G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001407
Gene symbol
MINK1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
misshapen-like kinase 1
Orthologue
G00000158 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000141503 (Ensembl human gene)
50488 (Entrez Gene)
510 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MINK1 (GeneCards)
Literature
609426 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17565 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8N4C8 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • B55
  • MAP4K6
  • MINK
  • YSK2
  • ZC3

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • MINK is a Rap2 effector for phosphorylation of the postsynaptic scaffold protein TANC1.

    Nonaka H, Takei K, Umikawa M, Oshiro M, Kuninaka K, Bayarjargal M, Asato T, Yamashiro Y, Uechi Y, Endo S, Suzuki T and Kariya KI

    Division of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan.

    Rap1 and Rap2 are similar Ras-like G proteins but perform distinct functions. By the affinity chromatography/mass-spectrometry approach and the yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) as a novel Rap2-interacting protein that does not interact with Rap1 or Ras. MINK is a member of the STE20 group of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinases. The interaction between MINK and Rap2 was GTP-dependent and required Phe39 within the effector region of Rap2; the corresponding residue in Rap1 and Ras is Ser. MINK was enriched in the brain, and both MINK and its close relative, Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK), interacted with a postsynaptic scaffold protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats, ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region (TANC1) and induced its phosphorylation, under control of Rap2 in cultured cells. These are novel actions of MINK and TNIK, and consistent with a role of MINK as a Rap2 effector in the brain.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;377;2;573-578

  • Molecular genetic analysis of long QT syndrome in Norway indicating a high prevalence of heterozygous mutation carriers.

    Berge KE, Haugaa KH, Früh A, Anfinsen OG, Gjesdal K, Siem G, Oyen N, Greve G, Carlsson A, Rognum TO, Hallerud M, Kongsgård E, Amlie JP and Leren TP

    Medical Genetics Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Oslo, Norway.

    Mutations in the KCNQ1, HERG, SCN5A, minK and MiRP1 genes cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), of which there are two forms: the Romano Ward syndrome and the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. We have performed DNA sequencing of the LQTS-associated genes in 169 unrelated patients referred for genetic testing with respect to Romano Ward syndrome and in 13 unrelated patients referred for genetic testing with respect to Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. A total of 37 different mutations in the 5 genes, of which 20 were novel, were identified. Among patients with the most stringent clinical criteria of Romano Ward syndrome, a mutation was identified in 71%. Twelve of the 13 unrelated patients referred for genetic testing with respect to Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome were provided with a molecular genetic diagnosis. Cascade genetic screening of 505 relatives of index patients with molecularly defined LQTS identified 251 mutation carriers. The observed penetrance was 41%. Although caution must be exerted, the prevalence of heterozygotes for mutations in the LQTS-associated genes in Norway could be in the range 1/100-1/300, based on the prevalence of patients with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome.

    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 2008;68;5;362-8

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • MinK gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of lone atrial fibrillation.

    Prystupa A, Dzida G, Myśliński W, Małaj G and Lorenc T

    Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnetrznych Akademii Medycznej im. prof. Feliksa Skubiszewskiego, Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny Nr 1, ul. Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin. aprystupa@poczta.clinika.pl

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of complex arrhythmia found in everyday clinical practice. Lone AF is a particular form occurring in 2% to 31% of patients with confirmed AF. Genetic factors may underline this arrhythmia.

    Aim: To determine the relationship between G38S polymorphism in the MinK gene and the incidence of lone AF, and to evaluate this polymorphism as a genetic marker of susceptibility to AF.

    Methods: The study involved 69 patients with lone AF and 60 control healthy subjects. Both groups included patients aged up to 65 years without cardiovascular or thyroid disease. MinK genotype was determined with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism). The MinK gene was present in two allelic forms: G and S.

    Results: The MinK G allele was found significantly more often in patients with AF (62.32%) compared to control subjects (41.80%) (p=0.009). In the AF group GS occurred more frequently (55.07%) than GG (34.78%) and SS genotypes (10.14%). In a logistic regression model the presence of G variant was associated with increase of AF risk in the study population (OR 2.39; 95% CI 0.88-6.54; p=0.084). Presence of GG genotype was associated with significant, over 10-fold, increase of AF risk. Presence of S allele of the MinK gene met criteria of protective factor against AF in the study population.

    Conclusions: 1. G38S polymorphism in the MinK gene seems to be associated with incidence of lone AF in the study population. 2. GG genotype carrier state may significantly relate to increased risk of AF in the study group. 3. G38S polymorphism in the MinK gene could be used as a genetic marker of risk of lone AF.

