G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma polypeptide
G00000150 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000022862 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000170027 (Ensembl human gene)
7532 (Entrez Gene)
106 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
YWHAG (GeneCards)
605356 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12852 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P61981 (UniProt)

Literature (70)

Pubmed - other

  • Three-way interaction between 14-3-3 proteins, the N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase, and negatively charged membranes.

    Halskau Ø, Ying M, Baumann A, Kleppe R, Rodriguez-Larrea D, Almås B, Haavik J and Martinez A

    Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies Vei 91, N-5009 Bergen, Norway.

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, is activated by phosphorylation-dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins. The N-terminal domain of TH is also involved in interaction with lipid membranes. We investigated the binding of the N-terminal domain to its different partners, both in the unphosphorylated (TH-(1-43)) and Ser(19)-phosphorylated (THp-(1-43)) states by surface plasmon resonance. THp-(1-43) showed high affinity for 14-3-3 proteins (K(d) approximately 0.5 microM for 14-3-3gamma and -zeta and 7 microM for 14-3-3eta). The domains also bind to negatively charged membranes with intermediate affinity (concentration at half-maximal binding S(0.5) = 25-58 microM (TH-(1-43)) and S(0.5) = 135-475 microM (THp-(1-43)), depending on phospholipid composition) and concomitant formation of helical structure. 14-3-3gamma showed a preferential binding to membranes, compared with 14-3-3zeta, both in chromaffin granules and with liposomes at neutral pH. The affinity of 14-3-3gamma for negatively charged membranes (S(0.5) = 1-9 microM) is much higher than the affinity of TH for the same membranes, compatible with the formation of a ternary complex between Ser(19)-phosphorylated TH, 14-3-3gamma, and membranes. Our results shed light on interaction mechanisms that might be relevant for the modulation of the distribution of TH in the cytoplasm and membrane fractions and regulation of L-DOPA and dopamine synthesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;47;32758-69

  • Identification of five novel 14-3-3 isoforms interacting with the GPIb-IX complex in platelets.

    Mangin PH, Receveur N, Wurtz V, David T, Gachet C and Lanza F

    INSERM UMR_S 949, EFS-Alsace, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. pierre.mangin@efs-alsace.fr

    Background: Binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex initiates a signaling cascade leading to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a key process in hemostasis and thrombosis. Interaction of 14-3-3zeta with the intracytoplasmic domain of GPIb appears to be a major effector of this activation pathway.

    Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether other members of the 14-3-3 family bind to GPIb-IX.

    Results: In this study, western blot analyses showed that platelets also contain the 14-3-3beta, 14-3-3gamma, 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3theta isoforms, but lack 14-3-3sigma. Coimmunoprecipitation studies in platelets and CHO transfectants demonstrated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in platelets, including, as previously reported, 14-3-3zeta, bind to GPIb-IX. In addition, their interaction was found to critically require the same GPIbalpha domains (580-590 and 605-610) already identified as essential for 14-3-3zeta binding, in agreement with the conservation of the sequence of the I-helix among these different isoforms. Pull-down experiments indicated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms present in platelets bind to GPIbbeta. In contrast, deletion or mutation of the GPIbbeta intracytoplasmic tail did not affect the interaction of GPIb-IX with the 14-3-3 isoforms, questioning the importance of this domain.

    Conclusions: Our study suggests that, to inhibit GPIb-induced integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a more appropriate strategy than inhibiting individual 14-3-3 isoforms would be to target the 14-3-3-binding motif on GPIb or, alternatively, the conserved 14-3-3 I-helix.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2009;7;9;1550-5

  • Isoform-specific cleavage of 14-3-3 proteins in apoptotic JURL-MK1 cells.

    Kuzelová K, Grebenová D, Pluskalová M, Kavan D, Halada P and Hrkal Z

    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Prague 2, Czech Republic. kuzel@uhkt.cz

    The proteins of 14-3-3 family are substantially involved in the regulation of many biological processes including the apoptosis. We studied the changes in the expression of five 14-3-3 isoforms (beta, gamma, epsilon, tau, and zeta) during the apoptosis of JURL-MK1 and K562 cells. The expression level of all these proteins markedly decreased in relation with the apoptosis progression and all isoforms underwent truncation, which probably corresponds to the removal of several C-terminal amino acids. The observed 14-3-3 modifications were partially blocked by caspase-3 inhibition. In addition to caspases, a non-caspase protease is likely to contribute to 14-3-3's cleavage in an isoform-specific manner. While 14-3-3 gamma seems to be cleaved mainly by caspase-3, the alternative mechanism is essentially involved in the case of 14-3-3 tau, and a combined effect was observed for the isoforms epsilon, beta, and zeta. We suggest that the processing of 14-3-3 proteins could form an integral part of the programmed cell death or at least of some apoptotic pathways.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;106;4;673-81

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Reduced expression of 14-3-3 gamma in uterine leiomyoma as identified by proteomics.

    Lv J, Zhu X, Dong K, Lin Y, Hu Y and Zhu C

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China.

    Objective: To use proteomic techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), Western blot, and mass spectrometry, to screen and identify proteins that were expressed differently in patients with uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium.

    Design: First, identify proteins important for leiomyogenesis by comparing protein expression in leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Second, examine the expression level of selected proteins on a larger panel of leiomyomas.

    Setting: Academic research laboratory.

    Consenting premenopausal patients scheduled to undergo hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine leiomyomas.

    Paired samples of leiomyoma and adjacent myometrium were obtained and submitted to 2DE, mass spectrometry, Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry.

    Protein expression.

    A comparison of protein patterns revealed 37 protein spots significantly changed, with 10 protein spots with concordantly increased and 27 protein spots with concordantly decreased intensity in leiomyoma compared with normal myometrium. Ten of these proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, one of the proteins, which exhibited a marked down-regulation in leiomyoma tissues, was the recently identified highly conserved cellular protein 14-3-3-gamma. The reduction of the 14-3-3 gamma in leiomyoma tissues was confirmed by comparative immunoblotting (n = 25) and RT-PCR (n = 25) as well as by immunohistochemistry (n = 35) of individual-matched neoplastic and normal myometrium tissue specimens.

    The consistency of 14-3-3 gamma reduction in uterine leiomyoma suggests that 14-3-3 protein may play a role in the origin or growth of leiomyoma.

    Fertility and sterility 2008;90;5;1892-8

  • 14-3-3 Gamma is required to enforce both the incomplete S phase and G2 DNA damage checkpoints.

