/CCN5 is involved as a novel signaling intermediate in phorbol ester-protein kinase Calpha-mediated breast tumor cell proliferation.

    Sengupta K, Banerjee S, Dhar K, Saxena NK, Mehta S, Campbell DR and Banerjee SK

    Cancer Research Unit, V.A. Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

    PMA and active phorbol esters stimulate the proliferation of various tumor cells, including ER-positive human breast tumor cell lines. However, the specific signaling pathways involved in the PMA-induced mitogenic effect on breast tumor cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the mitogenic influence of PMA on breast tumor cells. Following an acute exposure (i.e., within 2 to 6 h) to PMA (50 nM), a mitogenic effect was observed on WISP-2/CCN5-positive breast tumor cell lines, including MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and SKBR-3 cells, and induction of WISP-2/CCN5 mRNA expression paralleled the observed mitogenic proliferation. This effect was undetected in WISP-2/CCN5 negative MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells or human mammary epithelial cells with or without ER-alpha transfection. The mitogenic effect of PMA was perturbed by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated inhibition of WISP-2/CCN5 signaling in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the upregulation of WISP-2/CCN5 by PMA is not ER dependent but is instead mediated through a complex PKCalpha-MAPK/ERK and SAPK/JNK signaling pathway, which leads to growth stimulation of MCF-7 breast tumor cells. These series of experiments provide the first evidence that WISP-2/CCN5 is a novel signaling molecule that critically participates in the mitogenic action of PMA on noninvasive, WISP-2/CCN5-positive breast tumor cells through PKCalpha-dependent, multiple molecular signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87680; NCRR NIH HHS: 1 P20 RR15563

    Biochemistry 2006;45;35;10698-709

  • Neurotensin phosphorylates GSK-3alpha/beta through the activation of PKC in human colon cancer cells.

    Wang Q, Zhou Y and Evers BM

    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

    Neurotensin (NT), a gastrointestinal hormone, binds its receptor [neurotensin receptor (NTR)] to regulate the growth of normal and neoplastic intestinal cells; molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we show that NT induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3alpha/beta in the human colon cancer cell line HT29, HCT116, or SW480, which possesses high-affinity NTR. The effect of NT was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), but not by inhibitors of MEK1 or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, suggesting a predominant role for PKC in GSK-3beta phosphorylation by NT. Pretreatment with Gö6976 (which inhibits PKCalpha and PKCbeta1) or downregulation of endogenous PKCalpha or PKCbeta1 blocked NT-mediated GSK-3beta (but not GSK-3alpha) phosphorylation. Moreover, a selective PKCbeta inhibitor, LY379196, reduced NT-mediated GSK-3beta (but not GSK-3alpha) phosphorylation, suggesting a role for PKCbeta1 in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and an undefined kinase in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3alpha. Treatment with NT or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 increased the expression of cyclin D1, a downstream effector protein of GSK-3 and a critical protein for the proliferation of various cells. Our results indicate that NT uses PKC-dependent pathways to modulate GSK-3, which may play a role in the NT regulation of intestinal cell growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA104748; NIA NIH HHS: R37 AG010885, R37 AG10885; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK035608, P01 DK35608, R01 DK048498, R01 DK48498

    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 2006;8;9;781-7

  • Dynamic sequestration of the recycling compartment by classical protein kinase C.

    Idkowiak-Baldys J, Becker KP, Kitatani and Hannun YA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    It has been previously shown that upon sustained stimulation (30-60 min) with phorbol esters, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and betaII become sequestered in a juxtanuclear region, the pericentrion. The activation of PKC also results in sequestration of transferrin, suggesting a role for PKC in regulating endocytosis and sequestration of recycling components. In this work we characterize the pericentrion as a PKC-dependent subset of the recycling compartment. We demonstrate that upon sustained stimulation of PKC, both protein (CD59, caveolin) and possibly also lipid (Bodipy-GM1) cargo become sequestered in a PKC-dependent manner. This sequestration displayed a strict temperature requirement and was inhibited below 32 degrees C. Treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate for 60 min led to the formation of a distinct membrane structure. PKC sequestration and pericentrion formation were blocked by hypertonic sucrose as well as by potassium depletion (inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis) but not by nystatin or filipin, which inhibit clathrin-independent pathways. Interestingly, it was also observed that some molecules that internalize through clathrin-independent pathways (CD59, Bodipy-GM1, caveolin) also sequestered to the pericentrion upon sustained PKC activation, suggesting that PKC acted distal to the site of internalization of endocytic cargo. Together these results suggest that PKC regulates sequestration of recycling molecules into this compartment, the pericentrion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-43707

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;31;22321-31

  • Bile acids stimulate PKCalpha autophosphorylation and activation: role in the attenuation of prostaglandin E1-induced cAMP production in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Le M, Krilov L, Meng J, Chapin-Kennedy K, Ceryak S and Bouscarel B

    Gastroenterology Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, George Washington Univesity Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

    The aim was to identify the specific PKC isoform(s) and their mechanism of activation responsible for the modulation of cAMP production by bile acids in human dermal fibroblasts. Stimulation of fibroblasts with 25-100 microM of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) led to YFP-PKCalpha and YFP-PKCdelta translocation in 30-60 min followed by a transient 24- to 48-h downregulation of the total PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon protein expression by 30-50%, without affecting that of PKCzeta. Increased plasma membrane translocation of PKCalpha was associated with an increased PKCalpha phosphorylation, whereas increased PKCdelta translocation to the perinuclear domain was associated with an increased accumulation of phospho-PKCdelta Thr505 and Tyr311 in the nucleus. The PKCalpha specificity on the attenuation of cAMP production by CDCA was demonstrated with PKC downregulation or inhibition, as well as PKC isoform dominant-negative mutants. Under these same conditions, neither phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p38 MAP kinase, p42/44 MAP kinase, nor PKA inhibitors had any significant effect on the CDCA-induced cAMP production attenuation. CDCA concentrations as low as 10 microM stimulated PKCalpha autophosphorylation in vitro. This bile acid effect required phosphatidylserine and was completely abolished by the presence of Gö6976. CDCA at concentrations less than 50 microM enhanced the PKCalpha activation induced by PMA, whereas greater CDCA concentrations reduced the PMA-induced PKCalpha activation. CDCA alone did not affect PKCalpha activity in vitro. In conclusion, although CDCA and UDCA activate different PKC isoforms, PKCalpha plays a major role in the bile acid-induced inhibition of cAMP synthesis in fibroblasts. This study emphasizes potential consequences of increased systemic bile acid concentrations and cellular bile acid accumulation in extrahepatic tissues during cholestatic liver diseases.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-46954, DK-56108

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2006;291;2;G275-87

  • Caspases 3 and 9 are translocated to the cytoskeleton and activated by thrombin in human platelets. Evidence for the involvement of PKC and the actin filament polymerization.

    Ben Amor N, Pariente JA, Salido GM, Bartegi A and Rosado JA

    Unité de Recherche de Biochimie, Inst. Superieur de Biotechnologie, Monastir, Tunisia.

    Platelets express, among others, initiator caspase 9 and effector caspase 3. Upon activation by physiological agonists, calcium ionophores or under shear stress they might develop apoptotic events. Although it is well known that the cytoskeletal network plays a crucial role in apoptosis, the relationship between caspases 3 and 9 and the cytoskeleton is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the physiological agonist thrombin is able to induce activation of caspases 3 and 9 in human platelets and significantly increases the amount in the cytoskeleton of the active forms of both caspases and the procaspases 3 and 9. After stimulation with thrombin the amount of active caspases 3 and 9 in the cytosolic and cytoskeletal fractions were significantly reduced in Ro-31-8220-treated cells, which demonstrates that caspases activation and association with the cytoskeleton needs the contribution of PKC. Inhibition of actin polymerization by cytochalasin D inhibits translocation and activation of both caspases, suggesting that thrombin stimulates caspase 3 and 9 activation and association with the reorganizing actin cytoskeleton. Finally, our results show that inhibition of thrombin-induced caspase activation has no effect on their translocation to the cytoskeleton although impairment of thrombin-evoked caspase translocation has negative effects on caspase activity, suggesting that translocation to the cytoskeleton might be important for caspase activation by thrombin in human platelets.

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;8;1252-61

  • Glomerular clusterin is associated with PKC-alpha/beta regulation and good outcome of membranous glomerulonephritis in humans.

    Rastaldi MP, Candiano G, Musante L, Bruschi M, Armelloni S, Rimoldi L, Tardanico R, Sanna-Cherchi S, Cherchi SS, Ferrario F, Montinaro V, Haupt R, Parodi S, Carnevali ML, Allegri L, Camussi G, Gesualdo L, Scolari F and Ghiggeri GM

    Renal Immunopathology Laboratory, Fondazione D'Amico per la Ricerca sulle Malattie Renali, Nuova Nefrologia Research Association, c/o San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy.

    Mechanisms for human membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remain elusive. Most up-to-date concepts still rely on the rat model of Passive Heymann Nephritis that derives from an autoimmune response to glomerular megalin, with complement activation and membrane attack complex assembly. Clusterin has been reported as a megalin ligand in immunodeposits, although its role has not been clarified. We studied renal biopsies of 60 MGN patients by immunohistochemistry utilizing antibodies against clusterin, C5b-9, and phosphorylated-protien kinase C (PKC) isoforms (pPKC). In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the role of clusterin during podocyte damage by MGN serum and define clusterin binding to human podocytes, where megalin is known to be absent. Clusterin, C5b-9, and pPKC-alpha/beta showed highly variable glomerular staining, where high clusterin profiles were inversely correlated to C5b-9 and PKC-alpha/beta expression (P=0.029), and co-localized with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R). Glomerular clusterin emerged as the single factor influencing proteinuria at multivariate analysis and was associated with a reduction of proteinuria after a follow-up of 1.5 years (-88.1%, P=0.027). Incubation of podocytes with MGN sera determined strong upregulation of pPKC-alpha/beta that was reverted by pre-incubation with clusterin, serum de-complementation, or protein-A treatment. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed podocyte binding of biotinilated clusterin, co-localization with LDL-R and specific binding inhibition with anti-LDL-R antibodies and with specific ligands. These data suggest a central role for glomerular clusterin in MGN as a modulator of inflammation that potentially influences the clinical outcome. Binding of clusterin to the LDL-R might offer an interpretative key for the pathogenesis of MGN in humans.

    Kidney international 2006;70;3;477-85

  • Bcl2 phosphorylation and active PKC alpha are associated with poor survival in AML.

    Kurinna S, Konopleva M, Palla SL, Chen W, Kornblau S, Contractor R, Deng X, May WS, Andreeff M and Ruvolo PP

    Leukemia 2006;20;7;1316-9

  • Heterogeneity of cellular proliferation within transitional cell carcinoma: correlation of protein kinase C alpha/betaI expression and activity.

    Aaltonen V, Koivunen J, Laato M and Peltonen J

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, University of Oulu, Finland. vesaal@utu.fi

    A total of 18 histological samples containing both transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and normal urothelial epithelium were analyzed for protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -betaI expression, and for their phosphorylated substrates. The results showed an increased expression of PKC-alpha in 13 out of 18 samples and -betaI in 11 out of 18 TCC samples when compared with normal urothelium. In addition, 11 out of 18 of the TCC tumors displayed heterogeneous expression of the PKC isoenzymes, with different levels of immunosignal in different areas of the tumor. Within the same sample, areas of highest PKC isoenzyme expression also showed highest classical PKC activity, as estimated by immunodetection of phosphorylated forms of PKC substrates. The areas of highest expression of PKC-alpha and/or -betaI isoenzymes showed also the highest number of cells positive for Ki67, an indicator of proliferation. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting demonstrated that in cultured TCC cells, PKC-alpha was located in the cytoplasm, whereas PKC-betaI was located primarily in the nucleus as a 65-kDa fragment and in the cytoplasm as a full-size 79-kDa protein. Our results indicate that increased expression of PKC-alpha and -betaI leads to increased total classical PKC kinase activity and suggest that increased activity of the isoenzymes plays a role in accelerated growth of TCC. Furthermore, these results suggest that even in carcinoma tissue, PKC expression and activity are under strict control.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2006;54;7;795-806

  • Role of protein kinase Calpha in melatonin signal transduction.

    Sampson SR, Lupowitz Z, Braiman L and Zisapel N

    Faculty of Life Sciences, Gonda-Goldschmied Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Melatonin induces nuclear exclusion of the androgen receptor (AR) via activation of protein kinase C (PKC). The specific members of the PKC superfamily involved in AR nuclear exclusion were investigated in prostate cancer PC3 cells stably transfected with the wild-type androgen receptor (PC3-AR). PKCalpha was essentially cytoplasmic whereas PKCbeta and PKCepsilon were essentially membranal, suggesting their constitutive activity in the PC3-AR cells. Melatonin treatment induced membrane association of PKCalpha in a time and dose dependent manner. The PKCalpha and PKCbeta1 specific inhibitor GO6976 and the PKCbeta isoform-specific inhibitor hispidin had no effects on AR localization under basal conditions. However, GO6976 but not hispidin negated the melatonin-mediated nuclear exclusion of the AR. These data indicate that PKCalpha activation is a critical step in AR nuclear exclusion by melatonin. They also imply that PKCalpha-activation is a potentially effective way to control of the AR activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2006;252;1-2;82-7

  • Tyrosine kinase modulation of protein kinase C activity regulates G protein-linked Ca2+ signaling in leukemic hematopoietic cells.

    Vichalkovski A, Kotevic I, Gebhardt N, Kaderli R and Porzig H

    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Friedbuehlstrasse 49, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.

    We have used a recombinant mouse pre-B cell line (TonB210.1, expressing Bcr/Abl under the control of an inducible promoter) and several human leukemia cell lines to study the effect of high tyrosine kinase activity on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist-stimulated cellular Ca(2+) release and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). After induction of Bcr/Abl expression, GPCR-linked SOCE increased. The effect was reverted in the presence of the specific Abl inhibitor imatinib (1microM) and the Src inhibitor PP2 (10microM). In leukemic cell lines constitutively expressing high tyrosine kinase activity, Ca(2+) transients were reduced by imatinib and/or PP2. Ca(2+) transients were enhanced by specific inhibitors of PKC subtypes and this effect was amplified by tyrosine kinase inhibition in Bcr/Abl expressing TonB210.1 and K562 cells. Under all conditions Ca(2+) transients were essentially blocked by the PKC activator PMA. In Bcr/Abl expressing (but not in native) TonB210.1 cells, tyrosine kinase inhibitors enhanced PKCalpha catalytic activity and PKCalpha co-immunoprecipitated with Bcr/Abl. Unlike native TonB210.1 cells, Bcr/Abl expressing cells showed a high rate of cell death if Ca(2+) influx was reduced by complexing extracellular Ca(2+) with BAPTA. Our data suggest that tonic inhibition of PKC represents a mechanism by which high tyrosine kinase activity can enhance cellular Ca(2+) transients and thus exert profound effects on the proliferation, apoptosis and chemotaxis of leukemic cells.

    Cell calcium 2006;39;6;517-28

  • Histamine increases sphingosine kinase-1 expression and activity in the human arterial endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 by a PKC-alpha-dependent mechanism.

    Huwiler A, Döll F, Ren S, Klawitter S, Greening A, Römer I, Bubnova S, Reinsberg L and Pfeilschifter J

    pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Huwiler@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent mitogenic signal generated from sphingosine by the action of sphingosine kinases (SKs). In this study, we show that in the human arterial endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 histamine induces a time-dependent upregulation of the SK-1 mRNA and protein expression which is followed by increased SK-1 activity. A similar upregulation of SK-1 is also observed with the direct protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In contrast, SK-2 activity is not affected by neither histamine nor TPA. The increased SK-1 protein expression is due to stimulated de novo synthesis since cycloheximide inhibited the delayed SK-1 protein upregulation. Moreover, the increased SK-1 mRNA expression results from an increased promoter activation by histamine and TPA. In mechanistic terms, the transcriptional upregulation of SK-1 is dependent on PKC and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade since staurosporine and the MEK inhibitor U0126 abolish the TPA-induced SK-1 induction. Furthermore, the histamine effect is abolished by the H1-receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, but not by the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine. Parallel to the induction of SK-1, histamine and TPA stimulate an increased migration of endothelial cells, which is prevented by depletion of the SK-1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA). To appoint this specific cell response to a specific PKC isoenzyme, siRNA of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon were used to selectively downregulate the respective isoforms. Interestingly, only depletion of PKC-alpha leads to a complete loss of TPA- and histamine-triggered SK-1 induction and cell migration. In summary, these data show that PKC-alpha activation in endothelial cells by histamine-activated H1-receptors, or by direct PKC activators leads to a sustained upregulation of the SK-1 protein expression and activity which, in turn, is critically involved in the mechanism of endothelial cell migration.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2006;1761;3;367-76

  • Insulin inhibits phagocytosis in normal human neutrophils via PKCalpha/beta-dependent priming of F-actin assembly.

    Saiepour D, Sehlin J and Oldenborg PA

    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section for Histology and Cell Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. saiepour@acc.umu.se

    Objective: This study investigated the effects of insulin on the phagocytosis of C3bi - and IgG-opsonized yeast particles in normal human neutrophils.

    Methods: Neutrophils were incubated in different insulin concentrations for 30 minutes and stimulated by C3bi - or IgG-opsonized yeast particles. Phagocytosis was quantified by both light microscopy and FACscan flow cytometry. Laser confocal microscopy was used for quantification of F-actin levels.

    Results: Elevated insulin concentrations decreased neutrophil phagocytosis of both types of targets. This defect was shown to be in part due to a delayed phagocytosis in the presence of insulin. Following a 30 minute incubation, insulin was found to increase the accumulation of cortical F-actin, without affecting the total cellular F-actin content. The specific PKCalpha/beta inhibitor, Go6976, abolished the insulin-mediated increase in cortical F-actin content and both Go6976 and the PKCalpha/beta/delta/epsilon-specific inhibitor GF109203X reversed the inhibitory effects of insulin on phagocytosis.

    Conclusion: Hyperinsulinemia in vitro can inhibit phagocytosis of opsonized targets in normal human neutrophils. This effect of insulin is dependent on activation of PKCalpha and/or PKCbeta, and these insulin signals may interfere with the dynamic assembly/disassembly and/or distribution of F-actin, which is required for the phagocytosis process.

    Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] 2006;55;3;85-91

  • PKCalpha expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells.

    Hsieh YH, Wu TT, Tsai JH, Huang CY, Hsieh YS and Liu JY

    Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

    Our previous study found that PKCalpha was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKCalpha expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKCalpha promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKCalpha mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKCalpha promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKCalpha expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKCalpha expression regulation in human HCC cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;1;217-25

  • Protein kinase C mediates erythrocyte "programmed cell death" following glucose depletion.

    Klarl BA, Lang PA, Kempe DS, Niemoeller OM, Akel A, Sobiesiak M, Eisele K, Podolski M, Huber SM, Wieder T and Lang F

    Department of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

    Glucose depletion of erythrocytes leads to activation of Ca2+-permeable cation channels, Ca2+ entry, activation of a Ca2+-sensitive erythrocyte scramblase, and subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ca2+ entry into erythrocytes was previously shown to be stimulated by phorbol esters and to be inhibited by staurosporine and chelerythrine and is thus thought to be regulated by protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, presumably via protein kinase C (PKC) and the corresponding phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases. The present experiments explored whether PKC could contribute to effects of energy depletion on erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure and cell volume. Phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Removal of extracellular glucose led to depletion of cellular ATP, stimulated PKC activity, led to translocation of PKCalpha, enhanced serine phosphorylation of membrane proteins, decreased cell volume, and increased annexin binding, the latter effect being blunted but not abolished in the presence of 1 microM staurosporine or 50 nM calphostin C. The PKC stimulator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (3 microM) and the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (1-10 microM) mimicked the effect of glucose depletion and similarly led to translocation of PKCalpha and enhanced serine phosphorylation, increased annexin binding, and decreased forward scatter, the latter effects being abrogated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine (1 microM). Fluo-3 fluorescence measurements revealed that okadaic acid also enhanced erythrocyte Ca2+ activity. The present observations suggest that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via PKC and the corresponding protein phosphatases contribute to phosphatidylserine exposure and cell shrinkage after energy depletion.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2006;290;1;C244-53

  • Specific translocation of protein kinase Calpha to the plasma membrane requires both Ca2+ and PIP2 recognition by its C2 domain.

    Evans JH, Murray D, Leslie CC and Falke JJ

    Molecular Biophysics Program and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA. John.Evans@colorado.edu

    The C2 domain of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) controls the translocation of this kinase from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane during cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. The present study uses intracellular coimaging of fluorescent fusion proteins and an in vitro FRET membrane-binding assay to further investigate the nature of this translocation. We find that Ca2+-activated PKCalpha and its isolated C2 domain localize exclusively to the plasma membrane in vivo and that a plasma membrane lipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), dramatically enhances the Ca2+-triggered binding of the C2 domain to membranes in vitro. Similarly, a hybrid construct substituting the PKCalpha Ca2+-binding loops (CBLs) and PIP2 binding site (beta-strands 3-4) into a different C2 domain exhibits native Ca2+-triggered targeting to plasma membrane and recognizes PIP2. Conversely, a hybrid containing the CBLs but lacking the PIP2 site translocates primarily to trans-Golgi network (TGN) and fails to recognize PIP2. Similarly, PKCalpha C2 domains possessing mutations in the PIP2 site target primarily to TGN and fail to recognize PIP2. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the CBLs are essential for Ca2+-triggered membrane binding but are not sufficient for specific plasma membrane targeting. Instead, targeting specificity is provided by basic residues on beta-strands 3-4, which bind to plasma membrane PIP2.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL034303, HL061378, P01 HL034303, R01 HL061378; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM063235, GM066147, R01 GM063235, R01 GM066147

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;1;56-66

  • The origin of C1A-C2 interdomain interactions in protein kinase Calpha.

    Stahelin RV, Wang J, Blatner NR, Rafter JD, Murray D and Cho W

    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607-7061, USA.

    The regulatory domain of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) contains three membrane-targeting modules, two C1 domains (C1A and C1B) that bind diacylglycerol and phorbol ester, and the C2 domain that is responsible for the Ca2+-dependent membrane binding. Accumulating evidence suggests that C1A and C2 domains of PKCalpha are tethered in the resting state and that the tethering is released upon binding to the membrane containing phosphatidylserine. The homology modeling and the docking analysis of C1A and C2 domains of PKCalpha revealed a highly complementary interface that comprises Asp55-Arg252 and Arg42-Glu282 ion pairs and a Phe72-Phe255 aromatic pair. Mutations of these residues in the predicted C1A-C2 interface showed large effects on in vitro membrane binding, enzyme activity, phosphatidylserine selectivity, and cellular membrane translocation of PKCalpha, supporting their involvement in interdomain interactions. In particular, D55A (or D55K) and R252A (or R252E) mutants showed much higher basal membrane affinity and enzyme activity and faster subcellular translocation than wild type, whereas a double charge-reversal mutant (D55K/R252E) behaved analogously to wild type, indicating that a direct electrostatic interaction between the two residues is essential for the C1A-C2 tethering. Collectively, these studies provide new structural insight into PKCalpha C1A-C2 interdomain interactions and the mechanism of lipid-mediated PKCalpha activation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53987, GM66147

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;43;36452-63

  • Protein kinase C-dependent protein kinase D activation modulates ERK signal pathway and endothelial cell proliferation by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Wong C and Jin ZG

    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for many angiogenic processes both in normal conditions and in pathological conditions. However, the signaling pathways involved in VEGF-induced angiogenesis are not well defined. Protein kinase D (PKD), a newly described serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in many signal transduction pathways and in cell proliferation. We hypothesized that PKD would mediate VEGF signaling and function in endothelial cells. Here we found that VEGF rapidly and strongly stimulated PKD phosphorylation and activation in endothelial cells via VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The pharmacological inhibitors for phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) and protein kinase C (PKC) significantly inhibited VEGF-induced PKD activation, suggesting the involvement of the PLCgamma/PKC pathway. In particular, PKCalpha was critical for VEGF-induced PKD activation since both overexpression of adenovirus PKCalpha dominant negative mutant and reduction of PKCalpha expression by small interfering RNA markedly inhibited VEGF-induced PKD activation. Importantly, we found that small interfering RNA knockdown of PKD and PKCalpha expression significantly attenuated ERK activation and DNA synthesis in endothelial cells by VEGF. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that VEGF activates PKD via the VEGFR2/PLCgamma/PKCalpha pathway and revealed a critical role of PKD in VEGF-induced ERK signaling and endothelial cell proliferation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL080611, R01 HL080611, R01 HL080611-05

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;39;33262-9

  • Phosphorylation of coronin 1B by protein kinase C regulates interaction with Arp2/3 and cell motility.

    Cai L, Holoweckyj N, Schaller MD and Bear JE

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Coronins are a conserved family of WD repeat-containing, actin-binding proteins that regulate cell motility in a variety of model organisms. Our results show that Coronin 1B is a ubiquitously expressed member of the mammalian Coronin gene family that co-localizes with the Arp2/3 complex at the leading edge of fibroblasts, and co-immunoprecipitates with this complex. Pharmacological experiments show that the interaction between Coronin 1B and the Arp2/3 complex is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. Coronin 1B is phosphorylated by PKC both in vitro and in vivo. Using tryptic peptide mapping and mutagenesis, we have identified serine 2 (Ser-2) on Coronin 1B as the major residue phosphorylated by PKC in vivo. Rat2 fibroblasts expressing the Coronin 1B S2A mutant show enhanced ruffling in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and increased speed in single cell tracking assays. Cells expressing the Coronin 1B S2D mutant have attenuated PMA-induced ruffling and slower cell speed. Expression of the S2A mutant partially protects cells from the inhibitory effects of PMA on cell speed, whereas expression of the S2D mutant renders cells hypersensitive to its effects. These data demonstrate that Coronin 1B regulates leading edge dynamics and cell motility in fibroblasts, and that its ability to control motility and interactions with the Arp2/3 complex are regulated by PKC phosphorylation at Ser-2. Furthermore, Coronin 1B phosphorylation is responsible for a significant fraction of the effects of PMA on fibroblast motility.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA90901; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45100

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;36;31913-23

  • PKCalpha activates eNOS and increases arterial blood flow in vivo.

    Partovian C, Zhuang Z, Moodie K, Lin M, Ouchi N, Sessa WC, Walsh K and Simons M

    Angiogenesis Research Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA.

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in control of vascular tone and angiogenesis among other functions. Its regulation is complex and has not been fully established. Several studies have emphasized the importance of phosphorylation in the regulation of eNOS activity. Although it is commonly accepted that protein kinase C (PKC) signaling inhibits eNOS activity by phosphorylating Thr497 and dephosphorylating Ser1179, the distinct role of different PKC isoforms has not been studied so far. The PKC family comprises roughly 12 different isozymes that activate distinct downstream pathways. The present study was designed to investigate the role of PKCalpha isoform in regulation of eNOS activity. Overexpression of PKCalpha in primary endothelial cells was associated with increased eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation and increased NO production. Inhibition of PKCalpha activity either by siRNA transfection or by overexpression of a dominant negative mutant resulted in a marked decrease in FGF2-induced Ser1179 phosphorylation and NO production. In vivo, PKCalpha transduction in rat femoral arteries resulted in a significant increase in the resting blood flow that was suppressed by treatment with L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor. In conclusion, these data demonstrate for the first time that PKCalpha stimulates NO production in endothelial cells and plays a role in regulation of blood flow in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL62289; PHS HHS: 53793

    Circulation research 2005;97;5;482-7

  • Genes encoding catalytic subunits of protein kinase A and risk of spina bifida.

    Zhu H, Lu W, Laurent C, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ and Finnell RH

    Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Houston, Texas.

    Background: PRKACA and PRKACB are genes encoding the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunits alpha and beta, respectively. PKA is known to be involved in embryonic development, as it down-regulates the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which is critical to normal pattern formation and morphogenesis. The PKA-deficient mouse model, which has only a single catalytic subunit, provided intriguing evidence demonstrating a relationship between decreased PKA activity and risk for posterior neural tube defects (NTDs) in the thoracic to sacral regions of gene-knockout mice. Unlike most other mutant mouse models of NTDs, the PKA-deficient mice develop spina bifida with 100% penetrance. We hypothesized that sequence variations in human genes encoding the catalytic subunits may alter the PKA activity and similarly increase the risk of spina bifida.

    Methods: We sequenced the coding regions and the exon/intron boundaries of PRKACA and PRKACB. We also examined 3 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these 2 genes by allele discrimination.

    Results: Five sequence variants in coding region and 2 intronic sequence variants proximal to exons were detected. None of the 3 SNPs examined in the association study appeared to be associated with substantially increased risk for spina bifida.

    Conclusions: Our results did not reveal a strong association between these PKA SNPs and spina bifida risk. Nonetheless, it is important to examine the possible gene-gene interactions between PRKACA and PRKACB when evaluating the risk for NTDs, as well as genes encoding regulatory subunits of PKA. In addition, interactions with other genes such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) should also be considered for future investigations.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS050249, R01 NS050249-01A1

    Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology 2005;73;9;591-6

  • The role of PKCalpha and RLIP76 in transport-mediated doxorubicin-resistance in lung cancer.

    Singhal SS, Yadav S, Singhal J, Drake K, Awasthi YC and Awasthi S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 502 Yates St., Science Hall #223, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065, USA. ssinghal@uta.edu

    In deletion mutant analyses of potential phosphorylation sites in RLIP76, we identified T297 and S509 as targets for phosphorylation by PKCalpha. Phosphorylation at T297 increased doxorubicin (DOX)-transport activity approximately 2-fold for RLIP76 purified from recombinant source, or from three small (H69, H1417, H1618) and three non-small cell, one each derived from H226 (squamous), H358 (bronchio alveolar), and H1395 (adenocarcinoma) lung cancer cell lines. T297 phosphorylation conferred sensitivity to tryptic digestion at R293. The specific activity for DOX-transport by RLIP76 purified from non-small cell, which was primarily in the phosphorylated form, was approximately twice that in small cell lung cancer cell lines. These finding offer a novel explanation for the observed intrinsic differences in sensitivity to DOX between non-small cell and small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 104661, CA 77495; NEI NIH HHS: EY 04396; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES 012171

    FEBS letters 2005;579;21;4635-41

  • Neuronal ELAV proteins enhance mRNA stability by a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

    Pascale A, Amadio M, Scapagnini G, Lanni C, Racchi M, Provenzani A, Govoni S, Alkon DL and Quattrone A

    Department of Experimental and Applied Pharmacology, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 14, 27100 Pavia, Italy. alessia.pascale@unipv.it

    More than 1 in 20 human genes bear in the mRNA 3' UTR a specific motif called the adenine- and uridine-rich element (ARE), which posttranscriptionally determines its expression in response to cell environmental signals. ELAV (embryonic lethal abnormal vision) proteins are the only known ARE-binding factors that are able to stabilize the bound mRNAs, thereby positively controlling gene expression. Here, we show that in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, neuron-specific ELAV (nELAV) proteins (HuB, HuC, and HuD) are up-regulated and redistributed by 15 min of treatment with the activators of PKC phorbol esters and bryostatin-1. PKC stimulation also induces nELAV proteins to colocalize with the translocated PKCalpha isozyme preferentially on the cytoskeleton, with a concomitant increase of nELAV threonine phosphorylation. The same treatment promotes stabilization of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) mRNA, a well known nELAV target, and induces an early increase in GAP-43 protein concentration, again only in the cytoskeletal cell fraction. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of PKCalpha abolishes nELAV protein cytoskeletal up-regulation, GAP-43 mRNA stabilization, and GAP-43 protein increase, demonstrating the primary role of this specific PKC isozyme in the cascade of nELAV recruitment. Finally, in vivo PKC activation is associated with an up-regulation of nELAV proteins in the hippocampal rat brain. These findings suggest a model for gene expression regulation by nELAV proteins through a PKCalpha-dependent pathway that is relevant for the cellular programs in which ARE-mediated control plays a pivotal role.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;34;12065-70

  • PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Lu W and Ziff EB

    Program in Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH067229

    Neuron 2005;47;3;407-21

  • Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by protein kinase C.

    Gray JP, Burns KA, Leas TL, Perdew GH and Vanden Heuvel JP

    Department of Veterinary Science, Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, 325 Life Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor activated by fatty acids, hypolipidemic drugs, and peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Like other nuclear receptors, PPARalpha is a phosphoprotein whose activity is affected by a variety of growth factor signaling cascades. In this study, the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) on PPARalpha activity were explored. In vivo phosphorylation studies in COS-1 cells transfected with murine PPARalpha showed that the level of phosphorylated PPARalpha is increased by treatment with the PP Wy-14,643 as well as the PKC activator phorbol myristo 2b5 l acetate (PMA). In addition, inhibitors of PKC decreased Wy-14,643-induced PPARalpha activity in a variety of reporter assays. Overexpressing PKCalpha, -beta, -delta, and -zeta affected both basal and Wy-14,643-induced PPARalpha activity. Four consensus PKC phosphorylation sites are contained within the DNA binding (C-domain) and hinge (D-domain) regions of rat PPARalpha (S110, T129, S142, and S179), and their contribution to receptor function was examined. Mutation of T129 or S179 to alanine prevented heterodimerization of PPARalpha with RXRalpha, lowered the level of phosphorylation by PKCalpha and PKCdelta in vitro, and lowered the level of phosphorylation of transfected PPARalpha b50 in transfected cells. In addition, the T129A mutation prevented PPARalpha from binding DNA in an electromobility shift assay. Together, these studies demonstrate a direct role for PKC in the regulation of PPARalpha, and suggest several PKCs can regulate PPARalpha activity through multiple phosphorylation sites.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES007799

    Biochemistry 2005;44;30;10313-21

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 on Serine 839 regulates Ca2+ oscillations.

    Kim CH, Braud S, Isaac JT and Roche KW

    NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    The activation of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR5 and mGluR1alpha, triggers intracellular calcium release; however, mGluR5 activation is unique in that it elicits Ca2+ oscillations. A short region of the mGluR5 C terminus is the critical determinant and differs from the analogous region of mGluR1alpha by a single amino acid residue, Thr-840, which is an aspartic acid (Asp-854) in mGluR1alpha. Previous studies show that mGluR5-elicited Ca2+ oscillations require protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation and identify Thr-840 as the phosphorylation site. However, direct phosphorylation of mGluR5 has not been studied in detail. We have used biochemical analyses to directly investigate the phosphorylation of the mGluR5 C terminus. We showed that Ser-839 on mGluR5 is directly phosphorylated by PKC, whereas Thr-840 plays a permissive role. Although Ser-839 is conserved in mGluR1alpha (Ser-853), it is not phosphorylated, as the adjacent residue (Asp-854) is not permissive; however, mutagenesis of Asp-854 to a permissive alanine residue allows phosphorylation of Ser-853 on mGluR1alpha. We investigated the physiological consequences of mGluR5 Ser-839 phosphorylation using Ca2+ imaging. Mutations that eliminate Ser-839 phosphorylation prevent the characteristic mGluR5-dependent Ca2+ oscillations. However, mutation of Thr-840 to alanine, which prevents potential Thr-840 phosphorylation but is still permissive for Ser-839 phosphorylation, has no effect on Ca2+ oscillations. Thus, we showed that it is phosphorylation of Ser-839, not Thr-840, that is absolutely required for the unique Ca2+ oscillations produced by mGluR5 activation. The Thr-840 residue is important only in that it is permissive for the PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-839.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;27;25409-15

  • Involvement of protein kinase C in chitosan glutamate-mediated tight junction disruption.

    Smith JM, Dornis 1f40 h M and Wood EJ

    Smith and Nephew Group Research, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5DF, UK.

    Chitosan has been successfully used as an excipient for trans-epithelial drug delivery systems. It is known to transiently open intercellular tight junctions thus increasing the permeability of an epithelium. In order to investigate the possible role of protein kinases in trans-epithelial delivery, changes in trans-epithelial electrical resistance ('TEER') of epithelial (Caco-2) cell monolayers were assessed in response to chitosan glutamate treatment, in the presence and absence of specific protein kinase inhibitors. Changes in subcellular localisation of the tight junction protein ZO-1 observed by immunofluorescence and western blotting of cellular fractions were also assessed. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) was found to prevent the chitosan-mediated decrease in TEER, and changes in localisation of ZO-1. In order to determine which PKC isozymes were responsible for the chitosan-mediated tight junction disruption, the activation of the PKC isozymes alpha, beta and delta was investigated. A chitosan-mediated translocation of PKC alpha but not PKC beta or delta from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, indicative of PKC alpha activation was observed. Thus, treatment of Caco-2 cells with chitosan may result in the activation of PKC-dependent signal transduction pathways which affect tight junction integrity.

    Biomaterials 2005;26;16;3269-76

  • Protein kinase C-dependent regulation of NAG-1/placental bone morphogenic protein/MIC-1 expression in LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells.

    Shim M and Eling TE

    Eicosanoids Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27 1f40 709, USA.

    NAG-1 (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is involved in cellular processes such as inflammation, apoptosis/survival, and tumorigenesis and is regulated by p53, Sp1, and Egr-1. In the current study, the regulation of NAG-1 expression in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was examined. TPA treatment increased NAG-1 protein and mRNA levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner as well as NF-kappa B binding/transcriptional activity in LNCaP cells. Pretreatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor blocked the TPA-induced increase in NAG-1 protein levels and NF-kappa B binding/transcriptional activity, whereas an inhibition of p38, JNK, MEK activity had no effect on TPA-induced NAG-1 levels and NF-kappa B transcriptional activity. Expression of constitutively active PKCs induced an increase in NF-kappa B transcriptional activity and NAG-1 protein levels in LNCaP cells. The expression of NF-kappa B p65 induced NAG-1 promoter activity, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay for p65 showed that NF-kappa B binds the NAG-1 promoter in LNCaP cells. Inhibition of TPA-induced NAG-1 expression by NAG-1 short interfering RNA blocked TPA-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells, suggesting induction of NAG-1 negatively affects LNCaP cell survival. These results demonstrate that NAG-1 expression is up-regulated by TPA in LNCaP cells through a PKC-dependent pathway involving the activation of NF-kappa B.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;19;18636-42

  • Activation-induced depletion of protein kinase C alpha provokes desensitization of monocytes/macrophages in sepsis.

    von Knethen A, Tautenhahn A, Link H, Lindemann D and Brüne B

    Department of Cell Biology, University Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany. aknethen@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    Sepsis accounts for the majority of fatal casualties in critically ill patients, because extensive research failed to significantly improve appropriate therapy strategies. Thus, understanding molecular mechanisms initiating the septic phenotype is important. Symptoms of septic disease are often associated with monocyte/macrophage desensitization. In this study, we provide evidence that a desensitized cellular phenotype is characterized by an attenuated oxidative burst. Inhibition of the oxidative burst and depletion of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) were correlated in septic patients. To prove that PKC alpha down-regulation indeed attenuated the oxidative burst, we set up a cell culture model to mimic desensitized monocytes/macrophages. We show that LPS/IFN-gamma-treatment of RAW264.7 and U937 cells lowered PKC alpha expression and went on to confirm these data in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. To establish a role of PKC alpha in cellular desensitization, we overexpressed PKC alpha in RAW264.7 and U937 cells and tested for phorbolester-elicited superoxide formation following LPS/IFN-gamma-pretreatment. Inhibition of the oxidative burst, i.e., cellular desensitization, was clearly reversed in cells overexpressing PKC alpha, pointing to PKC alpha as the major transmitter in eliciting the oxidative burst in monocytes/macrophages. However, PKC alpha inactivation by transfecting a catalytically inactive PKC alpha mutant attenuated superoxide formation. We suggest that depletion of PKC alpha in monocytes from septic patients contributes to cellular desensitization, giving rise to clinical symptoms of sepsis.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2005;174;8;4960-5

  • Opposing effects of protein kinase Calpha and protein kinase Cepsilon on collagen expression by human lung fibroblasts are mediated via MEK/ERK and caveolin-1 signaling.

    Tourkina E, Gooz P, Pannu J, Bonner M, Scholz D, Hacker S, Silver RM, Trojanowska M and Hoffman S

    Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA. tourkine@musc.edu

    The roles of MEK, ERK, the epsilon and alpha isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), and caveolin-1 in regulating collagen expression were studied in normal lung fibroblasts. Knocking down caveolin-1 gave particularly striking results. A 70% decrease caused a 5-fold increase in MEK/ERK activation and collagen expression. The combined data reveal a branched signaling pathway. In its central portion MEK activates ERK, leading to increased collagen expression. Two branches converge on MEK/ERK. In one, increased PKCepsilon leads to MEK/ERK activation. In another, increased PKCalpha induces caveolin-1 expression, which in turn inhibits MEK/ERK activation and collagen expression. Lung fibroblasts from scleroderma patients with pulmonary fibrosis showed altered signaling. Consistent with their overexpression of collagen, scleroderma lung fibroblasts contain more activated MEK/ERK and less caveolin-1 than normal lung fibroblasts. Because cutaneous fibrosis is the hallmark of scleroderma, we also studied dermal fibroblasts. As in lung, there was more activated MEK/ERK in cells from scleroderma patients than in control cells, and MEK inhibition decreased collagen expression. However, the distinctive levels of PKCepsilon, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 in lung and dermal fibroblasts from scleroderma patients and control subjects indicate that the links between these signaling proteins and MEK/ERK must function differently in the four cell types. Finally, we confirmed the relevance of these signaling cascades in vivo. The combined results demonstrate that a branched signaling pathway involving MEK, ERK, PKCepsilon, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 regulates collagen expression in normal lung tissue and is perturbed during fibrosis.

    Funded by: NCCIH NIH HHS: R21 AT00382; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL73718; NIAMS NIH HHS: P60 AR049459, R01 AR44883

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;14;13879-87

  • n-3 PUFAs modulate T-cell activation via protein kinase C-alpha and -epsilon and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Denys A, Hichami A and Khan NA

    University of Burgundy, Department of Physiology, Unité Propre de Recherche et de l'Enseignement Supérieur (UPRES) Lipids and Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, Dijon 21000, France.

    We elucidated the mechanisms of action of two n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in Jurkat T-cells. Both DHA and EPA were principally incorporated into phospholipids in the following order: phosphatidylcholine < phosphatidylethanolamine < phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylserine. Furthermore, two isoforms of phospholipase A(2) (i.e., calcium-dependent and calcium-independent) were implicated in the release of DHA and EPA, respectively, during activation of these cells. The two fatty acids inhibited the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced plasma membrane translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -epsilon. The two n-3 PUFAs also inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the transcription of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in PMA-activated Jurkat T-cells. Together, these results demonstrate that DHA and EPA, being released by two isoforms of phospholipase A(2), modulate IL-2 gene expression by exerting their action on two PKC isoforms and NF-kappaB in Jurkat T-cells.

    Journal of lipid research 2005;46;4;752-8

  • Translocation of diacylglycerol kinase theta from cytosol to plasma membrane in response to activation of G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinase C.

    van Baal J, de Widt J, Divecha N and van Blitterswijk WJ

    Division of Cellular Biochemistry, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam 1066 CX, The Netherlands.

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid. We previously identified DGK as one of nine mammalian DGK isoforms and reported on its regulation by interaction with RhoA and by translocation to the plasma membrane in response to noradrenaline. Here, we have investigated how the localization of DGK, fused to green fluorescent protein, is controlled upon activation of G protein-coupled receptors in A431 cells. Extracellular ATP, bradykinin, or thrombin induced DGK translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane within 2-6 min. This translocation, independent of DGK activity, was preceded by protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and was blocked by PKC inhibitors. Conversely, activation of PKC by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced DGK translocation. Membrane-permeable DAG (dioctanoylglycerol) also induced DGK translocation but in a PKC (staurosporin)-independent fashion. Mutations in the cysteine-rich domains of DGK abrogated its hormone- and DAG-induced translocation, suggesting that these domains are essential for DAG binding and DGK recruitment to the membrane. We show that DGK interacts selectively with and is phosphorylated by PKCepsilon and -eta and that peptide agonist-induced selective activation of PKCepsilon directly leads to DGK translocation. Our data are consistent with the concept that hormone-induced PKC activation regulates the intracellular localization of DGK, which may be important in the negative regulation of PKCepsilon and/or PKCeta activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;9870-8

  • Epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors, but not keratinocyte growth factor, modulate protein kinase Calpha translocation to the plasma membrane through 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis.

    Sharma GD, Ottino P, Bazan NG and Bazan HE

    Department of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) involves its recruitment to the membrane, where it interacts with its activator(s). We expressed PKCalpha fused to green fluorescent protein and examined its real time translocation to the plasma membrane in living human corneal epithelial cells. Upon 10 min of stimulation with epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors (EGF and HGF), PKCalpha translocated to the plasma membrane. Keratinocyte growth factor did not stimulate PKCalpha translocation up to 1 h after stimulation. Pretreatment with the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), followed by EGF or HGF, produced faster translocation of PKCalpha detectable at 2 min. However, the same concentration of 15(S)-HETE alone did not stimulate translocation. 15(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 5(S)-HETE did not affect growth factor-induced translocation of PKCalpha. PD153035, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor, completely blocked PKCalpha translocation induced by EGF. PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited EGF- and HGF-mediated PKCalpha translocation, which was reversed by addition of 15(S)-HETE. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by EGF was followed by phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), and blocking ERK1/2 inhibited cPLA(2) activation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated translocation of p-cPLA(2) to plasma and nuclear membranes as early as 2 min. This may further increase arachidonic acid release from membrane phospholipid pools and increase the intracellular pool of HETEs. In fact, in cells prelabeled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid, EGF stimulated synthesis of 15(S)-HETE in the cytosolic fraction. 15(S)-HETE also reversed the effect of LOX inhibitor on EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Our results indicate that 15(S)-HETE is an intracellular second messenger that facilitates translocation of PKCalpha to the membrane and elucidate a mechanism that plays a regulatory role in cell proliferation crucial to corneal wound healing.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY04928, R01 EY06635

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;9;7917-24

  • Functional interaction of protein kinase Calpha with the tyrosine kinases Syk and Src in human platelets.

    Pula G, Crosby D, Baker J and Poole AW

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    There is a high degree of cross-talk between tyrosine phosphorylation and the serine/threonine phosphorylation signaling pathways. Here we show a physical and functional interaction between the classical protein kinase C isoform (cPKC), PKCalpha, and two major nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in platelets, Syk and Src. In the presence of the cPKC-selective inhibitor Go6976, platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine release was abolished in response to co-activation of glycoproteins VI and Ib-IX-V by the snake venom alboaggregin A, whereas platelet aggregation was substantially inhibited. Of the two platelet cPKCs, PKCalpha but not PKCbeta was activated, occurring in an Syk- and phospholipase C-dependent manner. Syk and PKCalpha associate in a stimulation-dependent manner, requiring Syk but not PKC activity. PKCalpha and Syk also co-translocate from the cytosol to the plasma membrane upon platelet activation, in a manner dependent upon the activities of both kinases. Although PKCalpha is phosphorylated on tyrosine downstream of Syk, we provide evidence against phosphorylation of Syk by PKCalpha, consistent with a lack of effect of PKCalpha inhibition on Syk activity. PKCalpha also associates with Src; although in contrast to interaction with Syk, PKCalpha activity is required for the association of these kinases but not the stimulation-induced translocation of Src to the cell membrane. Finally, the activity of Src is negatively regulated by PKC, as shown by potentiation of Src activity in the presence of the PKC inhibitors GF109203X or Go6976. Therefore, there is a complex interplay between PKCalpha, Syk, and Src involving physical interaction, phosphorylation, translocation within the cell, and functional activity regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;8;7194-205

  • Protein kinase C modulates agonist-sensitive release of Ca2+ from internal stores in HEK293 cells overexpressing the calcium sensing receptor.

    Sakwe AM, Rask L and Gylfe E

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 582, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

    This study examined the mechanism of Ca2+ entry and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in Ca2+ signaling induced by activation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR. We demonstrate that influx of Ca2+ following CaR activation exhibits store-operated characteristics in being associated with Ca2+ store depletion and inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Inhibition of PKC with GF109203X, Go6983, or Go6976 and down-regulation of PKC activity enhanced the release of Ca2+ from internal stores in response to the polyvalent cationic CaR agonist neomycin, whereas activation of PKC with acute 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment decreased the release. In contrast, overexpression of wild type PKC-alpha or -epsilon augmented the neomycin-induced release of Ca2+ from internal stores, whereas dominant negative PKC-epsilon strongly decreased the release, but dominant negative PKC-alpha had little effect. Prolonged treatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate effectively down-regulated immunoreactive PKC-alpha but had little effect on the expression of PKC-epsilon. Together these results indicate that diacylglycerol-responsive PKC isoforms differentially influence CaR agonist-induced release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The fundamentally different results obtained when overexpressing or functionally down-regulating specific PKC isoforms as compared with pharmacological manipulation of PKC activity indicate the need for caution when interpreting data obtained with the latter approach.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;6;4436-41

  • Transcriptional repression of protein kinase Calpha via Sp1 by wild type p53 is involved in inhibition of multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein phosphorylation.

    Zhan M, Yu D, Liu J, Glazer RI, Hannay J and Pollock RE

    Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family consists of serine/threonine protein kinases that play important roles in signal transduction, cell proliferation, and tumor formation. Recent studies found that PKCs are commonly overexpressed in human tumors, including soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Overexpression of PKCs contributes to invasion and migration of tumor cells and induction of angiogenesis. PKC can also phosphorylate the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene-encoded P-glycoprotein and induce MDR phenotype. Our previous studies showed that mutation of p53 enhanced STS metastasis and mediated the MDR phenotype. Restoring wild type (WT) p53 in STS cells containing mutant p53 sensitized the cells to chemotherapy. In the present study, we found that PKCalpha protein expression is inhibited by WT p53 partly due to reduced PKCalpha mRNA expression in STS cells, but p53 does not affect PKCalpha mRNA stability. Deletion and mutation analysis of the PKCalpha promoter fused to the luciferase reporter gene identified a Sp1 binding site (-244/-234) in the PKCalpha promoter that is required for p53-mediated inhibition of PKCalpha promoter activity. More importantly, PKCalpha phosphorylates and activates MDR1 P-glycoprotein, whereas inhibition of PKCalpha by p53 leads to decreased MDR1 phosphorylation in STS cells, which sensitizes STS cells to chemotherapeutic agents. These data indicate that WT p53 may resensitize STS to chemotherapeutic agents by reducing MDR1 phosphorylation via transcriptional repression of PKCalpha expression. Thus, molecular-based therapies targeting mutant p53 and PKCalpha may be an effective new strategy to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy in STS.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2R01-CA-67802, CA 16672, R01-CA-109570

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;6;4825-33

  • Protease-activated receptor-1 activation of endothelial cells induces protein kinase Calpha-dependent phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c: role in signaling p-selectin expression.

    Fu J, Naren AP, Gao X, Ahmmed GU and Malik AB

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    Endothelial cells exhibit regulated exocytosis in response to inflammatory mediators such as thrombin and histamine. The exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) containing von Willebrand factor, P-selectin, and interleukin-8 within minutes after stimulation is important for vascular homeostasis. SNARE proteins are key components of the exocytic machinery in neurons and some secretory cells, but their role in regulating exocytosis in endothelial cells is not well understood. We examined the function of SNARE proteins in mediating exocytosis of WPBs in endothelial cells. We identified the presence of syntaxin 4, syntaxin 3, and the high affinity syntaxin 4-regulatory protein Munc18c in human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of syntaxin 4 (but not of syntaxin 3) inhibited exocytosis of WPBs as detected by the reduction in thrombin-induced cell surface P-selectin expression. Thrombin ligation of protease-activated receptor-1 activated the phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c, which, in turn, disrupted the interaction between syntaxin 4 and Munc18. Protein kinase Calpha activation was required for the phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c as well as the cell surface expression of P-selectin. We also observed that syntaxin 4 knockdown inhibited the adhesion of neutrophils to thrombin-activated endothelial cells, demonstrating the functional role of syntaxin 4 in promoting endothelial adhesivity. Thus, protease-activated receptor-1-induced protein kinase Calpha activation and phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c are required for the cell surface expression of P-selectin and the consequent binding of neutrophils to endothelial cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45638, HL46350, HL46573

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;5;3178-84

  • Signalling crosstalk in FGF2-mediated protection of endothelial cells from HIV-gp120.