    Kardiologia polska 2006;64;11;1205-11; discussion 1212-3

  • Analysis of minK and eNOS genes as candidate loci for predisposition to non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Fatini C, Sticchi E, Genuardi M, Sofi F, Gensini F, Gori AM, Lenti M, Michelucci A, Abbate R and Gensini GF

    Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care; Thrombosis Centre, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134, Italy. cinziafatini@hotmail.com

    Aim: Mink protein, a beta-subunit of I(ks) potassium channels modulate cardiac cellular electrophysiology, and experimental data demonstrated that NO is involved in cardiac vagal activity and in the inhibition of sympathetic activity. We evaluated the role of eNOS -786T>C, 894G>T, 4a/4b and of minK S38G polymorphisms as predisposing factors to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

    We studied 331 consecutive patients with documented NVAF and in 441 control subjects, comparable for age and gender. A significant difference in allele frequencies between patients and controls for minK S38G and eNOS -786T>C, but not for eNOS 894G>T and 4a/4b polymorphisms, was observed. The minK 38G allele was significantly associated with susceptibility to NVAF at both univariate and multivariable analysis, according to dominant and recessive genetic model (multivariable analysis, dominant: OR=1.73, P=0.004 and recessive: OR=1.59, P=0.006). The eNOS -786C allele weakly influenced NVAF at univariate analysis, according to the dominant model (OR=1.50, P=0.01). The contemporary presence of minK 38G and eNOS -786C alleles increased the predisposition to NVAF, after adjustment with cardiovascular risk factors (OR minK 38G*eNOS -786C=2.11, P<0.0001; OR=2.58, P=0.003; OR=3.08, P=0.002, according to dominant, recessive, and additive model, respectively).

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest a role for minK and eNOS genes as predisposing factors to NVAF.

    European heart journal 2006;27;14;1712-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Identification and functional characterization of a novel human misshapen/Nck interacting kinase-related kinase, hMINK beta.

    Hu Y, Leo C, Yu S, Huang BC, Wang H, Shen M, Luo Y, Daniel-Issakani S, Payan DG and Xu X

    Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

    Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) is a member of the germinal center family of kinases that are homologous to the yeast sterile 20 (Ste20) kinases and regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell morphology, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and survival. Here, we present the cloning and functional characterization of a novel human Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase beta (hMINK beta) that encodes a polypeptide of 1312 amino acids. hMINK beta is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues with at least five alternatively spliced isoforms. Similar to Nck interacting kinase (NIK) and Traf2 and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK), hMINK beta moderately activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and associates with Nck via the intermediate domain in the yeast two-hybrid system and in a glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. Interestingly, overexpression of the kinase domain deleted and kinase-inactive mutants of hMINK beta in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells enhanced cell spreading, actin stress fiber formation, and adhesion to extracellular matrix, as well as decreased cell motility and cell invasion. Furthermore, these mutants also promoted cell-cell adhesion in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells, evidenced with cell growth in clusters and increased membrane localization of beta-catenin, a multifunctional protein involved in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. Finally, hMINK beta protein was found to colocalize with the Golgi apparatus, implicating that hMINK beta might exert its functions, at least in part, through the modulation of intracellular protein transport. Taken together, these results suggest that hMINK beta plays an important role in cytoskeleton reorganization, cell adhesion, and cell motility.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;52;54387-97

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Computational and experimental studies on human misshapen/NIK-related kinase MINK-1.

    Qu K, Lu Y, Lin N, Singh R, Xu X, Payan DG and Xu D

    Rigel, Inc., 1180 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. kqu@rigel.com

    We have studied the structure and function of Human Misshapen/NIK-related kinase (MINK-1) through a combination of computational methods and experimental approaches, including (1) fold recognition and sequence-structure alignment for each structural domain using the threading program PROSPECT, (2) gene expression and protein-protein interaction analysis of yeast homologs of human MINK-1 domains, and (3) yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with human MINK-1. Our structure prediction dissects MINK-1 into four domains: a conserved N-terminal kinase domain, followed by a coiled-coil region and a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal GCK domain. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid analysis of yeast homologs of the MINK-1 domains suggest that MINK-1 may be involved in cell-cycle progression and cytoskeletal control. Consistent with these predicted functions, our in-house yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with human MINK-1 provides strong evidence that the coiled-coil and proline-rich domains of MINK-1 participate in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A homology model of the MINK-1 kinase domain was used to screen the NCI open compound database in DOCK, and chemical compounds with pharmaceutically acceptable properties were identified. Further medicinal chemistry compound structure optimization and kinase assays are underway.