    Hosing AS, Kundu ST and Dalal SN

    KS215, ACTREC, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Checkpoint pathways inhibit mitotic progression by inducing the phosphorylation of serine 216 in cdc25C resulting in the generation of a 14-3-3 binding site on cdc25C. Two 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3gamma form a complex with cdc25C and inhibit cdc25C function. To examine the contribution of 14-3-3gamma to checkpoint regulation, the expression of 14-3-3gamma was inhibited in HCT116 cells using vector based RNA interference. A transient reduction in the expression of 14-3-3gamma in HCT116 cells resulted in an override of both the incomplete S phase and the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint. A 14-3-3gamma knockdown clone also showed an override of both checkpoint pathways. These phenotypes were reversed upon expression of a shRNA resistant 14-3-3gamma cDNA. Override of the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint pathway was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of inhibitory phosphorylation on cdc25C and cdk1. However, there was no difference in the gamma-H2AX foci formation and levels of phospho-chk1 and phospho-chk2, suggesting that activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and subsequent activation of the checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 was not perturbed. These results suggest that the override of checkpoint observed in 14-3-3gamma knockdown cells is due to failure to inhibit cdc25C function.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2008;7;20;3171-9

  • Phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 terminates signalling by the Gab2 docking protein.

    Brummer T, Larance M, Herrera Abreu MT, Lyons RJ, Timpson P, Emmerich CH, Fleuren ED, Lehrbach GM, Schramek D, Guilhaus M, James DE and Daly RJ

    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    Grb2-associated binder (Gab)2 functions downstream of a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases as a docking platform for specific signal transducers and performs important functions in both normal physiology and oncogenesis. Gab2 signalling is promoted by its association with specific receptors through the adaptor Grb2. However, the molecular mechanisms that attenuate Gab2 signals have remained unclear. We now demonstrate that growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Gab2 on two residues, S210 and T391, leads to recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins. Together, these events mediate negative-feedback regulation, as Gab2(S210A/T391A) exhibits sustained receptor association and signalling and promotes cell proliferation and transformation. Importantly, introduction of constitutive 14-3-3-binding sites into Gab2 renders it refractory to receptor activation, demonstrating that site-selective binding of 14-3-3 proteins is sufficient to terminate Gab2 signalling. Furthermore, this is associated with reduced binding of Grb2. This leads to a model where signal attenuation occurs because 14-3-3 promotes dissociation of Gab2 from Grb2, and thereby uncouples Gab2 from the receptor complex. This represents a novel regulatory mechanism with implications for diverse tyrosine kinase signalling systems.

    The EMBO journal 2008;27;17;2305-16

  • The functional interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with the ERK1/2 scaffold KSR1 occurs in an isoform-specific manner.

    Jagemann LR, Pérez-Rivas LG, Ruiz EJ, Ranea JA, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Nebreda AR, Alba E and Lozano J

    Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

    Identifying 14-3-3 isoform-specific substrates and functions may be of broad relevance to cell signaling research because of the key role played by this family of proteins in many vital processes. A multitude of ligands have been identified, but the extent to which they are isoform-specific is a matter of debate. Herein we demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, a specific, functionally relevant interaction of human 14-3-3gamma with the molecular scaffold KSR1, which is mediated by the C-terminal stretch of 14-3-3gamma. Specific binding to 14-3-3gamma protected KSR1 from epidermal growth factor-induced dephosphorylation and impaired its ability to activate ERK2 and facilitate Ras signaling in Xenopus oocytes. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated inhibition of 14-3-3gamma resulted in the accumulation of KSR1 in the plasma membrane, all in accordance with 14-3-3gamma being the cytosolic anchor that keeps KSR1 inactive. We also provide evidence that KSR1-bound 14-3-3gamma heterodimerized preferentially with selected isoforms and that KSR1 bound monomeric 14-3-3gamma. In sum, we have demonstrated ligand discrimination among 14-3-3 isoforms and shed light on molecular mechanisms of 14-3-3 functional specificity and KSR1 regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;25;17450-62

  • RhoA, encoding a Rho GTPase, is associated with smoking initiation.

    Chen X, Che Y, Zhang L, Putman AH, Damaj I, Martin BR, Kendler KS and Miles MF

    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Richmond, VA, USA. xchen@vcu.edu

    We used microarray analysis of acute nicotine responses in mouse brain to choose rationale candidates for human association studies on tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Microarray studies on the time-course of acute response to nicotine in mouse brain identified 95 genes regulated in ventral tegmental area. Among these, 30 genes were part of a gene network, with functions relevant to neural plasticity. On this basis and their known roles in drug abuse or synaptic plasticity, we chose the genes RhoA and Ywhag as candidates for human association studies. A synteny search identified human orthologs and we investigated their role in tobacco smoking and ND in a human case-control association study. We genotyped five and three single nucleotide polymorphisms from the RhoA and Ywhag genes, respectively. Both single marker and haplotype analyses were negative for the Ywhag gene. For the RhoA gene, rs2878298 showed highly significant genotypic association with both smoking initiation (SI) and ND (P = 0.00005 for SI and P = 0.0007 for ND). In the allelic analyses, rs2878298 was only significant for SI. In the multimarker haplotype analyses, significant association with SI was found for the RhoA gene (empirical global P values ranged from 9 x 10(-5) to 10(-5)). In all multimarker combinations analyzed, with or without inclusion of the single most significant marker rs2878298, identical risk and protective haplotypes were identified. Our results indicated that the RhoA gene is likely involved in initiation of tobacco smoking and ND. Replication and future model system studies will be needed to validate the role of RhoA gene in SI and ND.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA013678, R01 AA014717

    Genes, brain, and behavior 2007;6;8;689-97

  • 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of UBPY and its cancellation in the M phase.

    Mizuno E, Kitamura N and Komada M

    Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-16 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Japan.

    The deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY, also known as USP8, regulates cargo sorting and membrane traffic at early endosomes. Here we demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of the UBPY catalytic activity. We identified 14-3-3 epsilon, gamma, and zeta as UBPY-binding proteins using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The 14-3-3 binding of UBPY was inhibited by mutating the consensus 14-3-3-binding motif RSYS(680)SP, by phosphatase treatment, and by competition with the Ser(680)-phosphorylated RSYS(680)SP peptide. Metabolic labeling with [(32)P]orthophosphate and immunoblotting using antibody against the phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motif showed that Ser(680) is a major phosphorylation site in UBPY. These results indicated that 14-3-3s bind to the region surrounding Ser(680) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The mutation at Ser(680) led to enhanced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of UBPY toward poly-ubiquitin chains and a cellular substrate, epidermal growth factor receptor, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, addition of 14-3-3epsilon inhibited the UBPY activity in vitro. Finally, UBPY was dephosphorylated at Ser(680) and dissociated from 14-3-3s in the M phase, resulting in enhanced activity of UBPY during cell division. We conclude that UBPY is catalytically inhibited in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by 14-3-3s during the interphase, and this regulation is cancelled in the M phase.