    Langford D, Hurford R, Hashimoto M, Digicaylioglu M and Masliah E

    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. tdlangford@ucsd.edu

    Background: The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the first line of defence of the central nervous system (CNS) against circulating pathogens, such as HIV. The cytotoxic HIV protein, gp120, damages endothelial cells of the BBB, thereby compromising its integrity, which may lead to migration of HIV-infected cells into the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), produced primarily by astrocytes, promotes endothelial cell fitness and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with FGF2 would protect the cells from gp120-mediated toxicity via endothelial cell survival signalling.

    Results: Exposure of HUVEC to gp120 resulted in dose- and time-dependent cell death; whereas, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with FGF2 protected cells from gp120 angiotoxicity. Treatment of HUVEC with FGF2 resulted in dose- and time-dependent activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), with moderate effects on phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB), also known as AKT, but no effects on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3beta) activity. Using pharmacological approaches, gene transfer and kinase activity assays, we show that FGF2-mediated angioprotection against gp120 toxicity is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signalling pathways.

    Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that FGF2 may play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of the BBB during the progress of HIV associated cerebral endothelial cell damage.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA12065, P01 DA012065; NIMH NIH HHS: K01 MH071206, MH071206, MH58164, MH59745, MH62962, P50 MH045294, R01 MH062962, R24 MH059745

    BMC neuroscience 2005;6;8

  • Ets1 is an effector of protein kinase Calpha in cancer cells.

    Vetter M, Blumenthal SG, Lindemann RK, Manns J, Wesselborg S, Thomssen C and Dittmer J

    Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Universitätsklinik und Poliklinik für Gynäkologie, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06097 Halle (Saale), Germany.

    PKCalpha and Ets1 are both associated with breast cancer progression. Our previous studies suggested that these proteins are likely to functionally interact with one another. Here, we show that attenuation of endogenous PKCalpha expression (siPalpha) by RNA interference leads to reduced Ets1 protein expression in a variety of cancer cells. Pulse-chase experiments and treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 revealed that siPalpha interferes with both Ets1 protein synthesis and stability. The effect of siPalpha on Ets1 expression could be partially prevented by KN-93, suggesting that calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), a modulator of Ets1 activity, may play a role in PKCalpha-dependent Ets1 regulation. In contrast, Ets1-regulating kinases ERK1/2 were not found to be involved in this process. To assess the importance of the PKCalpha/Ets1 interaction, we compared the biological responses of MDA-MB-231 cells to PKCalpha- and Ets1-specific siRNAs (siE1). While only siPalpha induced changes in cellular morphology and anchorage-independent growth, both siRNAs similarly affected cellular responses to the antitumor drug mithramycin A and to UV light. Microarray analyses further showed that the expression of a certain set of genes was equally affected by siPalpha and siE1. The data suggest that Ets1 serves as an effector for PKCalpha to fulfil certain functions in cancer cells.

    Oncogene 2005;24;4;650-61

  • Tumor cell-mediated induction of the stromal factor stromelysin-3 requires heterotypic cell contact-dependent activation of specific protein kinase C isoforms.

    Louis K, Guérineau N, Fromigué O, Defamie V, Collazos A, Anglard P, Shipp MA, Auberger P, Joubert D and Mari B

    INSERM U526, IFR50, Faculté de Médecine Pasteur, 06107 Nice, France.

    Stromelysin-3 (ST3, MMP-11) has been shown to be strongly overexpressed in stromal fibroblasts of most invasive human carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to ST3 expression in nonmalignant fibroblasts remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to analyze the signaling pathways activated in normal pulmonary fibroblasts after their interaction with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and leading to ST3 expression. The use of selective signaling pathway inhibitors showed that conventional and novel protein kinase Cs (PKC) were required for ST3 induction, whereas Src kinases exerted a negative control. We observed by both conventional and real time confocal microscopy that green fluorescent protein-tagged PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, but not PKCdelta, transfected in fibroblasts, accumulate selectively at the cell-cell contacts between fibroblasts and tumor cells. In agreement, RNAi-mediated depletion of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, but not PKCdelta significantly decreased co-culture-dependent ST3 production. Finally, a tetracycline-inducible expression model allowed us to confirm the central role of these PKC isoforms and the negative regulatory function of c-Src in the control of ST3 expression. Altogether, our data emphasize signaling changes occurring in the tumor microenvironment that may define new stromal targets for therapeutic intervention.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;2;1272-83

  • Activation of protein kinase C alpha is required for TPA-triggered ERK (MAPK) signaling and growth inhibition of human hepatoma cell HepG2.

    Wen-Sheng W and Jun-Ming H

    Department of Medical Technology, TZU CHI University, Taiwan. wuws@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    The signaling mechanisms for most of the antiproliferative processes are not fully understood. We have demonstrated that ERK(MAPK) signaling was involved in the induction of both p15(INK4b)and p16(INK4a) CDK inhibitors and growth inhibition of hepatoma cell HepG2 triggered by the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). In this study, the upstream signal 460 mechanism for TPA-induced ERK(MAPK) activation was investigated. In HepG2 cells only one of the cPKC isozymes, PKCalpha, but not cPKCbetaII, nPKCepsilon or aPKCzeta was activated by TPA as demonstrated by its membrane translocation within 10-30 min and down-regulation at 24 h after TPA treatment. Pretreatment of 0.2-2.0 microM Bisindolylmaleimides, an inhibitor of PKC, attenuated the TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK, gene expressions of p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a), and growth inhibition of HepG2 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, transfection of HepG2 with 1.0-3.0 microM antisense (AS) PKCalpha, but not (AS) PKCbetaII, or nPKCepsilon oligonucleotides (ODN), for 36 h prior to TPA treatment also prevented the TPA-induced molecular and cellular effects described above. Taken together, we concluded that PKCalpha is specifically required for TPA-induced ERK(MAPK) signaling to trigger gene expressions of p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) leading to HepG2 growth inhibition.

    Journal of biomedical science 2005;12;2;289-96

  • Phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by protein kinase C-alpha regulates polarized membrane distribution and cell motility.

    Makagiansar IT, Williams S, Dahlin-Huppe K, Fukushi J, Mustelin T and Stallcup WB

    Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. irwanm@burnham.org

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha phosphorylation of recombinant NG2 cytoplasmic domain and phorbol ester-induced PKC-dependent phosphorylation of full-length NG2 expressed in U251 cells are both blocked by mutation of Thr(2256), identifying this residue as a primary phosphorylation site. In untreated U251/NG2 cells, NG2 is present along with ezrin and alpha(3)beta(1) integrin in apical cell surface protrusions. Phorbol ester treatment causes redistribution of all three components to lamellipodia, accompanied by increased cell motility. U251 cells expressing NG2 with a valine substitution at position 2256 are resistant to phorbol ester treatment: NG2 remains in membrane protrusions and cell motility is unchanged. In contrast, NG2 with a glutamic acid substitution at position 2256 redistributes to lamellipodia even without phorbol ester treatment, rendering transfected U251 cells spontaneously motile. PKC-alpha-mediated NG2 phosphorylation at Thr(2256) is therefore a key step for initiating cell polarization and motility.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 95287, R01 CA 96949; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI 35603, R01 AI 48032, R01 AI 53585, R01 AI 55741; NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD 25938

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;53;55262-70

  • Protein kinase C isoforms differentially phosphorylate human choline acetyltransferase regulating its catalytic activity.

    Dobransky T, Doherty-Kirby A, Kim AR, Brewer D, Lajoie G and Rylett RJ

    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario and Cell Biology Research Group, and Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada.

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons; regulation of its activity or response to physiological stimuli is poorly understood. We show that ChAT is differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms on four serines (Ser-440, Ser-346, Ser-347, and Ser-476) and one threonine (Thr-255). This phosphorylation is hierarchical, with phosphorylation at Ser-476 required for phosphorylation at other serines. Phosphorylation at some, but not all, sites regulates basal catalysis and activation. Ser-476 with Ser-440 and Ser-346/347 maintains basal ChAT activity. Ser-440 is targeted by Arg-442 for phosphorylation by PKC. Arg-442 is mutated spontaneously (R442H) in congenital myasthenic syndrome, rendering ChAT inactive and causing neuromuscular failure. This mutation eliminates phosphorylation of Ser-440, and Arg-442, not phosphorylation of Ser-440, appears primarily responsible for ChAT activity, with Ser-440 phosphorylation modulating catalysis. Finally, basal ChAT phosphorylation in neurons is mediated predominantly by PKC at Ser-476, with PKC activation increasing phosphorylation at Ser-440 and enhancing ChAT activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;50;52059-68

  • Protein kinase C-alpha activity is required for respiratory syncytial virus fusion to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    San-Juan-Vergara H, Peeples ME, Lockey RF and Mohapatra SS

    The Joy McCann Culverhouse Airways Disease Research Center, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection activates protein kinase C (PKC), but the precise PKC isoform(s) involved and its role(s) remain to be elucidated. On the basis of the activation kinetics of different signaling pathways and the effect of various PKC inhibitors, it was reasoned that PKC activation is important in the early stages of RSV infection, especially RSV fusion and/or replication. Herein, the role of PKC-alpha during the early stages of RSV infection in normal human bronchial epithelial cells is determined. The results show that the blocking of PKC-alpha activation by classical inhibitors, pseudosubstrate peptides, or the overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of PKC-alpha in these cells leads to significantly decreased RSV infection. RSV induces phosphorylation, activation, and cytoplasm-to-membrane translocation of PKC-alpha. Also, PKC-alpha colocalizes with virus particles and is required for RSV fusion to the cell membrane. Thus, PKC-alpha could provide a new pharmacological target for controlling RSV infection.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1 R01 HL071101-01A2, R01 HL071101

    Journal of virology 2004;78;24;13717-26

  • Expression levels of protein kinase C-alpha in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Lahn M, Su C, Li S, Chedid M, Hanna KR, Graff JR, Sandusky GE, Ma D, Niyikiza C, Sundell KL, John WJ, Giordano TJ, Beer DG, Paterson BM, Su EW and Bumol TF

    Oncology Product Development, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. mlahn@lilly.com

    Current treatments of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are inadequate and new therapies are being developed that target specific cellular signaling proteins associated with tumor growth. One potential target is protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, a signaling molecule with an important role in cell regulation and proliferation. The present study examines the expression levels of PKC-alpha in NSCLC to better understand the distribution of PKC-alpha in NSCLC. We analyzed tumor specimens from an independent tumor tissue bank to determine PKC-alpha protein and messenger RNA gene expression in NSCLC. In addition, we used publicly available gene expression array data to further understand PKC-a-associated gene expression profiles in NSCLC. We found that PKC-alpha is highly expressed in < or = 20% of patients with NSCLC. We also found that PKC-alpha was preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Clinical lung cancer 2004;6;3;184-9

  • IL-10 production induced by HIV-1 Tat stimulation of human monocytes is dependent on the activation of PKC beta(II) and delta isozymes.

    Contreras X, Bennasser Y and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'immuno-virologie des lentivirus des primates, EA3038, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, France.

    The effect of HIV-1 Tat protein on the production of IL-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine, was examined in human primary monocytes obtained from healthy HIV-1-negative blood donors. As expected and in agreement with our previous data, a dose-dependent induction of IL-10 was observed. In addition, we showed that this induction is mediated by the PKC pathway: in the presence of Ro 31-8220, an inhibitor of all PKC isozymes, or after 48 h of PMA treatment, Tat protein becomes unable to stimulate IL-10 production. Among the 11 PKC isozymes, eight (PKC alpha, beta(I), beta(II), delta, epsilon, eta, zeta, mu) are expressed in monocytes. In this study, by analyzing the translocation to the membrane after Tat stimulation, we showed that PKC alpha, beta(I), beta(II), delta and epsilon isozymes are activated by Tat. Moreover, by combining different approaches including selective PKC inhibitors (Gö6983, Gö6976, hispidin and rottlerin), we showed that PKC beta(II) and delta isozymes are essential for the activation of IL-10 production in human monocytes following stimulation by HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Microbes and infection 2004;6;13;1182-90

  • Decay-accelerating factor induction on vascular endothelium by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via a VEGF receptor-2 (VEGF-R2)- and protein kinase C-alpha/epsilon (PKCalpha/epsilon)-dependent cytoprotective signaling pathway and is inhibited by cyclosporin A.

    Mason JC, Steinberg R, Lidington EA, Kinderlerer AR, Ohba M and Haskard DO

    British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Medicine Unit, Eric Bywaters Center, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom. justin.mason@imperial.ac.uk

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a membrane-bound complement regulatory protein, is up-regulated on endothelial cells (ECs) following treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), providing enhanced protection from complement-mediated injury. We explored the signaling pathways involved in this response. Incubation of human umbilical vein ECs with VEGF induced a 3-fold increase in DAF expression. Inhibition by flk-1 kinase inhibitor SU1498 and failure of placental growth factor (PlGF) to up-regulate DAF confirmed the role of VEGF-R2. The response was also blocked by pretreatment with phospholipase C-gamma (PLCgamma) inhibitor U71322 and protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist GF109203X. In contrast, no effect was seen with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). Use of PKC agonists and isozyme-specific pseudosubstrate peptide antagonists suggested a role for PKCalpha and -epsilon in VEGF-mediated DAF up-regulation. This was confirmed by transfection of ECs with PKCalpha and -epsilon dominant-negative constructs, which in combination completely abrogated induction of DAF by VEGF. In contrast, LY290042, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly augmented DAF expression, suggesting a negative regulatory role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase. The widely used immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibited DAF induction by VEGF in a dose-dependent manner. The VEGF-induced DAF expression was functionally effective, significantly reducing complement-mediated EC lysis, and this cytoprotective effect was reversed by CsA. These data provide evidence for a VEGF-R2-, phospholipase C-gamma-, and PKCalpha/epsilon-mediated cytoprotective pathway in ECs. This may represent an important mechanism for the maintenance of vascular integrity during chronic inflammation involving complement activation. Moreover, inhibition of this pathway by CsA may play a role in CsA-mediated vascular injury.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;40;41611-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • AKAP-Lbc nucleates a protein kinase D activation scaffold.

    Carnegie GK, Smith FD, McConnachie G, Langeberg LK and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

    The transmission of cellular signals often proceeds through multiprotein complexes where enzymes are positioned in proximity to their upstream activators and downstream substrates. In this report we demonstrate that the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc assembles an activation complex for the lipid-dependent enzyme protein kinase D (PKD). Using a combination of biochemical, enzymatic, and immunofluorescence techniques, we show that the anchoring protein contributes to PKD activation in two ways: it recruits an upstream kinase PKCeta and coordinates PKA phosphorylation events that release activated protein kinase D. Thus, AKAP-Lbc synchronizes PKA and PKC activities in a manner that leads to the activation of a third kinase. This configuration illustrates the utility of kinase anchoring as a mechanism to constrain the action of broad-spectrum enzymes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Molecular cell 2004;15;6;889-99

  • Autophosphorylation suppresses whereas kinase inhibition augments the translocation of protein kinase Calpha in response to diacylglycerol.

    Stensman H, Raghunath A and Larsson C

    Lund University, Molecular Medicine, Entrance 78, 3rd Floor, Malmö University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

    We have seen that protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) is transiently translocated to the plasma membrane by carbachol stimulation of neuroblastoma cells. This is induced by the Ca2+ increase, and PKCalpha does not respond to diacylglycerol (DAG). The unresponsiveness is dependent on structures in the catalytic domain of PKCalpha. This study was designed to investigate if and how the kinase activity and autophosphorylation are involved in regulating the translocation. PKCalpha enhanced green fluorescent protein translocation was studied in living neuroblastoma cells by confocal microscopy. Carbachol stimulation induced a transient translocation of PKCalpha to the plasma membrane and a sustained translocation of kinase-dead PKCalpha. In cells treated with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, wild-type PKCalpha also showed a sustained translocation. The same effects were seen with PKCbetaI, PKCbetaII, and PKCdelta. Only kinase-dead and not wild-type PKCalpha translocated in response to 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol. To examine whether autophosphorylation regulates relocation to the cytosol, the autophosphorylation sites in PKCalpha were mutated to glutamate, to mimic phosphorylation, or alanine, to mimic the non-phosphorylated protein. After stimulation with carbachol, glutamate mutants behaved like wild-type PKCalpha, whereas alanine mutants behaved like kinase-dead PKCalpha. When the alanine mutants were treated with 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, all cells showed a sustained translocation of the protein. However, neither carbachol nor GF109203X had any major effects on the level of autophosphorylation, and GF109203X potentiated the translocation of the glutamate mutants. We, therefore, hypothesize that 1) autophosphorylation of PKCalpha limits its sensitivity to DAG and 2) that kinase inhibitors augment the DAG sensitivity of PKCalpha, perhaps by destabilizing the closed conformation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;39;40576-83

  • Regulation of SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase in human platelets by serine phosphorylation at its C terminus.

    Jones ML, Craik JD, Gibbins JM and Poole AW

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    SHP-1 is a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase that plays an essential role in negative regulation of immune cell activity. We describe here a new model for regulation of SHP-1 involving phosphorylation of its C-terminal Ser591 by associated protein kinase Calpha. In human platelets, SHP-1 was found to constitutively associate with its substrate Vav1 and, through its SH2 domains, with protein kinase Calpha. Upon activation of either PAR1 or PAR4 thrombin receptors, the association between the three proteins was retained, and Vav1 became phosphorylated on tyrosine and SHP-1 became phosphorylated on Ser591. Phosphorylation of SHP-1 was mediated by protein kinase C and negatively regulated the activity of SHP-1 as demonstrated by a decrease in the in vitro ability of SHP-1 to dephosphorylate Vav1 on tyrosine. Protein kinase Calpha therefore critically and negatively regulates SHP-1 function, forming part of a mechanism to retain SHP-1 in a basal active state through interaction with its SH2 domains, and phosphorylating its C-terminal Ser591 upon cellular activation leading to inhibition of SHP-1 activity and an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation status of its substrates.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;39;40475-83

  • Serine and threonine phosphorylation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein by protein kinase Calpha regulates endocytosis and association with adaptor molecules.

    Ranganathan S, Liu CX, Migliorini MM, Von Arnim CA, Peltan ID, Mikhailenko I, Hyman BT and Strickland DK

    Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large receptor that participates in endocytosis, signaling pathways, and phagocytosis of necrotic cells. Mechanisms that direct LRP to function in these distinct pathways likely involve its association with distinct cytoplasmic adaptor proteins. We tested the hypothesis that the association of various adaptor proteins with the LRP cytoplasmic domain is modulated by its phosphorylation state. Phosphoamino acid analysis of metabolically labeled LRP revealed that this receptor is phosphorylated at serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues within its cytoplasmic domain, whereas inhibitor studies identified protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) as a kinase capable of phosphorylating LRP. Mutational analysis identified critical threonine and serine residues within the LRP cytoplasmic domain that are necessary for phosphorylation mediated by PKCalpha. Mutating these threonine and serine residues to alanines generated a receptor that was not phosphorylated and that was internalized more rapidly than wild-type LRP, revealing that phosphorylation reduces the association of LRP with adaptor molecules of the endocytic machinery. In contrast, serine and threonine phosphorylation was necessary for the interaction of LRP with Shc, an adaptor protein that participates in signaling events. Furthermore, serine and threonine phosphorylation increased the interaction of LRP with other adaptor proteins such as Dab-1 and CED-6/GULP. These results indicate that phosphorylation of LRP by PKCalpha modulates the endocytic and signaling function of LRP by modifying its association with adaptor proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL50784, HL54710; NIA NIH HHS: AG12406

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;39;40536-44

  • The plasma membrane translocation of diacylglycerol kinase delta1 is negatively regulated by conventional protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation at Ser-22 and Ser-26 within the pleckstrin homology domain.

    Imai S, Kai M, Yamada K, Kanoh H and Sakane F

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

    DGK (diacylglycerol kinase) regulates the concentration of two bioactive lipids, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. DGKdelta1 or its PH (pleckstrin homology) domain alone has been shown to be translocated to the plasma membrane from the cytoplasm in PMA-treated cells. In the present study, we identified Ser-22 and Ser-26 within the PH domain as the PMA- and epidermal-growth-factor-dependent phosphorylation sites of DGKdelta1. Experiments in vitro 1b1a and with intact cells suggested that the cPKC (conventional protein kinase C) phosphorylated these Ser residues directly. Puzzlingly, alanine/asparagine mutants at Ser-22 and Ser-26 of DGKdelta1 and its PH domain are still persistently translocated by PMA treatment, suggesting that the PH domain phosphorylation is not responsible for the enzyme translocation and that the translocation was caused by a PMA-dependent, but cPKC-independent, process yet to be identified. Interestingly, the aspartate mutation, which mimics phosphoserine, at Ser-22 or Ser-26, inhibited the translocation of full-length DGKdelta1 and the PH domain markedly, suggesting that the phosphorylation regulates negatively the enzyme translocation. Our results provide evidence of the phosphorylation of the DGKdelta1 PH domain by cPKC, and suggest that the phosphorylation is involved in the control of subcellular localization of DGKdelta1.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;382;Pt 3;957-66

  • The M-CSF receptor substrate and interacting protein FMIP is governed in its subcellular localization by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation, and thereby potentiates M-CSF-mediated differentiation.

    Mancini A, Koch A, Whetton AD and Tamura T

    Institut für Biochemie, OE 4310, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30623 Hannover, Germany.

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and its cognate receptor, the tyrosine kinase c-fms, are essential for monocyte and macrophage development. We have recently identified an Fms-interacting protein (FMIP) that binds tran 1f40 siently to the cytoplasmic domain of activated Fms molecules and is phosphorylated on tyrosine by Fms tyrosine kinase. FMIP is a substrate not only for Fms but also for protein kinase C (PKC). Mutagenesis reveals that this occurs on serines 5 and 6. Adjacent to these sites is a nuclear localization signal (NLS). We show that this NLS is essential for the predominantly nuclear localization of FMIP. Generation of phosphomimetic substitutions on serine residues 5 and 6 confirms that PKC-mediated phosphorylation on this site leads to translocation of FMIP to the cytosol. Furthermore, the mutant FMIP (FMIPSS5,6AA) was detected abundantly in the nucleus even in the presence of activated PKCalpha. Wild-type FMIP and FMIPSS5,6AA inhibited M-CSF-mediated survival signaling, while FMIPSS5,6EE-expressing cells survived and differentiated into macrophages more efficiently than wild-type cells in the presence of M-CSF or TPA. We conclude M-CSF-mediated activation of PKCalpha can potentiate FMIP action to initiate survival/differentiation signaling.

    Oncogene 2004;23;39;6581-9

  • The interaction of protein kinase C isozymes alpha, iota, and theta with the cytoplasmic domain of L-selectin is modulated by phosphorylation of the receptor.

    Kilian K, Dernedde J, Mueller EC, Bahr I and Tauber R

    Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Charité, Berlin 12200, Germany. karin.kilian@charite.de

    The leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin has an important role in the initial steps of leukocyte extravasation during inflammation and lymphocyte homing. Its cytoplasmic domain is involved in signal transduction after L-selectin cross-linking and in the regulation of receptor binding activity in response to intracellular signals. However, the signaling events occurring at the level of the receptor are largely unknown. This study therefore addressed the question of whether protein kinases associate with the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor and mediate its phosphorylation. Using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the L-selectin cytoplasmic domain, we isolated a kinase activity from cellular extracts of the human leukemic Jurkat T-cell line that phosphorylated L-selectin on serine residues. This kinase showed characteristics of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Moreover, the Ca(2+)-independent PKC isozymes theta and iota were found associated with the cytoplasmic domain of L-selectin. Pseudosubstrate inhibitors of these isozymes abolished phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain, demonstrating that these kinases are responsible for the phosphorylation. Analysis of proteins specifically bound to the phosphorylated cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin revealed that PKCalpha and -theta are strongly associated with the phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of L-selectin. Binding of these isozymes to L-selectin was also found in intact cells after phorbol ester treatment inducing serine phosphorylation of the receptor. Furthermore, stimulation of Jurkat T-cells by CD3 cross-linking induced association of PKCalpha and -theta with L-selectin, indicating a role of these kinases in the regulation of L-selectin through the T-cell receptor complex. The phosphorylation-regulated association of PKC isozymes with the cytoplasmic domain of L-selectin indicates an important role of this kinase family in L-selectin signal transduction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;33;34472-80

  • Association of protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene with multiple sclerosis in a UK population.

    Barton A, Woolmore JA, Ward D, Eyre S, Hinks A, Ollier WE, Strange RC, AA, John S, Hawkins CP and Worthington J

    ARC-EU, Stopford Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. ABarton@fs1.ser.man.ac.uk

    Twin, family and adoption studies suggest that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is substantially mediated by genetic factors. Linkage to human chromosome 17q, homologous to a locus linked to experimental animal models of multiple sclerosis, has been widely replicated and the region likely to harbour a multiple sclerosis susceptibility gene has recently been refined to a 2.5 Mb region of 17q22-24. The candidate multiple sclerosis susceptibility gene, protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA), maps within this interval and association with 35 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, spanning the gene with a median spacing of 7.8 kb, was tested using a case-control approach. Single-marker genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies were compared in UK unrelated cases with multiple sclerosis (n = 184) and healthy controls (n = 340) in order to investigate association with susceptibility to disease. A haplotype of two SNPs mapping to the proximal region of the gene showed evidence for association with susceptibility (Bonferroni-corrected P value = 1.1 x 10(-5)). These findings suggest that further investigation of the PRKCA gene is warranted, particularly in cohorts with evidence of linkage to 17q22. Most of the SNPs investigated in this study were intronic and screening to identify disease-associated functional mutations is now required. Our results suggest that the promoter and proximal gene region should be not only included but prioritized in any screening strategy.

    Brain : a journal of neurology 2004;127;Pt 8;1717-22

  • The role of protein kinase D in neurotensin secretion mediated by protein kinase C-alpha/-delta and Rho/Rho kinase.

    Li J, O'Connor KL, Hellmich MR, Greeley GH, Townsend CM and Evers BM

    Department of Surgery and Sealy Center for Cancer Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0536, USA.

    Neurotensin (NT) is a gut peptide that plays an important role in gastrointestinal (GI) secretion, motility, and growth as well as the proliferation of NT receptor positive cancers. Secretion of NT is regulated by phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms-alpha and -delta and may involve protein kinase D (PKD). The purpose of our present study was: (i) to define the role of PKD in NT release from BON endocrine cells and (ii) to delineate the upstream signaling mechanisms mediating this effect. Here, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against PKD dramatically inhibited both basal and PMA-stimulated NT secretion; NT release is significantly increased by overexpression of PKD. PKC-alpha and -delta siRNA attenuated PKD activity, whereas overexpression of PKC-alpha and -delta enhanced PKD activity. Rho kinase (ROK) siRNA significantly inhibited NT secretion, whereas overexpression of ROKalpha effectively increased NT release. Rho protein inhibitor C3 dramatically inhibited both NT secretion and PKD activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PKD activation plays a central role in NT peptide secretion; upstream regulators of PKD include PKC-alpha and -delta and Rho/ROK. Importantly, our results identify novel signaling pathways, which culminate in gut peptide release.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R21 CA 10212; NIA NIH HHS: 2R37 AG 10885; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK 35608, R01 DK 48489, R01 DK 58119

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;27;28466-74

  • Differential involvement of protein kinase C alpha and epsilon in the regulated secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein.

    Lanni C, Mazzucchelli M, Porrello E, Govoni S and Racchi M

    Department of Experimental and Applied Pharmacology, Centre of Excellence in Applied Biology and School of Pharmacy, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 14, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

    We investigated the differential role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in the regulated proteolytic release of soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We used cells stably transfected with cDNAs encoding either PKCalpha or PKCepsilon in the antisense orientation, producing a reduction of the expression of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, respectively. Reduced expression of PKCalpha and/or PKCepsilon did not modify the response of the kinase to phorbol ester stimulation, demonstrating translocation of the respective isoforms from the cytosolic fraction to specific intracellular compartments with an interesting differential localization of PKCalpha to the plasma membrane and PKCepsilon to Golgi-like structures. Reduced expression of PKCalpha significantly impaired the secretion of sAPPalpha induced by treatment with phorbol esters. Treatment of PKCalpha-deficient cells with carbachol induced a significant release of sAPPalpha. These results suggest that the involvement of PKCalpha in carbachol-induced sAPPalpha release is negligible. The response to carbachol is instead completely blocked in PKCepsilon-deficient cells suggesting the importance of PKCepsilon in coupling cholinergic receptors with APP metabolism.

    European journal of biochemistry 2004;271;14;3068-75

  • ERK1/2 mediates insulin stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit in human skeletal muscle cells.

    Al-Khalili L, Kotova O, Tsuchida H, Ehrén I, Féraille E, Krook A and Chibalin AV

    Section of Integrative Physiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Insulin stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and induces translocation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle. We determined the molecular mechanism by which insulin regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSMCs). Insulin action on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was dependent on ERK1/2 in HSMCs. Sequence analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunits revealed several potential ERK phosphorylation sites. Insulin increased ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake and [(3)H]ouabain binding in intact cells. Insulin also increased phosphorylation and plasma membrane content of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits. Insulin-stimulated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activation, phosphorylation, and translocation of alpha-subunits to the plasma membrane were abolished by 20 microm PD98059, which is an inhibitor of MEK1/2, an upstream kinase of ERK1/2. Furthermore, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (100 nm wortmannin) and protein kinase C (10 microm GF109203X) had similar effects. Notably, insulin-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abolished by wortmannin and GF109203X in HSMCs. Insulin also stimulated phosphorylation of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits on Thr-Pro amino acid motifs, which form specific ERK substrates. Furthermore, recombinant ERK1 and -2 kinases were able to phosphorylate alpha-subunit of purified human Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in vitro. In conclusion, insulin stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and translocation to plasma membrane in HSMCs via phosphorylation of the alpha-subunits by ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;24;25211-8

  • Cytoskeletal restraints regulate homotypic ALCAM-mediated adhesion through PKCalpha independently of Rho-like GTPases.

    Zimmerman AW, Nelissen JM, van Emst-de Vries SE, Willems PH, de Lange F, Collard JG, van Leeuwen FN and Figdor CG

    Department of Tumor Immunology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    The activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is dynamically regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying the cytoskeletal restraints of this homotypic adhesion molecule. We observed that ALCAM-mediated adhesion induced by cytoskeleton-disrupting agents is accompanied by activation of the small GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. Interestingly, unlike adhesion mediated by integrins or cadherins, ALCAM-mediated adhesion appears to be independent of Rho-like GTPase activity. By contrast, we demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) plays a major role in ALCAM-mediated adhesion. PKC inhibition by chelerythrine chloride and myristoylated PKC pseudosubstrate, as well as PKC downregulation by PMA strongly reduce cytoskeleton-dependent ALCAM-mediated adhesion. Since serine and threonine residues are dispensable for ALCAM-mediated adhesion and ALCAM is not phosphorylated, we can rule out that ALCAM itself is a direct PKC substrate. We conclude that PKCalpha plays a dominant role in cytoskeleton-dependent avidity modulation of ALCAM.

    Journal of cell science 2004;117;Pt 13;2841-52

  • Salmonella typhimurium SipA-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration: involvement of a PKC-alpha-dependent signal transduction pathway.

    Silva M, Song C, Nadeau WJ, Matthews JB and McCormick BA

    Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02129, USA.

    Salmonella typhimurium elicits an intense proinflammatory response characterized by movement of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) across the epithelial barrier to the intestinal lumen. We previously showed that S. typhimurium, via the type III secretion system effector protein SipA, initiates an ADP-ribosylation factor-6- and phospholipase D-dependent lipid-signaling cascade that directs activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and subsequent transepithelial movem e4a ent of PMN. Here we sought to determine the specific PKC isoforms that are induced by the S. typhimurium effector SipA in model intestinal epithelia and to link the functional consequences of these isoforms in the promotion of PMN transepithelial migration. In vitro kinase PKC activation assays performed on polarized monolayers of T84 cells revealed that S. typhimurium and recombinant SipA induced activation of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon. To elucidate which of these isoforms play a key role in mediating epithelial cell responses that lead to the observed PMN transepithelial migration, we used a variety of PKC inhibitors with different isoform selectivity profiles. Inhibitors selective for PKC-alpha (Gö-6976 and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexahydroxyl-1,1'-biphenyl-6,6'-dimethanoldimethyl ether) markedly reduced S. typhimurium- and recombinant SipA-induced PMN transepithelial migration, whereas inhibitors to PKC-delta (rottlerin) or PKC-epsilon (V1-2) failed to exhibit a significant decrease in transepithelial movement of PMN. These results were confirmed biochemically and by immunofluorescence coupled to confocal microscopy. Our results are the first to show that the S. typhimurium effector protein SipA can activate multiple PKC isoforms, but only PKC-alpha is involved in the signal transduction cascade leading to PMN transepithelial migration.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-33506, DK-48010, DK-51630, DK-56754

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2004;286;6;G1024-31

  • Expression of protein kinase C isoforms and interleukin-1beta in myofibrillar myopathy.

    Vattemi G, Tonin P, Mora M, Filosto M, Morandi L, Savio C, Dal Pra I, Rizzuto N and Tomelleri G

    Department of Neurological Sciences and Vision, Section of Clinical Neurology, Clinica Neurologica, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona, Italy.

    Background: The term myofibrillar myopathy refers to a rare and clinically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. The pathogenesis of this myopathy is not well understood. The morphologic hallmark is myofibrillar destruction with abnormal expression of numerous proteins, most consistently of desmin.

    Methods: The authors investigated eight patients with myofibrillar myopathy belonging to four families. They studied the role of different protein kinase C isoforms and of interleukin-1beta, a cytokine that might activate protein kinase C and, in addition, mediate myofibrillar proteolysis.

    Results: Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of alpha, eta, and zeta isoforms of protein kinase C and of interleukin-1beta in abnormal muscle fibers. Immunoblots confirmed the immunohistochemical data and revealed the absence of protein kinase C delta and epsilon in muscle fibers from patients and controls.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that protein kinase C and interleukin-1beta may play a role in the pathogenesis of myofibrillar myopathy.

    Neurology 2004;62;10;1778-82

  • NMR and mutagenesis studies on the phosphorylation region of human cardiac troponin I.

    Ward DG, Brewer SM, Gallon CE, Gao Y, Levine BA and Trayer IP

    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

    Phosphorylation of the cardiac troponin complex by PKA at S22 and S23 of troponin I (TnI) accelerates Ca(2+) release from troponin C (TnC). The region of TnI around the bisphosphorylation site binds to, and stabilizes, the Ca(2+) bound N-terminal domain of TnC. Phosphorylation interferes with this interaction between TnI and TnC resulting in weaker Ca(2+) binding. In this study, we used (1)H-(15)N-HSQC NMR to investigate at the atomic level the interaction between an N-terminal fragment of TnI consisting of residues 1-64 of TnI (I1-64) and TnC. We produced several mutants of I1-64, TnI, and TnC to test the contribution of certain residues to the transmission of the phosphorylation signal in both NMR experiments and functional assays. We also investigated how phosphorylation of the PKC sites in I1-64 (S41 and S43) affects the interaction of I1-64 with TnC. We found that phosphorylation of S22 and S23 produced only localized effects in the structure of I1-64 between residues 24 and 34. Residues 1-17 of I1-64 did not bind to TnC, and residues 38-64 bound tightly to the C-terminal domain of TnC regardless of phosphorylation. Residues 22-34 bound weakly to TnC in a phosphorylation sensitive manner. Bisphosphorylation prevented this phosphorylation switch region from interacting with TnC. Systematic mutation of residues in the phosphorylation switch did not prevent PKA phosphorylation from accelerating Ca(2+) release from troponin. We conclude that the phosphorylation switch binds to TnC via an extended interaction site spanning residues R19 to A34.

    Biochemistry 2004;43;19;5772-81

  • Protein kinase C-alpha phosphorylation of specific serines in the connecting segment of the beta 4 integrin regulates the dynamics of type II hemidesmosomes.

    Rabinovitz I, Tsomo L and Mercurio AM

    Division of Cancer Biology and Angiogenesis, Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. irarabinov@caregroup.harvard.edu

    Although the regulation of hemidesmosome dynamics during processes such as epithelial migration, wound healing, and carcinoma invasion is important, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is an essential component of the hemidesmosome and a target of such regulation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce hemidesmosome disassembly by a mechanism that involves serine phosphorylation of the beta 4 integrin subunit. Using a combination of biochemical and mutational analyses, we demonstrate that EGF induces the phosphorylation of three specific serine residues (S(1356), S(1360), and S(1364)) located within the connecting segment of the beta 4 subunit and that phosphorylation on these residues accounts for the bulk of beta 4 phosphorylation stimulated by EGF. Importantly, phosphorylation of these serines is critical for the ability of EGF to disrupt hemidesmosomes. Using COS-7 cells, which assemble hemidesmosomes type II upon exogenous expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, we observed that expression of a beta 4 construct containing Ser-->Ala mutations of S(1356), S(1360), and S(1364) reduced the ability of EGF to disrupt hemidesmosomes and that this effect appears to involve cooperation among these phosphorylation sites. Moreover, expression of Ser-->Asp mutants that mimic constitutive phosphorylation reduced hemidesmosome formation. Protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating at least two of these serines, based on in vitro kinase assays, peptide mapping, and mutational analysis. Together, these results highlight the importance of serine phosphorylation in regulating type II hemidesmosome disassembly, implicate a cluster of serine residues within the connecting segment of beta 4, and argue for a key role for PKC-alpha in regulating these structures.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80789, CA88919, K01 CA088919, R01 CA080789

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;10;4351-60

  • Lactosylceramide recruits PKCalpha/epsilon and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Gong N, Wei H, Chowdhury SH and Chatterjee S

    Johns Hopkins Singapore-National Heart Centre Vascular Biology Program, 41 Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117610.

    Despite the importance of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in the adhesion and diapedesis of monocytes/lymphocytes, little is known about the mechanisms by which it is regulated. We explored the role of a glycosphingolipid, lactosylceramide (LacCer), in modulating PECAM-1 expression and cell adhesion in human monocytes. We observed that LacCer specifically exerted a time-dependent increase in PECAM-1 expression in U-937 cells. Maximal increase in PECAM-1 protein occurred after incubation with LacCer for 60 min. LacCer activated PKCalpha and -epsilon by translocating them from cytosol to membrane. This was accompanied by the activation of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and the increase of cell adhesion, which were abrogated by chelerythrine chloride, 2-[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-maleimide and 12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)pyrrolo(3,4-c)-carbazole (GO 6976) (PKC inhibitors). Similarly, bromoenol lactone (a Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2) inhibitor) and methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (an inhibitor of cytosolic PLA(2) and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)) inhibited LacCer-induced PLA(2) activity. Bromophenacyl bromide (a PLA(2) inhibitor) abrogated LacCer-induced PECAM-1 expression, and this was bypassed by arachidonic acid. Furthermore, the arachidonate-induced up-regulation of PECAM-1 was abrogated by indomethacin [a cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 inhibitor] or N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (a COX-2 inhibitor) but not nordihydroguaiaretic acid (a lipoxygenase inhibitor). In sum, PKCalpha/epsilon are the primary targets for the activation of LacCer. Downstream activation of intracellular Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2) and/or cytosolic PLA(2) results in the production of arachidonic acid, which in turn serves as a precursor for prostaglandins that subsequently stimulate PECAM-1 expression and cell adhesion. These findings may be relevant in explaining the role of LacCer in the regulation of PECAM-1 and related pathophysiology.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;17;6490-5

  • Cell volume regulation in response to hypotonicity is impaired in HeLa cells expressing a protein kinase Calpha mutant lacking kinase activity.

    Hermoso M, Olivero P, Torres R, Riveros A, Quest AF and Stutzin A

    Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas and Centro de Estudios Moleculares de la Célula Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 6530499, Santiago, Chile.

    The chloride conductance (G(Cl,swell)) that participates in the regulatory volume decrease process triggered by osmotic swelling in HeLa cells was impaired by removal of extracellular Ca(2+), depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin, or by preloading the cells with BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). Furthermore, overnight exposure to the phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate and acute incubation with inhibitors of the conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms bisindolylmaleimide I and Gö6976 inhibited G(Cl,swell). Treatment of HeLa cells with U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, also prevented G(Cl,swell). Hypotonicity induced selective PKC alpha accumulation in the membrane/cytoskeleton fraction in fractionation experiments and translocation of a green fluorescent protein-PKC alpha fusion protein to the plasma membrane of transiently transfected HeLa cells. To further explore the role of PKCs in hypotonicity-induced G(Cl,swell), HeLa clones stably expressing either a kinase-dead dominant negative variant of the Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoform alpha (PKC alpha K386R) or of the atypical PKC isoform zeta (PKCzeta K275W) were generated. G(Cl,swell) was significantly reduced in HeLa cells expressing the dominant negative PKC alpha mutant but remained unaltered in cells expressing dominant negative PKCzeta. These findings strongly implicate PKC alpha as a 1326 critical regulatory element that is required for efficient regulatory volume decrease in HeLa cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;17;17681-9

  • Cooperation between PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon in the regulation of JNK activation in human lung cancer cells.

    Lang W, Wang H, Ding L and Xiao L

    University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, P.O. Box 100232, Gainesville, FL 32610-0232, USA.

    Phorbol esters can induce activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Unlike ERK activation, JNK activation by phorbol esters is somehow cell-specific. However, the mechanism(s) that contribute to the cell-specific JNK activation remain elusive. In this study, we found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced JNK activation only in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells, whereas ERK activation was detected in both cell types. In NSCLC cells, PMA induced JNK activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. JNK activation was attenuated by protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulation through prolonged pre-treatment with PMA and significantly inhibited by PKC inhibitors Gö6976 and GF109203X. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that PMA induced translocation of PKC-alpha, -betaII, and -epsilon isoforms, but not PKC-delta, from the cytosol to the membrane. Analysis of various PKC isoforms revealed that PKC-epsilon was exclusively absent in the SCLC cell lines tested. Ectopic expression of PKC-epsilon in SCLC cells restored PMA activation of JNK signaling only in the presence of PKC-alpha, suggesting that PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon act cooperatively in regulating JNK activation in response to PMA. Furthermore, using dominant negative mutants and pharmacological inhibitors, we define that a putative Rac1/Cdc42/PKC-alpha pathway is convergent with the PKC-epsilon/MEK1/2 pathway in terms of the activation of JNK by PMA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA88815

    Cellular signalling 2004;16;4;457-67

  • PKCalpha mediates TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes via phosphorylation of S100C/A11.

    Sakaguchi M, Miyazaki M, Sonegawa H, Kashiwagi M, Ohba M, Kuroki T, Namba M and Huh NH

    Dept. of Cell Biology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2-5-1 Shikatachou, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    Growth regulation of epithelial cells is of major concern because most human cancers arise from them. We demonstrated previously a novel signal pathway involving S100C/A11 for high Ca2+-induced growth inhibition of normal human keratinocytes (Sakaguchi, M., M. Miyazaki, M. Takaishi, Y. Sakaguchi, E. Makino, N. Kataoka, H. Yamada, M. Namba, and N.H. Huh. 2003. J. Cell Biol. 163:825-835). This paper addresses a question whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) shares the pathway with high Ca2+. On exposure of the cells to TGFbeta1, S100C/A11 was phosphorylated, bound to nucleolin, and transferred to the nucleus, resulting in induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p15INK4B through activation of Sp1. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) was shown to phosphorylate 10Thr of S100C/A11, which is a critical event for the signal transduction. The TGFbeta1-induced growth inhibition was almost completely mitigated when PKCalpha activity was blocked or when S100C/A11 was functionally sequestered. These results indicate that, in addition to the well-characterized Smad-mediated pathway, the PKCalpha-S100C/A11-mediated pathway is involved in and essential for the growth inhibition of normal human keratinocytes cells by TGFbeta1.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;164;7;979-84

  • Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I.

    Zemlickova E, Johannes FJ, Aitken A and Dubois T

    University of Edinburgh, Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK.

    The protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17kDa, called CPI-17, specifically inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Phosphorylation of Thr-38 in vivo highly potentiates the ability of CPI-17 to inhibit MLCP. Thr-38 has been shown to be phosphorylated in vitro by a number of protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC), Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), and protein kinase N (PKN). In this study we have focused on the association of protein kinases with CPI-17. Using affinity chromatography and Western blot analysis, we found interaction with all PKC isotypes and casein kinase I isoforms, CKIalpha and CKI. By contrast, ROCK and PKN did not associate with CPI-17, suggesting that PKC may be the relevant kinase that phosphorylates Thr-38 in vivo. CPI-17 interacted with the cysteine-rich domain of PKC and was phosphorylated by all PKC isotypes. We previously found that CPI-17 co-purified with casein kinase I in brain suggesting they are part of a complex and we now show that CPI-17 associates with the kinase domain of CKI isoforms.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;316;1;39-47

  • Ki-1/57 interacts with RACK1 and is a substrate for the phosphorylation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated protein kinase C.

    Nery FC, Passos DO, Garcia VS and Kobarg J

    Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brasil.

    Ki-1/57, the 57-kDa human protein antigen recognized by the CD30 antibody Ki-1, is a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein that is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. When isolated from the Hodgkin's lymphoma analogous cell line L540 Ki-1/57 co-immunoprecipitated with a Thr/Ser protein kinase activity. It has been also found to interact with hyaluronic acid and has therefore been termed intracellular IHABP4 (hyaluronan-binding protein 4). Recent studies demonstrated, however, that Ki-1/57 engages in specific interaction with the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding domain protein 3, a nuclear protein involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to find proteins interacting with Ki-1/57 and identified the adaptor protein RACK1 (receptor of activated kinase 1). Next, we confirmed this interaction in vitro and in vivo, performed detailed mapping studies of the interaction sites of Ki-1/57 and RACK-1, and demonstrated that Ki-1/57 also co-precipitates with protein kinase C (PKC) when isolated from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated L540 tumor cells and is a substrate for PKC phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the interaction of Ki-1/57 with RACK1 is abolished upon activation of L540 cells with PMA, which results in the phosphorylation of Ki-1/57 and its exit from the nucleus. Taken together, our data suggest that Ki-1/57 forms a stable complex with RACK-1 in unstimulated cells and upon PMA stimulation gets phosphorylated on threonine residues located at its extreme C terminus. These events associate Ki-1/57 with the RACK1/PKC pathway and may be important for the regulation of its cellular functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;12;11444-55

  • Syndecan-4 regulates localization, activity and stability of protein kinase C-alpha.

    Keum E, Kim Y, Kim J, Kwon S, Lim Y, Han I and Oh ES

    Department of Life Sciences, Division of Molecular Life Sciences and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.

    During cell-matrix adhesion, syndecan-4 transmembrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan plays a critical role in the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibres. We have shown previously that the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain directly binds to and activates PKC-alpha (protein kinase C-alpha) in vitro [Oh, Woods and Couchman (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8133-8136]. However, whether syndecan-4 has the same activity in vivo needs to be addressed. Using mammalian two-hybrid assays, we showed that syndecan-4 interacted with PKC-alpha in vivo and that this interaction was mediated through syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, the activation of PKC increased the extent of interaction between syndecan-4 and PKC-alpha. Overexpression of syndecan-4, but not a mutant lacking its cytoplasmic domain, specifically increased the level of endogenous PKC-alpha and enhanced the translocation of PKC-alpha into both detergent-insoluble and membrane fractions. In addition, rat embryo fibroblasts overexpressing syndecan-4 exhibited a slowed down-regulation of PKC-alpha in response either to a prolonged treatment with PMA or to maintaining cells in suspension culture. PKC-alpha immunocomplex kinase assays also showed that syndecan-4 overexpression increased the activity of membrane PKC-alpha. Taken together, these results suggest that syndecan-4 interacts with PKC-alpha in vivo and regulates its localization, activity and stability.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;378;Pt 3;1007-14

  • Effects of the antiandrogen flutamide on the expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Montalvo L, Carmena MJ, Bolaños O, Rodríguez-Henche N, Sánchez-Chapado M and Prieto JC

    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain.

    Flutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that is frequently used for total androgen blockage in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. We investigated the effect of this antiandrogen on the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes (alpha, beta1, epsilon, zeta) that are involved in cell growth, apoptosis and neoplastic transformation. Androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC3) human prostate cancer cells were cultured in a medium that contained fetal bovine serum (FBS) or charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) and treated with 10 microM flutamide. The expression of PKC isoenzymes and the androgen receptor (AR) were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. Serum steroids differentially regulate the expression of PKC isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Flutamide up-regulated the expression of alpha, beta1 and zeta, but not epsilon, PKC isoenzymes in CSS-LNCaP cells. These results were not homogeneously reproduced in the presence of androgens. We observed an opposite effect of flutamide, compared to CSS, on PKCbeta1 isoform expression in CSS-LNCaP suggesting that this antiandrogen exerts an agonistic effect. In PC3 cells flutamide potentiated the expression of the four PKC isoenzymes in almost all conditions tested (FBS- and CSS-cultured cells). Such effect of flutamide in PC3 cells is independent of AR since no expression of AR was detected. These results provide new evidence on antagonistic/agonistic responses of prostate cancer cells to antiandrogen drugs that are widely used in therapy and show that flutamide can elicit responses in prostate cancer cells that do not express AR.

    Bioscience reports 2004;24;1;11-21

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Lithium-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta involves PI3 kinase-dependent activation of protein kinase C-alpha.

    Kirshenboim N, Plotkin B, Shlomo SB, Kaidanovich-Beilin O and Eldar-Finkelman H

    Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Lithium, a known mood-stabilizer frequently used in treatment of bipolar disorders, is an effective glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitor. This led to the idea that GSK-3beta is an in vivo target directly inhibited by lithium. As lithium is a weak in vitro inhibitor of GSK-3beta (IC50=2 mM), however, we speculated that it inhibits GSK-3beta via an indirect, yet unknown, mechanism. The present studies show that lithium increased the phosphorylation of a key inhibitory site of GSK-3beta, serine-9 (Ser-9), in HEK293 cells and in PC12 cells. This phosphorylation was significantly reduced by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors GF109203X and Ro31-8425, as well as GO6976, an effective inhibitor toward conventional PKC isoforms (cPKC). Consistent with these results, lithium increased PKC-alpha activity approximately twofold in both cell lines. Because PI3 kinase is a potential upstream regulator of cPKC, its inhibition by wortmannin or LY294002 also abolished the lithium-induced serine phosphorylation of GSK-3beta in HEK293 and PC12 cells. Moreover, lithium did not activate PKB, and in addition, its activity was not dependent on the presence of medium inositol nor did it affect the autophosphorylation activity of GSK-3beta. Finally, intracerebroventricular injection of lithium increased GSK-3beta Ser-9 phosphorylation and enhanced PKC-alpha activity 1.8-fold in mouse hippocampus, confirming this lithium response in vivo. Our studies propose a new mechanism by which lithium indirectly inhibits GSK-3beta via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase- dependent activation of PKC-alpha.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 2004;24;2;237-45

  • cPKC-dependent sequestration of membrane-recycling components in a subset of recycling endosomes.