    Current medicinal chemistry 2004;11;5;569-82

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Mutational study of the nuclear factor kappa B inducing kinase gene in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Campdelacreu J, Ezquerra M, Muñoz E, Oliva R and Tolosa E

    Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Institut Clínic de Malalties del Sistema Nerviós, Hospital Clínic Universitari, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

    The nuclear factor kappa B inducing kinase gene (NIK) is located near the region of the haplotype associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in chromosome 17q. We have analysed the coding region of the NIK gene in PSP patients through single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing, in order to investigate the possible existence of pathogenic mutations. A change in exon 15 consisting of a G/C variation in position 2839 was found. This change was then analysed through restriction endonuclease HphI in 40 PSP samples and 35 control samples, but no differences in allelic frequency were found between the PSP and control groups. Our results do not support a pathogenic role of the NIK gene in PSP.

    Neuroscience letters 2003;340;2;158-60

  • Overlapping of MINK and CHRNE gene loci in the course of mammalian evolution.

    Dan I, Watanabe NM, Kajikawa E, Ishida T, Pandey A and Kusumi A

    Division of Food Engineering, National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan. dan@nfri.affrc.go.jp

    Overlapping of genes, especially in an anti-parallel fashion, is quite rare in eukaryotic genomes. We have found a rare instance of exon overlapping involving CHRNE and MINK gene loci on chromosome 17 in humans. CHRNE codes for the epsilon subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChRepsilon) whereas MINK encodes a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the GCK family. To elucidate the evolutionary trail of this gene overlapping event, we examined the genomes of a number of primates and found that mutations in the polyadenylation signal of the CHRNE gene in early hominoids led to the overlap. Upon extending this analysis to genomes of other orders of placental mammals, we observed that the overlapping occurred at least three times independently during the course of mammalian evolution. Because CHRNE and MINK are differentially expressed, the potentially hazardous mutations responsible for the exon overlap seem to have escaped evolutionary pressures by differential temporo-spatial expression of the two genes.

    Nucleic acids research 2002;30;13;2906-10

  • Expressed sequence tag analysis of human RPE/choroid for the NEIBank Project: over 6000 non-redundant transcripts, novel genes and splice variants.

    Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, Fariss RN, Behal A, Touchman JW, Bouffard G, Smith D and Peterson K

    Section on Molecular Structure and Function, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2740, USA. graeme@helix.nih.gov

    Purpose: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid comprise a functional unit of the eye that is essential to normal retinal health and function. Here we describe expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of human RPE/choroid as part of a project for ocular bioinformatics.

    Methods: A cDNA library (cs) was made from human RPE/choroid and sequenced. Data were analyzed and assembled using the program GRIST (GRouping and Identification of Sequence Tags). Complete sequencing, Northern and Western blots, RH mapping, peptide antibody synthesis and immunofluorescence (IF) have been used to examine expression patterns and genome location for selected transcripts and proteins.

    Results: Ten thousand individual sequence reads yield over 6300 unique gene clusters of which almost half have no matches with named genes. One of the most abundant transcripts is from a gene (named "alpha") that maps to the BBS1 region of chromosome 11. A number of tissue preferred transcripts are common to both RPE/choroid and iris. These include oculoglycan/opticin, for which an alternative splice form is detected in RPE/choroid, and "oculospanin" (Ocsp), a novel tetraspanin that maps to chromosome 17q. Antiserum to Ocsp detects expression in RPE, iris, ciliary body, and retinal ganglion cells by IF. A newly identified gene for a zinc-finger protein (TIRC) maps to 19q13.4. Variant transcripts of several genes were also detected. Most notably, the predominant form of Bestrophin represented in cs contains a longer open reading frame as a result of splice junction skipping.

    Conclusions: The unamplified cs library gives a view of the transcriptional repertoire of the adult RPE/choroid. A large number of potentially novel genes and splice forms and candidates for genetic diseases are revealed. Clones from this collection are being included in a large, nonredundant set for cDNA microarray construction.

    Molecular vision 2002;8;205-20

  • Molecular cloning of MINK, a novel member of mammalian GCK family kinases, which is up-regulated during postnatal mouse cerebral development.

    Dan I, Watanabe NM, Kobayashi T, Yamashita-Suzuki K, Fukagaya Y, Kajikawa E, Kimura WK, Nakashima TM, Matsumoto K, Ninomiya-Tsuji J and Kusumi A

    Kusumi Membrane Organizer Project, ERATO, JST, 5-11-33 Chiyoda, Nagoya, Japan.

    A new germinal center kinase (GCK) family kinase, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK), has been cloned and its expression has been characterized in several tissues and various developmental stages of the mouse brain. MINK encodes a 1300 amino acid polypeptide, consisting of an N-terminal kinase domain, a proline-rich intermediate region, and a C-terminal GCK homology region. The expression of MINK is up-regulated during the postnatal development of the mouse brain. MINK activates the cJun N-terminal kinase and the p38 pathways.

    FEBS letters 2000;469;1;19-23

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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