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;16;3624-34

  • Overexpression of 14-3-3gamma causes polyploidization in H322 lung cancer cells.

    Qi W, Liu X, Chen W, Li Q and Martinez JD

    Arizona Cancer Center, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, 1515 N. Campbell Ave., University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA.

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that participate in a wide variety of cellular processes. Mounting evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins have a role in human cancers, however their role in tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we report that over-expression of 14-3-3 gamma protein in human lung cancer cell line H322 results in abnormal DNA replication and polyploidization. Cells that overexpress 14-3-3 gamma are resistant to microtubule inhibitors and can reenter the cell cycle in the absence of mitosis suggesting that elevated levels of 14-3-3 gamma may enable cells to bypass the mitotic checkpoint. Taken together, our data indicate that 14-3-3gamma may contribute to tumorigenesis by promoting genomic instability.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107510

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2007;46;10;847-56

  • Detection of high levels of 2 specific isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins in synovial fluid from patients with joint inflammation.

    Kilani RT, Maksymowych WP, Aitken A, Boire G, St-Pierre Y, Li Y and Ghahary A

    Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    Objective: To investigate whether 14-3-3 proteins were detectable in synovial fluid (SF) of patients with inflamed joints, and if so, what isoform(s); and to examine whether there was a correlation between the levels of these proteins and those of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the same samples.

    Methods: In general, 2 sets of synovial and serum samples were analyzed. The first set of 17 SF -samples from patients with inflamed joints were analyzed for 14-3-3 eta isoform by Western blot. The second set of 12 matching serum and SF samples were analyzed for 14-3-3 eta, gamma, MMP-1, and MMP-3 by the same procedure. The MMP-1 stimulatory effect of various concentrations of 14-3-3 eta in cultured fibroblasts was then evaluated.

    Results: We found that of the seven 14-3-3 isoforms tested (beta, gamma, epsilon, eta, sigma, Theta, and zeta), the levels of only 2 isoforms, eta and gamma, were easily detectable in SF samples from patients with inflammatory joint diseases. The levels of these proteins were significantly higher in inflammatory SF and serum samples relative to controls. The values of these proteins correlated strongly with the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3, 2 biomarkers for rheumatoid arthritis, detected in sera. Further, the level of 14-3-3 eta was significantly higher in a pool of 12 serum samples from patients with inflammatory joint disease than those from healthy individuals.

    Conclusion: Detection of only 2 (14-3-3 eta and gamma) out of 7 different isoforms in SF suggests they are specific to the site of inflammation, and that distinguishes them from barely detectable levels of these isoforms found in normal serum. The MMP-1 stimulatory effect of the eta isoform explains its correlation with MMP-1 levels seen in these samples.

    The Journal of rheumatology 2007;34;8;1650-7

  • Small heat shock protein Hsp20 (HspB6) as a partner of 14-3-3gamma.

    Chernik IS, Seit-Nebi AS, Marston SB and Gusev NB

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

    Interaction of human 14-3-3gamma with the small heat shock protein Hsp20 was analyzed by means of size-exclusion chromatography and chemical crosslinking. Unphosphorylated Hsp20 and its mutant S16D mimicking phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase did not interact with 14-3-3. Phosphorylated Hsp20 formed a tight complex with 14-3-3 in which dimer of 14-3-3 was bound to dimer of Hsp20. 14-3-3 did not affect the chaperone activity of unphosphorylated Hsp20 but increased the chaperone activity of phosphorylated Hsp20 if insulin was used as a model substrate. Estimation of the effect of 14-3-3 on the chaperone activity of Hsp20 with other model substrates was complicated by the fact that under in vitro conditions isolated 14-3-3 possessed its own high chaperone activity. Taken into account high content of Hsp20 in different muscles it is supposed that upon phosphorylation Hsp20 might effectively compete with multiple protein targets of 14-3-3 and by this means indirectly affect many intracellular processes.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2007;295;1-2;9-17

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • CPAP interacts with 14-3-3 in a cell cycle-dependent manner.

    Chen CY, Olayioye MA, Lindeman GJ and Tang TK

    Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC.

    We have previously reported that CPAP (Centrosomal Protein 4.1-Associated Protein) carries a novel microtubule-destabilizing motif that may regulate microtubule dynamics at the centrosome. In this study, we searched for conserved sequence motifs in CPAP and identified two classical 14-3-3 binding sites. The interaction between CPAP and 14-3-3 was demonstrated by both yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Further analyses revealed that the 14-3-3 binding motif is located within the C-terminal domain of CPAP. Alkaline phosphatase treatment disrupted CPAP binding to 14-3-3, suggesting that phosphorylation is required for the interaction. Mutation of serine 1109 to alanine (S1109A) in the 14-3-3 binding motif completely abolished the association of CPAP with 14-3-3. Taking together, these results imply that phosphorylation of CPAP on serine 1109 is required for 14-3-3 binding. Furthermore, we observed that the interaction between CPAP and 14-3-3 was significantly reduced in mitotic cells, suggesting that 14-3-3 binding to CPAP is regulated during cell cycle progression. In summary, our results show a direct interaction between CPAP and 14-3-3, and this interaction appears to be phosphorylation and cell cycle dependent.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;342;4;1203-10

  • The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation.

    Petretti C, Savoian M, Montembault E, Glover DM, Prigent C and Giet R

    CNRS UMR 6061 Université de Rennes I, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, IFR140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, France.

    The CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11) gene has an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), allowing the expression of two protein kinases. The longer 110-kDa isoform is expressed at constant levels during the cell cycle and the shorter 58-kDa isoform is expressed only during G2 and M phases. By means of RNA interference (RNAi), we show that the CDK11 gene is required for mitotic spindle formation. CDK11 RNAi leads to mitotic checkpoint activation. Mitotic cells are arrested with short or monopolar spindles. gamma-Tubulin as well as Plk1 and Aurora A protein kinase levels are greatly reduced at centrosomes, resulting in microtubule nucleation defects. We show that the mitotic CDK11(p58) isoform, but not the CDK11(p110) isoform, associates with mitotic centrosomes and rescues the phenotypes resulting from CDK11 RNAi. This work demonstrates for the first time the role of CDK11(p58) in centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle morphogenesis.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;4;418-24

  • Subcellular targeting of p33ING1b by phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 binding regulates p21WAF1 expression.

    Gong W, Russell M, Suzuki K and Riabowol K

    Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Calgary, #370 Heritage Medical Research Building, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.