    Becker KP and Hannun YA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    In addition to the classical role of protein kinase C (PKC) as a mediator of transmembrane signals initiated at the plasma membrane, there is also significant evidence to suggest that a more sustained PKC activity is necessary for a variety of long term cellular responses. To date, the subcellular localization of PKC during sustained activation has not been extensively studied. We report here that long term activation of PKC (1 h) leads to the selective translocation of classical PKC isoenzymes, alpha and betaII, to a juxtanuclear compartment. Juxtanuclear translocation of PKC required an intact C1 and C2 domain, and occurred in a microtubule-dependent manner. This juxtanuclear compartment was localized close to the Golgi complex but displayed no overlap with Golgi markers, and was resistant to dispersal with Golgi disrupting agents, brefeldin A and nocodazole. Further characterization revealed that PKCalpha and betaII translocated to a compartment that colocalized with the small GTPase, rab11, which is a marker for the subset of recycling endosomes concentrated around the microtubule-organizing center/centrosome. Analysis of the functional consequence of cPKC translocation on membrane recycling demonstrated a cPKC-dependent sequestration of transferrin, a marker of membrane recycling, in the cPKC compartment. These results identify a novel site for cPKC translocation and define a novel function for the sustained activation of PKCalpha and betaII in regulation of recycling components.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 43707

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;52;52747-54

  • Protein kinase C switches the Raf kinase inhibitor from Raf-1 to GRK-2.

    Lorenz K, Lohse MJ and Quitterer U

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Versbacher Strasse 9, D-97078 Würzburg, Germany.

    Feedback inhibition is a fundamental principle in signal transduction allowing rapid adaptation to different stimuli. In mammalian cells, the major feedback inhibitor for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK-2), which phosphorylates activated receptors, uncouples them from G prot 1f40 eins and initiates their internalization. The functions of GRK-2 are indispensable and need to be tightly controlled. Dysregulation promotes disorders such as hypertension or heart failure. In our search for a control mechanism for this vital kinase, here we show that the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of GRK-2. After stimulation of GPCR, RKIP dissociates from its known target, Raf-1 (refs 6-8), to associate with GRK-2 and block its activity. This switch is triggered by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the RKIP on serine 153. The data delineate a new principle in signal transduction: by activating PKC, the incoming receptor signal is enhanced both by removing an inhibitor from Raf-1 and by blocking receptor internalization. A physiological role for this mechanism is shown in cardiomyocytes in which the downregulation of RKIP restrains beta-adrenergic signalling and contractile activity.

    Nature 2003;426;6966;574-9

  • Apolipoprotein A-I activates protein kinase C alpha signaling to phosphorylate and stabilize ATP binding cassette transporter A1 for the high density lipoprotein assembly.

    Yamauchi Y, Hayashi M, Abe-Dohmae S and Yokoyama S

    Department of Biochemistry, Cell Biology, and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays an essential role in the helical apolipoprotein-mediated assembly of high density lipoprotein, and the apolipoporteins stabilize ABCA1 against calpain-mediated degradation during the reaction ((2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 22426-22429). Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors suppressed both ABCA1 stabilization and cellular lipid release mediated by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) but not ABCA1 increase by calpain inhibitors. The increase of ABCA1 and the cellular lipid release by apoA-I were both suppressed by a phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C (PC-PLC) inhibitor but not by the inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-PLC and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. A protein phosphatase inhibitor further enhanced the ABCA1 increase by apoA-I. Biochemical and microscopic evidence indicated that apoA-I activated PKC alpha, and phosphorylation of ABCA1 was directly demonstrated by apoA-I via PKC. Finally, digestion of sphingomyelin increased ABCA1, and a PC-PLC inhibitor suppressed it. We conclude that apoA-I activates PKC alpha by PC-PLC-mediated generation of diacylglycerol initiated by the removal of cellular sphingomyelin ((2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 44709-44714), and subsequently phosphorylates and stabilizes ABCA1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;48;47890-7

  • Activation mechanisms of conventional protein kinase C isoforms are determined by the ligand affinity and conformational flexibility of their C1 domains.

    Ananthanarayanan B, Stahelin RV, Digman MA and Cho W

    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

    The regulatory domains of conventional and novel protein kinases C (PKC) have two C1 domains (C1A and C1B) that have been identified as the interaction site for diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol ester. It has been reported that C1A and C1B domains of individual PKC isoforms play different roles in their membrane binding and activation; however, DAG affinity of individual C1 domains has not been quantitatively determined. In this study, we measured the affinity of isolated C1A and C1B domains of two conventional PKCs, PKCalpha and PKCgamma, for soluble and membrane-incorporated DAG and phorbol ester by isothermal calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The C1A and C1B domains of PKCalpha have opposite affinities for DAG and phorbol ester; i.e. the C1A domain with high affinity for DAG and the C1B domain with high affinity for phorbol ester. In contrast, the C1A and C1b domains of PKCgamma have comparably high affinities for both DAG and phorbol ester. Consistent with these 1f40 results, mutational studies of full-length proteins showed that the C1A domain is critical for the DAG-induced activation of PKCalpha, whereas both C1A and C1B domains are involved in the DAG-induced activation of PKCgamma. Further mutational studies in conjunction with in vitro activity assay and monolayer penetration analysis indicated that, unlike the C1A domain of PKCalpha, neither the C1A nor the C1B domain of PKCgamma is conformationally restricted. Cell studies with enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged PKCs showed that PKCalpha did not translocate to the plasma membrane in response to DAG at a basal intracellular calcium concentration due to the inaccessibility of its C1A domain, whereas PKCgamma rapidly translocated to the plasma membrane under the same conditions. These data suggest that differential activation mechanisms of PKC isoforms are determined by the DAG affinity and conformational flexibility of their C1 domains.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 52598, GM 53987

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;47;46886-94

  • Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 in activated human platelets.

    Polgár J, Lane WS, Chung SH, Houng AK and Reed GL

    Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Phosphorylation of SNARE proteins may provide a critical link between cell activation and secretory processes. Platelets contain all three members of the SNAP-23/25/29 gene family, but by comparison to brain tissue, SNAP-23 is the most highly enriched of these proteins in platelets. SNAP-23 function is required for exocytosis from platelet alpha, dense, and lysosomal granules. SNAP-23 was phosphorylated largely on serine residues in platelets activated with thrombin. Phosphorylation kinetics paralleled or preceded granule secretion. Inhibition studies suggested that SNAP-23 phosphorylation proceeds largely through a protein kinase C (PKC) mechanism and purified PKC directly phosphorylated recombinant (r-) SNAP-23 (up to 0.3 mol of phosphate/mol of protein). Five major tryptic phosphopeptides were identified in cellular SNAP-23 isolated from activated platelets; three phosphopeptides co-migrated with those identified in PKC-phosphorylated r-SNAP-23. In contrast, only one major phosphopeptide was identified when SNAP-23, engaged in a ternary SNARE complex, was phosphorylated by PKC. Ion trap mass spectrometry revealed that platelet SNAP-23 was phosphorylated at Ser23/Thr24 and Ser161, after cell activation by thrombin; these sites were also identified in PKC-phosphorylated r-SNAP-23. SNAP-23 mutants that mimic phosphorylation at Ser23/Thr24 inhibited syntaxin 4 interactions, whereas a phosphorylation mutant of Ser161 had only minor effects. Taken together these studies show that SNAP-23 is phosphorylated in platelets during cell activation through a PKC-related mechanism at two or more sites with kinetics that parallel or precede granule secretion. Because mutants that mimic SNAP-23 phosphorylation affect syntaxin 4 interactions, we hypothesize that SNAP-23 phosphorylation may be important for modulating SNARE-complex interactions during membrane trafficking and fusion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-64057

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;45;44369-76

  • Phosphorylation of human cardiac troponin I G203S and K206Q linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects actomyosin interaction in different ways.

    Deng Y, Schmidtmann A, Kruse S, Filatov V, Heilmeyer LM, Jaquet K and Thieleczek R

    St. Josef-Hospital, Klinik der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany.

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of t b50 he two serine residues in the amino terminal region unique to cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is known to cause two effects: (i) decrease of the maximum Ca2+-controlled thin filament-activated myosin S1-ATPase (actoS1-ATPase) activity and mean sliding velocity of reconstituted thin filaments; (ii) rightward shift of the Ca2+ activation curves of actoS1-ATPase activity, filament sliding velocity, and force generation. We have studied the influence of phosphorylation of human wild-type cTnI and of two mutant cTnI (G203S and K206Q) causing familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (fHCM) on the secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy and on the Ca2+ regulation of actin-myosin interaction using actoS1-ATPase activity and in vitro motility assays. Both mutations slightly influence the backbone structure of cTnI but only the secondary structure of cTnI-G203S is also affected by bis-phosphorylation of cTnI. In functional studies, cTnI-G203S behaves similarly to wild-type cTnI, i.e. the mutation itself has no measurable effect and bis-phosphorylation alters the actoS1-ATPase activity and the in vitro thin filament motility in the same way as does bis-phosphorylation of wild-type cTnI. In contrast, the mutation K206Q leads to a considerable increase in the maximum actoS1-ATPase activity as well as filament motility compared to wild-type cTnI. Bis-phosphorylation of this mutant cTnI still suppresses the maximum actoS1-ATPase activity and filament sliding velocity but does no longer affect the Ca2+ sensitivity of these processes. Thus, these two fHCM-linked cTnI mutations, although reflecting similar pathological situations, exert different effects on the actomyosin system per se and in response to bis-phosphorylation of cTnI.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2003;35;11;1365-74

  • PKA, PKC, and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation.

    Firulli BA, Howard MJ, McDaid JR, McIlreavey L, Dionne KM, Centonze VE, Cserjesi P, Virshup DM and Firulli AB

    Wells Center for Pediatric Research, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 2666, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

    The bHLH factors HAND1 and HAND2 are required for heart, vascular, neuronal, limb, and extraembryonic development. Unlike most bHLH proteins, HAND factors exhibit promiscuous dimerization properties. We report that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation via PKA, PKC, and a specific heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) modulates HAND function. The PP2A targeting-subunit B56delta specifically interacts with HAND1 and -2, but not other bHLH proteins. PKA and PKC phosphorylate HAND proteins in vivo, and only B56delta-containing PP2A complexes reduce levels of HAND1 phosphorylation. During RCHOI trophoblast stem cell differentiation, B56delta expression is downregulated and HAND1 phosphorylation increases. Mutations in phosphorylated residues result in altered HAND1 dimerization and biological function. Taken together, these results suggest that site-specific phosphorylation regulates HAND factor functional specificity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA80809; NHLBI NIH HHS: 2R01HL61677-05, R01 HL061677, R01 HL061677-05, R01 HLA61677-01A1; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK57237; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS40644

    Molecular cell 2003;12;5;1225-37

  • Roles of PLC-gamma2 and PKCalpha in TPA-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.

    Zhang B, Wu Q, Ye XF, Liu S, Lin XF and Chen MC

    Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian Province, China.

    Aim: To investigate the roles of PLCgamma2 and PKCalpha in TPA-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.

    Methods: Human gastric cancer cell line MGC80-3 was used. Protein expression levels of PLCgamma2 and PKCalpha were detected by Western blot. Protein localization of PLCgamma2 and PKCalpha was shown by immunofluorescence analysis under laser-scanning confocal microscope. Apoptotic morphology was observed by DAPI fluorescence staining, and apoptotic index was counted among 1,000 cells randomly.

    Results: Treatment of gastric cancer cells MGC80-3 with TPA not only up-regulated expression of PLC-gamma2 protein, but also induced PLC-gamma2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. However, this process was not directly associated with apoptosis induction. Further investigation showed that PKCalpha translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was correlated with initiation of apoptosis. To explore the inevitable linkage between PLC-gamma2 and PKCalpha during apoptosis induction, PLC inhibitor U73122 was used to block PLC-gamma2 translocation, in which neither stimulating PKCalpha translocation nor inducing apoptosis occurred in MGC80-3 cells. However, when U73122-treated cells were exposed to TPA, not only PLC-gamma2, but also PKCalpha was redistributed. On the other hand, when cells were treated with PKC inhibitor alone, PLC-gamma2 protein was still located in the cytoplasm. However, redistribution of PLC-gamma2 protein occurred in the presence of TPA, no matter whether PKC inhibitor existed or not.

    Conclusion: PLC-gamma2 translocation is critical in transmitting TPA signal to its downstream molecule PKCalpha. As an effector, PKCalpha directly promotes apoptosis of MGC80-3 cells. Therefore, protein translocation of PLCgamma2 and PKCalpha is critical event in the process of apoptosis induction.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2003;9;11;2413-8

  • Interaction of fascin and protein kinase Calpha: a novel intersection in cell adhesion and motility.

    Anilkumar N, Parsons M, Monk R, Ng T and Adams JC

    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    Coordination of protrusive and contractile cell-matrix contacts is important for cell adhesion and migration, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We report an unexpected direct association between fascin, an actin-bundling component of filopodia, microspikes and lamellipodial ribs, and protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), a regulator of focal adhesions. The association is detectable by protein-protein binding in vitro, by coimmunoprecipitation from cell extracts, and in live cells as fluorescence resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence imaging lifetime microscopy. The interaction is physiologically regulated by the extracellular matrix context of cells, depends on activation of PKCalpha and is mediated by the C1B domain of PKCalpha. Strikingly, a fascin mutant, fascin S39D, associates constitutively with PKCalpha. Through use of a newly developed set of membrane-permeable peptides that separately inhibit either fascin/PKCalpha or fascin/actin binding, we have uncovered that specific blockade of the fascin/PKCalpha interaction increases cell migration on fibronectin in conjunction with increased fascin protrusions and remodeling of focal adhesions. These results identify the fascin-PKCalpha interaction as an important novel intersection in the regulation and networking of cell-matrix contacts.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: R01 068073

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;20;5390-402

  • A p53-independent G1 cell cycle checkpoint induced by the suppression of protein kinase C alpha and theta isoforms.

    Deeds L, Teodorescu S, Chu M, Yu Q and Chen CY

    Cancer Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family consists of multiple isoforms that are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular responses. Suppression of PKC induces growth arrest in various types of cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. In this report, we demonstrated that the concurrent inhibition, rather than separate inhibition, of phorbol ester-dependent PKC alpha and theta isoforms is crucial for the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and that this negative cell cycle regulation is via p53-independent mechanisms. PKC suppression-mediated growth arrest is associated with the induction of cell cycle inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and the occurrence of hypophosphorylated Rb. The G1 checkpoint induced by the suppression of PKC occurs not only in murine Swiss3T3 but also in p53-deficient cells and human lung cancer cells containing mutated p53. Luciferase and nuclear run-off assays demonstrated that p21WAF1/CIP1 is, in part, transcriptionally regulated in response to the suppression of PKC alpha and theta. However, the stability of p21 mRNA is also augmented after the addition of PKC alpha and theta antisense oligonucleotides, indicating the involvement of post-transcriptional mechanisms in p21WAF1/CIP1 expression. These data suggest the existence of a cell cycle checkpoint pathway regulated by PKC alpha and theta isoforms. Furthermore, our findings support the notion that G1 checkpoint control can be restored in tumor cells containing abnormal p53, by targeting the PKC-regulated p21WAF1/CIP1 induction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;41;39782-93

  • Protein kinase C alpha phosphorylates and negatively regulates diacylglycerol kinase zeta.

    Luo B, Prescott SM and Topham MK

    Huntsman Cancer Institute, and Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) terminates diacylglycerol (DAG) signaling by phosphorylating DAG to produce phosphatidic acid, which also has signaling properties. Thus, precise control of DGK activity is essential for proper signal transduction. We demonstrated previously that a peptide corresponding to the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) phosphorylation site domain (PSD) in DGK zeta was phosphorylated in vitro by an active fragment of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we tested full-length DGK zeta and found that PKC alpha phosphorylated DGK zeta on serines within the MARCKS PSD in vitro and in vivo. DGK zeta also coimmunoprecipitated with PKC alpha, suggesting that they reside in a regulated signaling complex. We then tested whether phosphorylation affected DAG kinase activity. We found that a mutant (DGK zeta S/D) in which serines within the MARCKS PSD were altered to aspartates (to mimic phosphorylation) had lower activity compared with wild-type DGK zeta or a control mutant (DGK zeta S/N) in which the same serines were changed to asparagines. Furthermore, activation of PKC alpha by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibited the activity of wild-type DGK zeta, but not DGK zeta S/D, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. These results suggest that by phosphorylating the MARCKS PSD, PKC alpha attenuates DGK zeta activity. Supporting this, we found that cells expressing DGK zeta S/D had higher DAG levels and grew more rapidly compared with cells expressing DGK zeta S/N that could not be phosphorylated. Taken together, these results indicate that PKC alpha phosphorylates DGK zeta in cells, and this phosphorylation inhibits its kinase activity to remove cellular DAG, thereby affecting cell growth.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;41;39542-7

  • Protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) acts upstream of PKCtheta to activate IkappaB kinase and NF-kappaB in T lymphocytes.

    Trushin SA, Pennington KN, Carmona EM, Asin S, Savoy DN, Billadeau DD and Paya CV

    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    NF-kappaB is an ubiquitous transcription factor that is a key in the regulation of the immune response and inflammation. T-cell receptor (TCR) cross-linking leads to NF-kappaB activation, an IkappaB kinase (IKK)-dependent process. However, the upstream kinases that regulate IKK activity following TCR activation remain to be fully characterized. Herein, we demonstrate using genetic analysis, pharmacological inhibition, and RNA interference (RNAi) that the conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta1, is required for the activation of the IKK complex following T-cell activation triggered by CD3/CD28 cross-linking. We find that in the presence of Ca(2+) influx, the catalytically active PKCalphaA25E induces IKK activity and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription; which is abrogated following the mutations of two aspartates at positions 246 and 248, which are required for Ca(2+) binding to PKCalpha and cell membrane recruitment. Kinetic studies reveal that an early phase (1 to 5 min) of IKK activation following TCR/CD28 cross-linking is PKCalpha dependent and that a later phase (5 to 25 min) of IKK activation is PKCtheta dependent. Activation of IKK- and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription by PKCalphaA25E is abrogated by the PKCtheta inhibitor rottlerin or the expression of the kinase-inactive form of PKCtheta. Taken together, our results suggest that PKCalpha acts upstream of PKCtheta to activate the IKK complex and NF-kappaB in T lymphocytes following TCR activation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI36076

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;19;7068-81

  • Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4.

    Chen W, ten Berge D, Brown J, Ahn S, Hu LA, Miller WE, Caron MG, Barak LS, Nusse R and Lefkowitz RJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Wnt proteins, regulators of development in many organisms, bind to seven transmembrane-spanning (7TMS) receptors called frizzleds, thereby recruiting the cytoplasmic molecule dishevelled (Dvl) to the plasma membrane.Frizzled-mediated endocytosis of Wg (a Drosophila Wnt protein) and lysosomal degradation may regulate the formation of morphogen gradients. Endocytosis of Frizzled 4 (Fz4) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was dependent on added Wnt5A protein and was accomplished by the multifunctional adaptor protein beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2), which was recruited to Fz4 by binding to phosphorylated Dvl2. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanism for receptor recruitment of beta-arrestin and demonstrate that Dvl plays an important role in the endocytosis of frizzled, as well as in promoting signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 16037, HL 61365; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 19576

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;301;5638;1391-4

  • Protein kinase C promotes apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through activation of p38 MAPK and inhibition of the Akt survival pathway.

    Tanaka Y, Gavrielides MV, Mitsuuchi Y, Fujii T and Kazanietz MG

    Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Department of Pharmacology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6160, USA.

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol esters or diacylglycerol mimetics induces apoptosis in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, an effect that involves both the activation of the classic PKC alpha and the novel PKC delta isozymes (Fujii, T., García-Bermejo, M. L., Bernabó, J. L., Caamaño, J., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., Li, L., Yuspa, S. H., and Kazanietz, M. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 7574-7582 and Garcia-Bermejo, M. L., Leskow, F. C., Fujii, T., Wang, Q., Blumberg, P. M., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., Han, K. C., Lee, J., Marquez, V. E., and Kazanietz, M. G. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 645-655). In the present study we explored the signaling events involved in this PKC-mediated effect, using the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line as a model. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) leads to the activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK in LNCaP cells. Here we present evidence that p38 MAPK, but not JNK, mediates PKC-induced apoptosis. Because LNCaP cells have hyperactivated Akt function due to PTEN inactivation, we examined whether this survival pathway could be affected by PKC activation. Interestingly, activation of PKC leads to a rapid and reversible dephosphorylation of Akt, an effect that was prevented by the pan-PKC inhibitor GF109302X and the cPKC inhibitor Gö6976. In addition, the diacylglycerol mimetic agent HK654, which selectively stimulates PKC alpha in LNCaP cells, also induced the dephosphorylation of Akt in LNCaP cells. Inactivation of Akt function by PKC does not involve the inhibition of PI3K, and it is prevented by okadaic acid, suggesting the involvement of a phosphatase 2A in PMA-induced Akt dephosphorylation. Finally, we show that, when an activated form of Akt is delivered into LNCaP cells by either transient transfection or adenoviral infection, the apoptotic effect of PMA is significantly reduced. Our results highlight a complex array of signaling pathways regulated by PKC isozymes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells and suggest that both p38 MAPK and Akt play critical roles as downstream effectors of PKC isozymes in this cellular model.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA89202

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;36;33753-62

  • Physiological regulation of Munc18/nSec1 phosphorylation on serine-313.

    Craig TJ, Evans GJ and Morgan A

    Department of Physiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

    Increased protein phosphorylation enhances exocytosis in most secretory cell types, including neurones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs and the specific protein targets remain unclear. Munc18-1/nSec1 is essential for exocytosis in neurones, and is known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro at Ser-313. This phosphorylation has been shown to decrease its affinity for syntaxin, and to alter the kinetics of exocytosis in chromaffin cells. However, there are no data on the physiological regulation of Ser-313 phosphorylation. Using phospho-Ser-313-specific antisera, we demonstrate here that Ser-313 is phosphorylated in intact and permeabilized chromaffin cells in response to histamine and Ca2+ respectively. Furthermore, Ser-313 is rapidly and transiently phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to depolarization by KCl treatment or by 4-aminopyridine, and by the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist dihydroxyphenylglycine. PKC was identified as the kinase, and PP1 and PP2B as the phosphatases responsible for regulating Ser-313 phosphorylation. As phosphorylation of nSec1 on Ser-313 affects the rate of transmitter release in chromaffin cells, the demonstration here that this phosphorylation event occurs in neurones suggests that synaptic neurotransmitter release may be similarly regulated by nSec1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, such changes in release kinetics are associated with long-term potentiation and depression, thus implicating nSec1 phosphorylation as a potential regulatory mechanism underlying presynaptic plasticity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;86;6;1450-7

  • Protein kinase Calpha negatively regulates cell spreading and motility in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Gauthier ML, Torretto C, Ly J, Francescutti V and O'Day DH

    Department of Biology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ont., Canada L5L 1C6.

    Previous work has shown that phorbol esters modulate chemotaxis. Here, we demonstrate that PKC activation via phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells inhibits EGF-induced cell spreading, the initial event of motility and chemotaxis. Of five PKC isoforms (alpha,iota,lambda,delta,and epsilon) identified in this cell line, PMA treatment only induced PKCalpha translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, an event that correlated with the development of the rounded morphology. Cell recovery was linked to PKCalpha downregulation in part via the proteasome pathway since treatment with MG101 in the presence of PMA did not lead to PKCalpha degradation and cell recovery. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunolocalization demonstrated that EGF co-localized with PKCalpha and EGFR, however, PMA did not abrogate EGFR transactivation. This work suggests that PKCalpha is the primary target of PMA acting as a transient negative regulator of cell spreading and motility in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;307;4;839-46

  • Impaired degradation of PKCalpha by proteasome in a cellular model of Huntington's disease.

    Zemskov EA and Nukina N

    Laboratory for Structural Neuropathology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, 351-0198 Saitama, Japan.

    In order to investigate any effect of mutant huntingtin aggregation on proteasome function and the degradation of proteins involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, we studied the degradation of PKCalpha in Neuro2a cells expressing either normal or mutant truncated huntingtin (HD 16Q and HD 150Q cells). We were able to show an elevation of polyubiquitinated PKCalpha in HD 150Q cells. PMA treatment of these cells revealed significant delay of PKCalpha degradation in comparison with control HD 16Q cells. Subcellular fractionation showed association of non-degraded PKCalpha with the membrane fraction of HD 150Q cells. Our data suggest an impairment of the degradation of PKCalpha in HD 150Q cells. This impairment is likely to be connected with the sequestration of proteasome on mutant huntingtin aggregates.

    Neuroreport 2003;14;11;1435-8

  • A Ras activation pathway dependent on Syk phosphorylation of protein kinase C 1ca0 .

    Kawakami Y, Kitaura J, Yao L, McHenry RW, Kawakami Y, Newton AC, Kang S, Kato RM, Leitges M, Rawlings DJ and Kawakami T

    Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. yuko@liai.org

    Protein kinase C (PKC) and Syk protein tyrosine kinase play critical roles in immune cell activation including that through the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI. Mechanisms by which PKC activation leads to the activation of Ras, a family of GTPases essential for immune cell activation, have been elusive. We present evidence that Tyr-662 and Tyr-658 of PKCbetaI and PKCalpha, respectively, are phosphorylated by Syk in the membrane compartment of FcepsilonRI-stimulated mast cells. These phosphorylations require prior PKC autophosphorylation of the adjacent serine residues (Ser-661 and Ser-657, respectively) and generate a binding site for the SH2 domain of the adaptor protein Grb-2. By recruiting the Grb-2/Sos complex to the plasma membrane, these conventional PKC isoforms contribute to the full activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in FcepsilonRI-stimulated mast cells.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;16;9470-5

  • Centaurin-alpha(1) associates with and is phosphorylated by isoforms of protein kinase C.

    Zemlickova E, Dubois T, Kerai P, Clokie S, Cronshaw AD, Wakefield RI, Johannes FJ and Aitken A

    University of Edinburgh, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK.

    Centaurin-alpha(1) is a member of the family of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), although ARF GAP activity has not yet been demonstrated. The human homologue, centaurin-alpha(1) functionally complements the ARF GAP activity of Gcs1 in yeast. Although Gcs1 is involved in the formation of actin filaments in vivo, the function of centaurin remains elusive. We have identified a number of novel centaurin-alpha(1) binding partners; including CKIalpha and nucleolin. In this report, we have focused on the interaction of centaurin-alpha(1) with PKC. All groups of PKC associate directly through their cysteine rich domains. Centaurin-alpha(1) is also a substrate for all PKC classes and we have identified the two sites of phosphorylation. This is the first report of a kinase that phosphorylates centaurin-alpha(1).

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;307;3;459-65

  • Loss of protein kinase Calpha expression may enhance the tumorigenic potential of Gli1 in basal cell carcinoma.

    Neill GW, Ghali LR, Green JL, Ikram MS, Philpott MP and Quinn AG

    Centre for Cutaneous Research, Barts and the London, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, 2 Newark Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom.

    Activation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, primarily through mutational inactivation of the PTCH1 gene, is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Gli1, a member of the Gli family of transcription factors, is expressed in BCC and in transgenic mice targeted expression of Gli1 in basal keratinocytes leads to BCC development. In addition to BCC, previous studies have shown that Gli1 is expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the hair follicle but is absent in interfollicular epidermis. In this study, we have characterized the expression pattern of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms expressed in BCC and hair follicles. We have then used reporter assays to investigate the effects of these isoforms on Gli1 transcriptional activity. We report that in BCC sections, PKCalpha but not PKCdelta was weakly expressed in the epidermis, whereas in the hair follicle, PKCalpha was expressed in the ORS and PKCdelta in the inner root sheath. In contrast, neither PKCalpha nor PKCdelta was expressed in BCC tumor islands, although both isoforms were often expressed in the surrounding stroma. In mammalian 293T cells, coexpression of constitutively active PKCalpha reduced the activity of Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas constitutively active PKCdelta increased the activity of Gli1, although this required higher expression levels. Regulation of mutant Gli1 protein localized exclusively to the nucleus was similar to that of the wild-type protein, indicating that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not a determinant of Gli1 control by either PKC isoform. Furthermore, PKC regulation of Gli1 did not involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Finally, we show that exogenous Gli1 does not alter the expression of PKCalpha in human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of this isoform in BCC is not via Hedgehog signaling. As BCCs have been proposed to originate from the ORS, loss of PKCalpha expression may be relevant to tumor formation; this may, in part, be because of the predicted increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity.

    Cancer research 2003;63;15;4692-7

  • Protein kinase Calpha-induced p115RhoGEF phosphorylation signals endothelial cytoskeletal rearrangement.

    Holinstat M, Mehta D, Kozasa T, Minshall RD and Malik AB

    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins of the Galpha12/13 family activate Rho GTPase through the guanine nucleotide exchange factor p115RhoGEF. Because Rho activation is also dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), we addressed the possibility that PKCalpha can also induce Rho activation secondary to the phosphorylation of p115RhoGEF. Studies were made using human umbilical vein endothelial cells in which we addressed the mechanisms of PKCalpha-induced Rho activation and its consequences on actin cytoskeletal changes. We observed that PKCalpha associated with p115RhoGEF within 1 min of thrombin stimulation and p115RhoGEF phosphorylation was dependent on PKCalpha. Inhibition of PKCalpha-dependent p115RhoGEF phosphorylation prevented the thrombin-induced Rho activation, indicating that the response occurred downstream of PKCalpha phosphorylation of p115RhoGEF. The regulator of G-protein signaling domain of p115RhoGEF, a GTPase activating protein for G12/13, also prevented thrombin-induced Rho activation, indicating the parallel requirement of G12/13 in signaling Rho activation via p115RhoGEF. These data demonstrate a pathway of Rho activation involving PKCalpha-dependent phosphorylation of p115RhoGEF. Thus, Rho activation in endothelial cells and the subsequent actin cytoskeletal re-arrangement require the cooperative interaction of both G12/13 and PKCalpha pathways that converge at p115RhoGEF.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45638, HL46350, HL71794, T32-HL07239

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;31;28793-8

  • The MSP receptor regulates alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrins via 14-3-3 proteins in keratinocyte migration.

    Santoro MM, Gaudino G and Marchisio PC

    Department of Medical Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", 28100, Novara, Italy. msantoro@med.unipmn.it

    Growth factors, integrins, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play key roles in epidermal wound healing, although the interplay between these proteins is not fully understood. We show that growth factor macrophage stimulating protein (MSP)- and its receptor Ron-mediated PI3K activation in keratinocytes induces phosphorylation of both Ron and alpha6beta4 integrin at specific 14-3-3 binding sites. Consequently, a Ron/alpha6beta4 complex formed via 14-3-3 binding displaces alpha6beta4 from its location at hemidesmosomes (structures supporting cell adhesion) and relocalizes it to lamellipodia. Concomitant activation of alpha3beta1 and keratinocyte spreading/migration on laminin-5 occurs. Further, MSP-dependent beta4 tyrosine phosphorylation evokes p38 and NF-kappaB signaling required for keratinocyte wound closure. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism based on MSP-Ron-dependent phosphorylation and 14-3-3 association, whereby the function of alpha6beta4 switches from a mechanical adhesive device into a signaling component, and might be critically involved in human epidermal wound healing.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;2;257-71

  • Direct demonstration of involvement of protein kinase Calpha in the Ca2+-induced platelet aggregation.

    Tabuchi A, Yoshioka A, Higashi T, 1f40 Shirakawa R, Nishioka H, Kita T and Horiuchi H

    Department of Geriatric Medicine and Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 606-8507 Kyoto, Japan.

    Platelets play critical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis through their aggregation following activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3. However, the molecular mechanism of the integrin activation inside platelets remains largely unknown. Pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in platelet aggregation. Because PKC inhibitors can have multiple substrates and given that non-PKC-phorbol ester-binding signaling molecules have been demonstrated to play important roles, the precise involvement of PKC in cellular functions requires re-evaluation. Here, we have established an assay for analyzing the Ca2+-induced aggregation of permeabilized platelets. The aggregation of platelets was inhibited by the addition of the arginine-glycine-aspartate-serine peptide, an integrin-binding peptide inhibitor of alphaIIbbeta3, suggesting that the aggregation was mediated by the integrin. The aggregation was also dependent on exogenous ATP and platelet cytosol, indicating the existence of essential cytosolic factors required for the aggregation. To examine the role of PKC in the aggregation assay, we immunodepleted PKCalpha and beta from the cytosol. The PKC-depleted cytosol lost the aggregation-supporting activity, which was recovered by the addition of purified PKCalpha. Furthermore, the addition of purified PKCalpha in the absence of cytosol did not support the aggregation, whereas the cytosol containing less PKC supported it efficiently, suggesting that additional factors besides PKC would also be required. Thus, we directly demonstrated that PKCalpha is involved in the regulation of Ca2+-induced platelet aggregation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;29;26374-9

  • Phorbol myristate acetate-dependent interaction of protein kinase Calpha and the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1.

    González MI, Bannerman PG and Robinson MB

    Sodium-dependent transporters clear extracellular glutamate in the mammalian CNS. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) rapidly increases the activity of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 (excitatory amino acid carrier-1). This effect is associated with redistribution of EAAC1 to the cell membrane and appears to be dependent on a particular PKC subtype, PKCalpha. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this specificity for regulation of EAAC1 is associated with the formation of EAAC1-PKCalpha complexes. In C6 glioma cells, activation of PKC with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced formation of EAAC1-PKCalpha complexes but did not induce formation of complexes with PKCdelta, a PKC not thought to regulate EAAC1. Formation of these complexes was blocked by inhibitors of PKC. Confocal microscopy revealed that PMA caused EAAC1 and PKCalpha to colocalize in clusters at or near the cell surface. The EAAC1-PKCalpha complexes were also observed in rat brain synaptosomes, demonstrating that this interaction is not restricted to C6 cells. These data demonstrate that EAAC1 and PKCalpha interact in a PKC-dependent manner that is associated with EAAC1 redistribution. Although PKC activation has been implicated in the regulation of many different neurotransmitter transporters, this study provides the first example of an interaction between a neurotransmitter transporter and PKC. PKCalpha also forms complexes with GluR2 (glutamate receptor subunit 2) and causes a reduction in the levels of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors at the plasma membrane. Together, these data suggest that PKCalpha may simultaneously trigger the redistribution of EAAC1 and glutamate receptors.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS29868, NS39011

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2003;23;13;5589-93

  • Protein kinase C alpha associates with phospholipase D1 and enhances basal phospholipase D activity in a protein phosphorylation-independent manner in human melanoma cells.

    Oka M, Kageshita T, Ono T, Goto A, Kuroki T and Ichihashi M

    Department of Dermatology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan. oka@med.kobe-u.ac.jp

    It is well known that phospholipase D plays a crucial part in the signal transduction of many types of cells, and is activated by protein kinase C alpha when cells are stimulated. To elucidate the role of phospholipase D in melanoma, the expression of phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha in primary and metastatic lesions of acral lentiginous melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma was investigated using immunohistologic techniques. In addition, the mechanism of regulation of phospholipase D1 by protein kinase C alpha was examined in a human melanoma cell line HM3KO using an adenovirus-mediated gene transfer technique. Both phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha were strongly expressed in primary and metastatic lesions of superficial spreading melanoma. Conversely, in acral lentiginous melanoma lesions, the expression of these two proteins increased dramatically with tumor progression; the expression of both phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha was almost negative in the radial growth phase of primary acral lentiginous melanoma lesions, and increased synchronously in a progression-related manner in advanced acral lentiginous melanoma lesions, including vertical growth phase and metastatic lesions. Immunoprecipitation study showed that phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha are associated physiologically in resting melanoma cells. Further immunoprecipitation study using HM3KO cells after adenovirus-mediated simultaneous overexpression of phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha, or phospholipase D1 and the kinase-negative mutant of protein kinase C alpha revealed that both protein kinase C alpha and the kinase-negative mutant of protein kinase C alpha are associated with phospholipase D1 in melanoma cells in the absence of an external signal. Overexpression of protein kinase C alpha or the kinase-negative mutant of protein kinase C alpha in melanoma cells by the adenovirus vectors resulted in the enhancement of basal phospholipase D activity in a viral concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, enhanced basal phospholipase D activity increased the in vitro invasive potential of HM3KO cells. These results suggest that upregulation of phospholipase D1 and protein kinase C alpha plays a part in the progression of acral lentiginous melanoma from the radial growth phase to the vertical growth phase. The present results also suggest that protein kinase C alpha associates with phospholipase D1 and enhances basal phospholipase D activity in a protein phosphorylation-independent manner in melanoma cells, which contributes to the cell's high invasive potential.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2003;121;1;69-76

  • The F-actin cross-linking and focal adhesion protein filamin A is a ligand and in vivo substrate for protein kinase C alpha.

    Tigges U, Koch B, Wissing J, Jockusch BM and Ziegler WH

    Department of Cell Biology, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

    Filamin A is an established structural component of cell-matrix adhesion sites. In addition, it serves as a scaffold for the subcellular targeting of different signaling molecules. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been found associated with filamin; however, details about this interaction and its significance for cell-matrix adhesion-dependent signaling have remained elusive. We performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis using protein kinase Calpha as a bait and identified filamin as a direct binding partner. The interaction was confirmed in transfected HeLa cells, and serial truncation fragments of filamin A were employed to identify two binding sites on filamin. In vitro ligand binding assays revealed a Ca2+ and phospholipid-dependent association of the regulatory domain of protein kinase C with these sites. Phosphorylation of filamin was found to be isoform-restricted, leading to phosphate incorporation in the C termini of filamin A and C, but not B. PKC-dependent phosphorylation of filamin was also detected in cells. Our data suggest an intimate interaction between filamin and PKC in cell signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;26;23561-9

  • Requirement of AMPA receptor GluR2 phosphorylation for cerebellar long-term depression.

    Chung HJ, Steinberg JP, Huganir RL and Linden DJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.

    Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) is a model of synaptic memory that requires protein kinase C (PKC) activation and is expressed as a reduction in the number of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors. LTD was absent in cultured cerebellar Purkinje cells from mutant mice lacking the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and could be rescued by transient transfection with the wild-type GluR2 subunit. Transfection with a point mutant that eliminated PKC phosphorylation of Ser880 in the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of GluR2 failed to restore LTD. In contrast, transfection with a point mutant that mimicked phosphorylation at Ser880 occluded subsequent LTD. Thus, PKC phosphorylation of GluR2 Ser880 is a critical event in the induction of cerebellar LTD.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH01590, MH51106; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36715

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5626;1751-5

  • MSK2 and MSK1 mediate the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and HMG-14.

    Soloaga A, Thomson S, Wiggin GR, Rampersaud N, Dyson MH, Hazzalin CA, Mahadevan LC and Arthur JS

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

    Cells respond to mitogenic or stress stimuli by the rapid induction of immediate-early (IE) genes, which occurs concomitantly with the phosphorylation of histone H3 and the high-mobility-group protein HMG-14. In mammalian cells this response is mediated via ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways, but the identity of the downstream kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 has been contentious. One study, based on Coffin- Lowry cells defective in RSK2, reported that RSK2 was the histone H3 kinase, while a second study, based on the efficiency of RSKs and MSKs as in vitro histone H3 kinases, and their relative susceptibility to kinase inhibitors, suggested that MSKs were responsible. We show here that the histone H3 phosphorylation response is normal in Coffin-Lowry cells. Further more, we show that histone H3 and HMG-14 phosphorylation is severely reduced or abolished in mice lacking MSK1 and MSK2. We also show that, despite this, histone H3 acetylation is unimpaired in these cells and that IE genes can be induced, although at a reduced efficiency. We conclude that MSKs are the major kinases for histone H3 and HMG-14 in response to mitogenic and stress stimuli in fibroblasts.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;11;2788-97

  • Post-synaptic density-95 promotes calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated Ser847 phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Watanabe Y, Song T, Sugimoto K, Horii M, Araki N, Tokumitsu H, Tezuka T, Yamamoto T and Tokuda M

    Department of Cell Physiology, Kagawa Medical University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kida-gun, Japan. yasuwata@kms.ac.jp

    Post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) is a neuronal scaffolding protein that associates with N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and links them to intracellular signalling molecules. In neurons, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) binds selectively to the second PDZ domain (PDZ2) of PSD-95, thereby exhibiting physiological activation triggered via NMDA receptors. We have demonstrated previously that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha) directly phosphorylates nNOS at residue Ser(847), and can attenuate the catalytic activity of the enzyme in neuronal cells [Komeima, Hayashi, Naito and Watanabe (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 28139-28143]. In the present study, we examined how CaM-K II participates in the phosphorylation by analysing the functional interaction between nNOS and PSD-95 in cells. The results showed that PSD-95 directly promotes the nNOS phosphorylation at Ser(847) induced by endogenous CaM-K II. In transfected cells, this effect of PSD-95 required its dual palmitoylation and the PDZ2 domain, but did not rely on its guanylate kinase domain. CaM-K Ialpha and CaM-K IV failed to phosphorylate nNOS at Ser(847) in transfected cells. Thus PSD-95 mediates cellular trafficking of nNOS, and may be required for the efficient phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) by CaM-K II in neuronal cells.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;372;Pt 2;465-71

  • AKAP150 signaling complex promotes suppression of the M-current by muscarinic agonists.

    Hoshi N, Zhang JS, Omaki M, Takeuchi T, Yokoyama S, Wanaverbecq N, Langeberg LK, Yoneda Y, Scott JD, Brown DA and Higashida H

    Department of Biophysical Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan. hoshin@ohsu.edu

    M-type (KCNQ2/3) potassium channels are suppressed by activation of G(q/11)-coupled receptors, thereby increasing neuronal excitability. We show here that rat KCNQ2 can bind directly to the multivalent A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP150. Peptides that block AKAP150 binding to the KCNQ2 channel complex antagonize the muscarinic inhibition of the currents. A mutant form of AKAP150, AKAP(DeltaA), which is unable to bind protein kinase C (PKC), also attenuates the agonist-induced current suppression. Analysis of recombinant KCNQ2 channels suggests that targeting of PKC through association with AKAP150 is important for the inhibition. Phosphorylation of KCNQ2 channels was increased by muscarinic stimulation; this was prevented either by coexpression with AKAP(DeltaA) or pretreatment with PKC inhibitors that compete with diacylglycerol. These inhibitors also reduced muscarinic inhibition of M-current. Our data indicate that AKAP150-bound PKC participates in receptor-induced inhibition of the M-current.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48231, R01 GM048231, R37 GM048231

    Nature neuroscience 2003;6;6;564-71

  • Platelet P-selectin expression: requirement for protein kinase C, but not protein tyrosine kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Libersan D and Merhi Y

    Montreal Heart Institute and the University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    P-selectin is translocated from the alpha-granules to the surface of activated platelets where it participates in thrombosis and inflammation. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced human platelet P-selectin expression. Assessed by flow cytometry, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with chelerythrine reduced P-selectin expression by 66%, platelet/neutrophil binding, GPIIb/IIIa activation and aggregation (p<0.05). Gö 6976, an inhibitor of the conventional PKCs (alpha and beta), did not alter P-selectin expression. However, rottlerin inhibited by 50% its expression (p<0.05), but only at doses that interfere with the novel (epsilon eta) and atypical (zeta) PKCs. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and phosphoinosi-tide 3-kinase (PI3-K) did not significantly affect P-selectin expression. In conclusion, thrombin-induced P-selectin expression is PKC-sensitive, but PTK and PI3-K-insensitive. The novel epsilon and eta and atypical zeta, but not the conventional alpha and beta and the novel delta PKCs, may be involved in this process.

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2003;89;6;1016-23

  • Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase by protein kinase C.

    Hou Y, Lascola J, Dulin NO, Ye RD and Browning DD

    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) are emerging as important components of mainstream signal transduction pathways. Nitric oxide-induced cGMP formation by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase is generally accepted as being the most widespread mechanism underlying PKG activation. In the present study, PKG was found to be a target for phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-responsive protein kinase C (PKC). PKG1alpha became phosphorylated in HEK-293 cells stimulated with PMA and also in vitro using purified components. PKC-dependent phosphorylation was found to activate PKG as measured by phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, and by in vitro kinase assays. Although there are 11 potential PKC substrate recognition sites in PKG1alpha, threonine 58 was examined due to its proximity to the pseudosubstrate domain. Antibodies generated against the phosphorylated form of this region were used to demonstrate phosphorylation in response to PMA treatment of the cells with kinetics similar to vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation. A phospho-mimetic mutation at this site (T58E) generated a partially activated PKG that was more sensitive to cGMP levels. A phospho-null mutation (T58A) revealed that this residue is important but not sufficient for PKG activation by PKC. Taken together, these findings outline a novel signal transduction pathway that links PKC stimulation with cyclic nucleotide-independent activation of PKG.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;19;16706-12

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Role of protein kinase C alpha in calcium induced keratinocyte differentiation: defective regulation in squamous cell carcinoma.

    Yang LC, Ng DC and Bikle DD

    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

    Calcium induces both involucrin and transglutaminase-K in normal keratinocytes (NHK) but not in squamous carcinoma cell lines (SCC). The protein kinase C (PKC) agonist phorbol myristoyl acetate potentiates and the PKC antagonist Ro31-8220 blocks the ability of calcium to stimulate the involucrin promoter in normal human keratinocytes but not in SCC4. We thus examined the ability of calcium to regulate the levels of five PKC isozymes in NHK and two SCC. In the normal keratinocytes, the levels of PKC [alpha], PKC [delta], PKC [eta], and PKC [zeta] increased over the first one to two weeks in a calcium-and time-dependent manner. PKC [epsilon] decreased in a time-and calcium-dependent fashion over the three-week period. All five isozymes showed little change during culture in SCC4 at any calcium concentration. Calcium and time of culture had partial effects on SCC12B2, a carcinoma that shows partial differentiation characteristics. Since PKC [alpha] is the only calcium responsive PKC isozyme in keratinocytes and most likely to be directly involved in calcium induced differentiation, we evaluated the effect of inhibiting its production with antisense oligonucleotides on calcium-regulated markers of differentiation. We found that the PKC [alpha] specific antisense oligonucleotide blocked calcium stimulated involucrin promoter activity as well as PKC [alpha], involucrin, and transglutaminase protein production, whereas the sense oligonucleotide control did not. We conclude that although a number of PKC isozymes are regulated during calcium-induced differentiation, PKC [alpha] plays a necessary role in mediating calcium-induced differentiation. Failure to regulate PKC [alpha] in SCC4 may underlie at least part of the failure of calcium to promote differentiation in these cells.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P01 AR39448, R01 AR38386

    Journal of cellular physiology 2003;195;2;249-59

  • Phosphorylation of Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5/IKLF) at the CBP interaction region enhances its transactivation function.

    Zhang Z and Teng CT

    Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of E 1f40 nvironmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

    The Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5/IKLF) belongs to the Kruppel family of genes which bind GC-rich DNA elements and activate or repress their target genes in a promoter context and/or cellular environment-dependent manner. In the present study, we used the Gal4 fusion assay system to characterize the mechanism of transactivation by KLF5. We demonstrated that the transactivation function of KLF5 was enhanced by CREB-binding protein (CBP) and blocked by wild-type but no 660 t mutant E1A. Over expression of CBP reversed the inhibition effect of E1A. With various lengths of KLF5 fusion protein, the transactivation functions were localized to 156 amino acid residues at the N-terminal region and 133 amino acid residues adjacent to the Zn finger motif. We mapped the CBP and KLF5 interaction domain to the N-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1-232) and the N-terminal region of KLF5 (amino acids 1-238) where one of the activation functions resides. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of CBP does not play a role in the transactivation function of KLF5 nor does it acetylate KLF5 in vitro. However, phosphorylation is important in KLF5 transactivation activity. Inhibition of protein kinase activity by H7 or calphostin C blocked both full-length and N-terminal fragment (amino acids 1-238) KLF5 activities. Mutation at a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site within the CBP interaction domain of KLF5 reduces its transactivation function. Furthermore, using the GST pull-down approach, we showed that phosphorylation of KLF5 enhances its interaction with CBP. The results of the present study provide a mechanism for KLF5 transactivation function.

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;8;2196-208

  • Regulation of hematopoietic-specific G-protein Galpha15 and Galpha16 by protein kinase C.

    Gu JL, Lu W, Xia C, Wu X and Liu M

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    Heterotrimeric G proteins mediate cell growth and differentiation by coupling cell surface receptors to intracellular effector enzymes. The G-protein alpha subunit, Galpha(16), and its murine homologue Galpha(15), are expressed specifically in hematopoietic cells and their expression is highly regulated during differentiation of normal and leukemic cells. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation of Galpha(15)/Galpha(16) and its role in receptor and effector coupling. We observed a PMA-stimulated intact cell phosphorylation of Galpha(15) in COS7 cells transfected with Galpha(15) and protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), and phosphorylation of endogenous Galpha(16) in HL60 cells. We also showed that peptides derived from the two G-proteins were phosphorylated in vitro using purified brain PKC. Furthermore, we identified the putative phosphorylation site and showed that mutation or deletion of this PKC phosphorylation site inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) activation. The behavior of double mutants with the constitutively active G-protein mutation (QL-mutant) and mutation in the putative phosphorylation site suggests that the phosphorylation site of Galpha(15/16) is essential for receptor-coupled activation of PLC, but not for direct interaction of the G-protein with PLC-beta.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL064792

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2003;88;6;1101-11

  • Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein.

    Corbit KC, Trakul N, Eves EM, Diaz B, Marshall M and Rosner MR

    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, and Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates activation of the Raf-1 signaling cascade by growth factors, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been elucidated. Here we report that one mechanism involves dissociation of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) from Raf-1. Classic and atypical but not novel PKC isoforms phosphorylate RKIP at serine 153 (Ser-153). RKIP Ser-153 phosphorylation by PKC either in vitro or in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or epidermal growth factor causes release of RKIP from Raf-1, whereas mutant RKIP (S153V or S153E) remains bound. Increased expression of PKC can rescue inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascade by wild-type but not mutant S153V RKIP. Taken together, these results constitute the first model showing how phosphorylation by PKC relieves a key inhibitor of the Raf/MAP kinase signaling cascade and may represent a general mechanism for the regulation of MAP kinase pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5T32CA09594; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32GM07151; NINDS NIH HHS: NS38846

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;13061-8

  • Novel gene hKCNE4 slows the activation of the KCNQ1 channel.

    Teng S, Ma L, Zhen Y, Lin C, Bähring R, Vardanyan V, Pongs O and Hui R

    Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and Center for Molecular Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 167 Beilishilu, Beijing 100037, China.

    The KCNE genes encode small, single transmembrane domain peptides that associate with pore-forming potassium channel subunits to form mixed complexes with unique characteristics. We have identified a novel member of the human KCNE gene family, hKCNE4. The hKCNE4 gene encodes 170 amino acid protein and is localized to chromosome 2q35-36. The protein sequence shows 90% homology to mouse KCNE4 and 38% identity to human KCNE1. Northern blot analysis revealed that hKCNE4 is expressed strongly in heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney, less in placenta, lung, and liver, and weakly in brain and blood cells. Electrophysiological study showed that hKCNE4 modulates the activation of the KCNQ1 channel.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;303;3;808-13

  • Phosphorylation of serine 1106 in the catalytic domain of topoisomerase II alpha regulates enzymatic activity and drug sensitivity.

    Chikamori K, Grabowski DR, Kinter M, Willard BB, Yadav S, Aebersold RH, Bukowski RM, Hickson ID, Andersen AH, Ganapathi R and Ganapathi MK

    Experimental Therapeutics Program, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Topoisomerases alter DNA topology and are vital for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Topoisomerases I and II are also targets for widely used antitumor agents. We demonstrated previously that in the human leukemia cell line, HL-60, resistance to topoisomerase (topo) II-targeting drugs such as etoposide is associated with site-specific hypophosphorylation of topo II alpha. This effect can be mimicked in sensitive cells treated with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM). Here we identify Ser-1106 as a major phosphorylation site in the catalytic domain of topo II alpha. This site lies within the consensus sequence for the acidotrophic kinases, casein kinase I and casein kinase II. Mutation of serine 1106 to alanine (S1106A) abrogates phosphorylation of phosphopeptides that were found to be hypophosphorylated in resistant HL-60 cells or sensitive cells treated with BAPTA-AM. Purified topo II alpha containing a S1106A substitution is 4-fold less active than wild type topo II alpha in decatenating kinetoplast DNA and also exhibits a 2-4-fold decrease in the level of etoposide-stabilized DNA cleavable complex formation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (JN394t2-4) cells expressing S1106A mutant topo II alpha protein are more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of etoposide or amsacrine. These results demonstrate that Ca(2+)-regulated phosphorylation of Ser-1106 in the catalytic domain of topo II alpha modulates the enzymatic activity of this protein and sensitivity to topo II-targeting drugs.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA74939; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK56917

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;12696-702

  • The molecular basis of differential subcellular localization of C2 domains of protein kinase C-alpha and group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    Stahelin RV, Rafter JD, Das S and Cho W

    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

    The C2 domain is a Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-targeting module found in many cellular proteins involved in signal transduction or membrane trafficking. C2 domains are unique among membrane targeting domains in that they show a wide range of lipid selectivity for the major components of cell membranes, including phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine. To understand how C2 domains show diverse lipid selectivity and how this functional diversity affects their subcellular targeting behaviors, we measured the binding of the C2 domains of group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to vesicles that model cell membranes they are targeted to, and we monitored their subcellular targeting in living cells. The surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that the PKC-alpha C2 domain strongly prefers the cytoplasmic plasma membrane mimic to the nuclear membrane mimic due to high phosphatidylserine content in the former and that Asn(189) plays a key role in this specificity. In contrast, the cPLA(2) C2 domain has specificity for the nuclear membrane mimic over the cytoplasmic plasma membrane mimic due to high phosphatidylcholine content in the former and aromatic and hydrophobic residues in the calcium binding loops of the cPLA(2) C2 domain are important for its lipid specificity. The subcellular localization of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged C2 domains and mutants transfected into HEK293 cells showed that the subcellular localization of the C2 domains is consistent with their lipid specificity and could be tailored by altering their in vitro lipid specificity. The relative cell membrane translocation rate of selected C2 domains was also consistent with their relative affinity for model membranes. Together, these results suggest that biophysical principles that govern the in vitro membrane binding of C2 domains can account for most of their subcellular targeting properties.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM52598, GM53987

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;14;12452-60

  • Hyperosmolarity and CD95L trigger CD95/EGF receptor association and tyrosine phosphorylation of CD95 as prerequisites for CD95 membrane trafficking and DISC formation.

    Reinehr R, Schliess F and Häussinger D

    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.

    The mechanisms underlying CD95 ligand (CD95L)- and hyperosmolarity-induced activation of the CD95 system [Reinehr, R., Graf, D., Fischer, R., Schliess, F., and Haussinger, D. (2002) Hepatology 36, 602-614] as initial steps of apoptosis were studied. Hyperosmotic exposure (405 mosmol/l) of rat hepatocytes induced within 1 min oxidative stress and antioxidant-sensitive activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK). After 30 min of hyperosmotic exposure EGFR associated with CD95 and CD95 became tyrosine phosphorylated. Inhibition of JNK or protein kinase C (PKC) had no effect on EGFR phosphorylation but abolished CD95/EGFR association, CD95-tyrosine phosphorylation, membrane targeting, and Fas-associated death domain/caspase 8 recruitment to CD95 [death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation]. Inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity prevented CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation and DISC formation but not hyperosmolarity-induced EGFR phosphorylation and EGFR association with CD95. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CD95 was enriched in the plasma membrane. All maneuvers preventing CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation inhibited CD95 membrane trafficking and DISC formation. Stimulation of EGFR by EGF induced EGFR phosphorylation but no association with CD95 or CD95 phosphorylation. Addition of CD95L also induced EGFR and JNK activation, EGFR/CD95 association, CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation, DISC formation, and CD95 membrane targeting with an inhibitor sensitivity profile similar to that of hyperosmotic CD95 activation, except that inhibition of PKC was ineffective. The data suggest that moderate hyperosmolarity or CD95L trigger oxidative stress and EGFR activation followed by a JNK-dependent EGFR/CD95association and CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation, probably through EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. This provides a signal for CD95 membrane trafficking and DISC formation.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2003;17;6;731-3

  • Protein kinase Calpha regulates Ets1 transcriptional activity in invasive breast cancer cells.

    Lindemann RK, Braig M, Ballschmieter P, Guise TA, Nordheim A and Dittmer J

    u Institut für Zellbiologie, Abteilung Molekularbiologie, Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    We have previously shown that PKC inhibitors interfere with the Ets1/Smad3-dependent regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) P3 promoter activity by TGFbeta in invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By examining PKC expression in a variety of breast cancer cell lines, the protein level of PKCalpha was found to be much higher in Ets1-expressing MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells than in Ets1-deficient MCF-7 and SK-BR3 cells. No correlation of Ets1 expression with the expression of other PKC subtypes (PKCbeta1, PKCbeta2, PKCdelta or PKCepsilon) could be observed. In contrast to MDA-MB-231 cells, PKCalpha-deficient MCF-7 cells do not support Ets1-induced activation of the PTHrP P3 promoter suggesting that PKCalpha may be important for Ets1 activity. A constitutively active form of PKCalpha was found to potentiate the P3 promoter activation by Ets1 alone and in synergy with Smad3. PKCalpha, but not PKCepsilon, also induced phosphorylation of the Ets1 protein. Both PKCalpha effects on Ets1 depended on the exon VII domain of Ets1. Using verapamil and ionomycin, we could show that PKCalpha induces Ets1 phosphorylation independent of calcium mobilization. Collectively, our data suggest that PKCalpha may regulate Ets1 activity in invasive breast cancer cells.

    International journal of oncology 2003;22;4;799-805

  • Phosphorylation of Munc18 by protein kinase C regulates the kinetics of exocytosis.

    Barclay JW, Craig TJ, Fisher RJ, Ciufo LF, Evans GJ, Morgan A and Burgoyne RD

    Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, United Kingdom.

    Protein phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release and various forms of synaptic plasticity. The PKC substrates responsible for phosphorylation-dependent changes in regulated exocytosis in vivo have not been identified. Munc18a is essential for neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and can be phosphorylated by PKC in vitro on Ser-306 and Ser-313. We demonstrate that it is phosphorylated on Ser-313 in response to phorbol ester treatment in adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutation of both phosphorylation sites to glutamate reduces its affinity for syntaxin and so acts as a phosphomimetic mutation. Unlike phorbol ester treatment, expression of Munc18 with this phosphomimetic mutation in PKC phosphorylation sites did not affect the number of exocytotic events. The mutant did, however, produce changes in single vesicle release kinetics, assayed by amperometry, which were identical to those caused by phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, the effects of phorbol ester treatment on release kinetics were occluded in cells expressing phosphomimetic Munc18. These results suggest that the dynamics of vesicle release events during exocytosis are controlled by PKC directly through phosphorylation of Munc18 on Ser-313. Phosphorylation of Munc18 by PKC may provide a mechanism for the control of exocytosis and thereby synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;12;10538-45

  • ADAM12/syndecan-4 signaling promotes beta 1 integrin-dependent cell spreading through protein kinase Calpha and RhoA.

    Thodeti CK, Albrechtsen R, Grauslund M, Asmar M, Larsson C, Takada Y, Mercurio AM, Couchman JR and Wewer UM

    Institute of Molecular Pathology, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's vej 11, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) comprise a large family of multidomain proteins with cell-binding and metalloprotease activities. The ADAM12 cysteine-rich domain (rADAM12-cys) supports cell attachment using syndecan-4 as a primary cell surface receptor that subsequently triggers beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading, stress fiber assembly, and focal adhesion formation. This process contrasts with cell adhesion on fibronectin, which is integrin-initiated but syndecan-4-dependent. In the present study, we investigated ADAM12/syndecan-4 signaling leading to cell spreading and stress fiber formation. We demonstrate that syndecan-4, when present in significant amounts, promotes beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading and stress fiber formation in response to rADAM12-cys. A mutant form of syndecan-4 deficient in protein kinase C (PKC)alpha activation or a different member of the syndecan family, syndecan-2, was unable to promote cell spreading. GF109203X and Gö6976, inhibitors of PKC, completely inhibited ADAM12/syndecan-4-induced cell spreading. Expression of syndecan-4, but not syn4DeltaI, resulted in the accumulation of activated beta(1) integrins at the cell periphery in Chinese hamster ovary beta1 cells as revealed by 12G10 staining. Further, expression of myristoylated, constitutively active PKCalpha resulted in beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading, but additional activation of RhoA was required to induce stress fiber formation. In summary, these data provide novel insights into syndecan-4 signaling. Syndecan-4 can promote cell spreading in a beta(1) integrin-dependent fashion through PKCalpha and RhoA, and PKCalpha and RhoA likely function in separate pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80789; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50194

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;11;9576-84

  • Functional association of cytokine-induced SH2 protein and protein kinase C in activated T cells.

    Chen S, Anderson PO, Li L, Sjögren HO, Wang P and Li SL

    Immunology Group, Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences, St Barts & The Royal London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1A 7BE, UK.

    TCR signaling is mediated by intracellular signaling molecules and nuclear transcription factors, which are tightly regulated by interaction with regulatory proteins such as Grb2 and SLAP. We reported recently that TCR stimulation induces the expression of cytokine-induced SH2 protein (CIS). The expression of CIS promotes TCR-mediated activation. We have now found specific interactions between CIS and activated protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, beta and theta in TCR-stimulated T cells. CIS was shown by in vitro kinase assay to associate with activated PKC. In CIS-expressing T cells isolated from CIS-transgenic mice, the amount of activated PKC associated with CIS was found to increase following TCR stimulation. By immunohistochemical analysis, CIS was also found to co-localize with PKCtheta at the plasma membrane of activated T cells. In addition to the interaction and intracellular co-localization of the CIS and PKC, an increase in the activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB was noted in CIS-expressing T cells, after stimulation by either anti-CD3/CD28 or phorbol myristate acetate + ionomycin. These results suggest that CIS regulates PKC activation, and that this may be important for the activation of both the AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways in TCR signaling.

    International immunology 2003;15;3;403-9

  • Phosphorylation of 69-kDa choline acetyltransferase at threonine 456 in response to amyloid-beta peptide 1-42.

    Dobransky T, Brewer D, Lajoie G and Rylett RJ

    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, and Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada.

    Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons. In the brain, these neurons are especially vulnerable to effects of beta-amyloid (A beta) peptides. Choline acetyltransferase is a substrate for several protein kinases. In the present study, we demonstrate that short term exposure of IMR32 neuroblastoma cells expressing human choline acetyltransferase to A beta-(1-42) changes phosphorylation of the enzyme, resulting in increased activity and alterations in its interaction with other cellular proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we identified threonine 456 as a new phosphorylation site in choline acetyltransferase from A beta-(1-42)-treated cells and in purified recombinant ChAT phosphorylated in vitro by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Whereas phosphorylation of choline acetyltransferase by protein kinase C alone caused a 2-fold increase in enzyme activity, phosphorylation by CaM kinase II alone did not alter enzyme activity. A 3-fold increase in choline acetyltransferase activity was found with coordinate phosphorylation of threonine 456 by CaM kinase II and phosphorylation of serine 440 by protein kinase C. This phosphorylation combination was observed in choline acetyltransferase from A beta-(1-42)-treated cells. Treatment of cells with A beta-(1-42) resulted in two phases of activation of choline acetyltransferase, the first within 30 min and associated with phosphorylation by protein kinase C and the second by 10 h and associated with phosphorylation by both CaM kinase II and protein kinase C. We also show that choline acetyltransferase from A beta-(1-42)-treated cells co-immunoprecipitates with valosin-containing protein, and mutation of threonine 456 to alanine abolished the A beta-(1-42)-induced effects. These studies demonstrate that A beta-(1-42) can acutely regulate the function of choline acetyltransferase, thus potentially altering cholinergic neurotransmission.

    The Journal of 1f40 biological chemistry 2003;278;8;5883-93

  • Role of protein kinase Calpha in the regulated secretion of the amyloid precursor protein.

    Racchi M, Mazzucchelli M, Pascale A, Sironi M and Govoni S

    Department of Experimental and Applied Pharmacology, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 14, Pavia 27100, Italy.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has a key role in the signal transduction machinery involved in the regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism. Direct and indirect receptor-mediated activation of PKC has been shown to increase the release of soluble APP (sAPPalpha) and reduce the secretion of beta-amyloid peptides. Experimental evidence suggests that specific isoforms of PKC, such as PKCalpha and PKC epsilon, are involved in the regulation of APP metabolism. In this study, we characterized the role of PKCalpha in the regulated secretion of APP using wild-type SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and cells transfected with a plasmid expressing PKCalpha antisense cDNA. Cells expressing antisense PKCalpha secrete less sAPPalpha in response to phorbol esters. In contrast, carbachol increases the secretion of sAPPalpha to similar levels in wild-type cells and in cells transfected with antisense PKCalpha by acting on APP metabolism through an indirect pathway partially involving the activation of PKC. These results suggest that the direct PKC-dependent activation of the APP secretory pathway is compromised by reduced PKCalpha expression and a specific role of this isoform in these mechanisms. On the other hand, indirect pathways that are also partially dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction mechanism remain unaffected and constitute a redundant, compensatory mechanism within the APP secretory pathway.

    Funded by: Telethon: E.0866

    Molecular psychiatry 2003;8;2;209-16

  • Mechanisms of regulation of phospholipase D1 by protein kinase Calpha.

    Hu T and Exton JH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    It has been suggested that protein-protein interaction is important for protein kinase C (PKC) alpha to activate phospholipase D1 (PLD1). To determine the one or more sites on PKCalpha that are involved in binding to PLD1, fragments containing the regulatory domain, catalytic domain, and C1-C3 domain of PKCalpha were constructed and shown to be functional, but they all failed to bind and activate PLD1 in vivo and in vitro. A C-terminal 23-amino acid (aa) deletion mutant of PKCalpha was also found to be inactive. To define the binding/activation site(s) in the C terminus of PKCalpha, 1- to 11-aa deletion mutants were made in this terminus. Deletion of up to 9 aa did not alter the ability of PKCalpha to bind and activate PLDl, whereas a 10-aa deletion was inactive. The residue at position 10 was Phe(663). Mutations of this residue (F663D and F663A) caused loss of binding, activation, and phosphorylation of PLD1, indicating that Phe(663) is essential for these activities. Time course experiments showed that the activation of PLD1 by PMA was much faster than its phosphorylation, and its activity decreased as phosphorylation increased with time. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, completely inhibited PLD1 phosphorylation in response to 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate PMA and blocked the later decrease in PLD activity. The same results were found with the D481E mutant of PKCalpha, which is unable to phosphorylate PLD1. These results indicate that neither the regulatory nor catalytic domains of PKCalpha alone can bind to or activate PLD1 and that a residue in the C terminus of PKCalpha (Phe(663)) is required for these effects. The initial activation of PLD1 by PMA is highly correlated with the binding of PKCalpha. Although PKCalpha can phosphorylate PLD1, this is a relatively slow process and is associated with inactivation of the enzyme.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;4;2348-55

  • A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 facilitates the phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase via selective interaction with receptor beta subunits.

    Brandon NJ, Jovanovic JN, Colledge M, Kittler JT, Brandon JM, Scott JD and Moss SJ

    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT, UK.

    GABA(A) receptors, the key mediators of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, are predominantly constructed from alpha(1-6), beta(1-3), gamma(1-3), and delta subunit classes. Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) differentially regulates receptor function dependent upon beta subunit identity, but how this kinase is selectively targeted to GABA(A) receptor subtypes remains unresolved. Here we establish that the A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150), directly binds to the receptor beta1 and beta3, but not to alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha6, beta2, gamma2, or delta subunits. Furthermore, AKAP79/150 is critical for PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor beta3 subunit. Together, our observations suggest a mechanism for the selective targeting of PKA to GABA(A) receptor subtypes containing the beta1 or beta3 subunits dependent upon AKAP150. Therefore, the selective interaction of beta subunits with AKAP150 may facilitate GABA(A) receptor subtype-specific functional modulation by PKA activity which may have profound local effects on neuronal excitation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 48231

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2003;22;1;87-97

  • Different regulation of PKC isoenzymes and MAPK by PSK and IL-2 in the proliferative and cytotoxic activities of the NKL human natural killer cell line.

    García-Lora A, Martinez M, Pedrinaci S and Garrido F

    Servicio de Análisis Clínicos e Inmunología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Universidad de Granada, Avda de las Fuerzas Armadas 2, 18014 Granada, Spain.

    The activation of natural killer (NK) cells and induction of cytotoxicity are complex processes whose molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Stimulation of the NKL human NK cell line with interleukin-2 (IL-2) or protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) leads to sustained growth and cytolytic activity in comparison to unstimulated NKL cells. Our previous results shown that IL-2 and PSK regulate different nuclear transcription factors in NKL cells, and that the signal transduction pathway used by these inducers is different. To determine the molecular basis for the different action of IL-2 and PSK, we investigated the upstream effects generated in human NKL cells by IL-2 and PSK on protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Here we report the profile of unstimulated NKL cells as: PKCbeta>PKCalpha>PKCdelta =PKCepsilon. The PKCeta form was not expressed. The effects of PSK and IL-2 on these isoenzymes were different. IL-2 increased the expression of PKCalpha, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, whereas PSK decreased the expression of PKCalpha, and also increased PKCdelta and PKCepsilon to higher levels than did IL-2. In MAPK expression we found that unstimulated NKL cells have the following profile: ERK2>ERK6>p38gamma>p38beta>ERK1. ERK3, ERK3 rel, ERK5/ERK4 and p38delta were not expressed. IL-2 decreased the expression of ERK2, whereas PSK did not, and both agents increased the expression of ERK3. These results shown that PSK and IL-2 produce different variations in PKC isoenzymes and MAPK in NKL cells.

    Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII 2003;52;1;59-64

  • Protein kinase A negatively modulates the nuclear accumulation of NF-ATc1 by priming for subsequent phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Sheridan CM, Heist EK, Beals CR, Crabtree GR and Gardner P

    Program in Immunology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California 94305, USA.

    The nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of the NF-ATc family of transcription factors, essential to many developmental, differentiation, and adaptation processes, are determined by the opposing activities of the phosphatase calcineurin, which promotes nuclear accumulation of NF-ATc, and several kinases, which promote cytoplasmic accumulation. Many reports suggest that protein kinase A (PKA) negatively modulates calcineurin-mediated NF-ATc activation. Here we show that overexpression of PKA causes phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation of NF-ATc1 in direct opposition to calcineurin by phosphorylating Ser-245, Ser-269, and Ser-294 in the conserved serine-proline repeat domain, and that mutation of these serines blocks the effect of PKA. Activation of endogenous PKA is similarly able to promote phosphorylation of these sites on NF-ATc1 in two lymphoid cell lines. We further show that a complete block of NF-ATc1 nuclear localization by PKA requires a second kinase activity that can be supplied by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), and that mutation of either the PKA phosphorylation sites or the upstream GSK-3 sites prevents the effect of PKA. Thus, we propose that PKA functions cooperatively as a priming kinase for further phosphorylation by GSK-3 to oppose calcineurin-mediated nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of NF-ATc1 and that, through this mechanism, PKA may be an important modulator of many NF-ATc-dependent processes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 5P01AI36535

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48664-76

  • Differential phosphorylation of SNAP-25 in vivo by protein kinase C and protein kinase A.

    Hepp R, Cabaniols JP and Roche PA

    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 10, Room 4B36, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    SNAP-25 is a key protein required for the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. This study establishes that SNAP-25 is differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase C and protein kinase A in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Using phosphopeptide mapping and site-directed mutagenesis we identified both Thr138 and Ser187 as the targets of SNAP-25 phosphorylation by protein kinase C and Thr138 as the exclusive site of SNAP-25 phosphorylation by protein kinase A in vivo. Finally, despite published data to the contrary, we demonstrate that stimulation of regulated exocytosis under physiological conditions is independent of a measurable increase in SNAP-25 phosphorylation in PC12 cells.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;1-2;52-6

  • Signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 Tat in human monocytes to induce TNF-alpha.

    Bennasser Y, Badou A, Tkaczuk J and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse Cedex, France.

    In this study we investigated the signaling pathways triggered by Tat in human monocyte to induce TNF-alpha. In monocytes, the calcium, the PKA, and the PKC pathways are highly implicated in the expression of cytokine genes. Thus, these three major signaling pathways were investigated. Our data show that (i) PKC and calcium pathways are required for TNF-alpha production, whereas the PKA pathway seems to be not involved; (ii) downstream from PKC, activation of NFkappaB is essential while ERK1/2 MAP kinases, even though activated by Tat, are not directly involved in the pathway signaling leading to TNF-alpha production.

    Virology 2002;303;1;174-80

  • Activation of Integrin-RACK1/PKCalpha signalling in human articular chondrocyte mechanotransduction.

    Lee HS, Millward-Sadler SJ, Wright MO, Nuki G, Al-Jamal R and Salter DM

    Department of Pathology, Edinburgh University Medical School, UK.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine PKC isozyme expression in human articular chondrocytes and assess roles for RACK1, a receptor for activated C kinase in the mechanotransduction process.

    Methods: Primary cultures of human articular chondrocytes and a human chondrocyte cell line were studied for expression of PKC isozymes and RACK1 by western blotting. Following mechanical stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro in the absence or presence of anti-integrin antibodies and RGD containing oligopeptides, subcellular localization of PKCalpha and association of RACK1 with PKCalpha and beta1 integrin was assessed.

    Results: Human articular chondrocytes express PKC isozymes alpha, gamma, delta, iota, and lambda. Following mechanical stimulation at 0.33Hz chondrocytes show a rapid, beta1 integrin dependent, translocation of PKCalpha to the cell membrane and increased association of RACK1 with PKCalpha and beta1 integrin.

    Conclusions: RACK1 mediated translocation of activated PKCalpha to the cell membrane and modulation of integrin-associated signaling are likely to be important in regulation of downstream signaling cascades controlling chondrocyte responses to mechanical stimuli.

    Osteoarthritis and cartilage 2002;10;11;890-7

  • Exogenous protein kinases A and C, but not endogenous prostasome-associated protein kinase, phosphorylate semenogelins I and II from human semen.

    Ek P, Malm J, Lilja H, Carlsson L and Ronquist G

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden. pia.ek@imbim.uu.se

    Semenogelins I and II are the quantitatively dominating proteins in human semen. They comprise the major part of the sperm-entrapping gel formed at ejaculation, which subsequently liquefies due to proteolysis of the gel-forming proteins by prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The mechanism behind gel formation and its physiological significance is not known. We have studied phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of human semenogelins. Both were phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC, respectively) at a rate about 5 times less than that of histone. For PKA, incorporated ((32)P)phosphate into semenogelin approached a maximum above 1 mol/mol. Corresponding values for phosphorylation of the semenogelins with PKC were greater than 10. There was no change in the sensitivity of phosphosemenogelins to proteolysis by PSA. Serine (PKA) and serine and threonine (PKC) were the phosphate-accepting amino acid residues, and all incorporated ((32)P)phosphate could be removed from the semenogelins with human acid phosphatase. Nil or very little phosphate could be detected in purified semenogelins isolated from seminal plasma. In vivo, about half the protein kinase activity in seminal plasma was bound to prostasomes. PKA but not PKC purified from prostasomes could phosphorylate specific substrates, but they could phosphorylate either of the semenogelins.

    Journal of andrology 2002;23;6;806-14

  • Opposing effects of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon on basolateral membrane dynamics in intestinal epithelia.

    Song JC, Rangachari PK and Matthews JB

    Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

    PKC is a critical effector of plasma membrane dynamics, yet the mechanism and isoform-specific role of PKC are poorly understood. We recently showed that the phorbol ester PMA (100 nM) induces prompt activation of the novel isoform PKCepsilon followed by late activation of the conventional isoform PKCalpha in T84 intestinal epithelia. PMA also elicited biphasic effects on endocytosis, characterized by an initial stimulatory phase followed by an inhibitory phase. Activation of PKCepsilon was shown to be responsible for stimulation of basolateral endocytosis, but the role of PKCalpha was not defined. Here, we used detailed time-course analysis as well as selective activators and inhibitors of PKC isoforms to infer the action of PKCalpha on basolateral endocytosis. Inhibition of PKC by the selective conventional PKC inhibitor Gö-6976 (5 microM) completely blocked the late inhibitory phase and markedly prolonged the stimulatory phase of endocytosis measured by FITC-dextran uptake. The PKCepsilon-selective agonist carbachol (100 microM) induced prolonged stimulation of endocytosis devoid of an inhibitory phase. Actin disassembly caused by PMA was completely blocked by Gö-6850 but not by Gö-6976, implicating PKCepsilon as the key isoform responsible for actin disruption. The Ca2+ agonist thapsigargin (5 microM) induced early activation of PKC when added simultaneously with PMA. This early activation of PKCalpha blocked the ability of PMA to remodel basolateral F-actin and abolished the stimulatory phase of basolateral endocytosis. Activation of PKCalpha stabilizes F-actin and thereby opposes the effect of PKCepsilon on membrane remodeling in T84 cells.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2002;283;5;C1548-56

  • Protein kinase Calpha participates in activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels in human glomerular mesangial cells.

    Ma R, Kudlacek PE and Sansom SC

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-4575, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in activating store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOC) in human mesangial cells (MC). The present study was performed to determine the specific isoform(s) of conventional PKC involved in activating SOC in MC. Fura 2 fluorescence ratiometry showed that the thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ entry (equivalent to SOC) was significantly inhibited by 1 microM Gö-6976 (a specific PKCalpha and betaI inhibitor) and PKCalpha antisense treatment (2.5 nM for 24-48 h). However, LY-379196 (PKCbeta inhibitor) and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexahydroxy-1,1'-biphenyl-6,6'-dimethanoldimethyl ether (HBDDE; PKCalpha and gamma inhibitor) failed to affect thapsigargin-evoked activation of SOC. Single-channel analysis in the cell-attached configuration revealed that Gö-6976 and PKCalpha antisense significantly depressed thapsigargin-induced activation of SOC. However, LY-379196 and HBDDE did not affect the SOC responses. In inside-out patches, application of purified PKCalpha or betaI, but not betaII or gamma, significantly rescued SOC from postexcision rundown. Western blot analysis revealed that thapsigargin evoked a decrease in cytosolic expression with a corresponding increase in membrane expression of PKCalpha and gamma. However, the translocation from cytosol to membranes was not detected for PKCbetaI or betaII. These results suggest that PKCalpha participates in the intracellular signaling pathway for activating SOC upon release of intracellular stores of Ca2+.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1T32-HL-07888; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-49561

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2002;283;5;C1390-8

  • Role of protein kinase C alpha in primary human osteoblast proliferation.

    Lampasso JD, Marzec N, Margarone J and Dziak R

    Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, New York 14214, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been shown to have specific expression profiles and individual isoforms are believed to play distinct roles in the cells in which they are found. The goal here was to determine which specific isoform(s) is involved in proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In primary human osteoblasts, 10 microM of acute sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) treatment induced an increase in proliferation that correlated with an increase in PKCalpha and PKCiota expression. To further delineate which isoforms are involved in osteoblastic cell proliferation, the effect of low versus high serum culture conditions on PKC isoform expression was determined. Likewise, the effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to specific PKC isoforms on proliferation and MAPK activation was studied. The effect of S1P on intracellular translocation of activated PKC isoforms was also evaluated. The results indicated that in primary human osteoblasts, PKCalpha was not expressed under conditions of low proliferative rate while PKCdelta and PKCiota expression was not affected. The specific inhibition of PKCalpha by antisense ODNs resulted in inhibition of MAPK activity leading to a significant decrease in proliferation. S1P up-regulated antisense ODN inhibited PKCalpha expression and MAPK activity and led to an increase in proliferation. Subsequent experiments using platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) as an additional mitogen generated similar data. PDGF stimulation resulted in a significant increase in proliferation that correlated with an up-regulation of inhibited PKCalpha expression in antisense ODN-treated cells. Immunofluorescence methods showed that mitogenic stimulation of PKCa resulted in nuclear translocation. Our findings present original data that PKCalpha is the isoform specifically involved in the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE00158

    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17;11;1968-76

  • Regulation of lipoprotein lipase by protein kinase C alpha in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    Ranganathan G, Song W, Dean N, Monia B, Barger SW and Kern PA

    Central Arkansas Veterans HealthCare System and Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA. Rangsnsthangovx1@UAMS.edu

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an important enzyme in adipocyte and lipid metabolism with complex cellular regulation. Previous studies demonstrated an inhibition of LPL activity and synthesis following depletion of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms with long term treatment of 3T3-F442A adipocytes with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. To identify the specific PKC isoforms involved, we treated cells with antisense oligonucleotides that block expression of specific PKC isoforms. An antisense oligonucleotide to PKC alpha inhibited LPL activity by 78 +/- 8%, whereas antisense oligonucleotides directed against PKC delta or PKC epsilon had no effect on LPL activity. The change in LPL activity was maximal at 72 h and was accompanied by a decrease in LPL protein and LPL synthetic rate but no change in LPL mRNA, suggesting regulation at the level of translation. However, PKC depletion resulted in no change in the polysome profile, indicating that translation initiation was not affected. However, the addition of cytoplasmic extracts from adipocytes treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or PKC alpha antisense oligomers inhibited LPL translation in vitro. This inhibition of LPL translation in vitro was lost when the LPL mRNA transcript did not contain nucleotides 1599-3200, thus implicating the 3'-untranslated region of LPL in the regulation of translation by PKC depletion. Both LPL activity and Raf1 activity were decreased in parallel following depletion of either total PKC or specific inhibition of PKC alpha. An antisense oligonucleotide to RAF1, which inhibited RAF1 activity, also inhibited LPL activity by 48 +/- 10%, and this decrease in LPL activity was not accompanied by a change in LPL mRNA. Cells were treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor of the ERK-activating kinases MEK1 and MEK2. Although U0126 inhibited ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, U0126 had no effect on LPL activity, indicating that MEK/ERK pathways were not involved in this mechanism of LPL regulation. Together, these data indicate that PKC alpha and RAF1 are important in the translational regulation of LPL in adipocytes and that the mechanism of regulation is probably through an ERK-independent pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38669-75

  • M6a acts as a nerve growth factor-gated Ca(2+) channel in neuronal differentiation.

    Mukobata S, Hibino T, Sugiyama A, Urano Y, Inatomi A, Kanai Y, Endo H and Tashiro F

    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda-shi, Chiba-ken 278-8510, Japan.

    To elucidate the function of M6a, which is a neuron-specific membrane glycoprotein of the brain and possesses putative phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (PKC), we established rat M6a cDNA expression vector-transfected PC12 cells. These transfectants exhibited high susceptibilities to nerve growth factor (NGF) for neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, we found that Ca(2+) influx in these transfectants was significantly augmented by the treatment of NGF, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), which stimulates PC12 cell growth. NGF-dependent augmentation of Ca(2+) influx was detected within 3h and severely inhibited by EGTA- and PKC-specific inhibitors. Anti-M6 antibody suppressed both NGF-triggered Ca(2+) influx and neuronal differentiation. These results support the idea that M6a implicates in neuronal differentiation as a novel Ca(2+) channel gated selectively by phosphorylation with PKC in the downstream of NGF signaling pathway.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;297;4;722-8

  • Modulation of the human protein kinase C alpha gene promoter by activator protein-2.

    Clark JH, Haridasse V and Glazer RI

    Department of Pharmacology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20007, USA.

    Protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) is a phospholipid-dependent protein-serine/threonine kinase that plays a major role in intracellular signaling pathways associated with transformation and tumor progression. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and GBM cell lines exhibit increased levels of PKCalpha compared to normal brain tissue that relates to their proliferative and invasive potential. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of PKCalpha, the 5'-flanking sequence of the human PKCalpha gene was cloned and its promoter activity assessed in U-87 GBM cells. This sequence contained a TATA-less promoter region and a single transcription start site within an initiator sequence. Basal promoter activity was restricted to a region spanning -227 to +77 relative to the transcription start site. DNase I footprinting revealed multiple activator protein-2 (AP-2) binding sites and one Sp1 binding site within this region, and point mutations of two AP-2 elements resulted in a loss of DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Overexpression of Sp1 in either U-87 or insect cells increased transcription from the -227/+77 promoter region, whereas overexpression of AP-2 increased transcription only in insect cells. Cis activation of the promoter in U-87 cells was increased by phorbol esters but not by cyclic AMP or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. These results provide evidence that cis activation of the basal promoter of the human PKCalpha gene occurs through an AP-2-dependent, phorbol ester-responsive pathway, which suggests an autoregulatory manner of transcription in GBM.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P50 CA 58185-04; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS 34431

    Biochemistry 2002;41;39;11847-56

  • Alpha-tocopherol decreases superoxide anion release in human monocytes under hyperglycemic conditions via inhibition of protein kinase C-alpha.

    Venugopal SK, Devaraj S, Yang T and Jialal I

    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, Department of Pathology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA.

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress appears to be an important mechanism. Previously, we showed that diabetic monocytes produce increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and alpha-tocopherol (AT) supplementation decreases this. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) of O(2)(-) release and inhibition by AT under hyperglycemic (HG) conditions in monocytes. O(2)(-) release, protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and translocation of PKC-alpha and -betaII and p47phox were increased in THP-1 cells (human monocytic cell line) under HG (15 mmol/l glucose) conditions, whereas AT supplementation inhibited these changes. AT, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride [DPI]), and an inhibitor to PKC-alpha and other isoforms (2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexahydroxy-1,1'-biphenyl-6,6'-dimethanol dimethyl ether [HBDDE]) but not PKC-beta II (LY379196) decreased O(2)(-) release and p47phox translocation. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to PKC-alpha and p47phox but not to PKC-betaII inhibited HG-induced O(2)(-) release and p47phox translocation in THP-1 cells. Under HG conditions, reactive oxygen species release from monocytes was not inhibited by agents affecting mitochondrial metabolism but was inhibited in human endothelial cells. We conclude that under HG conditions, monocytic O(2)(-) release is dependent on NADPH oxidase activity but not the mitochondrial respiratory chain; HG-induced O(2)(-) release is triggered by PKC-alpha, and AT inhibits O(2)(-) release via inhibition of PKC-alpha.

    Funded by: NCCIH NIH HHS: K24 AT00596, R01 AT00005

    Diabetes 2002;51;10;3049-54

  • Binding of elements of protein kinase C-alpha regulatory domain to lamin B1.

    Tabellini G, Bortul R, Aluigi M, Billi AM, Bareggi R, Grill V, Narducci P and Martelli AM

    Dipartimento di Morfologia Umana Normale, Università di Trieste, via Manzoni 16, 34138 Trieste, Italy.

    Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that lamin B1 is a protein kinase C (PKC)-binding protein. Here, we have identified the regions of PKC-alpha that are important for this binding. By means of overlay assays and fusion proteins made of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fused to elements of the regulatory domain of rat PKC-alpha, we have established that binding occurs through both the V1 region and a portion of the C2 region (i.e., the calcium-dependent lipid binding [CaLB] domain) of the kinase. In particular, we have found that amino acids 200-217 of the CaLB domain are essential for binding lamin B1, as a synthetic peptide corresponding to this stretch of amino acids prevented the interaction between the CaLB domain of PKC-alpha and lamin B1. In agreement with the results of other investigators, we have determined that binding of regulatory elements of PKC-alpha to lamin B1 does not require the presence of cofactors such as PS and Ca(2+). We have also found that the binding site of lamin B1 for PKC-alpha is localized in the carboxyl-terminus of the lamin. Our findings may prove to be important in shedding more light on the mechanisms that regulate PKC functions within the nuclear compartment and may also lead to the synthesis of isozyme-specific pharmacological tools to attenuate or reverse PKC-dependent nuclear signalling pathways important for the pathogenesis of cancer.

    Cellular signalling 2002;14;10;819-27

  • QM, a putative tumor suppressor, regulates proto-oncogene c-yes.

    Oh HS, Kwon H, Sun SK and Yang CH

    Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

    The QM gene encodes a 24.5 kDa ribosomal protein L10 known to be highly homologous to a Jun-binding protein (Jif-1), which inhibits the formation of Jun-Jun dimers. Here we have carried out screening with the c-Yes protein and found that a QM homologous protein showed interactions with c-Yes and other Src family members. We have found that two different regions of QM protein were associated with the SH3 domain of c-Yes. The QM protein does not contain canonical SH3 binding motifs or previously reported amino acid fragments showing interaction with SH3 domains. Several c-Yes kinase activity assays indicated that the QM protein reduced c-Yes kinase activity by 70% and that this suppression is related not only to the two SH3 binding regions but also to the C-terminal region of QM. Moreover, our autophosphorylation assays clarified that this regulation resulted from the inhibition of c-Yes autophosphorylation. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the QM proteins and c-Yes are able to interact in various tumor cell lines in vivo. The increases of the c-Yes protein and mRNA levels were detected when the QM was transfected. These results suggest that the QM protein might be a regulator for various signal transduction pathways involving SH3 domain-containing membrane proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;39;36489-98

  • Interaction of 14-3-3 protein with regulator of G protein signaling 7 is dynamically regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Benzing T, Köttgen M, Johnson M, Schermer B, Zentgraf H, Walz G and Kim E

    Renal Division and Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetterstrasse 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) constitute a family of proteins with a conserved RGS domain of approximately 120 amino acids that accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis of activated Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) subunits. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with a subset of RGS proteins inhibits their GTPase-accelerating activity in vitro. The inhibitory interaction between 14-3-3 and RGS7 requires phosphorylation of serine 434 of RGS7. We now show that phosphorylation of serine 434 is dynamically regulated by TNF-alpha. Cellular stimulation by TNF-alpha transiently decreased the phosphorylation of serine 434 of RGS7, abrogating the inhibitory interaction with 14-3-3. We examined the effect of 14-3-3 on RGS-mediated deactivation kinetics of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRKs) in Xenopus oocytes. 14-3-3 inhibited the function of wild-type RGS7, but not that of either RSG7(P436R) or RGS4, two proteins that do not bind 14-3-3. Our findings are the first evidence that extracellular signals can modulate the activity of RGS proteins by regulating their interaction with 14-3-3.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;36;32954-62

  • Alterations in skeletal protein, distribution of PKCalpha, and level of phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes of women with primary breast cancer.

    Kaczmarek J, Thieleman A, Kopczyński Z, Goslar J, Hoffmann SK and Rybczyńska M

    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.

    The aim of our work was to study the influence of primary breast cancer on mature erythrocyte membranes. Blood was sampled from 29 women with primary breast cancer, aged 35-86 years, in different stages of clinical progression of the disease. In red blood cell membranes an increase of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate levels was observed. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in phospholipase C activity. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in concentration of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol was found. Quantitative protein evaluation showed an increase in band 4.1 protein content with no changes in the level of constitutive PKCalpha responsible for the phosphorylation of this protein and its affinity to glycophorine C. In parallel a greater increase of PKCalpha translocation after PMA treatment compared to controls was observed. Possible oxidative damage of erythrocyte membranes indicated by an increase in malonyldialdehyde level and decrease in SH-group content as well as by an increase in the w/ ratio was documented. From the results it is concluded that primary breast cancer seems to affect the membranes of mature erythrocytes.

    Blood cells, molecules & diseases 2002;29;2;225-35

  • The turn motif is a phosphorylation switch that regulates the binding of Hsp70 to protein kinase C.

    Gao T and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0640, USA.

    Heat shock proteins play central roles in ensuring the correct folding and maturation of cellular proteins. Here we show that the heat shock protein Hsp70 has a novel role in prolonging the lifetime of activated protein kinase C. We identified Hsp70 in a screen for binding partners for the carboxyl terminus of protein kinase C. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hsp70 specifically binds the unphosphorylated turn motif (Thr(641) in protein kinase C beta II), one of three priming sites phosphorylated during the maturation of protein kinase C family members. The interaction of Hsp70 with protein kinase C can be abolished in vivo by co-expression of fusion proteins encoding the carboxyl terminus of protein kinase C or the carboxyl terminus of Hsp70. Pulse-chase experiments reveal that Hsp70 does not regulate the maturation of protein kinase C: the rate of processing by phosphorylation is the same in the presence or absence of disrupting constructs. Rather, Hsp70 prolongs the lifetime of mature protein kinase C; disruption of the interaction promotes the accumulation of matured and then dephosphorylated protein kinase C in the detergent-insoluble fraction of cells. Furthermore, studies with K562 cells reveal that disruption of the interaction with Hsp70 slows the protein kinase C beta II-mediated recovery of cells from PMA-induced growth arrest. Last, we show that other members of the AGC superfamily (Akt/protein kinase B and protein kinase A) also bind Hsp70 via their unphosphorylated turn motifs. Our data are consistent with a model in which Hsp70 binds the dephosphorylated carboxyl terminus of mature protein kinase C, thus stabilizing the protein and allowing re-phosphorylation of the enzyme. Disruption of this interaction prevents re-phosphorylation and targets the enzyme for down-regulation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK54441; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM43154

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;35;31585-92

  • Serine/threonine phosphorylation of ShcA. Regulation of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-pest binding and involvement in insulin signaling.

    Faisal A, el-Shemerly M, Hess D and Nagamine Y

    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland.

    Serine phosphorylation of the ShcA signaling molecule has been reported recently. In this work, we have identified 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and growth factor-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in p52(Shc) and p66(Shc). Among them, Ser(29) in p52(Shc) (equivalent to Ser(138) in p66(Shc)) was phosphorylated only after TPA stimulation. Phosphorylation of this site together with the intact phosphotyrosine-binding domain was essential for ShcA binding to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST. TPA-induced ShcA phosphorylation at this site (and hence, its association with PTP-PEST) was inhibited by a protein kinase C-specific inhibitor and was induced by overexpression of constitutively active mutants of protein kinase Calpha, -epsilon, and -delta isoforms. Insulin also induced ShcA/PTP-PEST association, although to a lesser extent than TPA. Overexpression of a PTP-PEST binding-defective mutant of p52(Shc) (S29A) enhanced insulin-induced ERK activation in insulin receptor-overexpressing HIRc-B cells. Consistent with this, p52(Shc) S29A was more tyrosine-phosphorylated than wild-type p52(Shc) after insulin stimulation. Thus, we have identified a new mechanism whereby serine phosphorylation of ShcA controls the ability of its phosphotyrosine-binding domain to bind PTP-PEST, which is responsible for the dephosphorylation and down-regulation of ShcA after insulin stimulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;33;30144-52

  • Characterization of PDK2 activity against protein kinase B gamma.

    Hodgkinson CP, Sale EM and Sale GJ

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7PX, United Kingdom.

    Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine protein kinase controlled by insulin, various growth factors, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Full activation of the PKB enzyme requires phosphorylation of a threonine in the activation loop and a serine in the C-terminal tail. PDK1 has clearly been shown to phosphorylate the threonine, but the mechanism leading to phosphorylation of the serine, the PDK2 site, is unclear. A yeast two-hybrid screen using full-length human PKBgamma identified protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, an atypical PKC, as an interactor with PKBgamma, an association requiring the pleckstrin homology domain of PKBgamma. Endogenous PKBgamma was shown to associate with endogenous PKCzeta both in cos-1 cells and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, demonstrating a physiological interaction. Immunoprecipitates of PKCzeta, whether endogenous PKCzeta from insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes or overexpressed PKCzeta from cos-1 cells, phosphorylated S472 (the C-terminal serine phosphorylation site) of PKBgamma, in vitro. In vivo, overexpression of PKCzeta stimulated the phosphorylation of approximately 50% of the PKBgamma molecules, suggesting a physiologically meaningful effect. However, pure PKCzeta protein was incapable of phosphorylating S472 of PKBgamma. Antisense knockout studies and use of a PDK1 inhibitor showed that neither PKB autophosphorylation nor phosphorylation by PDK1 accounted for the S472 phosphorylation in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Staurosporine inhibited the PKCzeta activity but not the PDK2 activity in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Together these results indicate that an independent PDK2 activity exists that physically associates with PKCzeta and that PKCzeta, by binding PKBgamma, functions to deliver the PDK2 to a required location. PKCzeta thus functions as an adaptor, associating with a staurosporine-insensitive PDK2 enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of S472 of PKBgamma. Because both PKCzeta and PKB have been proposed to be required for mediating a number of crucial insulin responses, formation of an active signaling complex containing PKCzeta, PKB, and PDK2 is an attractive mechanism for ensuring that all the critical sites on targets such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 are phosphorylated.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;32;10351-9

  • Site-directed perturbation of protein kinase C- integrin interaction blocks carcinoma cell chemotaxis.

    Parsons M, Keppler MD, Kline A, Messent A, Humphries MJ, Gilchrist R, Hart IR, Quittau-Prevostel C, Hughes WE, Parker PJ and Ng T

    Richard Dimbleby/Cancer Research UK Department of Cancer Research, GKT School of Medicine, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.

    Polarized cell movement is an essential requisite for cancer metastasis; thus, interference with the tumor cell motility machinery would significantly modify its metastatic behavior. Protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) has been implicated in the promotion of a migratory cell phenotype. We report that the phorbol ester-induced cell polarization and directional motility in breast carcinoma cells is determined by a 12-amino-acid motif (amino acids 313 to 325) within the PKC alpha V3 hinge domain. This motif is also required for a direct association between PKC alpha and beta 1 integrin. Efficient binding of beta 1 integrin to PKC alpha requires the presence of both NPXY motifs (Cyto-2 and Cyto-3) in the integrin distal cytoplasmic domains. A cell-permeant inhibitor based on the PKC-binding sequence of beta 1 integrin was shown to block both PKC alpha-driven and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced chemotaxis. When introduced as a minigene by retroviral transduction into human breast carcinoma cells, this inhibitor caused a striking reduction in chemotaxis towards an EGF gradient. Taken together, these findings identify a direct link between PKC alpha and beta 1 integrin that is critical for directed tumor cell migration. Importantly, our findings outline a new concept as to how carcinoma cell chemotaxis is enhanced and provide a conceptual basis for interfering with tumor cell dissemination.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;16;5897-911

  • Sequence determinants on the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor responsible for specificity of phosphorylation by CaMKII.

    Mayadevi M, Praseeda M, Kumar KS and Omkumar RV

    Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Jagathy, Thiruvananthapuam, Kerala-695014, India.

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) and NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are neuronal proteins involved in learning and memory. CaMKII binds to the NR2B subunit of NMDAR in more than one mode, a stable association involving a noncatalytic site on CaMKII and an enzyme-substrate mode of interaction by its catalytic site. The latter binding results in phosphorylation of serine-1303 on NR2B. We have investigated this binding by studying the kinetics of phosphorylation of synthetic peptides harboring nested sequences of the phosphorylation site motif. We find that residues 1292-1297 of NR2B enhance the affinity of the catalytic site-mediated binding of CaMKII to the minimal phosphorylation site motif, 1298-1308 of NR2B, as evident from measurements of K(m) values for phosphorylation. However, CaMKII shows decreased affinity towards the closely related NR2A subunit due to an -Ile-Asn- motif present as a natural insertion in the analogous sequence on NR2A.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1598;1-2;40-5

  • Regulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha by protein kinase C in B16 mouse melanoma cells.

    Boskovic G, Desai D and Niles RM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia 25704, USA.

    We have previously found that retinoic acid stimulates the expression of protein kinase C alpha (PKC) in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Because it has been reported that PKC can phosphorylate retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and alter its function, we determined whether changes in the level and/or activity of PKC could affect the expression or function of the RAR in B16 melanoma. Using in vivo phosphorylation and band shift techniques, we could not demonstrate that altering PKC activity and/or protein level changed the in vivo phosphorylation of RAR alpha. However activation of PKC resulted in increased RAR alpha protein. Increased receptor protein correlated with a phorbol dibutyrate-stimulated increase in receptor activation function-2 (AF-2)-dependent transcriptional activity. Use of enzyme inhibitors and dominant-negative PKCs indicated that enzyme activity was required for elevation in the RAR alpha. The PKC-mediated increase in RAR alpha was due to a 2.5-fold increase in the half-life of this protein. In contrast, the down-regulation of PKC diminished RAR alpha protein half-life and markedly inhibited AF-2-dependent transcriptional activity. The down-regulation of PKC also inhibited the binding of RAR to a retinoic acid response element and the retinoic acid induction of RAR beta expression. These findings suggest that PKC can influence retinoic acid signaling by altering the stability of RAR protein without directly phosphorylating this receptor.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA59530

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;29;26113-9

  • Regulation of retinoid X receptor responsive element-dependent transcription in T lymphocytes by Ser/Thr phosphatases: functional divergence of protein kinase C (PKC)theta; and PKC alpha in mediating calcineurin-induced transactivation.

    Ishaq M, Fan M, Wigmore K, Gaddam A and Natarajan V

    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. mishaq@nih.gov

    T lymphocyte activation signals regulate the expression and transactivation function of retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha through an interplay of complex signaling cascades that are not yet fully understood. We show that cellular Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PPs) play an important role in mediating these processes. Inhibitors specific for PP1 and PP2A decreased basal expression of RXR alpha RNA and protein in T lymphocyte leukemia Jurkat cells and prevented activation-induced RXR alpha accumulation in these cells. In addition, these inhibitors attenuated the RXR responsive element (RXRE)-dependent transcriptional activation in transient transfection assays. Inhibitors of calcineurin (CN), by contrast, did not have any effect on the basal RXR alpha expression and even augmented activation-induced RXR alpha expression. Expression of a dominant-active (DA) mutant of CN together with a DA mutant of protein kinase C (PKC)theta;, a novel PKC isoform, significantly increased RXRE-dependent transcription. Expression of catalytically inactive PKC theta; or a dominant-negative mutant of PKC theta; failed to synergize with CN and did not increase RXRE-dependent transcription. Expression of a DA mutant of PKC alpha or treatment with PMA was found to attenuate PKC theta; and CN synergism. We conclude that PP1, PP2A, and CN regulate levels and transcriptional activation function of RXR alpha in T cells. In addition, CN synergizes with PKC theta; to induce RXRE-dependent activation, a cooperative function that is antagonized by the activation of the conventional PKC alpha isoform. Thus, PKC theta; and PKC alpha may function as positive and negative modulators, respectively, of CN-regulated RXRE-dependent transcription during T cell activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-56000

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2002;169;2;732-8

  • PC phosphorylation increases the ability of AFAP-110 to cross-link actin filaments.

    Qian Y, Baisden JM, Cherezova L, Summy JM, Guappone-Koay A, Shi X, Mast T, Pustula J, Zot HG, Mazloum N, Lee MY and Flynn DC

    The Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9300, USA.

    The actin filament-associated protein and Src-binding partner, AFAP-110, is an adaptor protein that links signaling molecules to actin filaments. AFAP-110 binds actin filaments directly and multimerizes through a leucine zipper motif. Cellular signals downstream of Src(527F) can regulate multimerization. Here, we determined recombinant AFAP-110 (rAFAP-110)-bound actin filaments cooperatively, through a lateral association. We demonstrate rAFAP-110 has the capability to cross-link actin filaments, and this ability is dependent on the integrity of the carboxy terminal actin binding domain. Deletion of the leucine zipper motif or PKC phosphorylation affected AFAP-110's conformation, which correlated with changes in multimerization and increased the capability of rAFAP-110 to cross-link actin filaments. AFAP-110 is both a substrate and binding partner of PKC. On PKC activation, stress filament organization is lost, motility structures form, and AFAP-110 colocalizes strongly with motility structures. Expression of a deletion mutant of AFAP-110 that is unable to bind PKC blocked the effect of PMA on actin filaments. We hypothesize that upon PKC activation, AFAP-110 can be cooperatively recruited to newly forming actin filaments, like those that exist in cell motility structures, and that PKC phosphorylation effects a conformational change that may enable AFAP-110 to promote actin filament cross-linking at the cell membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA60731, R01 CA060731

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;7;2311-22

  • Selective association of protein kinase C with 14-3-3 zeta in neuronally differentiated PC12 Cells. Stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 14-3-3 zeta in vivo.

    Gannon-Murakami L and Murakami K

    Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA.