    ING1 is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell growth, stress signaling, apoptosis, and DNA repair by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Decreased ING1 expression is seen in several human cancers, and mislocalization has been noted in diverse types of cancer cells. Aberrant targeting may, therefore, functionally inactivate ING1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a sequence between the nuclear localization sequence and plant homeodomain domains of ING1 that closely matched the binding motif of 14-3-3 proteins that target cargo proteins to specific subcellular locales. We find that the widely expressed p33(ING1b) splicing isoform of ING1 interacts with members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins and that this interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation status of ING1. 14-3-3 binding resulted in significant amounts of p33(ING1b) protein being tethered in the cytoplasm. As shown previously, ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) increased levels of the p21(Waf1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor upon UV-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of 14-3-3 inhibited the up-regulation of p21(Waf1) by p33(ING1b), consistent with the idea that mislocalization blocks at least one of ING1's biological activities. These data support the idea that the 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the activity of p33(ING1b) by directing its subcellular localization.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;8;2947-54

  • 14-3-3gamma binds to MDMX that is phosphorylated by UV-activated Chk1, resulting in p53 activation.

    Jin Y, Dai MS, Lu SZ, Xu Y, Luo Z, Zhao Y and Lu H

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

    It has been shown that MDMX inhibits the activity of the tumor suppressor p53 by primarily cooperating with the p53 feedback regulator MDM2. Here, our study shows that this inhibition can be overcome by 14-3-3gamma and Chk1. 14-3-3gamma was identified as an MDMX-associated protein via an immuno-affinity purification-coupled mass spectrometry. Consistently, 14-3-3gamma directly interacted with MDMX in vitro, and this interaction was stimulated by MDMX phosphorylation in vitro and in cells. Interestingly, in response to UV irradiation, the wild-type, but not the kinase-dead mutant, Chk1 phosphorylated MDMX at serine 367, enhanced the 14-3-3gamma-MDMX binding and the cytoplasmic retaining of MDMX. The Chk1 specific inhibitor UCN-01 repressed all of these effects. Moreover, overexpression of 14-3-3gamma, but not its mutant K50E, which did not bind to MDMX, suppressed MDMX-enhanced p53 ubiquitination, leading to p53 stabilization and activation. Finally, ablation of 14-3-3gamma by siRNA reduced UV-induced p53 level and G1 arrest. Thus, these results demonstrate 14-3-3gamma and Chk1 as two novel regulators of MDMX in response to UV irradiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA079721, CA095441, CA93614, R01 CA079721, R01 CA093614, R01 CA095441

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;6;1207-18

  • Regulation of MDMX nuclear import and degradation by Chk2 and 14-3-3.

    LeBron C, Chen L, Gilkes DM and Chen J

    Molecular Oncology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

    The MDM2 homolog MDMX is an important regulator of p53 during mouse embryonic development. DNA damage promotes MDMX phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and degradation by MDM2. Here we show that MDMX copurifies with 14-3-3, and DNA damage stimulates MDMX binding to 14-3-3. Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of MDMX on S367 is important for stimulating 14-3-3 binding, MDMX nuclear import by a cryptic nuclear import signal, and degradation by MDM2. Mutation of MDMX S367 inhibits ubiquitination and degradation by MDM2, and prevents MDMX nuclear import. Expression of 14-3-3 stimulates the degradation of phosphorylated MDMX. Chk2 and 14-3-3 cooperatively stimulate MDMX ubiquitination and overcome the inhibition of p53 by MDMX. These results suggest that MDMX-14-3-3 interaction plays a role in p53 response to DNA damage by regulating MDMX localization and stability.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;6;1196-206

  • Role of 14-3-3gamma in FE65-dependent gene transactivation mediated by the amyloid beta-protein precursor cytoplasmic fragment.

    Sumioka A, Nagaishi S, Yoshida T, Lin A, Miura M and Suzuki T

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12-Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

    The amyloid beta-protein precursor intracellular domain fragment (AICD) is generated from amyloid beta-protein precursor by consecutive cleavages. AICD is thought to activate FE65-dependent gene expression, but the molecular mechanism remains under consideration. We found that dimeric 14-3-3gamma bound both AICD and FE65 simultaneously, and this binding facilitated FE65-dependent gene transactivation by enhancing the association of AICD with FE65. 14-3-3gamma bound to the 667VTPEER672 motif of AICD and, most interestingly, the phosphorylation of AICD at Thr-668 in this motif inhibited the interaction with 14-3-3gamma and blocked gene transactivation. 14-3-3gamma required a sequence between the WW domain and the first phosphotyrosine interaction domain of FE65 for association with FE65. Deletion of this region blocked 14-3-3gamma binding to FE65 and suppressed AICD-mediated FE65-dependent gene transactivation, although the deletion mutant FE65 was still able to bind Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase that forms a complex with FE65 in the nucleus. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 14-3-3gamma facilitates FE65-dependent gene transactivation by forming a complex containing AICD and FE65, and phosphorylation of AICD down-regulates FE65-dependent gene transactivation through the dissociation of 14-3-3gamma and/or FE65 from AICD. Our findings suggest that multiple interactions of AICD with FE65 and 14-3-3gamma modulate FE65-dependent gene transactivation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;51;42364-74

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • BCR kinase phosphorylates 14-3-3 Tau on residue 233.

    Clokie SJ, Cheung KY, Mackie S, Marquez R, Peden AH and Aitken A

    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.

    The breakpoint cluster region protein, BCR, has protein kinase activity that can auto- and trans-phosphorylate serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. BCR has been implicated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia as well as important signalling pathways, and as such its interaction with 14-3-3 is of major interest. 14-3-3tau and zeta isoforms have been shown previously to be phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by BCR kinase on serine and threonine residue(s) but site(s) were not determined. Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 isoforms at distinct sites is an important mode of regulation that negatively affects interaction with Raf kinase and Bax, and potentially influences the dimerization of 14-3-3. In this study we have further characterized the BCR-14-3-3 interaction and have identified the site phosphorylated by BCR. We show here that BCR interacts with at least five isoforms of 14-3-3 in vivo and phosphorylates 14-3-3tau on Ser233 and to a lesser extent 14-3-3zeta on Thr233. We have previously shown that these two isoforms are also phosphorylated at this site by casein kinase 1, which, in contrast to BCR, preferentially phosphorylates 14-3-3zeta.

    The FEBS journal 2005;272;15;3767-76

  • The cyclin-dependent kinase 11 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Feng Y, Qi W, Martinez J and Nelson MA

    Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. yfeng@email.arizona.edu

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 isoforms (CDK11) are members of the p34(cdc2) superfamily. They have been shown to play a role in RNA processing and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigate whether CDK11 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Our study shows that the putative 14-3-3 binding site (113-RHRSHS-118) within the N-terminal domain of CDK11(p110) is functional. Endogenous CDK11(p110) binds directly to 14-3-3 proteins and phosphorylation of the serine 118 within the RHRSHS motif seems to be required for the binding. Besides, CDK11(p110) is capable of interacting with several different isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The interaction of 14-3-3 gamma with CDK11(p110) occurs throughout the entire cell cycle and reaches maximum at the G2/M phase. Interestingly, 14-3-3 gamma shows strong interaction with N-terminal portion of caspase-cleaved CDK11(p110) (CDK11(p60)) product at 48 h after Fas treatment, which correlates with the maximal cleavage level of CDK11(p110) and the maximum activation level of CDK11 kinase activity during apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CDK11 kinases could be regulated by interaction with 14-3-3 proteins during cell cycle and apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 107510, CA 70145

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;331;4;1503-9

  • Targeted proteomic analysis of 14-3-3 sigma, a p53 effector commonly silenced in cancer.

    Benzinger A, Muster N, Koch HB, Yates JR and Hermeking H

    Molecular Oncology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried/Munich, Germany.

    To comprehensively identify proteins interacting with 14-3-3 sigma in vivo, tandem affinity purification and the multidimensional protein identification technology were combined to characterize 117 proteins associated with 14-3-3 sigma in human cells. The majority of identified proteins contained one or several phosphorylatable 14-3-3-binding sites indicating a potential direct interaction with 14-3-3 sigma. 25 proteins were not previously assigned to any function and were named SIP2-26 (for 14-3-3 sigma-interacting protein). Among the 92 interactors with known function were a number of proteins previously implicated in oncogenic signaling (APC, A-RAF, B-RAF, and c-RAF) and cell cycle regulation (AJUBA, c-TAK, PTOV-1, and WEE1). The largest functional classes comprised proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, polarity, adhesion, mitogenic signaling, and motility. Accordingly ectopic 14-3-3 sigma expression prevented cellular migration in a wounding assay and enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. The functional diversity of the identified proteins indicates that induction of 14-3-3 sigma could allow p53 to affect numerous processes in addition to the previously characterized inhibitory effect on G2/M progression. The data suggest that the cancer-specific loss of 14-3-3 sigma expression by epigenetic silencing or p53 mutations contributes to cancer formation by multiple routes.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR11823-08

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;6;785-95

  • JNK phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins regulates nuclear targeting of c-Abl in the apoptotic response to DNA damage.

    Yoshida K, Yamaguchi T, Natsume T, Kufe D and Miki Y

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan. yos.mgen@mri.tmd.ac.jp

    The ubiquitously expressed c-Abl tyrosine kinase localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Nuclear c-Abl is activated by diverse genotoxic agents and induces apoptosis; however, the mechanisms that are responsible for nuclear targeting of c-Abl remain unclear. Here, we show that cytoplasmic c-Abl is targeted to the nucleus in the DNA damage response. The results show that c-Abl is sequestered into the cytoplasm by binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of c-Abl on Thr 735 functions as a site for direct binding to 14-3-3 proteins. We also show that, in response to DNA damage, activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) induces phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins and their release from c-Abl. Together with these results, expression of an unphosphorylated 14-3-3 mutant attenuates DNA-damage-induced nuclear import of c-Abl and apoptosis. These findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins are pivotal regulators of intracellular c-Abl localization and of the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29431, CA98628

    Nature cell biology 2005;7;3;278-85

  • Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds to 14-3-3 proteins and facilitates complex formation with Cdc25C: implications for cell cycle arrest.

    Kino T, Gragerov A, Valentin A, Tsopanomihalou M, Ilyina-Gragerova G, Erwin-Cohen R, Chrousos GP and Pavlakis GN

    Human Retrovirus Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Bldg. 535, Rm. 210, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

    Vpr and selected mutants were used in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen to identify cellular interactors. We found Vpr interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, a family regulating a multitude of proteins in the cell. Vpr mutant R80A, which is inactive in cell cycle arrest, did not interact with 14-3-3. 14-3-3 proteins regulate the G(2)/M transition by inactivating Cdc25C phosphatase via binding to the phosphorylated serine residue at position 216 of Cdc25C. 14-3-3 overexpression in human cells synergized with Vpr in the arrest of cell cycle. Vpr did not arrest efficiently cells not expressing 14-3-3sigma. This indicated that a full complement of 14-3-3 proteins is necessary for optimal Vpr function on the cell cycle. Mutational analysis showed that the C-terminal portion of Vpr, known to harbor its cell cycle-arresting activity, bound directly to the C-terminal part of 14-3-3, outside of its phosphopeptide-binding pocket. Vpr expression shifted localization of the mutant Cdc25C S216A to the cytoplasm, indicating that Vpr promotes the association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C, independently of the presence of serine 216. Immunoprecipitations of cell extracts indicated the presence of triple complexes (Vpr/14-3-3/Cdc25C). These results indicate that Vpr promotes cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase by facilitating association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C independently of the latter's phosphorylation status.

    Journal of virology 2005;79;5;2780-7

  • Transducible heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) phosphopeptide alters cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Dreiza CM, Brophy CM, Komalavilas P, Furnish EJ, Joshi L, Pallero MA, Murphy-Ullrich JE, von Rechenberg M, Ho YS, Richardson B, Xu N, Zhen Y, Peltier JM and Panitch A

    The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

    Activation of cyclic nucleotide dependent signaling pathways leads to relaxation of smooth muscle, alterations in the cytoskeleton of cultured cells, and increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20. To determine the effects of phosphorylated HSP20 on the actin cytoskeleton, phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 were synthesized. These peptides contained 1) the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site of HSP20, 2) a phosphoserine, and 3) a protein transduction domain. Treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 led to loss of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, interference reflection microscopy, and biochemical quantitation of globular-actin. Treatment with phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 also led to dephosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin. Pull-down assays demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins associated with phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 (but not peptide analogs in which the serine was not phosphorylated). The binding of 14-3-3 protein to phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 prevented the association of cofilin with 14-3-3. These data suggest that HSP20 may modulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics by competing with the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin for binding to the scaffolding protein 14-3-3. Interestingly, the entire protein was not needed for this effect, suggesting that the association is modulated by phosphopeptide motifs of HSP20. These data also suggest the possibility that cyclic nucleotide dependent relaxation of smooth muscle may be mediated by a thin filament (actin) regulatory process. Finally, these data suggest that protein transduction can be used as a tool to elucidate the specific function of peptide motifs of proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL58027

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2005;19;2;261-3

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome?