    The 14-3-3 protein is a family of highly conserved acidic proteins found in a wide range of eukaryotes from yeast to mammals. 14-3-3 acts as an adapter protein and interacts with signaling molecules including protein kinase C (PKC). Although 14-3-3 zeta was originally characterized as an endogenous PKC inhibitor, it was reported to activate PKC in vitro, but the in vivo regulation of PKC by 14-3-3 is still not well understood. To examine the regulation of PKC by 14-3-3 in the cell, we have generated a sub-cell line, PC12-B3, that stably expresses FLAG epitope-tagged 14-3-3 zeta isoform in PC12 cells. Here we show that PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon become associated with 14-3-3 zeta when the cells are neuronally differentiated by nerve growth factor. We found that the immunoprecipitate by anti-FLAG antibody contains constitutive and autonomous Ca(2+)-independent non-classical PKC activity. In contrast, the FLAG immunoprecipitate has no Ca(2+)-dependent classical PKC activity despite the fact that PKC-alpha is present in the FLAG immunoprecipitate from differentiated PC12-B3 cells. Our results show that the association with 14-3-3 zeta has distinct effects on classical PKC and non-classical PKC activity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH48973

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;26;23116-22

  • Phosphorylation of p47phox sites by PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta: effect on binding to p22phox and on NADPH oxidase activation.

    Fontayne A, Dang PM, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA and El-Benna J

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U-479, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Xavier Bichat, Paris, France.

    Production of superoxide anions by the multicomponent enzyme of human neutrophil NADPH oxidase is accompanied by extensive phosphorylation of p47(phox), one of its cytosolic components. p47(phox) is an excellent substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), but the respective contribution of each PKC isoform to this process is not clearly defined. In this study, we found that PKC isoforms known to be present in human neutrophils (PKC alpha, beta, delta, and zeta) phosphorylate p47(phox) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with apparent K(m) values of 10.33, 3.37, 2.37, and 2.13 microM for PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta, respectively. Phosphopeptide mapping of p47(phox) showed that, as opposed to PKC zeta, PKC alpha, beta II, and delta are able to phosphorylate all the major PKC sites. The use of p47(phox) mutants identified serines 303, 304, 315, 320, 328, 359, 370, 10ca and 379 as targets of PKC alpha, beta II, and delta. Comparison of the intensity of phosphopeptides suggests that Ser 328 is the most phosphorylated serine. The ability of each PKC isoform to induce p47(phox) to associate with p22(phox) was tested by using an overlay technique; the results showed that all the PKC isoforms that were studied induce p47(phox) binding to the cytosolic fragment of p22(phox). In addition, PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta were able to induce production of superoxide anions in a cell-free system using recombinant cytosolic proteins. Surprisingly, PKC zeta, which phosphorylates a subset of selective p47(phox) sites, induced stronger activation of the NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these results suggest that PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta expressed in human neutrophils can individually phosphorylate p47(phox) and induce both its translocation and NADPH oxidase activation. In addition, phosphorylation of some serines could have an inhibitory effect on oxidase activation.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;24;7743-50

  • Selectivity and promiscuity of the first and second PDZ domains of PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102.

    Lim IA, Hall DD and Hell JW

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1532, USA.

    PDZ domains typically interact with the very carboxyl terminus of their binding partners. Type 1 PDZ domains usually require valine, leucine, or isoleucine at the very COOH-terminal (P(0)) position, and serine or threonine 2 residues upstream at P(-2). We quantitatively defined the contributions of carboxyl-terminal residues to binding selectivity of the prototypic interactions of the PDZ domains of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and its homolog synapse-associated protein 90 (SAP102) with the NR2b subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor. Our studies indicate that all of the last five residues of NR2b contribute to the binding selectivity. Prominent were a requirement for glutamate or glutamine at P(-3) and for valine at P(0) for high affinity binding and a preference for threonine over serine at P(-2), in the context of the last 11 residues of the NR2b COOH terminus. This analysis predicts a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV consensus sequence for the strongest binding to the first two PDZ domains of PSD-95 and SAP102. A search of the human genome sequences for proteins with a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV motif yielded 50 proteins, many of which have not been previously identified as PSD-95 or SAP102 binding partners. Two of these proteins, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and protein kinase Calpha, co-immunoprecipitated with PSD-95 and SAP102 from rat brain extracts.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG00213; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07759; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS35563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;24;21697-711

  • Protein kinase C (PKC) delta regulates PKCalpha activity in a Syndecan-4-dependent manner.

    Murakami M, Horowitz A, Tang S, Ware JA and Simons M

    Angiogenesis Research Center and Section of Cardiology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.

    The phosphorylation state of Ser(183) in the cytoplasmic tail of syndecan-4 determines the binding affinity of the cytoplasmic tail to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), the capacity of the tail to multimerize, and its ability to activate protein kinase C (PKC) alpha. We sought to identify the kinase responsible for this phosphorylation and to determine its downstream effects on PKCalpha activity and on endothelial cell function. Among several PKC isoenzymes tested, only PKCalpha and -delta were able to specifically phosphorylate Ser(183) in vitro. However, studies in cultured endothelial cells showed that the phosphorylation level of syndecan-4 was significantly reduced in endothelial cells expressing a dominant negative (DN) PKCdelta but not a DN PKCalpha mutant. Syndecan-4/PIP(2)-dependent PKCalpha activity was significantly increased in PKCdelta DN cells, while PKCdelta overexpression was accompanied by decreased PKCalpha activity. PKCdelta-overexpressing cells exhibited a significantly lower proliferation rate and an impaired tube formation in response to FGF2, which were mirrored by similar observations in PKCalpha DN endothelial cells. These findings suggest that PKCdelta is the kinase responsible for syndecan-4 phosphorylation, which, in turn, attenuates the cellular response to FGF2 by reducing PKCalpha activity. The reduced PKCalpha activity then leads to impaired endothelial cell function. We conclude that PKCdelta regulates PKCalpha activity in a syndecan-4-dependent manner.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL51043, HL62289, HL63609

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;23;20367-71

  • Human OGG1 undergoes serine phosphorylation and associates with the nuclear matrix and mitotic chromatin in vivo.

    Dantzer F, Luna L, Bjørås M and Seeberg E

    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, Sognsvannveien 20, NO-0027 Oslo, Norway.

    OGG1 is the major DNA glycosylase in human cells for removal of 7,8 dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), one of the most frequent endogenous base lesions formed in the DNA of aerobic organisms. During replication, 8-oxoG will frequently mispair with adenine, thus forming G:C --> T:A transversions, a common somatic mutation associated with human cancers. In the present study, we have constructed a stable transfectant cell line expressing hOGG1 fused at the C-terminal end to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and investigated the cellular distribution of the fusion protein by fluorescence analysis. It is shown that hOGG1 is preferentially associated with chromatin and the nuclear matrix during interphase and becomes associated with the condensed chromatin during mitosis. Chromatin-bound hOGG1 was found to be phosphorylated on a serine residue in vivo as revealed by staining with an anti-phosphoserine-specific antibody. Chromatin-associated hOGG1 was co-precipitated with an antibody against protein kinase C (PKC), suggesting that PKC is responsible for the phosphorylation event. Both purified and nuclear matrix-associated hOGG1 were shown to be substrates for PKC-mediated phosphorylation in vitro. This appears to be the first demonstration of a post-translational modification of hOGG1 in vivo.

    Nucleic acids research 2002;30;11;2349-57

  • The use of fluorescent phorbol esters in studies of protein kinase C-membrane interactions.

    Slater SJ, Ho C and Stubbs CD

    Department of Anatomy, Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Room 271 JAH, 1020 Locust St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    The family of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes belongs to a growing class of proteins that become active by associating with membranes containing anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine. Depending on the particular PKC isoform, this process is mediated by Ca(2+)-binding to a C2 domain and interaction of activators such as 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol or phorbol esters with tandem C1 domains. This cooperation between the C1 and C2 domains in inducing the association of PKC with lipid membranes provides the energy for a conformational change that consists of the release of a pseudosubstrate sequence from the active site, culminating in activation. Thus, the properties of the interactions of the C1 and C2 domains with membranes, both as isolated domains, and as modules in the full length PKC isoforms, have been the subject of intense scrutiny. Here, we review the findings of studies in which fluorescent phorbol esters have been utilized to probe the properties of the C1 domains of PKC with respect to the interaction with activators, the subsequent interaction with membranes, and the role of the activating conformational change that leads to activation.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA07186, AA07215, AA07465, AA08022

    Chemistry and physics of lipids 2002;116;1-2;75-91

  • Effects of the putatively oncogenic protein kinase Calpha D294G mutation on enzymatic activity and cell growth and its occurrence in human thyroid neoplasias.

    Assert R, Kötter R, Schiemann U, Goretzki P and Pfeiffer AF

    German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany.

    A point mutation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) has been described in pituitary adenomas and in follicular adenomas and thyroid carcinomas. The mutation results in an exchange of aspartic acid into a glycine of the amino acid 294 of PKCalpha, which is located adjacent to the Ca (2+)-binding hinge region and has been proposed as an activation inhibitor. To investigate its biochemical sequelae, we constructed the mutated enzyme and expressed it in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK). The K M of the purified enzyme for Ca (2+) and its K M for the substrate MBP 4 - 14 was not altered by the mutation. Translocation of PKCalpha to HEK cell membranes upon activation was not changed and the mutant potently inhibited cell proliferation upon 5-fold stable overexpression in HEK cells. Thus, loss of function in mutated PKCalpha was excluded. A screen for the mutation using a restriction assay with a sensitivity of at least 8 % for the mutated DNA did not show any mutation in 11 carcinoma and 13 adenomatous thyroid samples. We conclude that the A294G mutation of PKCalpha does not detectably affect its biochemical properties in vitro or in vivo, and is at least rare in thyroid neoplasias, in Germany.

    Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme 2002;34;6;311-7

  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylates tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme at threonine 735: a potential role in regulated shedding.

    Díaz-Rodríguez E, Montero JC, Esparís-Ogando A, Yuste L and Pandiella A

    Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica and Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Salamanca, 37007-Salamanca, Spain.

    The ectodomain of certain transmembrane proteins can be released by the action of cell surface proteases, termed secretases. Here we have investigated how mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) control the shedding of membrane proteins. We show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) acts as an intermediate in protein kinase C-regulated TrkA cleavage. We report that the cytosolic tail of the tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is phosphorylated by Erk at threonine 735. In addition, we show that Erk and TACE associate. This association is favored by Erk activation and by the presence of threonine 735. In contrast to the Erk route, the p38 MAPK was able to stimulate TrkA cleavage in cells devoid of TACE activity, indicating that other proteases are also involved in TrkA shedding. These results demonstrate that secretases are able to discriminate between the different stimuli that trigger membrane protein ectodomain cleavage and indicate that phosphorylation by MAPKs may regulate the proteolytic function of membrane secretases.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;6;2031-44

  • Phosphorylation of the recombinant rho1 GABA receptor.

    Sedelnikova A and Weiss DS

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0021, USA.

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. While a growing body of literature indicates that postsynaptic GABA receptors are regulated by phosphorylation, there is discrepancy as to the specific effects of phosphorylation on GABA receptor function. Here, we have identified phosphorylation sites on the human rho1 GABA receptor for six protein kinases widely expressed in the brain: protein kinase C (PKC); cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII); casein kinase (CKII); mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). We demonstrate that in nearly all cases, the consensus sites and actual phosphorylation sites do not agree supporting the risk of relying on a sequence analysis to identify potential phosphorylation sites. In addition, of the six kinases examined, only CKII phosphorylated the human rho2 subunit. Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphorylation sites, or activation/inhibition of select kinase pathways, did not alter the receptor sensitivity or maximal GABA-activated current of the rho1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggesting phosphorylation of rho1 does not directly alter receptor properties. This study is a first and necessary step towards elucidating the regulation of rho1 GABA receptors by phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P30HD38985; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 40027

    International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 2002;20;3-5;237-46

  • Protein kinase C-beta II Is an apoptotic lamin kinase in polyomavirus-transformed, etoposide-treated pyF111 rat fibroblasts.

    Chiarini A, Whitfield JF, Armato U and Dal Pra I

    Histology and Embryology Unit, Department of Biomedical and Surgical Sciences, Medical School, University of Verona, Verona I-37134, Italy.

    The role of protein kinase C-beta(II) (PKC-beta(II)) in etoposide (VP-16)-induced apoptosis was studied using polyomavirus-transformed pyF111 rat fibroblasts in which PKC-beta(II) specific activity in the nuclear membrane (NM) doubled and the enzyme was cleaved into catalytic fragments. No PKC-beta(II) complexes with lamin B1 and/or active caspases were immunoprecipitable from the NM of proliferating untreated cells, but large complexes of PKC-beta(II) holoprotein and its catalytic fragments with lamin B1, active caspase-3 and -6, and inactive phospho-CDK-1, but not PKC-beta(I) or PKC-delta, could be immunoprecipitated from the NM of VP-16-treated cells, suggesting that PKC-beta(II) is an apoptotic lamin kinase. By 30 min after normal nuclei were mixed with cytoplasms from VP-16-treated, but not untreated, cells, PKC-beta(II) holoprotein had moved from the apoptotic cytoplasm to the normal NM, and lamin B1 was phosphorylated before cleavage by caspase-6. Lamin B1 phosphorylation was partly reduced, but its cleavage was completely prevented, despite the presence of active caspase-6, by adding a selective PKC-betas inhibitor, hispidin, to the apoptotic cytoplasms. Thus, a PKC-beta(II) response to VP-16 seems necessary for lamin B1 cleavage by caspase-6 and nuclear lamina dissolution in apoptosing pyF111 fibroblasts. The possibility of PKC-beta(II) being an apoptotic lamin kinase in these cells was further suggested by lamin B1-bound PKC-delta being inactive or only slightly active and by PKC-alpha not combining with the lamin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;21;18827-39

  • Human serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) phosphorylates glycogen syntheses kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) at serine-9 through direct interaction.

    Dai F, Yu L, He H, Chen Y, Yu J, Yang Y, Xu Y, Ling W and Zhao S

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

    Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) has been identified as a new integrator that decodes lipid signals produced by the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). SGKL is activated via its lipid-binding domain (phox homology domain) in response to PI3K signaling. However, downstream targets of SGKL as well as the role of SGKL as a mediator in PI3K signaling in human tissues remain to be established. In this study, we identified human glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) as a specific interacting partner with SGKL in a yeast two-hybrid screening of human brain cDNA library. The association between these two proteins is confirmed independently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the kinase activity of wild-type SGKL was required for the in vitro phosphorylation of a GSK-3 crosstide fusion protein at serine-21/9 as demonstrated with a Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) specific antibody. The present results provide strong evidences that SGKL could utilize GSK-3beta as a direct downstream target by phosphorylating GSK-3beta at serine-9.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;293;4;1191-6

  • Calcium-dependent involucrin expression is inversely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC)alpha and PKCdelta.

    Deucher A, Efimova T and Eckert RL

    Department of Physiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4970, USA.

    Calcium is an important physiologic regulator of keratinocyte function that may regulate keratinocyte differentiation via modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKCalpha and PKCdelta are two PKC isoforms that are expressed at high levels in keratinocytes. In the present study, we examine the effect of PKCdelta and PKCalpha on calcium-dependent keratinocyte differentiation as measured by effects on involucrin (hINV) gene expression. Our studies indicate that calcium increases hINV promoter activity and endogenous hINV gene expression. This response requires PKCdelta, as evidenced by the observation that treatment with dominant-negative PKCdelta inhibits calcium-dependent hINV promoter activity, whereas wild type PKCdelta increases activity. PKCalpha, in contrast, inhibits calcium-dependent hINV promoter activation, a finding that is consistent with the ability of dominant-negative PKCalpha and the PKCalpha inhibitor, Go6976, to increase hINV gene expression. The calcium-dependent regulatory response is mediated by an AP1 transcription factor-binding site located within the hINV promoter distal regulatory region that is also required for PKCdelta-dependent regulation; moreover, both calcium and PKCdelta produce similar, but not identical, changes in AP1 factor expression. A key question is whether calcium directly influences PKC isoform function. Our studies show that calcium does not regulate PKCalpha or delta levels or cause a marked redistribution to membranes. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of PKCdelta is markedly increased following calcium treatment. These findings suggest that PKCalpha and PKCdelta are required for, and modulate, calcium-dependent keratinocyte differentiation in opposing directions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;19;17032-40

  • Molecular mechanism of the induction of metalloproteinases 1 and 3 in human fibroblasts by basic calcium phosphate crystals. Role of calcium-dependent protein kinase C alpha.

    Reuben PM, Brogley MA, Sun Y and Cheung HS

    Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

    Synovial fluid basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are common in osteoarthritis and are often associated with destructive arthropathies involving cartilage degeneration. These crystals are mitogenic and induce oncogene expression and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) synthesis and secretion in human fibroblasts. To date, BCP crystal-elicited signal transduction pathways have not been completely studied. Because protein kinase C (PKC) is known to play an important role in signal transduction, we investigated the participation of this pathway in the BCP crystal induction of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA and protein expressions in human fibroblasts. Using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern and Western blotting techniques, we show here that BCP crystal stimulation of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA and protein expressions in human fibroblasts is dependent upon the calcium-dependent PKC signal transduction pathway and that the PKC alpha isozyme is specifically involved in the pathway. We have previously shown that BCP crystal induction of MMP-1 and MMP-3 is also dependent on the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) signal transduction pathway. We now show that these two pathways operate independently and seem to complement each other. This leads to our hypothesis that the two pathways initially function independently, ultimately leading to an increase in mitogenesis and MMP synthesis, and may converge downstream of PKC and p44/42 MAPK to mediate BCP crystal-induced cellular responses.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-38421-13

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;17;15190-8

  • Regulation of protein kinase C in Escherichia coli K1 invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Sukumaran SK and Prasadarao NV

    Division of Infectious Diseases, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

    Escherichia coli is one of the most important pathogens involved in the development of neonatal meningitis in many parts of the world. Traversal of E. coli across the blood-brain barrier is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis. Our previous studies have shown that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) expression is necessary in E. coli for a mechanism involving actin filaments in its passage through the endothelial cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have also been activated in host cells during the process of invasion. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms leading to actin filament condensation, we have focused our attention on protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme central to many signaling events, including actin rearrangement. In the current study, specific PKC inhibitors, bisindolmaleimide and a PKC-inhibitory peptide, inhibited E. coli invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) by more than 75% in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a significant role played by this enzyme in the invasion process. Our results further showed that OmpA+ E. coli induces significant activation of PKC in HBMEC as measured by the PepTag nonradioactive assay. In addition, we identified that the PKC isoform activated in E. coli invasion is a member of the conventional family of PKC, PKC-alpha, which requires calcium for activation. Immunocytochemical studies have indicated that the activated PKC-alpha is associated with actin condensation beneath the bacterial entry site. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of PKC-alpha in HBMEC abolished the E. coli invasion without significant changes in FAK phosphorylation or PI3K activity patterns. In contrast, in HBMEC overexpressing the mutant forms of either FAK or PI3K, E. coli-induced PKC activation was significantly blocked. Furthermore, our studies showed that activation of PKC-alpha induces the translocation of myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate, an actin cross-linking protein and a substrate for PKC-alpha, from the membrane to cytosol. This is the first report of FAK- and PI3K-dependent PKC-alpha activation in bacterial invasion related to cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI40567

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;14;12253-62

  • Adducin in platelets: activation-induced phosphorylation by PKC and proteolysis by calpain.

    Gilligan DM, Sarid R and Weese J

    Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. dianag@psbc.org

    Adducins are a family of cytoskeletal proteins encoded by 3 genes (alpha, beta, and gamma). Platelets express alpha and gamma adducins, in contrast to red blood cells that express alpha and beta adducins. During platelet activation with thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, alpha and gamma adducins were phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) as detected by an antibody specific for a phosphopeptide sequence in the highly conserved carboxy terminus. Platelet activation also led to adducin proteolysis; inhibition by calpeptin suggests that the protease was calpain. The kinase inhibitor staurosporine inhibited PKC phosphorylation of adducin and also inhibited proteolysis of adducin. Experiments with recombinant alpha adducin demonstrated that the PKC-phosphorylated form was proteolyzed at a significantly faster rate than the unphosphorylated form. The concentration of adducin in platelets was estimated at 6 microM, similar to the concentration of capping protein. Fractionation of platelets into high-speed supernatant (cytosol) and pellet (membrane and cytoskeleton) revealed a shift of PKC-phosphorylated adducin to the cytosol during platelet activation. Platelet aggregation detected turbidometrically was decreased in the presence of staurosporine and was completely inhibited by calpeptin. Thrombin-induced changes in morphology were assessed by confocal microscopy with fluorescein phalloidin and were not prevented by staurosporine or calpeptin. Our results suggest that regulation of adducin function by PKC and calpain may play a role in platelet aggregation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 55005

    Blood 2002;99;7;2418-26

  • Convergence of multiple signaling cascades at glycogen synthase kinase 3: Edg receptor-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation by lysophosphatidic acid through a protein kinase C-dependent intracellular pathway.

    Fang X, Yu S, Tanyi JL, Lu Y, Woodgett JR and Mills GB

    Department of Molecular Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural phospholipid with multiple biological functions. We show here that LPA induces phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. The effect of LPA can be reconstituted by expression of Edg-4 or Edg-7 in cells lacking LPA responses. Compared to insulin, LPA stimulates only modest phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) that does not correlate with the magnitude of GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by LPA. PI3K inhibitors block insulin- but not LPA-induced GSK-3 phosphorylation. In contrast, the effect of LPA, but not that of insulin or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), is sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Downregulation of endogenous PKC activity selectively reduces LPA-mediated GSK-3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, several PKC isotypes phosphorylate GSK-3 in vitro and in vivo. To confirm a specific role for PKC in regulation of GSK-3, we further studied signaling properties of PDGF receptor beta subunit (PDGFRbeta) in HEK293 cells lacking endogenous PDGF receptors. In clones expressing a PDGFRbeta mutant wherein the residues that couple to PI3K and other signaling functions are mutated with the link to phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) left intact, PDGF is fully capable of stimulating GSK-3 phosphorylation. The process is sensitive to PKC inhibitors in contrast to the response through the wild-type PDGFRbeta. Therefore, growth factors, such as PDGF, which control GSK-3 mainly through the PI3K-PKB/Akt module, possess the ability to regulate GSK-3 through an alternative, redundant PLCgamma-PKC pathway. LPA and potentially other natural ligands primarily utilize a PKC-dependent pathway to modulate GSK-3.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64602, CA82716, P01 CA064602, R01 CA082716

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;7;2099-110

  • HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta.

    Bennasser Y and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, France.

    In HIV-infected patients, production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a highly immunosuppressive cytokine, is associated with the disease progression toward AIDS. We have previously shown that HIV-1 Tat induces IL-10 production by human monocytes via a protein kinase C (PKC) -dependent pathway. Here we show that PKC activation by Tat is essential for IL-10 induction. Among the eight PKC isoforms present in human monocytes, we investigated which isoform(s) plays this crucial role in Tat-mediated IL-10 production and show that 1) Tat can activate PKC-alpha, PKC-betaII, PKC-delta, and PKC-epsilon, 2) of these four potential candidates, only PKC-betaII, PKC-delta, and PKC-epsilon are activated by the active domain Tat 1-45, which is responsible for IL-10 production and depleted by long-term exposure to PMA, which abolishes Tat-mediated IL-10 production, 3) whereas selective inhibition of PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon by specific antisense oligonucleotides has no effect on Tat-mediated IL-10 induction, inhibition of either PKC-betaII or PKC-delta partially inhibits IL-10 production; and 4) the simultaneous inhibition of PKC-betaII and PKC-delta totally inhibits Tat-mediated IL-10. Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2002;16;6;546-54

  • Mass spectrometric analysis of the kinetics of in vivo rhodopsin phosphorylation.

    Lee KA, Craven KB, Niemi GA and Hurley JB

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7350, USA.

    On stimulation, rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein in the rod cells of the retina, is phosphorylated at several sites on its C terminus as the first step in deactivation. We have developed a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the kinetics of phosphorylation at each site in vivo. After exposing either a freshly dissected mouse retina or the eye of an anesthetized mouse to a flash of light, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions are terminated by rapidly homogenizing the retina or enucleated eye in 8 M urea. The C-terminal peptide containing all known phosphorylation sites is cleaved from rhodopsin, partially purified by ultracentrifugation, and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The mass spectrometer responds linearly to the peptide from 10 fmole to 100 pmole. The relative sensitivity to peptides with zero to five phosphates was determined using purified phosphopeptide standards. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) was used to distinguish the three primary sites of phosphorylation, Ser 334, Ser 338, and Ser 343. Peptides monophosphorylated on Ser 334 were separable from those monophosphorylated on Ser 338 and Ser 343 by reversed-phase HPLC. Although peptides monophosphorylated at Ser 338 and Ser 343 normally coelute, the relative amounts of each species in the single peak could be determined by monitoring the ratio of specific daughter ions characteristic of each peptide. Doubly phosphorylated rhodopsin peptides with different sites of phosphorylation also were distinguished by LCMS/MS. The sensitivity of these methods was evaluated by using them to measure rhodopsin phosphorylation stimulated either by light flashes or by continuous illumination over a range of intensities.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY06641, F32 EY006641, R01 EY006641

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2002;11;4;862-74

  • Nanomolar amyloid beta protein activates a specific PKC isoform mediating phosphorylation of MARCKS in Neuro2A cells.

    Tanimukai S, Hasegawa H, Nakai M, Yagi K, Hirai M, Saito N, Taniguchi T, Terashima A, Yasuda M, Kawamata T and Tanaka C

    Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, 520 Saisho-ko, Himeji 670-0981, Japan.

    Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a protein associated with cell growth, neurosecretion and macrophage activation, is activated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. We reported that amyloid beta protein (Abeta) activated MARCKS through a tyrosine kinase and PKC-delta in rat cultured microglia. Here we report that Abeta signaling pathway through a specific PKC isoform is involved in the phosphorylation of MARCKS in Neuro2A cells. Selective PKC inhibitors but not tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of MARCKS induced by Abeta. Abeta selectively activated PKC-alpha among the four PKC isoforms localized in Neuro2A cells. PKC-alpha activated by Abeta directly phosphorylated a recombinant MARCKS in vitro, Translocation of PKC-alpha from the cytoplasm to the membrane and accumulation of phospho-MARCKS in the cytoplasm were induced by Abeta. These results suggest involvement of a phosphoinositide signaling system through PKC-alpha in the phosphorylation of MARCKS in neurons, an event which may be associated with mechanisms underlying neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of Abeta.

    Neuroreport 2002;13;4;549-53

  • Interaction of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Ctheta in platelets. Cross-talk between tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases.

    Crosby D and Poole AW

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    The nonreceptor Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been previously shown to associate physically and functionally with members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases in a variety of cell types. Here we show evidence for a novel interaction between Btk and PKCtheta; in platelets activated through the adhesion receptors GP Ib-V-IX and GP VI. Alboaggregin A, a snake venom component capable of activating both receptors in combination, leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk downstream of Src family kinases. Inhibition of Btk by the selective antagonist LFM-A13 causes a reduction in calcium entry, although secretion of 5-hydroxytryptamine is potentiated. Btk is also phosphorylated on threonine residues in a PKC-dependent manner and associates with PKCtheta; upon platelet activation by either alboaggregin A or activation of GP Ib-V-IX alone by von Willebrand factor/ristocetin. PKCtheta; in turn becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in a manner dependent upon Src family and Btk kinase activity. Inhibition of Btk activity by LFM-A13 leads to enhancement of PKCtheta; activity, whereas nonselective inhibition of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide I leads to reduction in Btk activity. We propose a reciprocal feedback interaction between Btk and PKCtheta; in platelets, in which PKCtheta; positively modulates activity of Btk, which in turn feeds back negatively upon PKCtheta;.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;9958-65

  • A lipid-regulated docking site on vinculin for protein kinase C.

    Ziegler WH, Tigges U, Zieseniss A and Jockusch BM

    Department of Cell Biology, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, D-38092 Braunschweig, Germany.

    During cell spreading, binding of actin-organizing proteins to acidic phospholipids and phosphorylation are important for localization and activity of these proteins at nascent cell-matrix adhesion sites. Here, we report on a transient interaction between the lipid-dependent protein kinase Calpha and vinculin, an early component of these sites, during spreading of HeLa cells on collagen. In vitro binding of protein kinase Calpha to vinculin tail was found dependent on free calcium and acidic phospholipids but independent of a functional kinase domain. The interaction was enhanced by conditions that favor the oligomerization of vinculin. Phosphorylation by protein kinase Calpha reached 1.5 mol of phosphate/mol of vinculin tail and required the C-terminal hydrophobic hairpin, a putative phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Mass spectroscopy of peptides derived from in vitro phosphorylated vinculin tail identified phosphorylation of serines 1033 and 1045. Inhibition of C-terminal phospholipid binding at the vinculin tail by mutagenesis or deletion reduced the rate of phosphorylation to < or =50%. We suggest a possible mechanism whereby phospholipid-regulated conformational changes in vinculin may lead to exposure of a docking site for protein kinase Calpha and subsequent phosphorylation of vinculin and/or vinculin interaction partners, thereby affecting the formation of cell adhesion complexes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;9;7396-404

  • The interaction of the bisphosphorylated N-terminal arm of cardiac troponin I-A 31P-NMR study.

    Schmidtmann A, Lohmann K and Jaquet K

    Physiologische Chemie, Abt. Biochemie Supramolekularer Systeme, Medizinische Fakultät, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, MA 2/39, 44780, Bochum, Germany.

    Cardiac troponin I, the inhibitory subunit of the heterotrimeric cardiac troponin (cTn) complex is phosphorylated by protein kinase A at two serine residues located in its heart-specific N-terminal extension. This flexible arm interacts at different sites within cTn dependent on its phosphorylation degree. Bisphosphorylation is known to induce conformational changes within cTnI which finally lead to a reduction of the calcium affinity of cTnC. However, as we show here, the bisphosphorylated cTnI arm does not interact with cTnC, but with cTnT and/or cTnI.

    FEBS letters 2002;513;2-3;289-93

  • Inhibition of the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) current in Jurkat T cells by the HIV-1 envelope protein gp160.

    Dellis O, Gangloff SC, Paulais M, Tondelier D, Rona JP, Brouillard F, Bouteau F, Guenounou M and Teulon J

    Electrophysiologie des Membranes, Université Denis Diderot (Paris7), 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05, France. odellis@moka.ccr.jussieu.fr

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120/160 has pleiotropic effects on T cell function. We investigated whether Ca(2+) signaling, a crucial step for T cell activation, was altered by prolonged exposure of Jurkat T cells to gp160. Microfluorometric measurements showed that Jurkat cells incubated with gp160 had smaller (approximately 40%) increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to phytohemagglutinin and had a reduced Ca(2+) influx (approximately 25%). gp160 had similar effects on Jurkat cells challenged with thapsigargin. We used the patch clamp technique to record the Ca(2+) current, which is responsible for Ca(2+) influx and has properties of the calcium release-activated Ca(2+) current (I(CRAC)). gp160 reduced I(CRAC) by approximately 40%. The inhibitory effects of gp160 were antagonized by staurosporine (0.1 microm), an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinases and protein kinase Cs (PKCs), and by Gö 6976 (5 microm), an inhibitor acting especially on PKC alpha and PKC beta I. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (16 nm), a PKC activator, reproduced the effects of gp160 in untreated cells. A Western blotting analysis of PKC isoforms alpha, beta I, delta, and zeta showed that only the cellular distribution of PKC alpha and -beta I were significantly modified by gp160. In addition, gp160 was able to modify the subcellular distribution of PKC alpha and PKC beta I caused by phytohemagglutinin. Therefore the reduction in I(CRAC) caused by prolonged incubation with gp160 is probably mediated by PKC alpha or -beta I.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;8;6044-50

  • Phosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin by p21-activated kinase (PAK).

    Goto H, Tanabe K, Manser E, Lim L, Yasui Y and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: Intermediate filament (IF) is one of the three major cytoskeletal filaments. Vimentin is the most widely expressed IF protein component. The Rho family of small GTPases, such as Cdc42, Rac and Rho, are thought to control the organization of actin filaments as well as other cytoskeletal filaments.

    Results: We determined if the vimentin filaments can be regulated by p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of targets downstream of Cdc42 or Rac. In vitro analyses revealed that vimentin served as an excellent substrate for PAK. This phosphorylated vimentin lost the potential to form 10 nm filaments. We identified Ser25, Ser38, Ser50, Ser65 and Ser72 in the amino-terminal head domain as the major phosphorylation sites on vimentin for PAK. The ectopic expression of constitutively active PAK in COS-7 cells induced vimentin phosphorylation. Fibre bundles or granulates of vimentin were frequent in these transfected cells. However, the kinase-inactive mutant induced neither vimentin phosphorylation nor filament reorganization.

    Conclusion: Our observations suggest that PAK may regulate the reorganization of vimentin filaments through direct vimentin phosphorylation.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;2;91-7

  • Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin CD18 chain by protein kinase C isoforms in leukocytes.

    Fagerholm S, Morrice N, Gahmberg CG and Cohen P

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom. susanna.fagerholm@helsinki.fi

    The CD11/CD18 (beta(2)) integrins are leukocyte-specific adhesion receptors, and their ability to bind ligands on other cells can be activated by extracellular stimuli. During cell activation, the CD18 chain is known to become phosphorylated on serine and functionally important threonine residues located in the intracellular C-terminal tail. Here, we identify catalytic domain fragments of protein kinase C (PKC) delta and PKCbetaI/II as the major protein kinases in leukocyte extracts that phosphorylate a peptide corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail of the integrin CD18 chain. The sites phosphorylated in vitro were identified as Ser-745 and Thr-758. PKCalpha and PKCeta also phosphorylated these residues, and PKCalpha additionally phosphorylated Thr-760. Ser-745, a novel site, was shown to become phosphorylated in T cells in response to phorbol ester stimulation. Ser-756, a residue not phosphorylated by PKC isoforms, also became phosphorylated in T cells after phorbol ester stimulation. When leukocyte extracts were subjected to affinity chromatography on agarose to which residues 751-761 of the CD18 chain phosphorylated at Thr-758 were bound covalently, the only proteins that bound specifically were identified as isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins. Thus, PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CD18 after cell stimulation could lead to the recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins to the activated integrin, which may play a role in regulating its adhesive state or ability to signal.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;3;1728-38

  • The Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by protein kinase C isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta.

    Strack V, Krützfeldt J, Kellerer M, Ullrich A, Lammers R and Häring HU

    Medical Clinic, Department IV, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Strasse 10, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    To study whether protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms can interact with protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs) which are connected to the insulin signaling pathway, we co-overexpressed PKC isoforms together with insulin receptor, docking proteins, and the PTPs SHP1 and SHP2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. After phorbol ester induced activation of PKC isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta, we could show a defined gel mobility shift of SHP2, indicating phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. This phosphorylation was not dependent on insulin receptor or insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) overexpression and did not occur for the closely related phosphatase SHP1. Furthermore, PKC phosphorylation of SHP2 was completely blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide and was not detectable when SHP2 was co-overexpressed with kinase negative mutants of PKC beta 1 and -beta 2. The phosphorylation also occurred on endogenous SHP2 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing PKC beta 2. Using point mutants of SHP2, we identified serine residues 576 and 591 as phosphorylation sites for PKC. However, no change of phosphatase activity by TPA treatment was detected in an in vitro assay. In summary, SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by PKC isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;2;603-8

  • HSP27 modulates agonist-induced association of translocated RhoA and PKC-alpha in muscle cells of the colon.

    Bitar KN, Ibitayo A and Patil SB

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. bitar@umich.edu

    The recruitment of signal transduction molecules to the membrane is crucial for the efficient coupling of extracellular signals and contractile response. The trafficking is dynamic. We have investigated a possible cross talk between agonist-induced association of translocated RhoA and translocated protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) and a role for heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in mediating this interaction. Immunoprecipitation with HSP27 monoclonal antibody followed by immunoblotting with either RhoA antibody or PKC-alpha antibody indicated that acetylcholine induced associations of HSP27-RhoA and HSP27-PKC-alpha in the membrane fraction but not in the cytosolic fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-RhoA monoclonal antibody followed by immunoblotting with PKC-alpha antibody indicated that acetylcholine induced a significant complexing of RhoA-PKC-alpha in the membrane fraction but not in the cytosolic fraction. In summary, the data indicate that agonist-induced contraction is associated with 1) association of translocated RhoA with HSP27 on the membrane, 2) association of translocated PKC-alpha with HSP27 on the membrane, and 3) association of PKC-alpha with RhoA on the membrane. The data suggest an important role for HSP27 in modulating a multiprotein complex that includes translocated RhoA and PKC-alpha.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK-42876

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2002;92;1;41-9

  • Protein kinase Calpha is required for endothelin-1-induced proliferation of human myometrial cells.

    Eude I, Dallot E, Ferré F and Breuiller-Fouché M

    INSERM U361, Université René Descartes, Pavillon Baudelocque, 75014 Paris, France.

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced proliferation of human myometrial cells was investigated. Inhibition of conventional PKC with Gö 6976 eliminated the proliferative effect of ET-1. Treatment of myometrial cells with an antisense oligonucleotide against PKCalpha efficiently reduced PKCalpha protein expression without effect on other PKC isoforms and resulted in the loss of ET-1-induced cell growth. Immunocytochemistry using an antibody against PKCalpha revealed that there was no PKCalpha immunoreactivity in the nuclei of quiescent nonconfluent untreated cells, whereas it is evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Exposure of myometrial cells to ET-1 for 15 min caused the PKCalpha to shift towards the perinuclear area, and incubation for 60 min caused a shift towards the nucleus. These results reveal that PKCalpha is required for ET-1-induced human myometrial cell growth and suggest that targeting of PKCalpha by antisense nucleotides might be an important approach for the development of anticancer treatments.

    Biology of reproduction 2002;66;1;44-9

  • Molecular characterization of protein kinase C-alpha binding to lamin A.

    Martelli AM, Bortul R, Tabellini G, Faenza I, Cappellini A, Bareggi R, Manzoli L and Cocco L

    Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell'Apparato Locomotore, Sezione di Anatomia Umana, Cell Signaling Laboratory, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 48, Italy. amartell@biocfarm.unibo.it

    Previous results from our laboratory have identified lamin A as a protein kinase C (PKC)-binding protein. Here, we have identified the regions of PKC-alpha that are crucial for this binding. By means of overlay assays and fusion proteins made of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fused to elements of rat PKC-alpha, we have established that binding occurs through both the V5 region and a portion of the C2 region (i.e., the calcium-dependent lipid binding (CaLB) domain) of the kinase. In particular, we have found that amino acid 200-217 of the CaLB domain are essential for binding lamin A, as a synthetic peptide corresponding to this stretch of amino acids prevented the interaction between the CaLB domain and lamin A. We also show that the presence of four lysine residues of the CaLB domain (K205, K209, K211, and K213) was essential for the binding. We have determined that binding of elements of PKC-alpha to lamin A does not require the presence of cofactors such as phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca(2+). We have also found that the binding site of lamin A for the CaLB domain of PKC-alpha is localized in the carboxyl-terminus of the lamin, downstream of amino acid 499. Our findings may prove to be important to clarify the mechanisms regulating PKC function within the nucleus and may also lead to the synthesis of isozyme-specific drugs to attenuate or reverse PKC-dependent nuclear signaling pathways important for the pathogenesis of cancer.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2002;86;2;320-30

  • Identification of the phosphatidylserine binding site in the C2 domain that is important for PKC alpha activation and in vivo cell localization.

    Conesa-Zamora P, Lopez-Andreo MJ, Gómez-Fernández JC and Corbalán-García S

    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular (A), Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Apartado de Correos 4021, E-30100 Murcia, Spain.

    The C2 domain of classical PKCs binds to membranes through Ca(2+) bridging to phosphatidylserine as recently observed through X-ray diffraction of the isolated domain. Additionally, it has been proposed that N189, T251, R216, and R249A interact directly with phosphatidylserine [Verdaguer, N., et al. (1999) EMBO J. 18, 6329-6338]. When these four residues were mutated to Ala to determine their role in PKC binding to phospholipid membranes, PKC activation, and in its in vivo localization, the results revealed that they were very important for the activation of full-length PKCalpha. N189, in particular, was involved in the activation of the enzyme after its interaction with PS, since its mutation to Ala did not decrease the level of membrane binding but did prevent full enzyme activation. On the other hand, mutations R216A, R249A, and T251A affected both membrane binding and enzyme activation, although T251A had the most drastic effect, suggesting that the protein interactions with the carbonyl groups of the phospholipid are also a key event in the activation process. Taken together, these results show that the four residues located near the calcium binding site are critical in phosphatidylserine-dependent PKCalpha activation, in which N189 plays an important role, triggering the enzyme activation probably by interacting with neighboring residues of the protein when lipid binding occurs. Furthermore, these results provide strong evidence for better defining one of the two phosphatidylserine isomer models proposed in the previous crystallographic report.

    Biochemistry 2001;40;46;13898-905

  • Activation of PKC but not of ERK is required for vitamin E-succinate-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.

    Bang OS, Park JH and Kang SS

    Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, 702-701, Korea.

    Vitamin E-succinate (VES) induced HL-60 human leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis. Treatment with VES induced membrane translocation of Fas; cleavages of caspase-3, PARP, and lamin B; hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein; and increase of p21(WAF1) protein level. During the induction of apoptosis, activity of PKC was gradually increased with downregulation of VES-induced ERK activity and accompanied by activation of caspase-3. Inhibition of PKC by GF109203X blocked VES-mediated membrane translocation of PKC-alpha and cleavage of caspase-3 cascade, resulting in prevention of VES-induced apoptosis. On the contrary, PKC activation by cotreatment with LPC or thapsigargin and VES synergistically increased VES-mediated apoptosis. However, inhibition of ERK activity by PD98059 showed no significant effect on VES-induced PKC activity and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that VES induces activation of PKC and PKC-dependent hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, which results in induction of apoptosis, and that VES-induced early activation of ERK and ERK-dependent induction of p21(WAF1) are not required for apoptosis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;288;4;789-97

  • Protein kinase C regulates the phosphorylation and cellular localization of occludin.

    Andreeva AY, Krause E, Müller EC, Blasig IE and Utepbergenov DI

    Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, 13125 Berlin-Buch and Charité, Humboldt Universität Berlin, 13092 Berlin, Germany.

    Occludin is an integral membrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tight junctions, contributing to the structure and function of this intercellular seal. Occludin function is thought to be regulated by phosphorylation, but no information is available on the molecular pathways involved. In the present study, the involvement of the protein kinase C pathway in the regulation of the phosphorylation and cellular distribution of occludin has been investigated. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol induced the rapid phosphorylation of occludin in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in low extracellular calcium medium with a concomitant translocation of occludin to the regions of cell-cell contact. The extent of occludin phosphorylation as well as its incorporation into tight junctions induced by protein kinase C activators or calcium switch were markedly decreased by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF-109203X. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that the recombinant COOH-terminal domain of murine occludin could be phosphorylated by purified protein kinase C. Ser(338) of occludin was identified as an in vitro protein kinase C phosphorylation site using peptide mass fingerprint analysis and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. These findings indicate that protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of occludin function at tight junctions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;42;38480-6

  • Association of protein kinase A with AKAP150 facilitates pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells.

    Xie G and Raufman JP

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.

    Cross talk between signal transduction pathways augments pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) associate with regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and localize this protein complex to specific cell compartments. We determined whether an AKAP-signaling protein complex exists in chief cells and whether this modulates secretion. In Western blots, we identified AKAP150, a rodent homologue of human AKAP79 that coimmunoprecipitates with PKA, PKC, and actin. The association of PKA and PP2B was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalized staining at the cell periphery for AKAP150 and PKC. Ht31, a peptide that competitively displaces PKA from the AKAP complex, but not Ht31P, a control peptide, inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-induced pepsinogen secretion. Ht31 did not inhibit secretion that was stimulated by agents whose actions are mediated by PKC and/or calcium. However, Ht31, but not Ht31P, inhibited carbachol- and A23187-stimulated augmentation of secretion from cells preincubated with cholera toxin. These data suggest the existence in chief cells of a protein complex that includes AKAP150, PKA, PKC, and PP2B. Disruption of the AKAP-PKA linkage impairs cAMP-mediated pepsinogen secretion and cross talk between signaling pathways.

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2001;281;4;G1051-8

  • Mechanisms and physiological significance of the cholinergic control of pancreatic beta-cell function.

    Gilon P and Henquin JC

    Unité d'Endocrinologie et Métabolisme, University of Louvain Faculty of Medicine, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium. gilon@endo.ucl.ac.be

    Acetylcholine (ACh), the major parasympathetic neurotransmitter, is released by intrapancreatic nerve endings during the preabsorptive and absorptive phases of feeding. In beta-cells, ACh binds to muscarinic M(3) receptors and exerts complex effects, which culminate in an increase of glucose (nutrient)-induced insulin secretion. Activation of PLC generates diacylglycerol. Activation of PLA(2) produces arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine. These phospholipid-derived messengers, particularly diacylglycerol, activate PKC, thereby increasing the efficiency of free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) on exocytosis of insulin granules. IP3, also produced by PLC, causes a rapid elevation of [Ca(2+)](c) by mobilizing Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum; the resulting fall in Ca(2+) in the organelle produces a small capacitative Ca(2+) entry. ACh also depolarizes the plasma membrane of beta-cells by a Na(+)- dependent mechanism. When the plasma membrane is already depolarized by secretagogues such as glucose, this additional depolarization induces a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](c). Surprisingly, ACh can also inhibit voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and stimulate Ca(2+) efflux when [Ca(2+)](c) is elevated. However, under physiological conditions, the net effect of ACh on [Ca(2+)](c) is always positive. The insulinotropic effect of ACh results from two mechanisms: one involves a rise in [Ca(2+)](c) and the other involves a marked, PKC-mediated increase in the efficiency of Ca(2+) on exocytosis. The paper also discusses the mechanisms explaining the glucose dependence of the effects of ACh on insulin release.

    Endocrine reviews 2001;22;5;565-604

  • Expression and function of the HSD-3.8 gene encoding a testis-specific protein.

    Lin W, Zhou X, Zhang M, Li Y, Miao S, Wang L, Zong S and Koide SS

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan 3-Tiao, Beijing 100005, People's Republic of China.

    The nucleotide sequence of the full length HSD-3.8 cDNA (accession number AF311312), encoding a human sperm component, was determined to consist of 3818 bp with a reading frame of 2778 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide composed of 926 amino acids. A 0.7 kb fragment containing three immunological epitopes of HSD-3.8 cDNA was prepared and used to construct recombinant expression vectors. The constructs were transformed into E.coli BL-21, and the fusion proteins were expressed, isolated and purified. Using the polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified expressed fusion proteins, positive immunostaining occurred over the surface of the postacrosomal zone of human spermatozoa and of germ cells within the seminiferous epithelium of human testis. Intense staining of large pachytene primary spermatocytes occurred. The capacity of the recombinant protein to reduce fertility as an immunogen in adult female rats was assessed. Immunized animals were infertile or exhibited marked reduction in their fertility. Analysis of the deduced HSD-3.8 polypeptide revealed the presence of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif, a P-loop sequence that acts as a binding site for ATP/GTP and phosphorylation sites for PKC, CK2 and cAMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinases. A blot overlay assay with [alpha-(32)P]GTP showed that the polypeptide encoded by the 0.7 kb fragment of HSD-3.8 is a GTP binding protein. It was also shown to possess GTPase activity and to be phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. In conclusion, HSD-3.8 is a GTP binding protein and its activity may be regulated by phosphorylation.

    Molecular human reproduction 2001;7;9;811-8

  • Isoforms of protein kinase C and their distribution in human adrenal cortex and tumors.

    Mikosha AS, Tron'ko ND, Staren'kii DV and Rybakov SI

    V. P. Komissarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev. endo@i.kiev.ua

    The cytosol and microsomal fractions of human adrenal cortex contain 3 isoforms of protein kinase C: alpha, zeta, and epsilon. The latter fraction is present in trace amounts. No isoforms beta1, beta2, gamma and delta were found in these cell fractions. The distribution of alpha-isoform between the cytosol and microsomal fraction is determined by tissue origin: in normal tissue its content differs by no more than 10%, while in most tumors this isoform is translocated into the microsomal fraction. The distribution of zeta-isoform did not depend on tissue origin.

    Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine 2001;132;3;841-3

  • HIV envelope gp120 activates human arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Schecter AD, Berman AB, Yi L, Mosoian A, McManus CM, Berman JW, Klotman ME and Taubman MB

    Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. alison.schecter@.mssm.edu

    There have been increasing reports of acute coronary thrombotic events in patients with HIV. Although these clinical events have been attributed primarily to dyslipidemia associated with protease inhibitor therapy, autopsy studies in children with HIV suggest the presence of an underlying arteriopathy. This study demonstrates that the HIV envelope protein, gp120, activates human arterial smooth muscle cells to express tissue factor, the initiator of the coagulation cascade. The induction of tissue factor by gp120 is mediated by two biologically relevant coreceptors for HIV infection, CXCR4 and CCR5, and is also dependent on the presence of functional CD4. Induction of tissue factor by gp120 requires activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases, activation of protein kinase C, and generation of reactive oxygen species, signaling pathways that have protean effects on smooth muscle cell physiology. The activation of smooth muscle cells by gp120 may play an important role in the vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory responses to HIV infection.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03801, HL29019, P01 HL029019; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01DKJ6492; NIMH NIH HHS: MH52974

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;18;10142-7

  • Sequential activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and PKC-epsilon contributes to sustained Raf/ERK1/2 activation in endothelial cells under mechanical strain.

    Cheng JJ, Wung BS, Chao YJ and Wang DL

    Cardiovascular Division, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, 11529 Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to hemodynamic forces including cyclic pressure-induced strain. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in cyclic strain-treated ECs was studied. PKC activities were induced as cyclic strain was initiated. Cyclic strain to ECs caused activation of PKC-alpha and -epsilon. The translocation of PKC-alpha and -epsilon but not PKC-beta from the cytosolic to membrane fraction was observed. An early transient activation of PKC-alpha versus a late but sustained activation of PKC-epsilon was shown after the onset of cyclic strain. Consistently, a sequential association of PKC-alpha and -epsilon with the signaling molecule Raf-1 was shown. ECs treated with a PKC inhibitor (calphostin C) abolished the cyclic strain-induced Raf-1 activation. ECs under cyclic strain induced a sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), which was inhibited by treating ECs with calphostin C. ECs treated with a specific Ca(2+)-dependent PKC inhibitor (Go 6976) showed an inhibition in the early phase of ERK1/2 activation but not in the late and sustained phase. ECs transfected with the antisense to PKC-alpha, the antisense to PKC-epsilon, or the inhibition peptide to PKC-epsilon reduced strain-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a temporal manner. PKC-alpha mediated mainly the early ERK1/2 activation, whereas PKC-epsilon was involved in the sustained ERK1/2 activation. Strained ECs increased transcriptional activity of Elk1 (an ERK1/2 substrate). ECs transfected with the antisense to each PKC isoform reduced Elk1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 promotor activity. Our findings conclude that a sequential activation of PKC isoform (alpha and epsilon) contribute to Raf/ERK1/2 activation, and PKC-epsilon appears to play a key role in endothelial adaptation to hemodynamic environment.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;33;31368-75

  • Histamine-induced vasoconstriction involves phosphorylation of a specific inhibitor protein for myosin phosphatase by protein kinase C alpha and delta isoforms.

    Eto, Kitazawa T, Yazawa M, Mukai H, Ono Y and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. me2h@virginia.edu

    Histamine stimulus triggers inhibition of myosin phosphatase-enhanced phosphorylation of myosin and contraction of vascular smooth muscle. In response to histamine stimulation o 7d6 f intact femoral artery, a smooth muscle-specific protein called CPI-17 (for protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for heterotrimeric myosin light chain phosphatase of 17 kDa) is phosphorylated and converted to a potent inhibitor for myosin phosphatase. Phosphorylation of CPI-17 is diminished by pretreatment with either or GF109203x, suggesting involvement of multiple kinases (Kitazawa, T., Eto, M., Woodsome, T. P., and Brautigan, D. L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 9897--9900). Here we purified and identified CPI-17 kinases endogenous to pig artery that phosphorylate CPI-17. DEAE-Toyopearl column chromatography of aorta extracts separated two CPI-17 kinases. One kinase was protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, and the second kinase was purified to homogeneity as a 45-kDa protein, and identified by sequencing as PKC delta. Purified PKC delta was 3-fold more reactive with CPI-17 compared with myelin basic protein, whereas purified PKC alpha and recombinant RhoA-activated kinases (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein Ser/Thr kinase and protein kinase N) showed equal activity with CPI-17 and myelin basic protein. inhibited CPI-17 phosphorylation by purified PKC delta with IC(50) of 0.6 microm (in the presence of 0.1 mm ATP) or 14 microm (2.0 mm ATP). significantly suppressed CPI-17 phosphorylation in smooth muscle cells, and the contraction of permeabilized rabbit femoral artery induced by stimulation with phorbol ester. GF109203x inhibited phorbol ester-induced contraction of rabbit femoral artery by 80%, whereas a PKC alpha/beta inhibitor, Go6976, reduced contraction by 47%. The results imply that histamine stimulation elicits contraction of vascular smooth muscle through activation of PKC alpha and especially PKC delta to phosphorylate CPI-17.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL51824

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;31;29072-8

  • PICK1 targets activated protein kinase Calpha to AMPA receptor clusters in spines of hippocampal neurons and reduces surface levels of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2.

    Perez JL, Khatri L, Chang C, Srivastava S, Osten P and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    The PICK1 protein interacts in neurons with the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) and with several other membrane receptors via its single PDZ domain. We show that PICK1 also binds in neurons and in heterologous cells to protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and that the interaction is highly dependent on the activation of the kinase. The formation of PICK1-PKCalpha complexes is strongly induced by TPA, and PICK1-PKCalpha complexes are cotargeted with PICK1-GluR2 complexes to spines, where GluR2 is found to be phosphorylated by PKC on serine 880. PICK1 also reduces the plasma membrane levels of the GluR2 subunit, consistent with a targeting function of PICK1 and a PKC-facilitated release of GluR2 from the synaptic anchoring proteins ABP and GRIP. This work indicates that PICK1 functions as a targeting and transport protein that directs the activated form of PKCalpha to GluR2 in spines, leading to the activity-dependent release of GluR2 from synaptic anchor proteins and the PICK1-dependent transport of GluR2 from the synaptic membrane.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;15;5417-28

  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3: properties, functions, and regulation.

    Ali A, Hoeflich KP and Woodgett JR

    Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610-University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2M9. aali@uwindsor.ca

    Chemical reviews 2001;101;8;2527-40

  • Mitotic phosphorylation prevents the binding of HMGN proteins to chromatin.

    Prymakowska-Bosak M, Misteli T, Herrera JE, Shirakawa H, Birger Y, Garfield S and Bustin M

    Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism, DBS, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. bosakm@pop.nci.nih.gov

    Condensation of the chromatin fiber and transcriptional inhibition during mitosis is associated with the redistribution of many DNA- and chromatin-binding proteins, including members of the high-mobility-group N (HMGN) family. Here we study the mechanism governing the organization of HMGN proteins in mitosis. Using site-specific antibodies and quantitative gel analysis with proteins extracted from synchronized HeLa cells, we demonstrate that, during mitosis, the conserved serine residues in the nucleosomal binding domain (NBD) of this protein family are highly and specifically phosphorylated. Nucleosome mobility shift assays with both in vitro-phosphorylated proteins and with point mutants bearing negative charges in the NBD demonstrate that the negative charge abolishes the ability of the proteins to bind to nucleosomes. Fluorescence loss of photobleaching demonstrates that, in living cells, the negative charge in the NBD increases the intranuclear mobility of the protein and significantly decreases the relative time that it is bound to chromatin. Expression of wild-type and mutant proteins in HmgN1(-/-) cells indicates that the negatively charged protein is not bound to chromosomes. We conclude that during mitosis the NBD of HMGN proteins is highly phosphorylated and that this modification regulates the interaction of the proteins with chromatin.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;15;5169-78

  • HSP22, a new member of the small heat shock protein superfamily, interacts with mimic of phosphorylated HSP27 ((3D)HSP27).

    Benndorf R, Sun X, Gilmont RR, Biederman KJ, Molloy MP, Goodmurphy CW, Cheng H, Andrews PC and Welsh MJ

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. rbenndo@umich.edu

    Most of the members of the superfamily of mammalian small heat shock or stress proteins are abundant in muscles where they play a role in muscle function and maintenance of muscle integrity. One member of this protein superfamily, human HSP27, is rapidly phosphorylated on three serine residues (Ser(15), Ser(78), and Ser(82)) during cellular response to a number of extracellular factors. To understand better the role of HSP27, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library for HSP27-interacting proteins. By using the triple aspartate mutant, a mimic of phosphorylated HSP27, as "bait" construct, a protein with a molecular mass of 21.6 kDa was identified as an HSP27-binding protein. Sequence analysis revealed that this new protein shares an overall sequence identity of 33% with human HSP27. This protein also contains the alpha-crystallin domain in its C-terminal half, a hallmark of the superfamily of small stress proteins. Thus, the new protein itself is a member of this protein superfamily, and consequently we designated it HSP22. According to the two-hybrid data, HSP22 interacts preferentially with the triple aspartate form of HSP27 as compared with wild-type HSP27. HSP22 is expressed predominantly in muscles. In vitro, HSP22 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (at residues Ser(14) and Thr(63)) and by p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (at residues Ser(27) and Thr(87)) but not by MAPKAPK-2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA77078-01; NHGRI NIH HHS: R01HG01709-01; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES06265

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;29;26753-61

  • Multiple phosphorylation of rhodopsin and the in vivo chemistry underlying rod photoreceptor dark adaptation.

    Kennedy MJ, Lee KA, Niemi GA, Craven KB, Garwin GG, Saari JC and Hurley JB

    Department of Biochemistry, Box 357350, University of Washington, 98195, Seattle, WA, USA.

    Dark adaptation requires timely deactivation of phototransduction and efficient regeneration of visual pigment. No previous study has directly compared the kinetics of dark 1f40 adaptation with rates of the various chemical reactions that influence it. To accomplish this, we developed a novel rapid-quench/mass spectrometry-based method to establish the initial kinetics and site specificity of light-stimulated rhodopsin phosphorylation in mouse retinas. We also measured phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, regeneration of rhodopsin, and reduction of all-trans retinal all under identical in vivo conditions. Dark adaptation was monitored by electroretinography. We found that rhodopsin is multiply phosphorylated and then dephosphorylated in an ordered fashion following exposure to light. Initially during dark adaptation, transduction activity wanes as multiple phosphates accumulate. Thereafter, full recovery of photosensitivity coincides with regeneration and dephosphorylation of rhodopsin.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY02317, EY06641; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32 GM07270

    Neuron 2001;31;1;87-101

  • Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins associate with activated protein kinase C (PKC) and link PKC to specific beta(1) integrins.

    Zhang XA, Bontrager AL and Hemler ME

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Translocation of conventional protein kinases C (PKCs) to the plasma membrane leads to their specific association with transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF; tetraspanin) proteins (CD9, CD53, CD81, CD82, and CD151), as demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and covalent cross-linking experiments. Although formation and maintenance of TM4SF-PKC complexes are not dependent on integrins, TM4SF proteins can act as linker molecules, recruiting PKC into proximity with specific integrins. Previous studies showed that the extracellular large loop of TM4SF proteins determines integrin associations. In contrast, specificity for PKC association probably resides within cytoplasmic tails or the first two transmembrane domains of TM4SF proteins, as seen from studies with chimeric CD9 molecules. Consistent with a TM4SF linker function, only those integrins (alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and a chimeric "X3TC5" alpha(3) mutant) that associated strongly with tetraspanins were found in association with PKC. We propose that PKC-TM4SF-integrin structures represent a novel type of signaling complex. The simultaneous binding of TM4SF proteins to the extracellular domains of the integrin alpha(3) subunit and to intracellular PKC helps to explain why the integrin alpha3 extracellular domain is needed for both intracellular PKC recruitment and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha(3) integrin cytoplasmic tail.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA86712

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;27;25005-13

  • Ezrin is a downstream effector of trafficking PKC-integrin complexes involved in the control of cell motility.

    Ng T, Parsons M, Hughes WE, Monypenny J, Zicha D, Gautreau A, Arpin M, Gschmeissner S, Verveer PJ, Bastiaens PI and Parker PJ

    Richard Dimbleby Department of Cancer Research, St Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. T.Ng@icrf.icnet.uk

    Protein kinase C (PKC) alpha has been implicated in beta1 integrin-mediated cell migration. Stable expression of PKCalpha is shown here to enhance wound closure. This PKC-driven migratory response directly correlates with increased C-terminal threonine phosphorylation of ezrin/moesin/radixin (ERM) at the wound edge. Both the wound migratory response and ERM phosphorylation are dependent upon the catalytic function of PKC and are susceptible to inhibition by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase blockade. Upon phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate stimulation, green fluorescent protein-PKCalpha and beta1 integrins co-sediment with ERM proteins in low-density sucrose gradient fractions that are enriched in transferrin receptors. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, PKCalpha is shown to form a molecular complex with ezrin, and the PKC-co-precipitated endogenous ERM is hyperphosphorylated at the C-terminal threonine residue, i.e. activated. Electron microscopy showed an enrichment of both proteins in plasma membrane protrusions. Finally, overexpression of the C-terminal threonine phosphorylation site mutant of ezrin has a dominant inhibitory effect on PKCalpha-induced cell migration. We provide the first evidence that PKCalpha or a PKCalpha-associated serine/threonine kinase can phosphorylate the ERM C-terminal threonine residue within a kinase-ezrin molecular complex in vivo.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;11;2723-41

  • Phosphorylation of murine homeodomain protein Dlx3 by protein kinase C.

    Park GT, Denning MF and Morasso MI

    Laboratory of Skin Biology, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The Dlx3 homeodomain gene is expressed in terminally differentiated murine epidermal cells. As demonstrated for differentiation-specific granular markers, Dlx3 is activated in primary mouse keratinocytes cultured in vitro by increasing the level of the extracellular Ca(2+). This activation is mediated through a protein kinase C-dependent (PKC) pathway. In this study, we investigated whether PKC can modulate the activity of murine Dlx3 protein. Using in vitro kinase assays, we show that PKC enzymes phosphorylate the Dlx3 protein. Using keratinocyte nuclear extracts for the kinase reaction, we determined that Dlx3 protein is phosphorylated, and the phosphorylation is inhibited by the PKC-specific inhibitor GF109203X, suggesting that Dlx3 is phosphorylated by PKC in vivo. Of the PKC isoforms present in the epidermis, we tested alpha, delta, epsilon and zeta. Dlx3 is primarily phosphorylated by PKC alpha. By deletion and mutational analysis, we show that the serine residue S(138), located in the homeodomain of Dlx3 protein, was specifically phosphorylated by PKC. The phosphorylation of purified Dlx3 proteins by PKC partially inhibited formation of complexes between Dlx3 protein and DNA. These results suggest that Dlx3 protein can be directly phosphorylated by PKC and this affects the DNA binding activity of Dlx3.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: Z01 AR041124-06

    FEBS letters 2001;496;1;60-5

  • Protein kinase C alpha -mediated negative feedback regulation is responsible for the termination of insulin-like growth factor I-induced activation of nuclear phospholipase C beta1 in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    Xu A, Wang Y, Xu LY and Gilmour RS

    Liggins Institute, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Previous studies from several independent laboratories have demonstrated the existence of an autonomous phosphoinositide (PI) cycle within the nucleus, where it is involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to induce a transient and rapid increase in the activity of nuclear-localized phospholipase C (PLC) beta1, which in turn leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol in the nucleus. Nuclear diacylglycerol provides the driving force for the nuclear translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha. Here, we report that treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with Go6976, a selective inhibitor of PKC alpha, caused a sustained elevation of IGF-I-stimulated nuclear PLC activity. A time course study revealed an inverse relationship between nuclear PKC activity and the activity of nuclear PLC in IGF-I-treated cells. A time-dependent association between PKC alpha and PLC beta1 in the nucleus was also observed following IGF-I treatment. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that PKC promoted phosphorylation of PLC beta1 at serine 887 in the nucleus of IGF-I-treated cells. Overexpression of either a PLC beta1 mutant in which the PKC phosphorylation site Ser(887) was replaced by alanine, or a dominant-negative PKC alpha, resulted in a sustained activation of nuclear PLC following IGF-I stimulation. These results indicate that a negative feedback regulation of PLC beta1 by PKC alpha plays a critical role in the termination of the IGF-I-dependent signal that activates the nuclear PI cycle.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;18;14980-6

  • Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current.

    Liao GY, Wagner DA, Hsu MH and Leonard JP

    Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    Protein kinase-C (PKC) activation differentially affects currents from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors depending upon their subunit composition. Experiments using chimeras initially indicated that the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of NR2B (responsive to PKC) and NR2C (unresponsive to PKC) subunits contain the amino acid residues responsible for the observed disparity of PKC effects. However, truncation and point mutation experiments have suggested that PKC action on NMDA receptors may be entirely indirect, working via the phosphorylation of associated proteins. Here we suggest that PKC does, in fact, affect NR2B/NR1-011 NMDA currents by direct phosphorylation of the NR2B tail at residues S1303 and S1323. Replacement of either of these residues with Ala severely reduces PKC potentiation. To verify that S1303 and S1323 are sites of direct phosphorylation by PKC, synthetic peptides from the regions surrounding these sites were used as substrates for in vitro assays with purified rat brain PKC. These results indicate that PKC can directly phosphorylate S1303 and S1323 in the NR2B C terminus, leading to enhanced currents through NMDA receptor channels. The direct action of PKC on certain NMDA receptor subtypes may be important in any physiological or pathological process where PKC and NR2B/NR1 receptors interact.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS31962-02

    Molecular pharmacology 2001;59;5;960-4

  • Rack1 binds HIV-1 Nef and can act as a Nef-protein kinase C adaptor.

    Gallina A, Rossi F and Milanesi G

    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Polo Universitario Ospedale San Paolo, University of Milano, via A. di Rudiní 8, I-20142 Milan, Italy.

    Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses exert pleiotropic effects, such as enhanced endocytosis of CD4 and MHC-I cell surface molecules, perturbation of signal transduction cascades, and virion infectivity enhancement. Nef function intersects that of a number of cell kinases, including C kinases (PKCs) and Src-family kinases. Here the interaction of HIV-1 Nef with Rack1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) is reported. Nef binds the Rack1 C-terminal moiety in a yeast two-hybrid system and in cell-free pull-down assays and copurifies with in vitro translated Rack1. Nef and Rack1 partially colocalize on the trans-Golgi network and plasma membranes. The presence of Rack1 doubles Nef phosphorylation by PKCs in vitro. Our data agree with the idea that Rack1 acts as a Nef intracellular docking site, bringing Nef and PKCs together. Other signal transduction or endocytosis proteins, in particular Src-like kinases, might meet Nef by intermediation of the Rack1 adaptor.

    Virology 2001;283;1;7-18

  • Regulation of the ErbB3 binding protein Ebp1 by protein kinase C.

    Lessor TJ and Hamburger AW

    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Ebp1, a 47 kDa ubiquituously expressed protein, binds the ErbB3 receptor in human serum starved breast cancer cell lines and dissociates from ErbB3 on treatment with the ErbB3 ligand, Heregulin (HRG). However, the mechanism of Ebp1-ErbB3 association/dissociation is not understood. Since Ebp1 contains six putative Protein Kinase C serine/threonine phosphorylation sites, we examined the ability of PKC to phosphorylate Ebp1 and to regulate Ebp1-ErbB3 binding. We found that Ebp1 was basally phosphorylated in AU565 breast cancer cells on serine/threonine residues and that this phosphorylation was enhanced by heregulin treatment. Both serine and threonine residues of a GST-Ebp1 fusion protein were phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. In vivo, we demonstrated that basal Ebp1 phosphorylation was dependent upon PKC. However, HRG-induced phosphorylation of Ebp1 occurred predominantly in a PKC-independent manner. The ability of Ebp1 to associate with ErbB3 in serum-starved NIH3T3 cells overexpresssing ErbB3 was abrogated by treating cells with a PKC inhibitor. These findings suggest that PKC plays a role in regulating phosphorylation and function of Ebp1 in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA76047

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2001;175;1-2;185-91

  • Activation of annexin 7 by protein kinase C in vitro and in vivo.

    Caohuy H and Pollard HB

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.

    Annexin 7, a Ca(2+)/GTP-activated membrane fusion protein, is preferentially phosphorylated in intact chromaffin cells, and the levels of annexin 7 phosphorylation increase quantitatively in proportion to the extent of catecholamine secretion. Consistently, various protein kinase C inhibitors proportionately reduce both secretion and phosphorylation of annexin 7 in these cells. In vitro, annexin 7 is quantitatively phosphorylated by protein kinase C to a mole ratio of 2.0, and phosphorylation is extraordinarily sensitive to variables such as pH, calcium, phospholipid, phorbol ester, and annexin 7 concentration. Phosphorylation of annexin 7 by protein kinase C significantly potentiates the ability of the protein to fuse phospholipid vesicles and lowers the half-maximal concentration of calcium needed for this fusion process. Furthermore, other protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein-tyrosine kinase pp60(c-)(src), also label annexin 7 with high efficiency but do not have this effect on membrane fusion. In the case of pp60(c-)(src), we note that this kinase, if anything, modestly suppresses the membrane fusion activity of annexin 7. These results thus lead us to hypothesize that annexin 7 may be a positive mediator for protein kinase C action in the exocytotic membrane fusion reaction in chromaffin cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;16;12813-21

  • Interaction of protein kinase C isozymes with Rho GTPases.

    Slater SJ, Seiz JL, Stagliano BA and Stubbs CD

    Department of Pathology, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Evidence is provided for direct protein-protein interactions between protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta and members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Previous investigations, based on the immunoprecipitation approach, have provided evidence consistent with a direct interaction, but this remained to be proven. In the study presented here, an in vitro assay, consisting only of purified proteins and the requisite PKC activators and cofactors, was used to determine the effects of Rho GTPases on the activities of the different PKC isoforms. It was found that the activity of PKCalpha was potently enhanced by RhoA and Cdc42 and to a lesser extent by Rac1, whereas the effects on the activities of PKCbetaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, and -zeta were much reduced. These results indicate a direct interaction between PKCalpha and each of the Rho GTPases. However, the Rho GTPase concentration dependencies for the potentiating effects on PKCalpha activity differed for each Rho GTPase and were in the following order: RhoA > Cdc42 > Rac1. PKCalpha was activated in a phorbol ester- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This was reflected by a substantial decrease in the phorbol ester concentration requirements for activity in the presence of Ca(2+), which for each Rho GTPase was induced within a low nanomolar phorbol ester concentration range. The activity of PKCalpha also was found to be dependent on the nature of the GTP- or GDP-bound state of the Rho GTPases, suggesting that the interaction may be regulated by conformational changes in both PKCalpha and Rho GTPases. Such an interaction could result in significant cross-talk between the distinct pathways regulated by these two signaling elements.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA07186, AA07215, AA07465, AA08022

    Biochemistry 2001;40;14;4437-45

  • IL-1beta enhances beta2-adrenergic receptor expression in human airway epithelial cells by activating PKC.

    Bin W, Aksoy MO, Yang Y and Kelsen SG

    Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-activated signal transduction pathways regulate cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. We have observed that interleukin (IL)-1beta upregulates beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) density and beta2-AR mRNA in human airway epithelial cells (e.g., BEAS-2B). We therefore tested the hypothesis that PKC-activated pathways mediate IL-1beta-induced beta-AR upregulation. The role of PKC was assessed from the effects of 1) the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on beta-AR density, 2) selective PKC inhibitors (calphostin C and Ro-31-8220) on beta-AR density, and 3) IL-1beta treatment on the cellular distribution of PKC isozymes. Recombinant human IL-1beta (0.2 nM for 18 h) increased beta-AR density to 213% of control values (P < 0.001). PMA (1 microM for 18 h) increased beta-AR density to 225% of control values (P < 0.005), whereas Ro-31-8220 and calphostin C inhibited the IL-1beta-induced upregulation of beta-AR in dose-dependent fashion. PKC isozymes detected by Western blotting included alpha, betaII, epsilon, mu, zeta, and lambda/iota. IL-1beta increased PKC-mu immunoreactivity in the membrane fraction and had no effect on the distribution of the other PKC isozymes identified. These data indicate that IL-1beta-induced beta-AR upregulation is mimicked by PKC activators and blocked by PKC inhibitors and appears to involve selective activation of the PKC-mu isozyme. We conclude that signal transduction pathways activated by PKC-mu upregulate beta2-AR expression in human airway epithelial cells.

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2001;280;4;L675-9

  • Interaction of CD163 with the regulatory subunit of casein kinase II (CKII) and dependence of CD163 signaling on CKII and protein kinase C.

    Ritter M, Buechler C, Kapinsky M and Schmitz G

    Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

    CD163 is a recently identified member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, which is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes and most tissue macrophages and is thought to play an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory response of these cells. Cross-linking of CD163 on glucocorticoid-stimulated macrophages results in the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines, but the precise mechanism of CD163 mediated signal transduction is not understood. The existence of several CD163 isoforms, which differ in the structure of their cytoplasmic domains and putative phosphorylation sites, suggests that these isoforms also differ in their signaling mechanism. Using the Yeast Two-Hybrid system and further in vitro and in vivo studies, we identified the regulatory beta-subunit of casein kinase II (CKII), which specifically binds to the cytoplasmic domain of CD163 and its isoforms. We also found, that in vitro the CD163 isoforms differ in their association with the CKII holoenzyme and in the phosphorylation by CKII. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domains of CD163 variants are phosphorylated by PKC-alpha in vitro. Inhibition studies using specific kinase inhibitors reveal that both CKII and PKC are involved in the CD163 signaling mechanism resulting in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.

    European journal of immunology 2001;31;4;999-1009

  • Protein kinase C-alpha and -epsilon modulate connexin-43 phosphorylation in human heart.

    Bowling N, Huang X, Sandusky GE, Fouts RL, Mintze K, Esterman M, Allen PD, Maddi R, McCall E and Vlahos CJ

    Cardiovascular Research, Discovery Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

    We have previously demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC)- alpha expression is significantly elevated in failing human left ventricle, with immunostaining showing increased PKC- alpha localization at the intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes. In the present study we sought to determine, in the failing heart, if PKC- alpha interacted with connexin-43 (Cx-43) both spatially and functionally, and to compare the association of PKC- alpha/Cx-43 with that of PKC- epsilon, a PKC isozyme that does not significantly increase in failing hearts. The possibility of a PKC- alpha or PKC- epsilon/Cx-43 association in non-failing hearts was also investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation of PKC- alpha or PKC- epsilon and Cx-43 in non-failing and failing left ventricle was achieved using antibodies to PKC- alpha or Cx-43. Confocal microscopy confirmed that PKC- alpha distribution within the cardiomyocyte included co-localization with connexin-43 in both failing and non-failing myocardium. In a similar manner, confocal imaging of PKC- epsilon showed cardiomyocyte distribution in both cytosol and membrane, and colocalization of PKC- epsilon with Cx-43. Recombinant PKC- alpha or - epsilon increased PKC activity significantly above endogenous levels in the co-immunoprecipitated Cx-43 complexes (P<0.05). However, phosphorylation of purified human Cx-43 (isolated from failing human left ventricle) by recombinant PKC- alpha or PKC- epsilon resulted in only PKC- epsilon mediated Cx-43 phosphorylation. Thus, in the human heart PKC- alpha, PKC- epsilon, and Cx-43 appear to form a closely associated complex. Whereas only PKC- epsilon directly phosphorylates Cx-43, both PKC isoforms result in increased phosphorylation within the Cx-43 co-immunoprecipitated complex.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2001;33;4;789-98

  • Mitogen-stimulated TIS21 protein interacts with a protein-kinase-Calpha-binding protein rPICK1.

    Lin WJ, Chang YF, Wang WL and Huang CY

    Institute of Biopharmaceutical Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan, Republic of China. wjlin@ym.edu.tw

    TIS21 is induced transiently by PMA and a number of extracellular stimuli. Yeast two-hybrid screening has identified three TIS21 interacting clones from a rat cDNA library [Lin, Gary, Yang, Clarke and Herschman (1996) J. Biol. Chem 271, 15034-15044]. The amino acid sequence deduced from clone 5A shows 96.9% identity with the murine PICK1, a protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-binding protein postulated to act as an intracellular receptor for PKC. A fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase and rPICK1 associates with the TIS21 translated in vitro, suggesting a direct physical interaction between these two proteins. TIS21 and rPICK1 are co-immunoprecipitated from NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing these two proteins. This indicates that the interaction also occurs in mammalian cells. Deletion of the PDZ domain at the N-terminus of rPICK1 abolishes its interaction with TIS21. A putative carboxylate-binding loop required for PICK1 to bind PKCalpha [Staudinger, Lu and Olson (1997) J. Biol. Chem 272, 32019-32024] is within this deleted region. Our results suggest a potential competition between TIS21 and PKC for binding to PICK1. We show that recombinant TIS21 is phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. The catalytic activity of PKC towards TIS21 is significantly decreased in the presence of rPICK1, whereas phosphorylation of histone by PKC is not affected. rPICK1 seems to modulate the phosphorylation of TIS21 through specific interactions between these two proteins. TIS21 might have a role in PKC-mediated extracellular signal transduction through its interaction with rPICK1.

    The Biochemical journal 2001;354;Pt 3;635-43

  • Competitive regulation of CaT-like-mediated Ca2+ entry by protein kinase C and calmodulin.

    Niemeyer BA, Bergs C, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V and Trost C

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Universität des Saarlandes, 66421 Homburg, Germany.

    A finely tuned Ca(2+) signaling system is essential for cells to transduce extracellular stimuli, to regulate growth, and to differentiate. We have recently cloned CaT-like (CaT-L), a highly selective Ca(2+) channel closely related to the epithelial calcium channels (ECaC) and the calcium transport protein CaT1. CaT-L is expressed in selected exocrine tissues, and its expression also strikingly correlates with the malignancy of prostate cancer. The expression pattern and selective Ca(2+) permeation properties suggest an important function in Ca(2+) uptake and a role in tumor progression, but not much is known about the regulation of this subfamily of ion channels. We now demonstrate a biochemical and functional mechanism by which cells can control CaT-L activity. CaT-L is regulated by means of a unique calmodulin binding site, which, at the same time, is a target for protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. We show that Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding to CaT-L, which facilitates channel inactivation, can be counteracted by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of the calmodulin binding site.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;6;3600-5

  • Protein kinase C activation modulates alpha-calmodulin kinase II binding to NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex.

    Gardoni F, Bellone C, Cattabeni F and Di Luca M

    Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano, Italy. fabrizio.gardoni@unimi.it

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2 possess extended intracellular C-terminal domains by which they can directly interact with a large number of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins involved in synaptic clustering and signaling. We have previously shown that PSD-associated alpha-calmodulin kinase II (alphaCaMKII) binds with high affinity to the C-terminal domain of the NR2A subunit. Here, we show that residues 1412-1419 of the cytosolic tail of NR2A are critical for alphaCaMKII binding, and we identify, by site directed mutagenesis, PKC-dependent phosphorylation of NR2A(Ser(1416)) as a key mechanism in inhibiting alphaCaMKII-binding and promoting dissociation of alphaCaMKII.NR2A complex. In addition, we show that stimulation of PKC activity in hippocampal slices either with phorbol esters or with the mGluRs specific agonist trans-1-amino-1,3- cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD) decreases alphaCaMKII binding to NMDA receptor complex. Thus, our data provide clues on understanding the molecular basis of a direct cross-talk between alphaCaMKII and PKC pathways in the postsynaptic compartment.

    Funded by: Telethon: 946

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;10;7609-13

  • Cellular mechanism of nutritionally induced insulin resistance in Psammomys obesus: overexpression of protein kinase Cepsilon in skeletal muscle precedes the onset of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia.

    Ikeda Y, Olsen GS, Ziv E, Hansen LL, Busch AK, Hansen BF, Shafrir E and Mosthaf-Seedorf L

    Department of Molecular Signaling, Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark.

    The sand rat (Psammomys obesus) is an animal model of nutritionally induced diabetes. We report here that several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (alpha, epsilon, and zeta, representing all three subclasses of PKC) are overexpressed in the skeletal muscle of diabetic animals of this species. This is most prominent for the epsilon isotype of PKC. Interestingly, increased expression of PKCepsilon could already be detected in normoinsulinemic, normoglycemic (prediabetic) animals of the diabetes-prone (DP) line when compared with a diabetes-resistant (DR) line. In addition, plasma membrane (PM)-associated fractions of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of diabetic animals, suggesting chronic activation of these PKC isotypes in the diabetic state. The increased PM association of these PKC isotypes revealed a significant correlation with the diacylglycerol content in the muscle samples. Altered expression/activity of PKCepsilon, in particular, may thus contribute to the development of diabetes in these animals; along with other PKC isotypes, it may be involved in the progression of the disease. This may possibly occur through inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity mediated by serine/threonine phosphorylation of the IR or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). However, overexpression of PKCepsilon also mediated down-regulation of IR numbers in a cell culture model (HEK293), resulting in attenuation of insulin downstream signaling (reduced protein kinase B [PKB]/Akt activity). In accordance with this, we detected decreased 125I-labeled insulin binding, probably reflecting a downregulation of IR numbers, in skeletal muscle of Psammomys animals from the DP line. The number of IRs was inversely correlated to both the expression and PM-associated levels of PKCepsilon. These data suggest that overexpression of PKCepsilon may be causally related to the development of insulin resistance in these animals, possibly by increasing the degradation of IRs.

    Diabetes 2001;50;3;584-92

  • Intracellular distribution of gravin, a PKA and PKC binding protein, in vascular endothelial cells.

    Grove BD and Bruchey AK

    Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, N. Dak., USA. bgrove@medicine.nodak.edu

    Gravin, a high-molecular-weight protein expressed widely in tissues and cells, is upregulated in cultured endothelial cells under conditions which suggest that it may play a role in wound repair and vascular development. In the current study, we examined the intracellular distribution of gravin to determine if it is associated with the cytoskeleton or with another intracellular compartment. Immunofluorescence microscopy of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed that gravin had a punctate staining distribution that extended to the cell margin and did not appear to colocalize with stress fibers, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Moreover, disruption of the cytoskeletal structures with either cytochalasin D or colchicine did not alter gravin distribution. However, confocal and immunoelectron microscopy clearly revealed that gravin was concentrated at the cell margin in close association with the plasma membrane. Immunoprecipitation of gravin from endothelial cell lysates resulted in coprecipitation of protein kinase activity that could be eluted from the immunoprecipitates with cAMP and that was inhibitable with a PKA-specific inhibitor. An anti-PKA catalytic subunit antibody reacted with a 40-kD band on immunoblots of the cAMP eluate. Immunoblots of the immunoprecipitates further revealed that PKCalpha coprecipitated with gravin from endothelial cell lysates. This study indicates that gravin is associated with either the plasma membrane or the membrane skeleton and may play a role in endothelial wound healing by targeting PKA and PKC to specific membrane-associated sites and regulating PKA/PKC-dependent cellular activities associated with endothelial wound healing.

    Journal of vascular research 2001;38;2;163-75

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylates RGS2 and modulates its capacity for negative regulation of Galpha 11 signaling.

    Cunningham ML, Waldo GL, Hollinger S, Hepler JR and Harden TK

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365 and the Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322-3090.

    RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) attenuate heterotrimeric G protein signaling by functioning as both GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and inhibitors of G protein/effector interaction. RGS2 has been shown to regulate Galpha(q)-mediated inositol lipid signaling. Although purified RGS2 blocks PLC-beta activation by the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-O-thiophosphate (GTPgammaS), its capacity to regulate inositol lipid signaling under conditions where GTPase-promoted hydrolysis of GTP is operative has not been fully explored. Utilizing the turkey erythrocyte membrane model of inositol lipid signaling, we investigated regulation by RGS2 of both GTP and GTPgammaS-stimulated Galpha(11) signaling. Different inhibitory potencies of RGS2 were observed under conditions assessing its activity as a GAP versus as an effector antagonist; i.e. RGS2 was a 10-20-fold more potent inhibitor of aluminum fluoride and GTP-stimulated PLC-betat activity than of GTPgammaS-promoted PLC-betat activity. We also examined whether RGS2 was regulated by downstream components of the inositol lipid signaling pathway. RGS2 was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro to a stoichiometry of approximately unity by both a mixture of PKC isozymes and individual calcium and phospholipid-dependent PKC isoforms. Moreover, RGS2 was phosphorylated in intact COS7 cells in response to PKC activation by 4beta-phorbol 12beta-myristate 13alpha-acetate and, to a lesser extent, by the P2Y(2) receptor agonist UTP. In vitro phosphorylation of RGS2 by PKC decreased its capacity to attenuate both GTP and GTPgammaS-stimulated PLC-betat activation, with the extent of attenuation correlating with the level of RGS2 phosphorylation. A phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of RGS2 GAP activity was also obs af6 erved in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified P2Y(1) receptor and Galpha(q)betagamma. These results identify for the first time a phosphorylation-induced change in the activity of an RGS protein and suggest a mechanism for potentiation of inositol lipid signaling by PKC.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM29536, GM38213

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;8;5438-44

  • Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization.

    Xiang B, Yu GH, Guo J, Chen L, Hu W, Pei G and Ma L

    National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University Medical Center, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR) containing six Ser/Thr residues abolished both DPDPE- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced DOR phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of DOR mutants T352A, T353A, and T358A/T361A/S363S were comparable to that of the wild-type DOR, whereas S344G substitution blocked PMA-induced receptor phosphorylation, indicating that PKC-mediated phosphorylation occurs at Ser-344. PKC-mediated Ser-344 phosphorylation was also induced by activation of G(q)-coupled alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor or increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Activation of PKC by PMA, alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor agonist, and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Further study demonstrated that agonist-dependent G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites in DOR are not targets of PKC. Agonist-dependent, GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation and agonist-independent, PKC-mediated DOR phosphorylation were additive, but agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation could inhibit PKC-catalyzed heterologous DOR phosphorylation and subsequent internalization. These data demonstrate that the responsiveness of opioid receptor is regulated by both PKC and GRK through agonist-dependent and agonist-independent mechanisms and PKC-mediated receptor phosphorylation is an important molecular mechanism of heterologous regulation of opioid receptor functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;7;4709-16

  • Phosphorylation of GRK2 by protein kinase C abolishes its inhibition by calmodulin.

    Krasel C, Dammeier S, Winstel R, Brockmann J, Mischak H and Lohse MJ

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Versbacher Str. 9, D-97078 Würzburg, Germany. krasel@wpxx02.toxi.uni-weirzburg.de

    G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptor function. Two members of this family L, GRK2 and GRK5 L, have been shown to be substrates for protein kinase C (PKC). Whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation results in inhibition of GRK5, it increases the activity of GRK2 toward its substrates probably through increased affinity for receptor-containing membranes. We show here that this increase in activity may be caused by relieving a tonic inhibition of GRK2 by calmodulin. In vitro, GRK2 was preferentially phosphorylated by PKC isoforms alpha, gamma, and delta. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of PKCalpha-phosphorylated GRK2 showed a single site of phosphorylation, which was identified as serine 29 by HPLC-MS. A S29A mutant of GRK2 was not phosphorylated by PKC in vitro and showed no phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation when transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. Serine 29 is located in the calmodulin-binding region of GRK2, and binding of calmodulin to GRK2 results in inhibition of kinase activity. This inhibition was almost completely abolished in vitro when GRK2 was phosphorylated by PKC. These data suggest that calmodulin may be an inhibitor of GRK2 whose effects can be abolished with PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GRK2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;3;1911-5

  • HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes.

    Park IW, Wang JF and Groopman JE

    Division of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The mechanism whereby HIV-infected cells transit from the bloodstream into tissues is not well defined. This phenomenon was addressed by studying the effects of HIV-1 Tat, a protein secreted by infected cells, on human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). It was found that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was released from HMVEC-Ls in a dose- and time-dependent manner after Tat treatment. MCP-1 is a potent beta-chemokine that recruits monocytes and T cells and promotes cell adhesion and transmigration across an endothelial monolayer. It was also observed that MCP-1 and the culture medium from Tat-treated HMVEC-Ls were chemotactic for CD14(+) monocytes from human peripheral blood and for THP-1, a promonocytic cell line used as a model system. To characterize the signaling pathways underlying the observed induction of MCP-1, HMVEC-Ls were treated with 2 different protein kinase inhibitors: PD98059, a MAP kinase inhibitor, and GF109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. MCP-1 release was significantly reduced when PKC was inhibited, and slightly decreased when PI3 kinase was blocked; no effect on MCP-1 release was observed on MAP kinase inhibition. Similarly, transmigration of THP-1 cells was significantly impaired by the PKC inhibitor, but not by the other tested inhibitors. These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL53745, HL61940

    Blood 2001;97;2;352-8

  • Protein kinase C zeta phosphorylates a subset of selective sites of the NADPH oxidase component p47phox and participates in formyl peptide-mediated neutrophil respiratory burst.

    Dang PM, Fontayne A, Hakim J, El Benna J and Périanin A

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 479, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Xavier Bichat, Paris, France.

    Generation of superoxide anion by the multiprotein complex NADPH phagocyte oxidase is accompanied by extensive phosphorylation of its 47-kDa protein component, p47(phox), a major cytosolic component of this oxidase. Protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta), an atypical PKC isoform expressed abundantly in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), translocates to the PMN plasma membrane upon stimulation by the chemoattractant fMLP. We investigated the role of PKC zeta in p47(phox) phosphorylation and in superoxide anion production by human PMN. In vitro incubation of recombinant p47(phox) with recombinant PKC zeta induced a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of p47(phox) with an apparent K(m) value of 2 microM. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of p47(phox) showed that PKC zeta phosphorylated fewer selective sites in comparison to "conventional" PKCs. Serine 303/304 and serine 315 were identified as targets of PKC zeta by site-directed mutagenesis. Stimulation of PMN by fMLP induced a rapid and sustained plasma membrane translocation of PKC zeta that correlated to that of p47(phox). A cell-permeant-specific peptide antagonist of PKC zeta inhibited both fMLP-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and its membrane translocation. The antagonist also inhibited the fMLP-induced production of oxidant (IC(50) of 10 microM), but not that induced by PMA. The inhibition of PKC zeta expression in HL-60 neutrophil-like cells using antisense oligonucleotides (5 and 10 microM) inhibited fMLP-promoted oxidant production (27 and 50%, respectively), but not that induced by PMA. In conclusion, p47(phox) is a substrate for PKC zeta and participates in the signaling cascade between fMLP receptors and NADPH oxidase activation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;166;2;1206-13

  • Pedraza-Alva G, Sawasdikosol S, Liu YC, Mérida LB, Cruz-Muñoz ME, Oceguera-Yañez F, Burakoff SJ and Rosenstein Y

    Instituto de Biotecnologia/Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca, MOR 62250, Mexico.

    CD43, one of the most abundant glycoproteins on the T cell surface, has been implicated in selection and maturation of thymocytes and migration, adhesion, and activation of mature T cells. The adapter molecule Cbl has been shown to be a negative regulator of Ras. Furthermore, it may also regulate intracellular signaling through the formation of several multi-molecular complexes. Here we investigated the role of Cbl in the CD43-mediated signaling pathway in human T cells. Unlike T cell receptor signaling, the interaction of the adapter protein Cbl with Vav and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, resulting from CD43-specific signals, is independent of Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting an alternative mechanism of interaction. CD43 signals induced a Cbl serine phosphorylation-dependent interaction with the tau-isoform of 14-3-3. protein. Protein kinase C-mediated Cbl serine phosphorylation was required for this interaction, because the PKC inhibitor RO-31-8220 prevented it, as well as 14-3-3 dimerization. Moreover, mutation of Cbl serine residues 619, 623, 639, and 642 abolished the interaction between Cbl and 14-3-3. Overexpression of Cbl in Jurkat cells inhibited the CD43-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and AP-1 transcriptional activity, confirming nevertheless a negative role for Cbl in T cell signaling. However, under normal conditions, PKC activation resulting from CD43 engagement was required to activate the MAPK pathway, suggesting that phosphorylation of Cbl on serine residues by PKC and its association with 14-3-3 molecules may play a role in preventing the Cbl inhibitory effect on the Ras-MAPK pathway. These data suggest that by inducing its phosphorylation on serine residues, CD43-mediated signals may regulate the molecular associations and functions of the Cbl adapter protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;1;729-37

  • Role of two conserved cytoplasmic threonine residues (T410 and T412) in CD5 signaling.

    Vilà JM, Calvo J, Places L, Padilla O, Arman M, Gimferrer I, Aussel C, Vives J and Lozano F

    Servei d'Immunologia, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

    CD5 is a transmembrane coreceptor that modulates activation and differentiation signals mediated by the Ag-specific receptor present on both T and B1a lymphocytes. CD5 lacks intrinsic catalytic activity, and its immunomodulatory properties result from intracellular interactions mediated by the CD5 cytoplasmic tail. The nature of these interactions is currently a matter of investigation. Here, we present a selective mutagenesis analysis of two conserved threonine residues (T410 and T412) located at the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region of CD5. These residues are contained within consensus phosphorylation motifs for protein kinase C and are shown here to be critical for in vivo protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of CD5. Functional studies revealed that the integrity of T410 and T412 is also critical for CD5-mediated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activation and phorbol ester-mediated inhibition of Ab-induced internalization of CD5. These results strongly argue in favor of a role for T410 and T412 in the signaling mediated by CD5.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;166;1;396-402

  • Additional PKA phosphorylation sites in human cardiac troponin I.

    Ward DG, Ashton PR, Trayer HR and Trayer IP

    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, UK.

    We used mass spectrometry to monitor cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalysed phosphorylation of human cardiac troponin I in vitro. Phosphorylation of isolated troponin I by cAMP-dependent protein kinase resulted in the covalent incorporation of phosphate on at least five different sites on troponin I, and a S22/23A troponin I mutant incorporated phosphates on at least three sites. In addition to the established phosphorylation sites (S22 and S23) we found that S38 and S165 were the other two main sites of phosphorylation. These 'overphosphorylation' sites were not phosphorylated sufficiently slower than S22 and S23 that we could isolate pure S22/23 bisphosphorylated troponin I. Overphosphorylation of troponin I reduced its affinity for troponin C, as measured by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. Phosphorylation of S22/23A also decreased its affinity for troponin C indicating that phosphorylation of S38 and/or S165 impedes binding of troponin I to troponin C. Formation of a troponin I/troponin C complex prior to cAMP-dependent protein kinase treatment did not prevent overphosphorylation. When whole troponin was phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, however, [(32)P]phosphate was incorporated only into troponin I and only at S22 and S23. Mass spectrometry confirmed that overphosphorylation is abolished in the ternary complex. Troponin I bisphosphorylated exclusively at S22 and S23 troponin I showed reduced affinity for troponin C but the effect was diminished with respect to overphosphorylated troponin I. These results show that care should be exercised when interpreting data obtained with troponin I phosphorylated in vitro.

    European journal of biochemistry 2001;268;1;179-85

  • [HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway].

    Bennasser Y, Yamina B, Contreras X, Xavier C, Moreau M, Marc M, Le Clerc C, Catherine L, Badou A, Abdallah B and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse.

    In asymptomatic patients infected by HIV-1, the level of IL-10, a cytokine with immunosuppressive activity, is associated with the course of HIV infection towards AIDS. We show that HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein secreted by infected cells, induces IL-10 production by human peripheral blood monocytes. The analysis of the signal transduction pathways strongly suggests that the protein kinase C may play an essential role in this induction. Stimulation by Tat induces nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFkB the activation of which seems to be necessary for IL-10 production. Using microspectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we also show that Tat induces a calcium influx.

    Journal de la Societe de biologie 2001;195;3;319-26

  • Protein kinase Calpha mediates the effect of antiarrhythmic peptide on gap junction conductance.

    Dhein S, Weng S, Grover R, Tudyka T, Gottwald M, Schaefer T and Polontchouk L

    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Halle, Germany. dhes@medizin.uni-leipzig.de

    We investigated the effects of the antiarrhythmic peptide AAP10 (GAG-4Hyp-PY-CONH2, 50 nM) on pairs of adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes and on pairs of HeLa-cells transfected with rat connexin43 (Cx43). Using double cell voltage clamp technique in cardiomyocytes under control conditions, gap junction conductance (Gj) steadily decreased (by -0.3 to -0.4 nS/min). In contrast, 50 nM AAP10 significantly enhanced Gj (by +0.22 to +0.29 nS/min). This effect of AAP10 could be significantly antagonized by bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM), and by the protein kinase C (PKC) subtype-specific inhibitors HBDDE (PKCgamma and -alpha) and CGP 54345 (PKCalpha). In HeLa-Cx43 cells we found similar electrophysiological effects of AAP10. For further analysis, we incubated HeLa-Cx43 cells with [32P]orthophosphate (0.05 mCi/ml) for 4 h at 37 degrees C followed by addition of 50 nM AAP10 for 15 min. We found that incorporation of 32P into Cx43 was significantly enhanced in the presence of AAP10, which was completely inhibited in presence of BIM. PKC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed significant activation of PKC by AAP10 in HeLa-Cx43 cells, which could be inhibited by HBDDE and CGP 54345. Finally, a binding study using [14C]-AAP10 as radioligand was performed. We found a saturable binding of [14C]-AAP10 with a KD of 0.88 nM to cardiac membrane preparations. For assessment of the antiarrhythmic activity in anesthetized rats, we infused aconitine until the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF). The aconitine dose required for initiation of VF was significantly enhanced in the presence of AAP10. In conclusion; AAP10 increases Gj in both adult cardiomyocytes and transfected HeLa-Cx43 cells. AAP10 leads to enhanced phosphorylation of Cx43 via activation of PKCalpha. A membrane receptor exists for antiarrhythmic peptides.

    Cell communication & adhesion 2001;8;4-6;257-64

  • Erk1/2-dependent phosphorylation of Galpha-interacting protein stimulates its GTPase accelerating activity and autophagy in human colon cancer cells.

    Ogier-Denis E, Pattingre S, El Benna J and Codogno P

    INSERM U504, Glycobiologie et Signalisation Cellulaire, 16, avenue Paul-Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Villejuif cedex, France.

    Galpha-interacting protein (GAIP) is a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) that accelerates the rate of GTP hydrolysis by the alpha-subunit of the trimeric G(i3) protein. Both proteins are part of a signaling pathway that controls lysosomal-autophagic catabolism in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Here we show that GAIP is phosphorylated by an extracellular signal-regulated (Erk1/2) MAP kinase-dependent pathway sensitive to amino acids, MEK1/2 (PD098059), and protein kinase C (GF109203X) inhibitors. An in vitro phosphorylation assay demonstrates that Erk2-dependent phosphorylation of GAIP stimulates its GTPase-activating protein activity toward the Galpha(i3) protein (k = 0.187 +/- 0.001 s(-)(1), EC(50) = 1.12 +/- 0.10 microm) when compared with unphosphorylated recombinant GAIP (k = 0.145 +/- 0.003 s(-)(1), EC(50) = 3.16 +/- 0. 12 microm) or to GAIP phosphorylated by other Ser/Thr protein kinases (protein kinase C, casein kinase II). This stimulation and the phosphorylation of GAIP by Erk2 were abrogated when serine at position 151 in the RGS domain was substituted by an alanine residue using site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, the lysosomal-autophagic pathway was not stimulated in S151A-GAIP mutant-expressing cells when compared with wild-type GAIP-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that the GTPase-activating protein activity of GAIP is stimulated by Erk2 phosphorylation. They also suggested that Erk1/2 and GAIP are engaged in the signaling control of a major catabolic pathway in intestinal derived cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;50;39090-5

  • Involvement of protein kinase C in HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in primary endothelium.

    Huang MB and Bond VC

    Department of Biochemistry, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310-1495, USA.

    We previously showed that HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures (HUVEC), through CCR5 and CXCR4. Here, we have found that agonists of protein kinase C (PKC), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and short exposure to low concentrations of phorbol esters were found to block gp120-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cultures. PKC antagonists, sphingosine, H7, and extended exposure of cultures to high concentrations of phorbol esters were also found to block gp120-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cultures. A significant increase in the total amount of cellular PKC enzymatic activity was observed on exposure of HUVEC to gp120. No increase in total PKC activity was observed on exposure of HUVECs to the natural ligands SDF-1alpha, or regulated-on-activation normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES) cells, and gp120-induced PKC induction was found to be totally blocked by CXCR4 antibodies and partially blocked by the caspase 3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO. Alternatively, CXCR4 antibodies and DEVD-CHO totally blocked apoptosis. Finally, gp120-induced effects were found to be insensitive to pertussis toxin. Accumulated evidence suggests PKC involvement at multiple points in the gp120-induced apoptotic pathway; also suggests involvement of the CXCR4 receptor internalization pathway, and potentially suggests different downstream effects of gp120-receptor interactions and natural ligand-receptor interactions.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: G12-RR03034

    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2000;25;5;375-89

  • Insulin-induced phospholipase D1 and phospholipase D2 activity in human embryonic kidney-293 cells mediated by the phospholipase C gamma and protein kinase C alpha signalling cascade.

    Slaaby R, Du G, Altshuller YM, MA and Seedorf K

    Department of Molecular Signalling, Hagedorn Research Institute, Niels Steensens Vej 6, Gentofte, Denmark. risl@biobase.dk

    Phospholipase D (PLD)1 is quiescent in vitro and in vivo until stimulated by classical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, ADP-ribosylation factor or Rho family members. By contrast, PLD2 has high basal activity, and the mechanisms involved in agonist-induced activation of PLD2 are poorly understood. Using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells as a model system, we report in the present study that PLD2 overexpressed in HEK-293 cells exhibits regulatory properties similar to PLD1 when stimulated in response to insulin and phorbol ester. Co-expression of PLD1 or PLD2 with PKC alpha results in constitutive activation of both PLD isoforms, which cannot be further stimulated by insulin. Co-expression of PLD1 with phospholipase C (PLC)gamma has the same effect, while co-expression of PLD2 with PLC gamma allows PLD2 activity to be stimulated in an insulin-dependent manner. The PKC-specific inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide and Gö 6976 abolish insulin-induced PLD2 activation in HEK-293 cells co-expressing the insulin receptor, PLC gamma and PLD2, confirming that not only PLD1, but PLD2 as well, is regulated in a PKC-dependent manner. Finally, we provide evidence that PKC alpha is constitutively associated with PLD2. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin treatment results in activation of both PLD1 and PLD2 in appropriate cell types when the appropriate upstream intermediate signalling components, i.e. PKC alpha and PLC gamma, are expressed at sufficient levels.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM54813

    The Biochemical journal 2000;351 Pt 3;613-9

  • Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: implication of protein kinase C-dependent pathway.

    Badou A, Bennasser Y, Moreau M, Leclerc C, Benkirane M and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie EA3038, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France.

    The clinical manifestations observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients are primarily due to the capacity of the virus and its components to inactivate the immune system. HIV-1 Tat protein could participate in this immune system disorder. This protein is secreted by infected cells of HIV-infected patients and is free in the plasma, where it can interact and be taken up by both infected and noninfected cells. In asymptomatic patients infected by HIV-1, production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a highly immunosuppressive cytokine, is associated with disease progression to AIDS. In the present work, we tested the capacity of Tat to induce IL-10 production by peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors. The results show that Tat causes the production of IL-10 in a dose- and stimulation time-dependent manner. Investigations of the mechanisms involved in signal transduction show that (i) the calcium pathway is not or only slightly involved in Tat-induced IL-10 production, (ii) the protein kinase C pathway plays an essential role, and (iii) monocyte stimulation by Tat results in the intranuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-kappaB and in the induction of phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2; activation of these two potential substrates of protein kinase C is required for the production of IL-10. Finally, our results suggest that the effect of Tat is exerted at the membrane level and that the active domain is located within N-terminal residues 1 to 45. This production of IL-10 induced by Tat could participate in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS.