    Kino T and Chrousos GP

    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1583, USA. kinot@mail.nih.gov

    Recent advances in the development of three different types of antiviral drugs, the nucleotide and non-nucleotide analogues acting as reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonpeptidic viral protease inhibitors (PI), and their introduction in the management of patients with AIDS, either alone or in combination, have dramatically improved the clinical course of the disease and prolonged life expectancy in patients with AIDS. The increase in life expectancy in association with the long-term use of the above antiviral agents, however, have generated novel morbidities and complications. Central among them is the quite common AIDS-related insulin resistance and lipodystrophy syndrome, which is characterized by a striking phenotype and marked metabolic disturbances. To look for the pathologic causes of this particular syndrome, we focused on one of the HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vpr, which has multiple functions, such as virion incorporation, nuclear translocation of the HIV-1 preintegration complex, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, transcriptional activation, and induction of apoptosis. Vpr may also act like a hormone, which is secreted into the extracellular space and affects the function of distant organs. Vpr functions as a coactivator of the glucocorticoid receptor and potentiates the action of glucocorticoid hormones, thereby inducing tissue glucocorticoid hypersensitivity. Vpr also arrests host cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by interacting with novel 14-3-3 proteins. Vpr facilitates the interaction of 14-3-3 and its partner protein Cdc25C, which is critical for the transition of G2/M checkpoint in the cell cycle, and suppresses its activity by segregating it into the cytoplasm. The same Vpr protein also suppresses the association of 14-3-3 with other partner molecules, the Foxo transcription factors. Since the Foxo proteins function as negative transcription factors for insulin, Vpr may cause resistance of tissues to insulin. Through these two newly identified functions of Vpr, namely, coactivation of glucocorticoid receptor activity and inhibition of insulin effects on Foxo proteins, Vpr may participate in the development of AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004;1024;153-67

  • A pathway of neuregulin-induced activation of cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot and cofilin in lamellipodia.

    Nagata-Ohashi K, Ohta Y, Goto K, Chiba S, Mori R, Nishita M, Ohashi K, Kousaka K, Iwamatsu A, Niwa R, Uemura T and Mizuno K

    Dept. of Biomolecular Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan.

    Cofilin mediates lamellipodium extension and polarized cell migration by stimulating actin filament dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells. Cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-3 and reactivated by cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-1L (SSH1L). Little is known of signaling mechanisms of cofilin activation and how this activation is spatially regulated. Here, we show that cofilin-phosphatase activity of SSH1L increases approximately 10-fold by association with actin filaments, which indicates that actin assembly at the leading edge per se triggers local activation of SSH1L and thereby stimulates cofilin-mediated actin turnover in lamellipodia. We also provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins inhibit SSH1L activity, dependent on the phosphorylation of Ser-937 and Ser-978 of SSH1L. Stimulation of cells with neuregulin-1beta induced Ser-978 dephosphorylation, translocation of SSH1L onto F-actin-rich lamellipodia, and cofilin dephosphorylation. These findings suggest that SSH1L is locally activated by translocation to and association with F-actin in lamellipodia in response to neuregulin-1beta and 14-3-3 proteins negatively regulate SSH1L activity by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;165;4;465-71

  • 14-3-3 suppresses the nuclear localization of threonine 157-phosphorylated p27(Kip1).

    Sekimoto T, Fukumoto M and Yoneda Y

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    p27(Kip1) (p27), a CDK inhibitor, migrates into the nucleus, where it controls cyclin-CDK complex activity for proper cell cycle progression. We report here that the classical bipartite-type basic amino-acid cluster and the two downstream amino acids of the C-terminal region of p27 function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for its full nuclear import activity. Importin alpha3 and alpha5, but not alpha1, transported p27 into the nucleus in conjunction with importin beta, as evidenced by an in vitro transport assay. It is known that Akt phosphorylates Thr 157 of p27 and this reduces the nuclear import activity of p27. Using a pull-down experiment, 14-3-3 was identified as the Thr157-phosphorylated p27NLS-binding protein. Although importin alpha5 bound to Thr157-phosphorylated p27NLS, 14-3-3 competed with importin alpha5 for binding to it. Thus, 14-3-3 sequestered phosphorylated p27NLS from importin alpha binding, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of NLS-phosphorylated p27. These findings indicate that 14-3-3 suppresses importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear localization of Thr157-phosphorylated p27, suggesting implications for cell cycle disorder in Akt-activated cancer cells.

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;9;1934-42

  • Disruption of 14-3-3 binding does not impair Protein 4.1B growth suppression.

    Robb VA, Li W and Gutmann DH

    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8111, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors; however, the mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis are largely unknown. Collaborative studies from our laboratory demonstrated a direct association of 14-3-3 with the meningioma tumor suppressor Protein 4.1B, which was not observed with other members of the Protein 4.1 family, including the NF2 meningioma tumor suppressor, merlin/schwannomin. Given the role of 14-3-3 in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we sought to determine the functional significance of 14-3-3 binding to Protein 4.1B growth suppression. Based on comparative binding studies performed with additional members of the Protein 4.1 family, we generated specific missense mutations within the minimal growth suppressor fragment of Protein 4.1B (DAL-1, differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung). Complementary in vitro GST affinity chromatography and in vivo interaction experiments demonstrated that the F359Y mutation abrogated binding to 14-3-3, but did not impair DAL-1 binding to other known Protein 4.1B interacting proteins. Similar to wild-type DAL-1, the expression of the F359Y DAL-1 14-3-3-binding mutant resulted in reduced Protein 4.1B-deficient IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN meningioma cell line colony formation. Moreover, similar to wild-type DAL-1, the stable expression of the DAL-1 F359Y mutant significantly reduced cell proliferation in independently isolated IOMM-Lee clones, as assessed by thymidine incorporation. Collectively, these results suggest that binding to 14-3-3 is not essential for the growth suppressor function of Protein 4.1B in meningiomas.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1-F32-CA-097816-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35848, NS41520

    Oncogene 2004;23;20;3589-96

  • Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Kino T and Pavlakis GN

    Human Retrovirus Section, Center for Basic Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA.

    Vpr (Viral protein-R) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 is a 14-kDa virion-associated protein, conserved in HIV-1, -2 and the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). Vpr is incorporated into the virion, travels to the nucleus, and has multiple activities including promoter activation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and apoptosis induction. Through these activities, Vpr is thought to influence not only viral replication but also numerous host cell functions. These functions may be categorized in three groups depending on the domains of Vpr that support them: (1) functions mediated by the amino terminal portion of Vpr, like virion packaging; (2) functions mediated by the carboxyl terminal portion such as cell cycle arrest; and (3) functions that depend on central alpha-helical structures such as transcriptional activation, apoptosis and subcellular shuttling. Association of these activities to specific regions of the Vpr molecule appears to correlate to the host/viral molecules that interact with corresponding portion of Vpr. They include Gag, host transcription factors/coactivators such as SP1, the glucocorticoid receptor, p300/CREB-binding protein and TFIIB, apoptotic adenine nucleotide translocator, cyclophilin A and 14-3-3 proteins. The properties of Vpr molecule has made it difficult to assess its function and determine the true cellular interactors. Further studies on Vpr function are needed to fully assess the function of this important early regulatory molecule of HIV and other lentiviruses.

    DNA and cell biology 2004;23;4;193-205

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Threonine 391 phosphorylation of the human prolactin receptor mediates a novel interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Olayioye MA, Guthridge MA, Stomski FC, Lopez AF, Visvader JE and Lindeman GJ

    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and Bone Marrow Research Laboratories, 1G Royal Parade, Victoria 3050, Australia.

    The prolactin receptor (PrlR) is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily that lacks an intrinsic kinase domain and relies on the cytoplasmic Jak tyrosine kinases to transduce signals. Prolactin-induced Jak2 activation and consequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor and downstream signaling molecules have been studied, but phosphorylation of the PrlR on serine or threonine residues has not been reported. Here we describe a novel interaction between the PrlR and the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding 14-3-3 proteins. This association is mediated by the KCST391WP motif, which occurs in the major functional isoform of the human receptor and is conserved among a wide variety of species. Mutagenesis of threonine 391 to alanine significantly impaired 14-3-3 binding to the PrlR in both glutathione S-transferase pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. In breast carcinoma and mouse mammary epithelial cell lines, the endogenous receptor was found to associate with glutathione S-transferase-14-3-3 proteins independent of prolactin stimulation. A phospho-specific peptide antibody was generated and used to demonstrate phosphorylation of Thr391 in vivo. Phosphorylation of this site was found to be sensitive to okadaic acid, a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases. Interestingly, the T391A PrlR mutant exhibited increased basal and prolactin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation compared with the wild-type receptor. This was accompanied by a ligand-induced increase in protein kinase B and Erk activation but not that of Stat5a. Phosphorylation of the receptor on Thr391 may therefore provide a new mechanism by which prolactin signaling is attenuated.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;35;32929-35

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation.

    Casenghi M, Meraldi P, Weinhart U, Duncan PI, Körner R and Nigg EA

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

    In animal cells, most microtubules are nucleated at centrosomes. At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes undergo a structural reorganization, termed maturation, which leads to increased microtubule nucleation activity. Centrosome maturation is regulated by several kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Here, we identify a centrosomal Plk1 substrate, termed Nlp (ninein-like protein), whose properties suggest an important role in microtubule organization. Nlp interacts with two components of the gamma-tubulin ring complex and stimulates microtubule nucleation. Plk1 phosphorylates Nlp and disrupts both its centrosome association and its gamma-tubulin interaction. Overexpression of an Nlp mutant lacking Plk1 phosphorylation sites severely disturbs mitotic spindle formation. We propose that Nlp plays an important role in microtubule organization during interphase, and that the activation of Plk1 at the onset of mitosis triggers the displacement of Nlp from the centrosome, allowing the establishment of a mitotic scaffold with enhanced microtubule nucleation activity.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;1;113-25

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Mammalian and yeast 14-3-3 isoforms form distinct patterns of dimers in vivo.

    Chaudhri M, Scarabel M and Aitken A

    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.

    The 14-3-3 protein family associates with many proteins involved in intracellular signalling. In many cases, there is a distinct preference for a particular isoform(s) of 14-3-3. A specific repertoire of 14-3-3 dimer formation may therefore influence which of the interacting proteins could be brought together. We have analysed the pattern of dimer formation for two of the most abundant isoforms of 14-3-3, epsilon ( epsilon ) and gamma (gamma), following their stable expression. This revealed a distinct preference for particular dimer combinations that is largely independent of cellular conditions. gamma 14-3-3 occurred as homodimers and also formed heterodimers, mainly with epsilon 14-3-3 (In PC12 and Cos cells). The epsilon isoform formed heterodimers with 14-3-3 beta, gamma, zeta, and eta, but no homodimers were detected. The two 14-3-3 homologues, BMH1 and BMH2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were mainly heterodimers.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;300;3;679-85

  • Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1): mutant truncation prevents binding to NudE-like (NUDEL) and inhibits neurite outgrowth.

    Ozeki Y, Tomoda T, Kleiderlein J, Kamiya A, Bord L, Fujii K, Okawa M, Yamada N, Hatten ME, Snyder SH, Ross CA and Sawa A

    Division of Neurobiology and Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1) is a gene whose mutant truncation is associated with major psychiatric illness with a predominance of schizophrenic symptomatology. We have cloned and characterized rodent DISC-1. DISC-1 expression displays pronounced developmental regulation with the highest levels in late embryonic life when the cerebral cortex develops. In yeast two-hybrid analyses, DISC-1 interacts with a variety of cytoskeletal proteins. One of these, NudE-like (NUDEL), is associated with cortical development and is linked to LIS-1, the disease gene for a form of lissencephaly, a disorder of cortical development. The disease mutant form of DISC-1 fails to bind NUDEL. Expression of mutant, but not wild-type, DISC-1 in PC12 cells reduces neurite extension. As schizophrenia is thought to reflect defects in cortical development that are determined by cytoskeletal protein activities, the cellular disturbances we observe with mutant DISC-1 may be relevant to psychopathologic mechanisms.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00074, K05 DA000074; NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH018501, R37 MH018501; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-34172, R01 NS034172

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;1;289-94

  • 14-3-3 binding to the IGF-1 receptor is mediated by serine autophosphorylation.

    Parvaresch S, Yesilkaya T, Baer K, Al-Hasani H and Klein HW

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Cologne, Otto-Fischer-Str. 12-14, 50674, Cologne, Germany.

    The phosphoserine-binding 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in playing a role in mitogenic and apoptotic signaling pathways. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to phosphoserine residues in the C-terminus of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been described to occur in a variety of cell systems, but the kinase responsible for this serine phosphorylation has not been identified yet. Here we present evidence that the isolated dimeric insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor kinase domain (IGFKD) contains a dual specific (i.e. tyrosine/serine) kinase activity that mediates autophosphorylation of C-terminal serine residues in the enzyme. From the total phosphate incorporation of approximately 4 mol per mol kinase subunit, 1 mol accounts for serine phosphate. However, tyrosine autophosphorylation proceeds more rapidly than autophosphorylation of serine residues (t(1/2) approximately 1 min vs. t(1/2) approximately 5 min). Moreover, dot-blot and far-Western analyses reveal that serine autophosphorylation of IGFKD is sufficient to promote binding of 14-3-3 proteins in vitro. The proof that dual kinase activity of IGFKD is necessary and sufficient for 14-3-3 binding was obtained with an inactive kinase mutant that was phosphorylated on serine residues in a stoichiometric reaction with the catalytically active enzyme. Thus, the IGF-1R itself might be responsible for the serine autophosphorylation which leads to recognition of 14-3-3 proteins in vivo.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;3;357-62

  • Regulation of TSC2 by 14-3-3 binding.