    Journal of virology 2000;74;22;10551-62

  • Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 by protein kinase A.

    Fang X, Yu SX, Lu Y, Bast RC, Woodgett JR and Mills GB

    Department of Molecular Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is implicated in multiple biological processes including metabolism, gene expression, cell fate determination, proliferation, and survival. GSK-3 activity is inhibited through phosphorylation of serine 21 in GSK-3 alpha and serine 9 in GSK-3 beta. These serine residues of GSK-3 have been previously identified as targets of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a serine/threonine kinase located downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Here, we show that serine 21 in GSK-3 alpha and serine 9 in GSK-3 beta are also physiological substrates of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Protein kinase A physically associates with, phosphorylates, and inactivates both isoforms of GSK-3. The results indicate that depending on the stimulatory context, the activity of GSK-3 can be modulated either by growth factors that work through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B cascade or by hormonal stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors that link to changes in intracellular cAMP levels.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64602, CA82716, P01 CA064602, R01 CA082716

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;22;11960-5

  • Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 differentially regulates its interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins.

    Chung HJ, Xia J, Scannevin RH, Zhang X and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glutamate receptor function at excitatory synapses. Recent studies demonstrating the rapid regulation of AMPA receptor function during synaptic plasticity have suggested that AMPA receptor interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins may be dynamically modulated. Here we show that PKC phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit differentially modulates its interaction with the PDZ domain-containing proteins GRIP1 and PICK1. The serine residue [serine-880 (Ser880)] in the GluR2 C-terminal sequence (IESVKI) critical for PDZ domain binding is a substrate of PKC and is phosphorylated in vivo. In vitro binding and coimmunoprecipitation studies show that phosphorylation of serine-880 within the GluR2 PDZ ligand significantly decreases GluR2 binding to GRIP1 but not to PICK1. Immunostaining of cultured hippocampal neurons demonstrates that the Ser880-phosphorylated GluR2 subunits are enriched and colocalized with PICK1 in the dendrites, with very little staining observed at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, PKC activation in neurons increases the Ser880 phosphorylation of GluR2 subunits and recruits PICK1 to excitatory synapses. Moreover, PKC stimulation in neurons results in rapid internalization of surface GluR2 subunits. These results suggest that GluR2 phosphorylation of serine-880 may be important in the regulation of the AMPA receptor internalization during synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;19;7258-67

  • PICK1 interacts with and regulates PKC phosphorylation of mGLUR7.

    Dev KK, Nakajima Y, Kitano J, Braithwaite SP, Henley JM and Nakanishi S

    Department of Biological Sciences, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

    The G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7a (mGluR7a) is a member of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors that plays an important role as a presynaptic receptor in regulating transmitter release at glutamatergic synapses. Here we report that the protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK1) binds to the C terminus (ct) of mGluR7a. In the yeast two-hybrid system, the extreme ct of mGluR7a was shown to interact with the PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of PICK1. Pull-down assays indicated that PICK1 was retained by a glutathione S-transferase fusion of ct-mGluR7a. Furthermore, recombinant and native PICK1/mGluR7a complexes were coimmunoprecipitated from COS-7 cells and rat brain tissue, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed that both PICK1 and mGluR7a displayed synaptic colocalization in cultured hippocampal neurons. PICK1 has previously been shown to bind protein kinase C alpha-subunit (PKCalpha), and mGluR7a is known to be phosphorylated by PKC. We show a relationship between these three proteins using recombinant PICK1, mGluR7, and PKCalpha, where they were co-immunoprecipitated as a complex from COS-7 cells. In addition, PICK1 caused a reduction in PKCalpha-evoked phosphorylation of mGluR7a in in vitro phosphorylation assays. These results suggest a role for PICK1 in modulating PKCalpha-evoked phosphorylation of mGluR7a.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;19;7252-7

  • Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha through Ser847 phosphorylation in NG108-15 neuronal cells.

    Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y and Watanabe Y

    Departments of Pharmacology and Ophthalmology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

    We have previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) at Ser(847) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) attenuates the catalytic activity of the enzyme in vitro (Hayashi Y., Nishio M., Naito Y., Yokokura H., Nimura Y., Hidaka H., and Watanabe Y. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20597-20602). In the present study we determined that CaM kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha) can directly phosphorylate nNOS on Ser(847), leading to a reduction of nNOS activity in cells. The phosphorylation abilities of purified CaM kinase Ialpha (CaM-K Ialpha), CaM-K IIalpha, and CaM-kinase IV (CaM-K IV) on Ser(847) were analyzed using the synthetic peptide nNOS-(836-859) (Glu-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Lys-Val-Arg-Phe-Asn-Ser-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Ser- Asp-Ser-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ser-Gly) from nNOS as substrate. The relative V(max)/K(m) ratios of CaM kinases for nNOS-(836-859) were found to be as follows: CaM-K IIalpha, 100; CaM-K Ialpha, 54.5; CaM-K IV, 9.1. Co-transfection of constitutively active CaM-K IIalpha1-274 but not inactive CaM-K IIalpha1-274, generated by mutation of Lys(42) to Ala, 1f40 with nNOS into NG108-15 cells, resulted in increased Ser(847) phosphorylation in the presence of okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP)1 and PP2A, with a concomitant inhibition of NOS enzyme activity. In addition, this latter decrease could be reversed by treatment with exogenous PP2A. Cells expressing mutant nNOS (S847A) proved resistant to phosphorylation and a decrease of NOS activity. Thus, our results indicate that Ca(2+) triggers cross-talk signal transduction between CaM kinase and NO and CaM-K IIalpha phosphorylating nNOS on Ser(847), which in turn decreases the gaseous second messenger NO in neuronal cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;36;28139-43

  • Dynamic interaction of human vasopressin/oxytocin receptor subtypes with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and protein kinase C after agonist stimulation.

    Berrada K, CL, Luo X and Thibonnier M

    Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4951, USA.

    Examination of the structure of [Arg(8)]-vasopressin receptors (AVPRs) and oxytocin receptors (OTRs) suggests that G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and protein kinase C (PKC) are involved in their signal transduction. To explore the physical association of AVPRs and OTRs with GRKs and PKC, wild types and mutated forms of these receptor subtypes were stably expressed as green fluorescent protein fusion proteins and analyzed by fluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting. Addition of a C-terminal GFP tag did not interfere with ligand binding, internalization, and signal transduction. After agonist stimulation, PKC dissociated from the V(1)R, did not associate with the V(2)R, but associated with the V(3)R and the OTR. After AVP stimulation, only GRK5 briefly associated with AVPRs following a time course that varied with the receptor subtype. No GRK associated with the OTR. Exchanging the V(1)R and V(2)R C termini altered the time course of PKC and GRK5 association. Deletion of the V(1)R C terminus resulted in no PKC association and a ligand-independent sustained association of GRK5 with the receptor. Deletion of the GRK motif prevented association and reduced receptor phosphorylation. Thus, agonist stimulation of AVP/OT receptors leads to receptor subtype-specific interactions with GRK and PKC through specific motifs present in the C termini of the receptors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA43703; NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL41618, R01 HL39757; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;35;27229-37

  • Ezrin function is required for ROCK-mediated fibroblast transformation by the Net and Dbl oncogenes.

    Tran Quang C, Gautreau A, Arpin M and Treisman R

    Transcription Laboratory, Room 528, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.

    The small G protein RhoA and its GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) Net and Dbl can transform NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, dependent on the activity of the RhoA effector kinase ROCK. We investigated the role of the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin in this process. RhoA effector loop mutants which can bind ROCK induce relocalization of ezrin to dorsal actin-containing cell surface protrusions, as do Net and Dbl. Both processes are inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, which also inhibits association of ezrin with the cytoskeleton, and phosphorylation of T567, conserved between ezrin and its relatives radixin and moesin. ROCK can phosphorylate the ezrin C-terminus in vitro. The ezrin mutant T567A cannot be relocalized by activated RhoA, Net or Dbl or by ROCK itself, and also inhibits RhoA-mediated contractility and focal adhesion formation. Moreover, ezrin T567A, but not wild-type ezrin, restores contact inhibition to Net- and Dbl-transformed cells, and inhibits the activity of Net and Ras in focus formation assays. These results implicate ROCK-mediated ezrin C-terminal phosphorylation in transformation by RhoGEFs.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;17;4565-76

  • Activation of protein kinase Calpha inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells via p21(cip)-mediated G(1) arrest.

    Detjen KM, Brembeck FH, Welzel M, Kaiser A, Haller H, Wiedenmann B and Rosewicz S

    Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Universitätsklinikum Charité, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Germany.

    We have analyzed human pancreatic cancer cells to explore the growth regulatory function of protein kinase C (PKC)alpha. PKCalpha subcellular redistribution, activation kinetics and downregulation were examined in detail and correlated to immediate and delayed effects on cell-cycle regulatory pathways. TPA treatment resulted in transient PKC(&agr;) activation accompanied by translocation of the enzyme into membrane and nuclear compartments, and was followed by subsequent downregulation. TPA-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was prevented by a PKC-antagonist and was reproduced by microinjection of recombinant PKCalpha, indicating that activation of this isoenzyme was required and sufficient for growth inhibitory effects. PKC(&agr;) activation arrested cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle as a consequence of selective inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)2 activity with concomitant hypophosphorylation of Rb. The inhibition of CDK2 activity resulted from induction of p21(cip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Levels of p21(cip1) remained elevated and CDK2 activity repressed in spite of PKCalpha downregulation, indicating that downstream effectors of PKCalpha are the primary determinants for the duration of PKC-mediated growth inhibition. The PKCalpha-induced block in cell proliferation persisted even though cells were kept in the presence of growth factors, suggesting that induction of PKCalpha results in a permanent withdrawal of pancreatic cancer cells from the cell cycle.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 17);3025-35

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 in thrombin-activated human platelets.

    Chung SH, Polgar J and Reed GL

    Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We postulated that the syntaxins, because of their key role in SNARE complex formation and exocytosis, could be important targets for signaling by intracellular kinases involved in secretion. We found that syntaxin 4 was phosphorylated in human platelets treated with a physiologic agent that induces secretion (thrombin) but not when they were treated with an agent that prevents secretion (prostacyclin). Syntaxin 4 phosphorylation was blocked by inhibitors of activated protein kinase C (PKC), and, in parallel assays, PKC inhibitors also blocked secretion from thrombin-activated platelets. In platelets, cellular activation by thrombin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate decreased the binding of syntaxin 4 with SNAP-23, another platelet t-SNARE. Phosphatase inhibitors increased syntaxin 4 phosphorylation and further decreased syntaxin 4-SNAP-23 binding induced by cell activation. Conversely, a PKC inhibitor blocked syntaxin 4 phosphorylation and returned binding of syntaxin 4-SNAP-23 to that seen in nonstimulated platelets. In vitro, PKC directly phosphorylated platelet syntaxin 4 and recombinant syntaxin 4. PKC phosphorylation in vitro inhibited (71 +/- 8%) the binding of syntaxin 4 to SNAP-23. These results provide evidence that extracellular activation can be coupled through intracellular PKC signaling so as to modulate SNARE protein interactions involved in platelet exocytosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-64057

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25286-91

  • Protein kinase C [micro] is regulated by the multifunctional chaperon protein p32.

    Storz P, Hausser A, Link G, Dedio J, Ghebrehiwet B, Pfizenmaier K and Johannes FJ

    Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

    We identified the multifunctional chaperon protein p32 as a protein kinase C (PKC)-binding protein interacting with PKCalpha, PKCzeta, PKCdelta, and PKC mu. We have analyzed the interaction of PKC mu with p32 in detail, and we show here in vivo association of PKC mu, as revealed from yeast two-hybrid analysis, precipitation assays using glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, and reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation. In SKW 6.4 cells, PKC mu is constitutively associated with p32 at mitochondrial membranes, evident from colocalization with cytochrome c. p32 interacts with PKC mu in a compartment-specific manner, as it can be coimmunoprecipitated mainly from the particulate and not from the soluble fraction, despite the presence of p32 in both fractions. Although p32 binds to the kinase domain of PKC mu, it does not serve as a substrate. Interestingly, PKC mu-p32 immunocomplexes precipitated from the particulate fraction of two distinct cell lines, SKW 6.4 and 293T, show no detectable substrate phosphorylation. In support of a kinase regulatory function of p32, addition of p32 to in vitro kinase assays blocked, in a dose-dependent manner, aldolase but not autophosphorylation of PKC mu, suggesting a steric hindrance of substrate within the kinase domain. Together, these findings identify p32 as a novel, compartment-specific regulator of PKC mu kinase activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;32;24601-7

  • Interaction between endothelial differentiation-related factor-1 and calmodulin in vitro and in vivo.

    Mariotti M, De Benedictis L, Avon E and Maier JA

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of Milan, Italy.

    Calmodulin (CaM) is the principal Ca(2+) receptor protein inside the cell. When activated by Ca(2+), CaM binds and activates target proteins, thus altering the metabolism and physiology of the cell. Under basal conditions, calcium-free CaM binds to other proteins termed CaM-binding proteins. Recently, we described endothelial differentiation-related factor (EDF)-1 as a protein involved in the repression of endothelial cell differentiation (Dragoni, I., Mariotti, M., Consalez, G. G., Soria, M., and Maier, J. A. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 31119-31124). Here we report that (i) EDF-1 binds CaM in vitro and in vivo; (ii) EDF-1 is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by protein kinase C; and (iii) EDF-1-CaM interaction is modulated by the concentrations of Ca(2+) and by the phosphorylation of EDF-1 by protein kinase C both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cell stimulates the nuclear translocation of EDF-1. On the basis of the high homology of EDF-1 with multiprotein bridging factor-1, a transcriptional coactivator that binds TATA-binding protein (TBP), we also demonstrate that EDF-1 interacts with TBP in vitro and in human endothelial cells. We hypothesize that EDF-1 serves two main functions in endothelial cells as follows: (i) to bind CaM in the cytosol at physiologic concentrations of Ca(2+) and (ii) to act in the nucleus as a transcriptional coactivator through its binding to TBP.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;31;24047-51

  • Phosphorylation of human glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase at serine 205 blocks the enzyme activity.

    Chang Q, Su K, Baker JR, Yang X, Paterson AJ and Kudlow JE

    Departments of Medicine/Endocrinology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, The University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in glucosamine synthesis. Prior studies from our laboratory indicated that activation of adenylate cyclase was associated with depletion of O-GlcNAc modification. This finding and evidence that human GFAT (hGFAT) might be regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) led us to investigate the role of PKA in hGFAT function. We confirmed that adenylate cyclase activation by forskolin results in diminished O-GlcNAc modification of several cellular proteins which can be overcome by exposure of the cells to glucosamine but not glucose, suggesting the PKA activation results in depletion of UDP-GlcNAc for O-glycosylation. To determine if GFAT is indeed regulated by PKA, we expressed the active form of the enzyme using a vaccinia virus expression system and showed that the activity of the enzyme was to decrease to undetectable levels by PKA phosphorylation. We mapped the PKA phosphorylation sites with the aid of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy and showed that the protein was stoichiometrically phosphorylated at serine 205 and also phosphorylated, to a lesser extent at serine 235. Mutagenesis studies indicated that the phosphorylation of serine 205 by PKA was necessary for the observed inhibition of enzyme activity while serine 235 phosphorylation played no observable role. The activity of GFAT is down-regulated by cAMP, thus placing regulation on the hexosamine pathway that is in concert with the energy requirements of the organism. During starvation, hormones acting through adenylate cyclase could direct the flux of glucose metabolism into energy production rather than into synthetic pathways that require hexosamines.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK55262

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;29;21981-7

  • Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases is required for alpha1-adrenergic agonist-induced cell scattering in transfected HepG2 cells.

    Spector M, Nguyen VA, Sheng X, He L, Woodward J, Fan S, Baumgarten CM, Kunos G, Dent P and Gao B

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298, USA.

    Activation of alpha1B-adrenergic receptors ((alpha1B)AR) by phenylephrine (PE) induces scattering of HepG2 cells stably transfected with the (alpha1B)AR (TFG2 cells). Scattering was also observed after stimulation of TFG2 cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not with hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, epidermal growth factor, or insulin. PMA but not phenylephrine rapidly activated PKCalpha in TFG2 cells, and the highly selective PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (GFX) completely abolished PMA-induced but not PE-induced scattering. PE rapidly activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and AP1 (c-fos/c-jun). Selective blockade of p42/44 MAPK activity by PD98059 or by transfection of a MEK1 dominant negative adenovirus significantly inhibited the PE-induced scattering of TFG2 cells. Selective inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203850 or SB202190 also blocked PE-induced scattering, whereas treatment of TFG2 cells with the PI3 kinase inhibitors LY294002 or wortmannin did not inhibit PE-induced scattering. Blocking JNK activation with a dominant negative mutant of JNK or blocking AP1 activation with a dominant negative mutant of c-jun (TAM67) significantly inhibited PE-induced cell scattering. These data indicate that PE-induced scattering of TFG2 cells is mediated by complex mechanisms, including activation of p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK. Cell spreading has been reported to play important roles in wound repair, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, catecholamines acting via the (alpha1)AR may modulate these physiological and pathological processes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29CA72681; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL046764-08; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01AA12637, R03AA11823

    Experimental cell research 2000;258;1;109-20

  • Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human choline acetyltransferase: phosphorylation of the enzyme regulates catalytic activity.

    Dobransky T, Davis WL, Xiao GH and Rylett RJ

    Department of Physiology, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1.

    Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and, in humans, may be produced in 82- and 69-kDa forms. In this study, recombinant choline acetyltransferase from baculovirus and bacterial expression systems was used to identify protein isoforms by two-dimensional SDS/PAGE and as substrate for protein kinases. Whereas hexa-histidine-tagged 82- and 69-kDa enzymes did not resolve as individual isoforms on two-dimensional gels, separation of wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in insect cells revealed at least nine isoforms for the 69-kDa enzyme and at least six isoforms for the 82-kDa enzyme. Non-phosphorylated wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli yielded six (69 kDa) and four isoforms (82 kDa) respectively. Immunofluorescent labelling of insect cells expressing enzyme showed differential subcellular localization with the 69-kDa enzyme localized adjacent to plasma membrane and the 82-kDa enzyme being cytoplasmic at 24 h. By 64 h, the 69-kDa form was in cytoplasm and the 82-kDa form was only present in nucleus. Studies in vitro showed that recombinant 69-kDa enzyme was a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), casein kinase II (CK2) and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaM kinase), but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); phosphorylation by PKC and CK2 enhanced enzyme activity. The 82-kDa enzyme was a substrate for PKC and CK2 but not for PKA or alpha-CaM kinase, with only PKC yielding increased enzyme activity. Dephosphorylation of both forms of enzyme by alkaline phosphatase decreased enzymic activity. These studies are of functional significance as they report for the first time that phosphorylation enhances choline acetyltransferase catalytic activity.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;349;Pt 1;141-51

  • Involvement of p21(Waf1/Cip1) 1f40 in protein kinase C alpha-induced cell cycle progression.

    Besson A and Yong VW

    Departments of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Canada.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the regulation of glioma growth; however, the identity of the specific isoform and mechanism by which PKC fulfills this function remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that PKC activation in glioma cells increased their progression through the cell cycle. Of the six PKC isoforms that were present in glioma cells, PKC alpha was both necessary and sufficient to promote cell cycle progression when stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Also, decreased PKC alpha expression resulted in a marked decrease in cell proliferation. The only cell cycle-regulatory molecule whose expression was rapidly altered and increased by PKC alpha activity was the cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1). Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that p21(Waf1/Cip1) upregulation was accompanied by an incorporation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) into various cyclin-CDK complexes and that the kinase activity of these complexes was increased, thus resulting in cell cycle progression. Furthermore, depletion of p21(Waf1/Cip1) by antisense strategy attenuated the PKC-induced cell cycle progression. These results suggest that PKC alpha activity controls glioma cell cycle progression through the upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1), which facilitates active cyclin-CDK complex formation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;13;4580-90

  • Phosphorylation of connexin43 on serine368 by protein kinase C regulates gap junctional communication.

    Lampe PD, TenBroek EM, Burt JM, Kurata WE, Johnson RG and Lau AF

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. plampe@fhcrc.org

    Phorbol esters (e.g., TPA) activate protein kinase C (PKC), increase connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation, and decrease cell-cell communication via gap junctions in many cell types. We asked whether PKC directly phosphorylates and regulates Cx43. Rat epithelial T51B cells metabolically labeled with (32)P(i) yielded two-dimensional phosphotryptic maps of Cx43 with several phosphopeptides that increased in intensity upon TPA treatment. One of these peptides comigrated with the major phosphopeptide observed after PKC phosphorylation of immunoaffinity-purified Cx43. Purification of this comigrating peptide and subsequent sequencing indicated that the phosphorylated serine was residue 368. To pursue the functional importance of phosphorylation at this site, fibroblasts from Cx43(-/-) mice were transfected with either wild-type (Cx43wt) or mutant Cx43 (Cx43-S368A). Intercellular dye transfer studies revealed different responses to TPA and were followed by single channel analyses. TPA stimulation of T51B cells or Cx43wt-transfected fibroblasts caused a large increase in the relative frequency of approximately 50-pS channel events and a conc 457 omitant loss of approximately 100-pS channel events. This change to approximately 50-pS events was absent when cells transfected with Cx43-S368A were treated with TPA. These data strongly suggest that PKC directly phosphorylates Cx43 on S368 in vivo, which results in a change in single channel behavior that contributes to a decrease in intercellular communication.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA052098; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58732, R01 HL058732; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46277, GM55632, R01 GM046277, R01 GM055632

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;7;1503-12

  • Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages.

    Mayne M, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic and increases macrophage and microglia production of TNF-alpha, a cytopathic cytokine linked to the neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia. Others have shown that intracellular calcium regulates TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and we have shown that Tat releases calcium from inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-regulated stores in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Tat-induced TNF-alpha production was dependent on the release of intracellular calcium from IP3-regulated calcium stores in primary macrophages. We found that Tat transiently and dose-dependently increased levels of intracellular calcium and that this increase was blocked by xestospongin C, pertussis toxin, and by phospholipase C and type 1 protein kinase C inhibitors but not by protein kinase A or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Xestospongin C, BAPTA-AM, U73122, and bisindolylmalemide significantly inhibited Tat-induced TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that in macrophages, Tat-induced release of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of nonconventional PKC isoforms play an important role in Tat-induced TNF-alpha production.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;164;12;6538-42

  • Bryostatin 1 induces prolonged activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases in and apoptosis of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells overexpressing protein kinase calpha.

    Gschwend JE, Fair WR and Powell CT

    Urologic Oncology Research Laboratory and George M. O'Brien Urology Research Center for Prostate Cancer, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

    Previously, we reported that 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced apoptosis of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells was accompanied by prolonged translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)alpha to non-nuclear membranes and that TPA-resistant LNCaP cells had down-regulated PKCalpha. Here we show that 10 nM bryostatin 1 induced transient membrane translocation and down-regulation of PKCalpha, prolonged translocation of PKCdelta and epsilon to non-nuclear membranes, and did not induce cell death but blocked TPA-induced apoptosis. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of TPA-induced apoptosis by bryostatin 1 was due to down-regulation of PKCalpha, we inducibly overexpressed PKCalpha in LNCaP cells. Overexpression of PKCalpha alone did not induce apoptosis, even in clones that contained much more membrane-bound, active PKCalpha than was observed in TPA-treated untransfected LNCaP cells. However, the addition of 10 nM bryostatin 1 to PKCalpha-overexpressing LNCaP cells did not yield down-regulation of PKCalpha and induced extensive apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that TPA induced prolon 1f40 ged hyperphosphorylation of Raf-1 and activation of extracellular-regulated/mitogen-activated protein kinases 1 and 2 in untransfected LNCaP cells, as did bryostatin 1 in PKCalpha-overexpressing cells. On the other hand, bryostatin 1 induced only transient hyperphosphorylation of Raf-1 and activation of extracellular-regulated/mitogen-activated protein kinases 1 and 2 in untransfected LNCaP cells. These results confirm a role of prolonged membrane-associated PKCalpha in PKC activator-mediated LNCaP apoptosis and suggest involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK/CA47650

    Molecular pharmacology 2000;57;6;1224-34

  • Opposing effects of protein kinase C and protein kinase A on metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling: selective desensitization of the inositol trisphosphate/Ca2+ pathway by phosphorylation of the receptor-G protein-coupling domain.

    Francesconi A and Duvoisin RM

    Department of Ophthalmology, Margaret M. Dyson Vision Research Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. afrance@med.cornell.edu

    Signaling by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR1alpha) can lead to the accumulation of inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) and cAMP and to the modulation of K(+) and Ca(2+) channel opening. At present, very little is known about how these different actions are integrated and eventually turned off. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions is crucial for understanding mGluR-mediated regulation of synaptic transmission. It has been shown that receptor-induced activation of the InsP(3) pathway is subject to feedback inhibition mediated by protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, we provide evidence for a differential regulation by PKC and protein kinase A of two distinct mGluR1alpha-dependent signaling pathways. PKC activation selectively inhibits agonist-dependent stimulation of the InsP(3) pathway but does not affect receptor signaling via cAMP. In contrast, protein kinase A potentiates agonist-independent signaling of the receptor via InsP(3). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the selectivity of PKC action on receptor signaling rests on phosphorylation of a threonine residue located in the G protein-interacting domain of the receptor. Modification at Thr(695) selectively disrupts mGluR1alpha-G(q/11) interaction without affecting signaling through G(s). Together, these data provide insight on the mechanisms by which selective down-regulation of a specific receptor-dependent signaling pathway can be achieved and on how cross-talk between different second messenger cascades may contribute to fine-tune short- and long-term receptor activity.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY09534, R01 EY009534

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;11;6185-90

  • Regulation of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) and GABA(C) receptors by protein kinase C.

    Filippova N, Sedelnikova A, Zong Y, Fortinberry H and Weiss DS

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced a continuous decrease in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated current amplitude from recombinant GABA receptors (formed by rho1 or alphabetagamma subunits) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This decline was due to internalization of receptors from the plasma membrane as confirmed by a decrease in surface fluorescence with green fluorescence protein-tagged receptors as well as a concomitant decrease in surface [(3)H]GABA binding. PMA specifically caused internalization of GABA receptors, but not neuronal acetylcholine receptors (alpha(7) or alpha(4)beta(2)), indicating the internalization was not a general, nonspecific phenomenon. Mutation of rho1 PKC phosphorylation sites, identified by in vitro phosphorylation, did not prevent GABA receptor internalization, nor did coexpression of the rho1 M3-M4 intracellular loop along with rho1 GABA receptors. It is likely that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of other proteins, rather than rho1 itself, was required for the internalization. Both rho1 and alphabetagamma receptors did not degrade after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced internalization, but returned to the membrane surface within 24 h. These data suggest internalized receptors can exist in an intracellular compartment that can be delivered back to the plasma membrane. Thus, by regulating GABA receptor surface expression, PKC may play a key role in the regulation of GABA-mediated inhibition.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS35291, NS36195

    Molecular pharmacology 2000;57;5;847-56

  • Phosphorylation of dynamin I on Ser-795 by protein kinase C blocks its association with phospholipids.

    Powell KA, Valova VA, Malladi CS, Jensen ON, Larsen MR and Robinson PJ

    Cell Signalling Unit, Children's Medical Research Institute, Locked Bag 23, Wentworthville, Sydney, New South Wales 2145, Australia.

    Dynamin I is phosphorylated in nerve terminals exclusively in the cytosolic compartment and in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC). Dephosphorylation is required for synaptic vesicle retrieval, suggesting that its phosphorylation affects its subcellular localization. An in vitro phospholipid binding assay was established that prevents lipid vesiculation and dynamin lipid insertion into the lipid. Dynamin I bound the phospholipid in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner, with an apparent affinity of 230 +/- 51 nM. Optimal binding occurred with mixtures of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine of 1:3 with little binding to phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylserine alone. Phospholipid binding was abolished after dynamin I phosphorylation by PKC and was restored after dephosphorylation by calcineurin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site in PKCalpha-phosphorylated dynamin I as a single site at Ser-795, located near a binding site for the SH3 domain of p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, phosphorylation had no effect on dynamin binding to a bacterially expressed p85-SH3 domain. Thus, phosphorylation of dynamin I on Ser-795 prevents its association with phospholipid, providing a basis for the cytosolic localization of the minor pool of phospho-dynamin I that mediates synaptic vesicle retrieval in nerve terminals.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;16;11610-7

  • Membrane-associated GAIP is a phosphoprotein and can be phosphorylated by clathrin-coated vesicles.

    Fischer T, Elenko E, Wan L, Thomas G and Farquhar MG

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0651, USA.

    GAIP (G alpha interacting protein) is a member of the RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) family and accelerates the turnover of GTP bound to Galphai, Galphaq, and Galpha13. There are two pools of GAIP-a soluble and a membrane-anchored pool. The membrane-anchored pool is found on clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and pits in rat liver and AtT-20 pituitary cells. By treatment of a GAIP-enriched rat liver fraction with alkaline phosphatase, we found that membrane-bound GAIP is phosphorylated. By immunoprecipitation carried out on [(32)P]orthophosphate-labeled AtT-20 pituitary cells stably expressing GAIP, (32)P-labeling was associated exclusively with the membrane pool of GAIP. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that phosphorylation of GAIP occurred largely on serine residues. Recombinant GAIP could be phosphorylated at its N terminus with purified casein kinase 2 (CK2). It could also be phosphorylated by isolated CCVs in vitro. Phosphorylation was Mn(2+)-dependent, using both purified CK2 and CCVs. Ser-24 was identified as one of the phosphorylation sites. Our results establish that GAIP is phosphorylated and that only the membrane pool is phosph 1f40 orylated, suggesting that GAIP can be regulated by phosphorylation events taking place at the level of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689, CA67754, T32 CA067754; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK17780, R01 DK017780

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;8;4040-5

  • Dual signaling regulated by calcyon, a D1 dopamine receptor interacting protein.

    Lezcano N, Mrzljak L, Eubanks S, Levenson R, Goldman-Rakic P and Bergson C

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2300, USA.

    The synergistic response of cells to the stimulation of multiple receptors has been ascribed to receptor cross talk; however, the specific molecules that mediate the resultant signal amplification have not been defined. Here a 24-kilodalton single transmembrane protein, designated calcyon, we functionally characterize that interacts with the D1 dopamine receptor. Calcyon localizes to dendritic spines of D1 receptor-expressing pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex. These studies delineate a mechanism of Gq- and Gs-coupled heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor cross talk by which D1 receptors can shift effector coupling to stimulate robust intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) release as a result of interaction with calcyon. The role of calcyon in potentiating Ca2+-dependent signaling should provide insight into the D1 receptor-modulated cognitive functions of prefrontal cortex.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH56608, P50 MH068789, P50 MH44866, R01 MH063271

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;287;5458;1660-4

  • Protein phosphorylation is a regulatory mechanism for O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in human brain tumor cells.

    Srivenugopal KS, Mullapudi SR, Shou J, Hazra TK and Ali-Osman F

    Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. ksrivenu@mdanderson.org

    The biochemical regulation of human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), which determines the susceptibility of normal tissues to methylating carcinogens and resistance of tumor cells to many alkylating agents, is poorly understood. We investigated the regulation of AGT by protein phosphorylation in a human medulloblastoma cell line. Incubation of cell extracts with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in Mg(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of the endogenous AGT. Immunoprecipitation after exposure of the cells to 32P-labeled inorganic phosphate showed that AGT exists as a phosphoprotein under physiological conditions. Western analysis and chemical stability studies showed the AGT protein to be phosphorylated at tyrosine, threonine, and serine residues. Purified protein kinase A (PKA), casein kinase II (CK II), and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylated the recombinant AGT protein with a stoichiometry of 0.15, 0.28, and 0.44 (mol phosphate incorporated/mol protein), respectively. Residual phosphorylation of the endogenous AGT by the PKs present in cell homogenates and phosphorylation of the recombinant AGT by purified serine/threonine kinases, PKA, PKC, and CK II reduced AGT activity by 30-65%. Conversely, dephosphorylation of cell extracts by alkaline phosphatases stimulated AGT activity. We also identified consensus phosphorylation motifs for many cellular kinases, including PKA and CK II in the AGT protein. These data provide the first and conclusive evidence of AGT phosphorylation and suggest that reversible phosphorylation may control the activity of this therapeutically important DNA repair protein in human normal and cancer cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA74321

    Cancer research 2000;60;2;282-7

  • Phosphorylation and subcellular redistribution of high mobility group proteins 14 and 17, analyzed by mass spectrometry.

    Louie DF, Gloor KK, Galasinski SC, Resing KA and Ahn NG

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309, USA.

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins 14 and 17 are nonhistone nuclear proteins that have been implicated in control of transcription and chromatin structure. To examine the posttranslational modifications of HMG-14 and -17 in vivo, HMG proteins were prepared from nuclear vs. cytosolic fractions of human K562 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or okadaic acid (OA) and examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Analysis of full-length masses demonstrated mono-, di-, and triphosphorylation of HMG-14 and mono- and diphosphorylation of HMG-17 from OA treated cells, whereas HMG-14 and -17 from TPA treated cells were monophosphorylated. Peptide mass and sequence analysis showed major and minor phosphorylation sites, respectively, at Ser24 and Ser28 in HMG-17, and Ser20 and Ser24 in HMG-14. These sites were found in the consensus sequence RRSARLSAK, within the nucleosomal binding domain of each protein. A third phosphorylation site in HMG-14 was located at either Ser6 or Ser7. Interestingly, the proportion of HMG-14 and -17 found in cytosolic pools increased significantly after 1 h of treatment compared to control cells and showed preferential phosphorylation compared with proteins from nuclear fractions. These results suggest that phosphorylation of HMG-14 and -7 interferes with nuclear localization mechanisms in a manner favoring release from nuclei.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA79801; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR43768

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2000;9;1;170-9

  • Phosphorylation of HMG-I by protein kinase C attenuates its binding affinity to the promoter regions of protein kinase C gamma and neurogranin/RC3 genes.

    Xiao DM, Pak JH, Wang X, Sato T, Huang FL, Chen HC and Huang KP

    Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4510, USA.

    A 20-kDa DNA-binding protein that binds the AT-rich sequences within the promoters of the brain-specific protein kinase C (PKC) gamma and neurogranin/RC3 genes has been characterized as chromosomal nonhistone high-mobility-group protein (HMG)-I. This protein is a substrate of PKC alpha, beta, gamma, and delta but is poorly phosphorylated by PKC epsilon and zeta. Two major (Ser44 and Ser64) and four minor phosphorylation sites have been identified. The extents of phosphorylation of Ser44 and Ser64 were 1:1, whereas those of the four minor sites all together were <30% of the major one. These PKC phosphorylation sites are distinct from those phosphorylated by cdc2 kinase, which phosphorylates Thr53 and Thr78. Phosphorylation of HMG-I by PKC resulted in a reduction of DNA-binding affinity by 28-fold as compared with 12-fold caused by the phosphorylation with cdc2 kinase. HMG-I could be additively phosphorylated by cdc2 kinase and PKC, and the resulting doubly phosphorylated protein exhibited a >100-fold reduction in binding affinity. The two cdc2 kinase phosphorylation sites of HMG-I are adjacent to the N terminus of two of the three predicted DNA-binding domains. In comparison, one of the major PKC phosphorylation sites, Ser64, is adjacent to the C terminus of the second DNA-binding domain, whereas Ser44 is located within the spanning region between the first and second DNA-binding domains. The current results suggest that phosphorylation of the mammalian HMG-I by PKC alone or in combination with cdc2 kinase provides an effective mechanism for the regulation of HMG-I function.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;74;1;392-9

  • HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system.

    Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson EB and Wilson SH

    Sealy Center for Molecular Science, The University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX 77555-0851, USA. hi@st-and.ac.uk

    Phosphorylation modulates the activity of many proteins that interact with nucleic acids including DNA and RNA polymerases. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is essential during the replicative cycle of the HIV-1 virus. HIV-1 RT has several potential sites for phosphorylation that could regulate its activities. In this work, the phosphorylation of HIV-1 RT is examined in vitro and in vivo, to evaluate any role for this modification in regulating RT metabolism. Recombinant unphosphorylated HIV-1 RT heterodimer expressed in bacteria can be phosphorylated in vitro by several purified mammalian protein kinases. Seven kinases were tested, and five of these enzymes phosphorylated HIV-1 RT. Using an insect baculovirus expression system, the 66 kDa HIV-1 RT was also phosphorylated in vivo. However, HIV-1 RT immunoprecipitated from H9-lymphoma cells infected with HIV-1 showed negligible phosphorylation. Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK41058

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 1999;31;12;1443-52

  • Regulation of ARNO nucleotide exchange by a PH domain electrostatic switch.

    Santy LC, Frank SR, Hatfield JC and Casanova JE

    Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    ARNO is a member of a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate small GTPases called ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) [1] [2] [3], which regulate vesicular trafficking and, in one case (ARF6), also regulate cortical actin structure [4]. ARNO is located at the plasma membrane, and in the presence of activated protein kinase C (PKC) can induce cortical actin rearrangements reminiscent of those produced by active ARF6 [5] [6] [7] [8]. High-affinity binding of ARNO to membranes, which is required for exchange activity, is mediated cooperatively by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an adjacent carboxy-terminal polybasic domain [3] [9]. ARNO is phosphorylated in vivo by PKC on a single serine residue, S392, located within the carboxy-terminal polybasic domain. Mutation of S392 to alanine does not prevent ARNO-mediated actin rearrangements, suggesting that phosphorylation does not lead to ARNO activation [6]. Here, we report that phosphorylation negatively regulates ARNO exchange activity through a 'PH domain electrostatic switch'. Introduction of a negatively charged phosphate into the polybasic domain reduced interaction of ARNO with membranes both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited exchange in vitro. This regulated membrane association is similar to the myristoyl electrostatic switch that controls membrane binding of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) [10], but to our knowledge is the first demonstration of an electrostatic switch regulating the membrane interaction of a protein containing a PH domain. This mechanism allows regulation of ARNO lipid binding and exchange activity at two levels, phosphoinositide-dependent recruitment and PKC-dependent displacement from the membrane.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-32991; NIDDK NIH HHS: F32-DK-09924

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;20;1173-6

  • Effect of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation on retroviral proteinase substrates.

    Tözsér J, Bagossi P, Boross P, Louis JM, Majerova E, Oroszlan S and Copeland TD

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University Medical School of Debrecen, Hungary. tozser@indi.biochem.dote.hu

    Vimentin, a cellular substrate of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase, contains a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site at one of its cleavage sites. Peptides representing this site were synthesized in P2 Ser-phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms. While the nonphosphorylated peptide was a fairly good substrate of the enzyme, phosphorylation prevented hydrolysis. Phosphorylation of human recombinant vimentin by PKC prevented its processing within the head domain, where the phosphorylation occurred. Oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites at the C-terminus of the Rous sarcoma virus integrase were assayed as substrates of the avian proteinase. Unlike the nonphosphorylated peptides, a Ser-phosphorylated peptide was not hydrolyzed by the enzyme at the Ser-Pro bond, suggesting the role of previously established phosphorylation in processing at this site. Ser-phosphorylated and Tyr-phosphorylated forms of model substrates were also tested as substrates of the HIV-1 and the avian retroviral proteinases. In contrast to the moderate effect of P4 Ser phosphorylation, phosphorylation of P1 Tyr prevented substrate hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase. Substrate phosphorylation had substantially smaller effects on the hydrolysis by the avian retroviral proteinase. As the active retroviral proteinase as well as various protein kinases are incorporated into mature virions, substrate phosphorylation resulting in attenuation or prevention of proteolytic processing may have important consequences in the regulation of the retroviral life cycle as well as in virus-host cell interactions.

    European journal of biochemistry 1999;265;1;423-9

  • Phosphorylation of serine-880 in GluR2 by protein kinase C prevents its C terminus from binding with glutamate receptor-interacting protein.

    Matsuda S, Mikawa S and Hirai H

    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan.

    Phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor is an important mechanism of synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that the C terminus of GluR2 of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor is phosphorylated by protein kinase C and that serine-880 is the major phosphorylation site. This phosphorylation also occurs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells by addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Our immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that the phosphorylation of serine-880 in GluR2 drastically reduced the affinity for glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP), a synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein, in vitro and in HEK cells. This result suggests that modulation of serine-880 phosphorylation in GluR2 controls the clustering of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses and consequently contributes to synaptic plasticity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;4;1765-8

  • Protein kinase C-dependent mobilization of the alpha6beta4 integrin from hemidesmosomes and its association with actin-rich cell protrusions drive the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells.

    Rabinovitz I, Toker A and Mercurio AM

    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    We explored the hypothesis that the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells that assemble hemidesmosomes involves the activation of a signaling pathway that releases the alpha6beta4 integrin from these stable adhesion complexes and promotes its association with F-actin in cell protrusions enabling it to function in migration. Squamous carcinoma-derived A431 cells were used because they express alpha6beta4 and migrate in response to EGF stimulation. Using function-blocking antibodies, we show that the alpha6beta4 integrin participates in EGF-stimulated chemotaxis and is required for lamellae formation on laminin-1. At concentrations of EGF that stimulate A431 chemotaxis ( approximately 1 ng/ml), the alpha6beta4 integrin is mobilized from hemidesmosomes as evidenced by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using mAbs specific for this integrin and hemidesmosomal components and its loss from a cytokeratin fraction obtained by detergent extraction. EGF stimulation also increased the formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles that contained alpha6beta4 in association with F-actin. Importantly, we demonstrate that this mobilization of alpha6beta4 from hemidesmosomes and its redistribution to cell protrusions occurs by a mechanism that involves activation of protein kinase C-alpha and that it is associated with the phosphorylation of the beta4 integrin subunit on serine residues. Thus, the chemotactic migration of A431 cells on laminin-1 requires not only the formation of F-actin-rich cell protrusions that mediate alpha6be 51f ta4-dependent cell movement but also the disruption of alpha6beta4-containing hemidesmosomes by protein kinase C.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA44704, CA80789, R01 CA080789

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;146;5;1147-60

  • Interaction between protein kinase C and actin in megakaryocyte polyploidization.

    Baatout S, Chatelain B, Staquet P, Symann M and Chatelain C

    Laboratory of Experimental Hematology and Oncology, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels. sbaatout@sckcen.be

    Megakaryocytes undergo a peculiar and irreversible program by which they become polyploid through repeated cycles of DNA synthesis without concomitant cell division. In order to study the possible concomitant role of protein kinase C and actin in megakaryocyte polyploidization, three cell lines (DAMI, HEL and K562), expressing some properties of the megakaryocytic lineage and known to differentiate into the megakaryocytic pathway in the presence of phorbol esters, were cultivated in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate alone (PMA, 5 x 10(-9) M, activator of protein kinase C, PKC) or concomitantly with cytochalasin B (2 micrograms/ml, inhibitor of actin polymerization). We have previously shown that DAMI, HEL and K562 cells in which actin polymerization was inhibited by cytochalasin B, acquired megakaryocytic properties in the way that they became polyploid, acquired a megakaryocytic phenotype and arrested proliferation (4). After four days of culture in the presence of PMA and cytochalasin B, the number of polyploid cells (estimated by flow cytometry) increased in comparison with control or PMA-treated cells. However, it was lower than in cytochalasin B-treated cells. Indeed, control cells predominantly diploid (2N) became polyploid with the appearance of 8N, 16N and 32N cells after addition of PMA, cytochalasin B or PMA + cytochalasin B. The endomitotic index (EI, as described in 5) which corresponds to the mean of (¿log2 DNA content expressed in N¿-1) was 0.5 +/- 0.1, 0.7 +/- 0.1 and 0.3 +/- 0.1 in control DAMI, HEL and K562 cells, respectively. The EI increased to 0.9 +/- 0.2; 1.0 +/- 0.2 and 0.4 + 0.1 in cells treated with PMA and to 1.6 +/- 0.3; 1.4 +/- 0, and 0.9 +/- 0.2 when PMA was added concomitantly to cytochalasin B. Total DNA estimated from the cell content and the percentage of cells present at each ploidy stage did not change in cytochalasin B-treated cells in comparison to control conditions. However, treatment of DAMI, HEL and K562 cells with PMA alone or concomitantly with cytochalasin B revealed that the total DNA content significantly decreased in these conditions. At last, treatment of the three cell lines with PMA alone or concomitantly with cytochalasin B for 4 days caused a complete inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, the concomitant addition of PMA and cytochalasin B to the three cell lines lead to an augmentation of cell ploidy and to a cessation of proliferation. However, we did not observe any synergistic effect of the two compounds. The possible interaction between actin and protein kinase C is discussed in the paper.

    Anticancer research 1999;19;5B;4193-8

  • Phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase D1 by protein kinase C in vivo: determination of multiple phosphorylation sites.

    Kim Y, Han JM, Park JB, Lee SD, Oh YS, Chung C, Lee TG, Kim JH, Park SK, Yoo JS, Suh PG and Ryu SH

    Department of Life Science, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an important regulator of phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Currently there is some controversy about a phosphorylation-dependent or -independent mechanism of the activation of PLD1 by PKC. To solve this problem, we examined whether PLD1 is phosphorylated by PKC in vivo. For the first time, we have now identified multiple basal phophopeptides and multiple phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced phosphopeptides of endogenous PLD1 in 3Y1 cells as well as of transiently expressed PLD1 in COS-7 cells. Down regulation or inhibition of PKC greatly attenuated the PMA-induced phosphorylation as well as the activation of PLD1. In the presence of PMA, purified PLD1 from rat brain was also found to be phosphorylated by PKCalpha in vitro at multiple sites generating seven distinct tryptic phosphopeptides. Four phosphopeptides generated in vivo and in vitro correlated well with each other, suggesting direct phosphorylation of PLD1 by PKCalpha in the cells. Serine 2, threonine 147, and serine 561 were identified as phosphorylation sites, and by mutation of these residues to alanine these residues were proven to be specific phosphorylation sites in vivo. Interestingly, threonine 147 is located in the PX domain and serine 561 is in the negative regulatory "loop" region of PLD1. Mutation of serine 2, threonine 147, or serine 561 significantly reduced PMA-induced PLD1 activity. These results strongly suggest that phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in PLD1 regulation in vivo.

    Biochemistry 1999;38;32;10344-51

  • Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases.

    Hayashi Y, Nishio M, Naito Y, Yokokura H, Nimura Y, Hidaka H and Watanabe Y

    Department of Pharmacology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

    Phosphorylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) by Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) including CaM kinase Ialpha (CaM-K Ialpha), CaM kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha), and CaM kinase IV (CaM-K IV), was studied. It was found that purified recombinant nNOS was phosphorylated by CaM-K Ialpha, CaM-K IIalpha, and CaM-K IV at Ser847 in vitro. Replacement of Ser847 with Ala (S847A) prevented phosphorylation by CaM kinases. Phosphorylated recombinant wild-type nNOS at Ser847 (approximately 0.5 mol of phosphate incorporation into nNOS) exhibited a 30% decrease of Vmax with little change of both the Km for L-arginine and Kact for CaM relative to unphosphorylated enzyme. The activity of mutant S847D was decreased to a level 50-60% as much as the wild-type enzyme. The decreased NOS enzyme activity of phosphorylated nNOS at Ser847 and mutant S847D was partially due to suppression of CaM binding, but not to impairment of dimer formation which is thought to be essential for enzyme activation. Inactive nNOS lacking CaM-binding ability was generated by mutation of Lys732-Lys-Leu to Asp732-Asp-Glu (Watanabe, Y., Hu, Y., and Hidaka, H. (1997) FEBS Lett. 403, 75-78). It was phosphorylated by CaM kinases, as was the wild-type enzyme, indicating that CaM-nNOS binding was not required for the phosphorylation reaction. We developed antibody NP847, which specifically recognize nNOS in its phosphorylated state at Ser847. Using the antibody NP847, we obtained evidence that nNOS is phosphorylated at Ser847 in rat brain. Thus, our results suggest that CaM kinase-induced phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser847 alters the activity control of this enzyme.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;29;20597-602

  • Association of atypical protein kinase C isotypes with the docker protein FRS2 in fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    Lim YP, Low BC, Lim J, Wong ES and Guy GR

    Signal Transduction Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National University of Singapore, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Republic of Singapore.

    FRS2 is a docker protein that recruits signaling proteins to the plasma membrane in fibroblast growth factor signal transduction. We report here that FRS2 was associated with PKC lambda when Swiss 3T3 cells were stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor. PKC zeta, the other member of the atypical PKC subfamily, could also bind FRS2. The association between FRS2 and PKC lambda is likely to be direct as shown by yeast two-hybrid analysis. The C-terminal fragments of FRS2 (amino acid residues 300-508) and SNT2 (amino acids 281-492), an isoform bearing 50% identity to FRS2, interacted with PKC lambda at a region (amino acids 240-562) that encompasses the catalytic domain. In vitro kinase assays revealed neither FRS2 nor SNT2 was a substrate of PKC lambda or zeta. Mutation of the alanine residue (Ala-120) to glutamate in the pseudo-substrate region of PKC lambda results in a constitutively active kinase that exhibited more than 2-fold greater binding to FRS2 in vitro than its "closed" wild-type counterpart. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 did not affect its binding to the constitutively active PKC lambda mutant, suggesting that the activation of PKC lambda is necessary and sufficient for its association with FRS2. It is likely that FRS2 serves as an anchoring protein for targeting activated atypical PKCs to the cell plasma membrane in signaling pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;27;19025-34

  • 14-3-3Gamma interacts with and is phosphorylated by multiple protein kinase C isoforms in PDGF-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Autieri MV and Carbone CJ

    Department of Cardiology and Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA. mautieri@unix.temple.edu

    It has recently been demonstrated that some members of the 14-3-3 protein family play an important role in signal transduction leading to cellular proliferation. We have previously shown that expression of 14-3-3gamma is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we cloned the human homolog of 14-3-3gamma and observed many potential phosphorylation sites, suggesting the potential for post-translational modification. In VSMC treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 14-3-3gamma protein was expressed and phosphorylated in an activation-dependent manner. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation could be inhibited by phosphokinase C (PKC) inhibitory compounds, and 14-3-3gamma could be phosphorylated in the absence of PDGF by compounds that activate PKC. We also demonstrated interaction between 14-3-3gamma and several PKC isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, theta, and delta), implicating these PKC family isoforms as the kinases responsible for PDGF-induced 14-3-3gamma phosphorylation. We found that 14-3-3gamma interacted with the signal transduction protein Raf-1, suggesting that 14-3-3gamma provides a link between this protein and PKC. Thus, 14-3-3gamma may represent a signal transduction protein that is regulated transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally by growth factors.

    DNA and cell biology 1999;18;7;555-64

  • Characterization of phosphorylation sites on the glutamate receptor 4 subunit of the AMPA receptors.

    Carvalho AL, Kameyama K and Huganir RL

    Center for Neuroscience of Coimbra, Department of Biochemistry, University of Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal.

    Recent studies have suggested that protein phosphorylation of glutamate receptors may play an important role in synaptic transmission. Specifically, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors has been implicated in cellular models of synaptic plasticity. The phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit of AMPA receptors by protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been characterized extensively. Phosphorylation of this subunit occurs exclusively on the intracellular C-terminal domain. However, the GluR1 subunit C terminus shows low homology to the other AMPA receptor subunits. In this paper we characterized the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluR4, using site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical techniques. We found that GluR4 is phosphorylated on serine 842 within the C-terminal domain in vitro and in vivo. Serine 842 is phosphorylated by PKA, PKC, and CaMKII in vitro and is phosphorylated in transfected cells by PKA. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide analysis indicates that serine 842 is the major phosphorylation site on GluR4. In addition, we identified threonine 830 as a potential PKC phosphorylation site. These results suggest that GluR4, which is the most rapidly desensitizing AMPA receptor subunit, may be modulated by phosphorylation.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;12;4748-54

  • Rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation of PKC on a carboxy-terminal site by an atypical PKC complex.

    Ziegler WH, Parekh DB, Le Good JA, Whelan RD, Kelly JJ, Frech M, Hemmings BA and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, UK.

    Background: The protein kinase C (PKC) family has been implicated in the control of many cellular functions. Although PKC isotypes are characterized by their allosteric activation, phosphorylation also plays a key role in controlling activity. In classical PKC isotypes, one of the three critical sites is a carboxy-terminal hydrophobic site also conserved in other AGC kinase subfamily members. Although this site is crucial to the control of this class of enzymes, the upstream kinase(s) has not been identified.

    Results: A membrane-associated kinase activity that phosphorylates the hydrophobic site in PKCalpha was detected. This activity was suppressed when cells were pretreated with the immunosuppresant drug rapamycin or the phosphoinositide (Pl) 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These pretreatments also blocked specifically the serum-induced phosphorylation of the hydrophobic site in PKCdelta in vivo. The most highly purified hydrophobic site kinase preparations ( approximately 10,000-fold) reacted with antibodies to PKCzeta/iota. Consistent with this, rapamycin and LY294002 reduced the recovery of PKCzeta from the membrane fraction of transfected cells. An activated mutant of PKCzeta, but not wild-type PKCzeta, induced phosphorylation of the PKCdelta hydrophobic site in a rapamycin-independent manner, whereas a kinase-dead PKCzeta mutant suppressed this serum-induced phosphorylation. The immunopurified, activated mutant of PKCzeta could phosphorylate the PKCdelta hydrophobic site in vitro, whereas wild-type PKCzeta could not.

    Conclusions: PKCzeta is identified as a component of the upstream kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of the PKCdelta hydrophobic site in vitro and in vivo. PKCzeta can therefore control the phosphorylation of this PKCdelta site, antagonizing a rapamycin-sensitive pathway.

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;10;522-9

  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation.

    Fleming IN, Elliott CM, Buchanan FG, Downes CP and Exton JH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0295, USA.

    A number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors have been identified that activate Rho family GTPases, by promoting the binding of GTP to these proteins. We have recently demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid and several other agonists stimulate phosphorylation of the Rac1-specific exchange factor Tiam1 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, and that protein kinase C is involved in Tiam1 phosphorylation (Fleming, I. N., Elliott, C. M., Collard, J. G., and Exton, J. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 33105-33110). We now show, through manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and the use of protein kinase inhibitors, that both protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved in the phosphorylation of Tiam1 in vivo. Furthermore, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates Tiam1 in vitro, producing an electrophoretic retardation on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Significantly, phosphorylation of Tiam1 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not by protein kinase C, enhanced its nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac1, by approximately 2-fold. Furthermore, Tiam1 was preferentially dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 in vitro, and treatment with this phosphatase abolished the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activation of Tiam1. These data demonstrate that protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylate Tiam1 in vivo, and that the latter kinase plays a key role in regulating the activity of this exchange factor in vitro.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;18;12753-8

  • Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion.

    Reed GL, Houng AK and Fitzgerald ML

    Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, Harvard School of Public Health, Cardiac Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. reed@cvlab.harvard.edu

    In response to thrombin and other extracellular activators, platelets secrete molecules from large intracellular vesicles (granules) to initiate thrombosis. Little is known about the molecular machinery responsible for vesicle docking and secretion in platelets and the linkage of that machinery to cell activation. We found that platelet membranes contain a full complement of interacting proteins-VAMP, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 4-that are necessary for vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. Platelets also contain an uncharacterized homologue of the Sec1p family that appears to regulate vesicle docking through its binding with a cognate syntaxin. This platelet Sec1 protein (PSP) bound to syntaxin 4 and thereby excluded the binding of SNAP-25 with syntaxin 4, an interaction critical to vesicle docking. As predicted by its sequence, PSP was detected predominantly in the platelet cytosol and was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC), a secretion-linked kinase, incorporating 0.87 +/- 0.11 mol of PO4 per mole of protein. PSP was also specifically phosphorylated in permeabilized platelets after cellular stimulation by phorbol esters or thrombin and this phosphorylation was blocked by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220. Phosphorylation by PKC in vitro inhibited PSP from binding to syntaxin 4. Taken together, these studies indicate that platelets, like neurons and other cells capable of regulated secretion, contain a unique complement of interacting vesicle docking proteins and PSP, a putative regulator of vesicle docking. The PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PSP in activated platelets and its inhibitory effects on syntaxin 4 binding provide a novel functional link that may be important in coupling the processes of cell activation, intracellular signaling, and secretion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL57314-01

    Blood 1999;93;8;2617-26

  • Effect of serum starvation on expression and phosphorylation of PKC-alpha and p53 in V79 cells: implications for cell death.

    Hasan NM, Adams GE and Joiner MC

    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Birzeit University, West Bank, Israel.

    The effect of serum starvation on the expression and phosphorylation of PKC-alpha and p53 in Chinese hamster V79 cells was investigated. Serum starvation led to growth arrest, rounding up of cells and the appearance of new PKC-alpha and p53 bands on Western blots. Prolonged incubation (> or = 48 hr) in serum-deprived medium led to cell detachment and death. Moving cells to fresh medium containing 10% serum before, but not after, cell detachment reversed the changes observed in PKC-alpha and p53, and also prevented later cell detachment. Radiolabelling studies showed that the higher-molecular-weight PKC-alpha and p53 bands result from increased phosphorylation, while a lower-molecular-weight PKC-alpha band reflects newly synthesized protein. Immunocomplex kinase assays have shown that the increased phosphorylation of PKC-alpha is associated with its increased activity. To study the relationship between PKC-alpha, p53 and cell death, cells were treated either with TPA, to down-regulate PKC or with staurosporine, to inhibit PKC activity. Staurosporine, a potent PKC inhibitor and inducer of programmed cell death, caused the appearance of new PKC-alpha and p53 bands similar to those induced by serum starvation. If serum starvation was preceded by prolonged (48 hr) TPA treatment to down-regulate PKC-alpha, cell detachment and death did not take place within the same time frame. Intracellular fractionation of cells demonstrated that increased expression of PKC-alpha and the appearance of the associated higher and lower molecular-weight bands occurred in the nucleus. These data highlight the association of PKC-alpha and p53 with cellular events leading to cell death.

    International journal of cancer 1999;80;3;400-5

  • Telomerase is controlled by protein kinase Calpha in human breast cancer cells.

    Li H, Zhao L, Yang Z, Funder JW and Liu JP

    Molecular Signaling Laboratory, Baker Medical Research Institute, Commercial Road, Prahran, Victoria 3181, Australia.

    Telomerase, a specialized RNA-directed DNA polymerase that extends telomeres of eukaryotic chromosomes, is repressed in human somatic tissues and becomes activated during tumor progression in most human cancers. To date, little is known about how telomerase is activated and controlled in cancer, although activation is thought to be involved in cancer cell immortalization. Here, we report that human telomerase-associated protein 1 (hTEP1) and the telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)) are phosphoproteins and that their phosphorylation is a prerequisite for the activation of telomerase in intact human breast cancer cells. Identified by hTEP1 peptide affinity chromatography, protein kinase Calpha mediates the phosphorylation of hTEP1 and hTERT and induces a marked increase in telomerase activity. Thus, phosphorylation of hTEP1 and hTERT by protein kinase Calpha represents an essential step in the generation of a functional telomerase complex in the initiation and maintenance of telomerase activity in human cancer.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;50;33436-42

  • Functional interaction between InsP3 receptors and store-operated Htrp3 channels.

    Kiselyov K, Xu X, Mozhayeva G, Kuo T, Pessah I, Mignery G, Zhu X, Birnbaumer L and Muallem S

    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235, USA.

    Calcium ions are released from intracellular stores in response to agonist-stimulated production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), a second messenger generated at the cell membrane. Depletion of Ca2+ from internal stores triggers a capacitative influx of extracellular Ca2+ across the plasma membrane. The influx of Ca2+ can be recorded as store-operated channels (SOC) in the plasma membrane or as a current known as the Ca2+-release-activated current (I(crac)). A critical question in cell signalling is how SOC and I(crac) sense and respond to Ca2+-store depletion: in one model, a messenger molecule is generated that activates Ca2+ entry in response to store depletion; in an alternative model, InsP3 receptors in the stores are coupled to SOC and I(crac). The mammalian Htrp3 protein forms a well defined store-operated channel and so provides a suitable system for studying the effect of Ca2+-store depletion on SOC and I(crac). We show here that Htrp3 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells are in a tight functional interaction with the InsP3 receptors. Htrp3 channels present in the same plasma membrane patch can be activated by Ca2+ mobilization in intact cells and by InsP3 in excised patches. This activation of Htrp3 by InsP3 is lost on extensive washing of excised patches but is restored by addition of native or recombinant InsP3-bound InsP3 receptors. Our results provide evidence for the coupling hypothesis, in which InsP3 receptors activated by InsP3 interact with SOC and regulate I(crac).

    Nature 1998;396;6710;478-82

  • Protein kinase C as a molecular machine for decoding calcium and diacylglycerol signals.

    Oancea E and Meyer T

    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The specificity of many signal transduction pathways relies on the temporal coordination of different second messenger signals. Here we found a molecular mechanism which guarantees that conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are sequentially activated by calcium and diacylglycerol signals. Receptor stimuli that triggered repetitive calcium spikes induced a parallel repetitive translocation of GFP-tagged PKCgamma to the plasma membrane. While calcium acted rapidly, diacylglycerol binding to PKCgamma was initially prevented by a pseudosubstrate clamp, which kept the diacylglycerol-binding site inaccessible and delayed calcium- and diacylglycerol-mediated kinase activation. After termination of calcium signals, bound diacylglycerol prolonged kinase activity. The properties of this molecular decoding machine make PKCgamma responsive to persistent diacylglycerol increases combined with high- but not low-frequency calcium spikes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-51457

    Cell 1998;95;3;307-18

  • Consensus phosphorylation sites of human GABA(c)/GABArho receptors are not critical for inhibition by protein kinase C activation.

    Kusama T, Hatama K, Sakurai M, Kizawa Y, Uhl GR and Murakami H

    Department of Physiology and Anatomy, Nihon University College of Pharmacy, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan.

    The mechanism of inhibition of human GABA(C)/GABArho receptors by protein kinase C (PKC) activation was investigated in Xenopus oocytes. Phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), a potent PKC activator, at 25 nM inhibited the currents through GABArho2 receptors, which have one consensus phosphorylation site by PKC in the predicted intracellular loops. The time-courses and amplitudes of inhibition were not significantly different from those occurring through GABArho1 receptors, which have six such sites. The inhibitory effect of PMA was also observed after removing each consensus phosphorylation site in both GABArho1 and rho2 receptors by site-directed mutagenesis. These results suggest that phosphorylation of consensus sites in the intracellular loops is not involved in the inhibition of human GABA(C)/GABArho receptors by PKC activation.

    Neuroscience letters 1998;255;1;17-20

  • A functional role for mitochondrial protein kinase Calpha in Bcl2 phosphorylation and suppression of apoptosis.

    Ruvolo PP, Deng X, Carr BK and May WS

    Sealy Center for Oncology and Hematology and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA.

    Phosphorylation of Bcl2 at serine 70 may result from activation of a classic protein kinase C (PKC) isoform and is required for functional suppression of apoptosis by Bcl2 in murine growth factor-dependent cell lines (Ito, T., Deng, X., Carr, B., and May, W. S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 11671-11673). Human pre-B REH cells express high levels of Bcl2 yet remain sensitive to the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide, cytosine arabinoside, and Adriamycin. In contrast, myeloid leukemia-derived HL60 cells express less than half the level of Bcl-2 but are >10-fold more resistant to apoptosis induced by these drugs. The mechanism responsible for this apparent dichotomy appears to involve a deficiency of mitochondrial PKCalpha since 1) HL60 but not REH cells contain highly phosphorylated Bcl2; 2) PKCalpha is the only classical isoform co-localized with Bcl2 in HL60 but not REH mitochondrial membranes; 3) the natural product and potent PKC activator bryostatin-1 induces mitochondrial localization of PKCalpha in association with Bcl2 phosphorylation and increased REH cell resistance to drug-induced apoptosis; 4) PKCalpha can directly phosphorylate wild-type but not phosphorylation-negative and loss of function S70A Bcl2 in vitro; 5) stable, forced expression of exogenous PKCalpha induces mitochondrial localization of PKCalpha, increased Bcl2 phosphorylation and a >10-fold increase in resistance to drug-induced cell death; and () PKCalpha-transduced cells remain highly sensitive to staurosporine, a potent PKC inhibitor. Furthermore, treatment of the PKCalpha transformants with bryostatin-1 leads to even higher levels of mitochondrial PKCalpha, Bcl2 phosphorylation, and REH cell survival following chemotherapy. While these findings strongly support a role for PKCalpha as a functional Bcl2 kinase that can enhance cell resistance to antileukemic chemotherapy, they do not exclude the possibility that another Bcl2 kinase(s) may also exist. Collectively, these findings identify a functional role for PKCalpha in Bcl2 phosphorylation and in resistance to chemotherapy and suggest a novel target for antileukemic strategies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA44649, CA47993

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;39;25436-42

  • Phosphorylation of the prostacyclin receptor during homologous desensitization. A critical role for protein kinase c.

    Smyth EM, Li WH and FitzGerald GA

    Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of an epitope-tagged prostacyclin receptor (HAhIP) is mediated primarily by PKC (Smyth, E. M., Nestor, P. V., and FitzGerald G. A. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 33698-33704). Based on the two consensus sites for protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation in the C-terminal region mutant HAhIPs were generated: S328A and S374A, in which an alanine replaced Ser-328 or Ser-374, respectively, S328A/S374A and C-DEL, in which the C-terminal portion was truncated at amino acid 313. Mutant receptors, stably expressed in HEK293 cells, coupled normally to cAMP production. Substantially less coupling to inositol phosphate was apparent with S328A, S328A/S374A, and C-DEL compared with HAhIP or S374A. Point mutants resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a broad band with a molecular mass of 44-62, indicating that the receptors are glycosylated, and immunofluoresence staining demonstrated their membrane localization. C-DEL demonstrated a substantial reduction in glycosylation; bands with molecular masses of 38-54 (glycosylated), 30, and 27 kDa (unglycosylated) were apparent. Although membrane localization was evident, cellular localization was more diffuse. HAhIP and S374A underwent iloprost- and PMA-induced phosphorylation (1 and 5 microM, respectively, for 10 min). S328A and S328A/S374A showed a markedly less iloprost- and no PMA-induced phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of C-DEL was completely absent with either agonist. Electrospray mass spectrometry indicated that a peptide, including Ser-328, was phosphorylated in vitro by PKC, whereas one including Ser-374 was not. Iloprost (1 microM, 10 min) desensitized HAhIP- and S374A-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation. A less impressive desensitization was evident with S328A and S328A/S374A, and no desensitization of C-DEL coupling was apparent. Exposure of transfected cells to iloprost (1 microM) for increasing times induced a rapid desensitization of subsequent iloprost-induced (1 microM) HAhIP and S374A adenylyl cyclase coupling. In contrast, no significant time-dependent desensitization of S328A, S328A/S374A, or C-DEL coupling was evident. These results indicate that PKC-dependent phosphorylation is of critical importance to homologous regulation of hIP. Ser-328 is a primary site for PKC phosphorylation of hIP.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-0945502, HL-57847

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;36;23258-66

  • Endothelin induces a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of PEA-15 in intact astrocytes: identification of Ser104 and Ser116 phosphorylated, respectively, by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II in vitro.

    Kubes M, Cordier J, Glowinski J, Girault JA and Chneiweiss H

    INSERM U114 Chaire de Neuropharmacologie, Collège de France, Paris.

    PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, Mr = 15,000) is an acidic serine-phosphorylated protein highly expressed in the CNS, where it can play a protective role against cytokine-induced apoptosis. PEA-15 is a major substrate for protein kinase C. Endothelins, which are known to exert pleiotropic effects on astrocytes, were used to analyze further the processes involved in PEA-15 phosphorylation. Endothelin-1 or endothelin-3 (0.1 microM) induced a robust phosphorylation of PEA-15 that was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium, but only diminished by inhibitors of protein kinase C. Microsequencing of phosphopeptides generated by digestion of PEA-15 following endothelin-1 treatment identified two phosphorylated residues: Ser104, previously recognized as the protein kinase C site, and a novel phosphoserine, Ser116, located in a consensus motif for either protein kinase casein kinase II or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Partly purified PEA-15 was a substrate in vitro for CaMKII, but not for casein kinase II. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping demonstrated that the site phosphorylated in vitro by CaMKII was also phosphorylated in intact astrocytes in response to endothelin. CaMKII phosphorylated selectively Ser116 and had no effect on Ser104, but in vitro phosphorylation by CaMKII appeared to facilitate further phosphorylation by protein kinase C. Treatment of intact astrocytes with okadaic acid enhanced the phosphorylation of the CaMKII site. These results demonstrate that PEA-15 is phosphorylated in astrocytes by CaMKII (or a related kinase) and by protein kinase C in response to endothelin.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;71;3;1307-14

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of threonine at position 888 in Ca2+o-sensing receptor (CaR) inhibits coupling to Ca2+ store release.

    Bai M, Trivedi S, Lane CR, Yang Y, Quinn SJ and Brown EM

    Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Previous studies in parathyroid cells, which express the G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) blunts high extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-evoked stimulation of phospholipase C and the associated increases in cytosolic calcium (Ca2+i), suggesting that PKC may directly modulate the coupling of the CaR to intracellular signaling systems. In this study, we examined the role of PKC in regulating the coupling of the CaR to Ca2+i dynamics in fura-2-loaded human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 cells) transiently transfected with the human parathyroid CaR. We demonstrate that several PKC activators exert inhibitory effects on CaR-mediated increases in Ca2+i due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with the effect being mediated by activation of PKC, the inhibitory effect of PKC activators on Ca2+ release can be blocked by a PKC inhibitor. The use of site-directed mutagenesis reveals that threonine at amino acid position 888 is the major PKC site that mediates the inhibitory effect of PKC activators on Ca2+ mobilization. The effect of PKC activation can be maximally blocked by mutating three PKC sites (Thr888, Ser895, and Ser915) or all five PKC sites. In vitro phosphorylation shows that Thr888 is readily phosphorylated by PKC. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of the CaR is the molecular basis for the previously described effect of PKC activation on Ca2+o-evoked changes in Ca2+i dynamics in parathyroid cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK09436, DK41415, DK48330; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;33

  • Protein kinase C regulates the nuclear localization of diacylglycerol kinase-zeta.

    Topham MK, Bunting M, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Blackshear PJ and Prescott SM

    The Huntsman Cancer Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA.

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) terminate signalling from diacylglycerol by converting it to phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol regulates cell growth and differentiation, and its transient accumulation in the nucleus may be particularly important in this regulation. Here we show that a fraction of DGK-zeta is found in the nucleus, where it regulates the amount of nuclear diacylglycerol. Reducing nuclear diacylglycerol levels by conditional expression of DGK-zeta attenuates cell growth. The nuclear-localization signal of DGK-zeta is located in a region that is homologous to the phosphorylation-site domain of the MARCKS protein. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence that this domain, which is a major target for protein kinase C, can localize a protein to the nucleus. Two isoforms of protein kinase C, but not others, regulate the localization of DGK-zeta. Our results define a cycle in which diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, which then regulates the metabolism of diacylglycerol by alternating the intracellular location of DGK-zeta. This may be a general mechanism to control mitogenic signals that depend on nuclear diacylglycerol.

    Nature 1998;394;6694;697-700

  • Effects of phosphorylation on function of the Rad GTPase.

    Moyers JS, Zhu J and Kahn CR

    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    Rad, Gem and Kir possess unique structural features in comparison with other Ras-like GTPases, including a C-terminal 31-residue extension that lacks typical prenylation motifs. We have recently shown that Rad and Gem bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner via this C-terminal extension, involving residues 278-297 in human Rad. This domain also contains several consensus sites for serine phosphorylation, and Rad is complexed with calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in C2C12 cells. Here we show that Rad serves as a substrate for phosphorylation by CaMKII, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and casein kinase II (CKII) with stoichiometries in vitro of 0.2-1.3 mol of phosphate/mol of Rad. By deletion and point mutation analysis we show that phosphorylation by CaMKII and PKA occurs on a single serine residue at position 273, whereas PKC and CKII phosphorylate multiple C-terminal serine residues, including Ser214, Ser257, Ser273, Ser290 and Ser299. Incubation of Rad with PKA decreases GTP binding by 60-70%, but this effect seems to be independent of phosphorylation, as it is observed with the Ser273-->Ala mutant of Rad containing a mutation at the site of PKA phosphorylation. The remainder of the serine kinases have no effect on Rad GTP binding, intrinsic GTP hydrolysis or GTP hydrolysis stimulated by the putative tumour metastasis suppressor nm23. However, phosphorylation of Rad by PKC and CKII abolishes the interaction of Rad with calmodulin. These findings suggest that the binding of Rad to calmodulin, as well as its ability to bind GTP, might be regulated by the activation of several serine kinases.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 45935, P30 DK36836, T32DK 07260

    The Biochemical journal 1998;333 ( Pt 3);609-14

  • Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways.

    Zidovetzki R, Wang JL, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R and Hofman F

    Department of Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

    The intracellular signal transduction pathways utilized by the HIV-1-derived protein, Tat, in the activation of human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-ECs) were examined using specific enzymatic assays. Tat induced an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA within 1 hr of treatment. This biological effect of Tat involved activation of both protein kinase C (PK-C) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) in CNS-ECs. Tat at 10 ng/ml induced a sharp, transient increase in membrane PK-C activity within 30 sec of incubation, and reached maximum levels at 2 min, declining to control values within 10 min. Tat also induced a sharp increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PK-A activity in these cells, with the PK-A activity reaching a maximum at 10 min and slowly declining to control values in 4 hr of incubation. Activation of PK-A was dependent on a Tat-induced increase in membrane PK-C activity as demonstrated by calphostin C (a PK-C inhibitor) abolishing this effect. Incubation of cells with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not affect Tat-induced activation of PK-A, indicating that prostacyclins are not involved in this process. Tat-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA was abolished in the presence on PK-A inhibitor H-89, demonstrating that activation of PK-A is necessary and sufficient for the increase in IL-6 production by these cells. Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33805

    AIDS research and human retroviruses 1998;14;10;825-33

  • Kell and Kx, two disulfide-linked proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane are phosphorylated in vivo.

    Carbonnet F, Hattab C, Cartron JP and Bertrand O

    INSERM U76, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France.

    Kell and Kx are two quantitatively minor proteins from the human erythrocyte membrane which carry blood groups antigens and are thought to be a metalloprotease and a membrane transporter, respectively. In the red cell membrane, these proteins form a complex stabilized by disulfide bond(s). Phosphorylation status of these proteins was studied, in the presence or absence of effectors of several kinases, either on intact cells incubated with [32P]-orthophosphate or on ghosts incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP. Purification of Kell-Kx complex, by immunochromatography on an immobilized human monoclonal antibody of Kell blood group specificity allowed to establish that (i) neither protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine; (ii) the Kell protein is a putative substrate for Casein Kinase II (CKII) and Casein Kinase I (CKI) but not for protein kinase C (PKC), whereas Kx protein is phosphorylated by CKII and PKC but not by CKI; (iii) Protein Kinase A neither phosphorylates the Kell nor the Kx proteins.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;247;3;569-75

  • Targeting of protein kinase Calpha to caveolae.

    Mineo C, Ying YS, Chapline C, Jaken S and Anderson RG

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9039, USA.

    Previously, we showed caveolae contain a population of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) that appears to regulate membrane invagination. We now report that multiple PKC isoenzymes are enriched in caveolae of unstimulated fibroblasts. To understand the mechanism of PKC targeting, we prepared caveolae lacking PKCalpha and measured the interaction of recombinant PKCalpha with these membranes. PKCalpha bound with high affinity and specificity to caveolae membranes. Binding was calcium dependent, did not require the addition of factors that activate the enzyme, and involved the regulatory domain of the molecule. A 68-kD PKCalpha-binding protein identified as sdr (serum deprivation response) was isolated by interaction cloning and localized to caveolae. Antibodies against sdr inhibited PKCalpha binding. A 100-amino acid sequence from the middle of sdr competitively blocked PKCalpha binding while flanking sequences were inactive. Caveolae appear to be a membrane site where PKC enzymes are organized to carry out essential regulatory functions as well as to modulate signal transduction at the cell surface.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL20948, P01 HL020948; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 43169

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;141;3;601-10

  • Regulation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation in vivo.

    Horowitz A and Simons M

    Angiogenesis Research Center, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Recent studies suggest that some of the heparan sulfate-carrying proteoglycans may directly participate in signaling via their cytoplasmic tail. The present investigation addresses the potential involvement of syndecan-4, a widely expressed transmembrane proteoglycan, in this process. We found that the cytoplasmic tail of syndecan-4 is phosphorylated on a single serine residue (Ser183) in growth-arrested NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, with a stoichiometry of 0.3 mol Pi/mol syndecan-4. Treatment of the cells with a protein kinase C (PKC)-activating phorbol ester lead to a 2.5-fold increase in Ser183 phosphorylation. This increase was inhibited by a generic PKC inhibitor but not by an inhibitor specific to the calcium-dependent conventional PKCs, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of syndecan-4 is phosphorylated by a calcium-independent novel PKC isozyme. Application of 10-30 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) produced a 2-3-fold reduction in the phosphorylation of syndecan-4. Because treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin prevented the bFGF-induced decrease in syndecan-4 phosphorylation, the effect of bFGF appears to be mediated by a protein serine/threonine phosphatase type 1 or 2A. We conclude that the cytoplasmic tail of syndecan-4 is subject to in vivo phosphorylation on Ser183, which is regulated by the activities of a novel PKC isozyme and a bFGF-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-07374, HL-53793

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;18;10914-8

  • Regulation of the p53 protein by protein kinase C alpha and protein kinase C zeta.

    Youmell M, Park SJ, Basu S and Price BD

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The C-terminal of p53 (amino-acids 368-383) represses the DNA binding activity of p53. In vitro, phosphorylation of this region by Protein Kinase C (PKC) is associated with increased DNA binding activity. However, whether PKC can directly modulate p53 function in vivo is not known. Here, we demonstrate that cotransfection of p53 with either PKC alpha or PKC zeta increases p53's transcriptional activity. Mutagenesis of p53 indicates that serine 371 is the major site for phosphorylation by PKC alpha in vitro. Mutation of serine 371 caused a small decline in p53 activation by PKC alpha and PKC zeta. However, the alternatively spliced murine p53, which lacks the PKC phosphorylation sites, still demonstrated increased transcriptional activation when cotransfected with either PKC alpha or PKC zeta. The results indicate that phosphorylation of p53 by PKC in vitro does not correlate with the ability of PKC to upregulate p53's transcriptional activity in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64585

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;245;2;514-8

  • Growth and metabolism of fetal and maternal muscles of adolescent sheep on adequate or high feed intake: possible role of protein kinase C-alpha in fetal muscle growth.

    Palmer RM, Thompson MG, Meallet C, Thom A, Aitken RP and Wallace JM

    Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK. rmp@rri.sari.ac.uk

    From days 4-104 of pregnancy, adolescent sheep, weighing 43.7 (SE 0.87) kg were offered a complete diet at two different intakes (approximately 5 or 15 kg/week) designed to meet slightly, or well above, maternal maintenance requirements. The fetal and maternal muscles were taken on day 104 of pregnancy and analysed for total DNA, RNA and protein. Ewes offered a high intake to promote rapid maternal weight gain, weighed more (76.5 (SE 4.5) v 50.0 (SE 1.7) kg) and had muscles with a greater fresh weight, whilst their fetuses had smaller muscles, than those fed at a lower intake. Plantaris muscle of the ewes fed at the high intake contained more RNA and protein; again the opposite situation was found in the fetal muscle. On the higher maternal intakes, the DNA, RNA and protein contents of the fetal plantaris muscle were less than in fetuses of ewes fed at the lower intake. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved in this decrease in fetal muscle mass, cytosolic and membrane-associated muscle proteins were subjected to Western immunoblotting with antibodies to nine isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), a family of enzymes known to play an important role in cell growth. Five PKC isoforms (alpha, epsilon, theta, mu, zeta) were identified in fetal muscle. One of these, PKC-alpha was located predominantly in the cytosolic compartment in the smaller fetuses of the ewes fed at a high plane of nutrition, but was present to a greater extent in the membranes of the more rapidly growing fetuses of the ewes fed at the lower intake. This was the only isoform to demonstrate nutritionally related changes in it subcellular compartmentation suggesting that it may mediate some aspects of the change in fetal growth rate.

    The British journal of nutrition 1998;79;4;351-7

  • A role for receptor kinases in the regulation of class II G protein-coupled receptors. Phosphorylation and desensitization of the secretin receptor.

    Shetzline MA, Premont RT, Walker JK, Vigna SR and Caron MG

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The secretin receptor is a member of a structurally distinct class of G protein-coupled receptors designated as Class II. The molecular mechanisms of secretin receptor signal termination are unknown. Using transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing the secretin receptor, we investigated its mechanisms of desensitization. Binding of [125I]-secretin to plasma membranes of receptor-expressing cells was specific, with a Kd of 2 nM. Secretin evoked an increase in cellular cAMP with an EC50 of 0.4 nM. The response was maximal by 20 min and desensitized rapidly and completely. Immunoprecipitation of a functional, N-terminal epitope-tagged secretin receptor was used to demonstrate agonist-dependent receptor phosphorylation, with an EC50 of 14 nM. Pretreatment with protein kinase A or C inhibitors failed to alter secretin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are known to be involved in the desensitization of Class I G protein-coupled receptors; therefore, the effect of cotransfection of GRKs on secretin-stimulated cAMP signaling and phosphorylation was evaluated. GRKs 2 and 5 were the most potent at augmenting desensitization, causing a 40% reduction in the maximal cAMP response to secretin. GRK 5 also caused a shift in the EC50 to the right (p < 0.05). GRK 4 and GRK 6 did not alter dose-dependent signaling, and GRK 3 was intermediate in effect. Receptor phosphorylation correlated with desensitization for each GRK studied, whereas second messenger-dependent kinase phosphorylation appeared to be less important in secretin receptor signal termination. We demonstrate agonist-dependent secretin receptor phosphorylation coincident with profound receptor desensitization of the signaling function in HEK 293 cells, suggesting a role for receptor phosphorylation in this paradigm. Although GRK activity appears important in secretin receptor desensitization in HEK 293 cells, protein kinases A and C appear to play only a minor role. These results demonstrate that the GRK-arrestin system regulates Class II G protein-coupled receptors.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 5T32DK07568; NINDS NIH HHS: NS19576

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;12;6756-62

  • Protein kinase C-alpha: a novel target for the therapy of androgen-independent prostate cancer? (Review-hypothesis).

    O'Brian CA

    Department of Cell Biology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 173, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men in Western countries. A major reason for this is that the malignancy often progresses to an androgen-independent phenotype that is highly aggressive and unresponsive to available therapies. Protein kinase C (PKC) is an isozyme family with at least eleven mammalian members that play important roles in cell growth regulation and differentiation. Based on the emerging understanding of the role played by PKC isozymes in the regulation of prostate cancer cell growth and programmed death, in this report we develop the hypothesis that a defective PKC-a-mediated apoptotic pathway in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells has allowed the cells to acquire a selective growth advantage by overexpression of PKC-a and that this adaptive response renders the cells dependent on constitutively active PKC-a for their survival. Studies reviewed in this report provide strong evidence that expression of constitutive PKC-a activity is required for the survival and growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells, but direct evidence for this is still lacking. We outline experimental approaches that will be required to definitively test the importance of PKC-a to androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell growth and survival. If constitutive PKC-a activity is in fact found to be required for the growth and survival of androgen-independent human prostate cancer, then the development of PKC-a-targeted therapeutics for use in the clinical treatment of prostate cancer will be justified.

    Oncology reports 1998;5;2;305-9

  • Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells.

    Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley LC and Capitani S

    Division of Signal Transduction, Harvard Institute of Medicine, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusettes 02115, USA.

    The addition in culture of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein (0.1-1 nM) to PC12 cells induced a rapid increase of the bulk protein kinase C (PKC) catalytic activity. Among various PKC isoforms (alpha, beta I, beta II, delta, epsilon, eta, theta, and zeta) expressed in PC12 cells, Tat selectively stimulated alpha, epsilon, and zeta, as judged by activities in immunoprecipitates. Activation of these isoforms was suppressed by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Moreover, PKC-zeta showed the fastest kinetics of activation in response to Tat, but PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon showed the highest levels of activation. PKC-alpha activation was accompanied by a rise of intracellular IP3, while the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 suppressed PKC-epsilon activation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;242;2;332-7

  • Specific interaction of the PDZ domain protein PICK1 with the COOH terminus of protein kinase C-alpha.

    Staudinger J, Lu J and Olson EN

    Department of Molecular Endocrinology, GlaxoWellcome, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

    PICK1 is a protein kinase C (PKC) alpha-binding protein initially identified using the yeast two-hybrid system. Here we report that PICK1 contains a PDZ domain that interacts specifically with a previously unidentified PDZ-binding domain (QSAV) at the extreme COOH terminus of PKCalpha and that mutation of a putative carboxylate-binding loop within the PICK1 PDZ domain abolishes this interaction. The PDZ-binding domain in PKCalpha is absent from other PKC isoforms that do not interact with PICK1. We also demonstrate that PICK1 can homooligomerize through sequences that are distinct from the carboxylate-binding loop, suggesting that self-association and PKCalpha binding are not mutually exclusive. A Caenorhabditis elegans PICK1-like protein is also able to bind to PKCalpha, suggesting a conservation of function through evolution. Association of PKCalpha with PICK1 provides a potential mechanism for the selective targeting of PKCalpha to unique subcellular sites.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;51;32019-24

  • Mediation of NGF signaling by post-translational inhibition of HES-1, a basic helix-loop-helix repressor of neuronal differentiation.

    Ström A, Castella P, Rockwood J, Wagner J and Caudy M

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    The induction of neurite outgrowth by NGF is a transcription-dependent process in PC12 cells, but the transcription factors that mediate this process are not known. Here we show that the bHLH transcriptional repressor HES-1 is a mediator of this process. Inactivation of endogenous HES-1 by forced expression of a dominant-negative protein induces neurite outgrowth in the absence of NGF and increases response to NGF. In contrast, expression of additional wild-type HES-1 protein represses and delays response to NGF. Endogenous HES-1 DNA-binding activity is post-translationally inhibited during NGF signaling in vivo, and phosphorylation of PKC consensus sites in the HES-1 DNA-binding domain inhibits DNA binding by purified HES-1 in vitro. Mutation of these sites generates a constitutively active protein that strongly and persistently blocks response to NGF. These results suggest that post-translational inhibition of HES-1 is both essential for and partially mediates the induction of neurite outgrowth by NGF signaling.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY06454; NINDS NIH HHS: NS31728, R01 NS028652, T32 NS007384, T32NS07384

    Genes & development 1997;11;23;3168-81

  • Expression, purification, and regulation of two isoforms of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase.

    Woodring PJ and Garrison JC

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. jcg8w@virginia.edu

    The level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the cytoplasm is tightly regulated by two enzymes, the inositol 1,4,5,5-phosphatase and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase. Two isoforms of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase have been identified, the A form and the B form. The regulatory properties of the two isoforms were compared following overexpression and purification of the proteins from a v-src transformed mammalian cell line. The highly purified, recombinant inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases were differentially regulated by calcium/calmodulin and via phosphorylation by protein kinase C or the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Both enzymes had similar affinities for inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (Km 2-5 mu M). Calcium/calmodulin stimulated the activity of isoform A about 2.5-fold, whereas the activity of isoform B was increased 20-fold. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylated the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A to the extent of 0.9 mol/mol and isoform B to 1 mol/mol. Protein kinase C phosphorylated isoform A to the extent of 2 mol/mol and isoform B to 2.7 mol/mol. Phosphorylation of isoform A by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase caused a 2.5-fold increase in its activity when assayed in the absence of calcium/calmodulin, whereas phosphorylation by protein kinase C decreased activity by 72%. The activity of isoform B in the absence of calcium/calmodulin was not affected by phosphorylation using either kinase. When assayed in the presence of calcium/calmodulin, phosphorylation of isoform A by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase increased activity 1.5-fold, whereas phosphorylation of isoform B decreased activity by 45%. Phosphorylation of either isoform A or B by protein kinase C resulted in a 70% reduction of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated activity. Differential expression and regulation of the two inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase isoforms provides multiple mechanisms for regulating the cytosolic level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01-CA 40042; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK-19952

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;48;30447-54

  • Characterization of the phosphorylation sites involved in G protein-coupled receptor kinase- and protein kinase C-mediated desensitization of the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor.

    Diviani D, Lattion AL and Cotecchia S

    Institut de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Faculté de Médecine, Lausanne, 1005 Switzerland.

    Catecholamines as well as phorbol esters can induce the phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (alpha1BAR). In this study, phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated alpha1BAR revealed that both epinephrine- and phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation predominantly occurs at serine residues of the receptor. The findings obtained with receptor mutants in which portions of the C-tail were truncated or deleted indicated that a region of 21 amino acids (393-413) of the carboxyl terminus including seven serines contains the main phosphorylation sites involved in agonist- as well as phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha1BAR. To identify the serines invoved in agonist- versus phorbol ester-dependent regulation of the receptor, two different strategies were adopted, the seven serines were either substituted with alanine or reintroduced into a mutant lacking all of them. Our findings indicate that Ser394 and Ser400 were phosphorylated following phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C, whereas Ser404, Ser408, and Ser410 were phosphorylated upon stimulation of the alpha1BAR with epinephrine. The observation that overexpression of G protein-coupled kinase 2 (GRK2) could increase agonist-induced phosphorylation of Ser404, Ser408, and Ser410, strongly suggests that these serines are the phosphorylation sites of the alpha1BAR for kinases of the GRK family. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of the Ser394 and Ser400 as well as GRK2-mediated phosphorylation of the Ser404, Ser408, and Ser410, resulted in the desensitization of alpha1BAR-mediated inositol phosphate response. This study provides generalities about the biochemical mechanisms underlying homologous and heterologous desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors linked to the activation of phospholipase C.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;45;28712-9

  • Site-specific phosphorylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein accelerates formation of an efficient RNA-binding conformation.

    Fouts DE, True HL, Cengel KA and Celander DW

    Department of Microbiology and College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

    Phosphorylation is important in the regulation of many cellular processes, yet the precise role of protein phosphorylation for many RNA-binding protein substrates remains obscure. In this report, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein promotes rapid formation of an efficient RNA-binding state. The apparent dissociation constant for ligand binding is enhanced 7-fold for the protein following phosphorylation; however, phosphate addition leads to a 1. 6-fold decrease in RNA ligand-protein complex stability. RNA ligand binding stimulates slow formation of an equally competent binding state for the unphosphorylated protein, indicating that the addition of phosphate or ligand binding promotes a similar conformational change in Rev. Phosphorylation directly alters the conformation of Rev, as revealed by modification experiments that monitor the solvent accessibility of cysteines in the protein. These biochemical properties are attributed to the addition of phosphate at one of two serine residues (Ser-54 or Ser-56) that lie within the multimerization domain adjacent to the RNA-binding helix. Glutaraldehyde-mediated cross-linking experiments revealed that phosphorylation of Rev does not affect Rev multimerization activity. The Rev protein from the less pathogenic HIV-2 isolate lacks this phosphorylation site in the amino acid sequence; thus, the described biochemical properties of the phosphorylated protein may contribute to Rev activity and possibly to HIV-1 virulence during natural infection.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47854

    Biochemistry 1997;36;43;13256-62

  • The prooncoprotein EWS binds calmodulin and is phosphorylated by protein kinase C through an IQ domain.

    Deloulme JC, Prichard L, Delattre O and Storm DR

    University of Washington, Department of Pharmacology, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    A growing family of proteins is regulated by protein kinase C and calmodulin through IQ domains, a regulatory motif originally identified in neuromodulin (Alexander, K. A., Wakim, B. T., Doyle, G. S., Walsh, K. A., and Storm, D. R. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 7544-7549). Here we report that EWS, a nuclear RNA-binding prooncoprotein, contains an IQ domain, is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and interacts with calmodulin. Interestingly, PKC phosphorylation of EWS inhibits its binding to RNA homopolymers, and conversely, RNA binding to EWS interferes with PKC phosphorylation. Several other RNA-binding proteins, including TLS/FUS and PSF, co-purify with EWS. PKC phosphorylation of these proteins also inhibits their binding to RNA in vitro. These data suggest that PKC may regulate interactions of EWS and other RNA-binding proteins with their RNA targets and that IQ domains may provide a regulatory link between Ca2+ signal transduction pathways and RNA processing.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 20498

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;43;27369-77

  • The ordered phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase--structural consequences and functional implications.

    Keane NE, Quirk PG, Gao Y, Patchell VB, Perry SV and Levine BA

    School of Biochemistry University of Birmingham, UK.

    The pattern of phosphorylation of adjacent serine residues in several peptides based on the N-terminal region of human cardiac troponin I has been analysed by PAGE and 1H NMR spectroscopy to identify the products. With cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Ser24 is rapidly phosphorylated, and subsequent much slower phosphorylation of Ser23 occurs only after phosphorylation of Ser24 is almost complete. Monophosphorylation of the peptide at Ser23 was not detected at any time. On replacement of Arg22 with Ala or Met the sole phosphorylation target was Ser23, phosphorylation being considerably slower than for Ser24 in the wild-type peptide, while diphosphorylation could not be detected after prolonged incubation. The results emphasise the importance of the N-terminal sequence RRRSS for the function of cardiac troponin I and imply that in human cardiac muscle unstimulated by adrenaline, troponin I is phosphorylated on Ser24. Comparative two-dimensional NOESY data indicate that in the diphosphorylated form at physiological pH values, specific structural constraints are imposed on the N-terminal peptide region. These constraints result in the effective screening of the two phosphate groups from each other by the arginine residues N-terminal to the serine pair and stabilisation of the structure in the region of residues 25-29, which is adjacent to a site of interaction between troponin I and troponin C. These conformational changes presumably underlie the decrease in calcium sensitivity of the myofibrillar ATPase that occurs after adrenaline intervention.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    European journal of biochemistry 1997;248;2;329-37

  • Phosphorylation and calmodulin binding of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) are antagonistic in vitro.

    Minakami R, Jinnai N and Sugiyama H

    School of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-82, Japan.

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors, which are members of a G protein-coupled receptor family, mediate the glutamate responses by coupling to the intracellular signal transduction pathway. We herein report that calmodulin (CaM) interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in a Ca2+-dependent manner in vitro. CaM is capable of binding on two distinct sites in the COOH-terminal intracellular region of the receptor with different affinities. The CaM binding domains are separated by an alternatively spliced exon cassette present in one of the splicing isoforms of mGluR5. By using fusion proteins and synthetic peptides we showed that protein kinase C phosphorylates both CaM binding regions. This phosphorylation is inhibited by the binding of CaM to the receptor, and conversely the binding is inhibited by the phosphorylation. These antagonisms of the CaM binding and phosphorylation thus suggest the possibility that they regulate the receptor responses in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;32;20291-8

  • Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain.

    Oh ES, Couchman JR and Woods A

    Department of Cell Biology, and Cell Adhesion and Matrix Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus sequence. We investigated phosphorylation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain by PKC, using purified GST-syndecan-2 fusion proteins and synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the cytoplasmic domain. A synthetic peptide encompassing the entire cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 was phosphorylated by PKC with high affinity. Peptide mapping and substitution studies showed that both serines were phosphoacceptors, but each had slightly different affinity, with that of serine-197 being higher than serine-198. The efficiency of phosphorylation was concentration-dependent. At low concentrations, the cytoplasmic domain peptides were monomeric, with 2 mol/mol serine phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, however, the peptides formed dimers, with only 0.5 mol/mol phosphorylation. Concentration-dependent dimerization was not altered by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is, therefore, dependent on the conformation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain, but does not affect its oligomeric status.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P60 AR20614; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50194

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1997;344;1;67-74

  • The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix.

    Swingler S, Gallay P, Camaur D, Song J, Abo A and Trono D

    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix (MA) protein is phosphorylated during virion maturation on its C-terminal tyrosine and on several serine residues. Whereas MA tyrosine phosphorylation facilitates viral nuclear import, the significance of MA serine phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we report that MA serine but not tyrosine phosphorylation is strongly enhanced by Nef. Mutations that abrogated the membrane association of Nef and its ability to bind a cellular serine/threonine kinase greatly diminished the extent of virion MA serine phosphorylation. Correspondingly, a protein kinase coimmunoprecipitated with Nef could phosphorylate MA on serine in vitro, producing a phosphopeptide pattern reminiscent of that of virion MA. Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI34306, R01 AI37510

    Journal of virology 1997;71;6;4372-7

  • Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of HIV-I nef in human cell lines.

    Coates K, Cooke SJ, Mann DA and Harris MP

    MRC Retrovirus Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Stable human cell lines expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) Nef protein from inducible promoters were used to analyze the phosphorylation status of Nef in vivo. Nef phosphorylation in both HeLa and Jurkat cells was stimulated by phorbol ester treatment. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed a predominance of phosphoserine with a small proportion of phosphothreonine. Treatment of cells with selective protein kinase inhibitors revealed that Nef phosphorylation was markedly reduced by bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but was unaffected by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase or cAMP-dependent kinase. These data implicate protein kinase C in Nef phosphorylation in vivo, and thus confirm and extend earlier in vitro data. Phosphorylation of a nonmyristoylated Nef mutant was impaired, suggesting that membrane targeting of Nef was required for phosphorylation. This was expected given that activated protein kinase C translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. However, analysis of the subcellular localization of phosphorylated wild-type Nef revealed that both the cytosolic and membrane-associated pools of Nef were phosphorylated to an equivalent extent. Thus the significance of myristoylation for Nef function may be in influencing protein conformation, although these data could be explained by a transient and dynamic interaction between myristoylated Nef and the plasma membrane.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;19;12289-94

  • Identification of protein kinase C phosphorylation sites on bovine rhodopsin.

    Greene NM, Williams DS and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0640, USA.

    The protein kinase C phosphorylation sites on bovine rhodopsin were identified using proteolytic, phosphoamino acid, mass spectrometric, and peptide sequencing analyses. Tryptic removal of the 9 carboxyl-terminal residues of rhodopsin revealed that a major fraction of the phosphates incorporated by protein kinase C are in a region containing Ser334, Thr335, and Thr336. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the tryptic product established that Ser334 accounts for approximately 65% of the phosphorylation in this region. Analysis of the endoproteinase Asp-N-generated carboxyl terminus of rhodopsin by mass spectrometry and peptide sequencing revealed that Ser338 is also a primary phosphorylation site, with minor phosphorylation of Ser343. Quantitation of high pressure liquid chromatography-separated phosphopeptides, taken together with phosphoamino acid analysis of the tryptic product, revealed that Ser334 and Ser338 were phosphorylated equally and each accounted for approximately 35% of the total phosphorylation; Thr335/336 accounted for just under 20% of the phosphorylation, and Ser343 accounted for 10%. Thus, the primary protein kinase C sites are Ser334 and Ser338, with minor phosphorylation of Thr335/336 and Ser343. Ser334 and Ser338 have recently been identified as the primary sites of phosphorylation of rhodopsin in vivo (Ohguro, H., Van Hooser, J. P., Milam, A. H., and Palczewski, K. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14259-14262). Of these sites, only Ser338 is a significant substrate for rhodopsin kinase in vitro. Identification of Ser334 as a primary protein kinase C target in vitro is consistent with protein kinase C modulating the phosphorylation of this site in vivo.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08820

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;16;10341-4

  • Phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein at the same sites by cleavage furrow kinase and Rho-associated kinase.

    Kosako H, Amano M, Yanagida M, Tanabe K, Nishi Y, Kaibuchi K and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464, Japan.

    Site- and phosphorylation state-specific antibodies are useful to analyze spatiotemporal distribution of site-specific phosphorylation of target proteins in vivo. Using several polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that can specifically recognize four phosphorylated sites on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we have previously reported that Thr-7, Ser-13, and Ser-34 on this intermediate filament protein are phosphorylated at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. This observation suggests that there exists a protein kinase named cleavage furrow kinase specifically activated at metaphase-anaphase transition (Matsuoka, Y., Nishizawa, K., Yano, T., Shibata, M., Ando, S., Takahashi, T., and Inagaki, M. (1992) EMBO J. 11, 2895-2902; Sekimata, M., Tsujimura, K., Tanaka, J., Takeuchi, Y., Inagaki, N., and Inagaki, M. (1996) J. Cell Biol. 132, 635-641). Here we report that GFAP is phosphorylated specifically at Thr-7, Ser-13, and Ser-34 by Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which binds to the small GTPase Rho in its GTP-bound active form. The kinase activity of Rho-kinase toward GFAP is dramatically stimulated by guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)-triphosphate-bound RhoA. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GFAP by Rho-kinase results in a nearly complete inhibition of its filament formation in vitro. The possibility that Rho-kinase is a candidate for cleavage furrow kinase is discussed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;16;10333-6

  • D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A is activated by receptor activation through a calcium:calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation mechanism.

    Communi D, Vanweyenberg V and Erneux C

    Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Free University of Brussels, Belgium. dcommuni@ulb.ac.be

    D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] 3-kinase, the enzyme responsible for production of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, was activated 3- to 5-fold in homogenates of rat brain cortical slices after incubation with carbachol. The effect was reproduced in response to UTP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase A, the major isoform present in rat and human neuronal cells. In ortho-32P-labelled cells, the phosphorylated 53 kDa enzyme could be identified after receptor activation by immunoprecipitation. The time course of phosphorylation was very similar to that observed for carbachol (or UTP)-induced enzyme activation. Enzyme phosphorylation was prevented in the presence of okadaic acid. Calmodulin (CaM) kinase II inhibitors (i.e. KN-93 and KN-62) prevented phosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase. Identification of the phosphorylation site in transfected CHO cells indicated that the phosphorylated residue was Thr311. This residue of the human brain sequence lies in an active site peptide segment corresponding to a CaM kinase II-mediated phosphorylation consensus site, i.e. Arg-Ala-Val-Thr. The same residue in Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase A was also phosphorylated in vitro by CaM kinase II. Phosphorylation resulted in 8- to 10-fold enzyme activation and a 25-fold increase in sensitivity to the Ca2+:CaM complex. In this study, direct evidence is provided for a novel regulation mechanism for Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (isoform A) in vitro and in intact cells.

    The EMBO journal 1997;16;8;1943-52

  • Phosphorylation of Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor-like proteins.

    Suzuki T, Ando K, Isohara T, Oishi M, Lim GS, Satoh Y, Wasco W, Tanzi RE, Nairn AC, Greengard P, Gandy SE and Kirino Y

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan. t-suzuki@mayqueen.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLPs), APLP1 and APLP2, are members of a gene family which include the Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). APLP1, APLP2, and APP contain highly homologous amino acid sequences, especially in their cytoplasmic domains, although APLPs lack the beta-amyloid domain derived by proteolytic processing from APP. APP is phosphorylated at three sites in the cytoplasmic domain in cultured cells and adult rat brain [Suzuki et al. (1994) EMBO J. 13, 1114-1122; Oishi, et al. (1997) Mol. Med. 3, 109-121] and at sites in the extracellular domain in cultured cells [Knops et al. (1993) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 197, 380-385; Hung & Selkoe (1994) EMBO J. 13, 534-542; Walter et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1896-1903]. We report here that a cytoplasmic domain peptide from APLP1 is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C and that a cytoplasmic domain peptide from APLP2 is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C and cdc2 kinase. APLP2 is phosphorylated by cdc2 kinase at a site homologous to the cdc2 kinase site phosphorylated in APP. Furthermore, phosphorylation of this site occurs in a cell cycle-dependent manner in cultured cells. These findings indicate that in intact cells the phosphorylation of APLP2 appears to be regulated in a similar fashion to that of APP.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG09464, AG10491, AG11508

    Biochemistry 1997;36;15;