    Li Y, Inoki K, Yeung R and Guan KL

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene is responsible for the inherited genetic disease of tuberous sclerosis complex. TSC1 and TSC2 form a physical and functional complex to regulate cell growth. Recently, it has been demonstrated that TSC1.TSC2 functions to inhibit ribosomal S6 kinase and negatively regulate cell size. TSC2 is negatively regulated by Akt phosphorylation. Here, we report that TSC2, but not TSC1, associates with 14-3-3 in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser(1210) in TSC2 is required for its association with 14-3-3. Our data indicate that 14-3-3 association may inhibit the function of TSC2 and represents a possible mechanism of TSC2 regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;47;44593-6

  • 14-3-3 interacts with the tumor suppressor tuberin at Akt phosphorylation site(s).

    Liu MY, Cai S, Espejo A, Bedford MT and Walker CL

    Department of Carcinogenesis, Science Park-Research Division, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

    Tuberin, the product of the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 tumor suppressor gene, is a phosphoprotein that negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase signaling downstream of Akt. Several high stringency 14-3-3 binding sites that overlapped with Akt phosphorylation sites were identified in tuberin in silico. Recognition of tuberin by an alpha-14-3-3 binding site-specific antibody correlated with mitogen-induced phosphorylation of tuberin and recognition of tuberin by an alpha-Akt phosphorylation substrate antibody. Recognition of tuberin by both antibodies was blocked by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity. Using a protein domain microarray, a tuberin peptide containing Ser(939) demonstrated phospho-specific binding to 14-3-3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays with 14-3-3 fusion proteins revealed that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms (beta, gamma, zeta, epsilon, tau, eta, and sigma) could bind tuberin, and this interaction was abrogated by competition with phosphorylated but not unphosphorylated Ser(939) tuberin peptide. Tuberin also coimmunoprecipitated with 14-3-3, confirming the interaction between endogenous 14-3-3 and tuberin. These data establish the presence of functional and overlapping 14-3-3 and Akt recognition site(s) in tuberin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63613; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK62268; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES07784, ES08263

    Cancer research 2002;62;22;6475-80

  • Interaction with 14-3-3 proteins promotes functional expression of the potassium channels TASK-1 and TASK-3.

    Rajan S, Preisig-Müller R, Wischmeyer E, Nehring R, Hanley PJ, Renigunta V, Musset B, Schlichthörl G, Derst C, Karschin A and Daut J

    Institute of Physiology, Marburg University, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

    The two-pore-domain potassium channels TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5 possess a conserved C-terminal motif of five amino acids. Truncation of the C-terminus of TASK-1 strongly reduced the currents measured after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells and decreased surface membrane expression of GFP-tagged channel proteins. Two-hybrid analysis showed that the C-terminal domain of TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5, but not TASK-4, interacts with isoforms of the adapter protein 14-3-3. A pentapeptide motif at the extreme C-terminus of TASK-1, RRx(S/T)x, was found to be sufficient for weak but significant interaction with 14-3-3, whereas the last 40 amino acids of TASK-1 were required for strong binding. Deletion of a single amino acid at the C-terminal end of TASK-1 or TASK-3 abolished binding of 14-3-3 and strongly reduced the macroscopic currents observed in Xenopus oocytes. TASK-1 mutants that failed to interact with 14-3-3 isoforms (V411*, S410A, S410D) also produced only very weak macroscopic currents. In contrast, the mutant TASK-1 S409A, which interacts with 14-3-3-like wild-type channels, displayed normal macroscopic currents. Co-injection of 14-3-3zeta cRNA increased TASK-1 current in Xenopus oocytes by about 70 %. After co-transfection in HEK293 cells, TASK-1 and 14-3-3zeta (but not TASK-1DeltaC5 and 14-3-3zeta) could be co-immunoprecipitated. Furthermore, TASK-1 and 14-3-3 could be co-immunoprecipitated in synaptic membrane extracts and postsynaptic density membranes. Our findings suggest that interaction of 14-3-3 with TASK-1 or TASK-3 may promote the trafficking of the channels to the surface membrane.

    The Journal of physiology 2002;545;1;13-26

  • Identification and characterization of the interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta.

    Nellist M, Goedbloed MA, de Winter C, Verhaaf B, Jankie A, Reuser AJ, van den Ouweland AM, van der Sluijs P and Halley DJ

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. nellist@kgen.fgg.eur.nl

    Tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations to either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene. The disease is characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction, and dermatological abnormalities. TSC1 encodes a 130-kDa protein called hamartin, and TSC2 encodes a 200-kDa protein called tuberin. Although it has been shown that hamartin and tuberin form a complex and mediate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6, it is not yet clear how inactivation of either protein leads to tuberous sclerosis. Therefore, to obtain additional insight into tuberin and hamartin function, yeast two-hybrid screening experiments were performed to identify proteins that interact with tuberin. One of the proteins identified was 14-3-3zeta, a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. The interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta was confirmed in vitro and by co-immunoprecipitation; multiple sites within tuberin for 14-3-3zeta binding were identified; and it was determined that 14-3-3zeta associated with the tuberin-hamartin complex. Finally, it was shown that the tuberin/14-3-3zeta interaction is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin, providing insight into how tuberin may regulate phosphorylation of S6.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;42;39417-24

  • Regulation of the CDK-related protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 and its possible role in neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2A cells.

    Graeser R, Gannon J, Poon RY, Dubois T, Aitken A and Hunt T

    ICRF Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Herts EN6 3LD, UK. r.graeser@proqinase.com

    PCTAIRE-1 is a CDK-related protein kinase found in terminally differentiated cells in brain and testis, and in many immortalised and transformed cell lines. Bacterially expressed PCTAIRE is completely inactive as a protein kinase, but is a very good substrate for protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates a total of four sites in the N-terminus of PCTAIRE-1. Phosphorylation of one of these sites, Ser119, generates a 14-3-3 binding site, which is functional in vitro as well as in vivo. Mutation of another PKA site, Ser153, to an alanine residue generated an activated kinase in transfected mammalian cells. This activity was comparable to that of CDK5 activated by a bacterially expressed, truncated version of p35(nck), p21. Gel filtration analysis of a brain extract suggested that monomeric PCTAIRE-1 was the active species, implying that PCTAIRE-1 may not be a true CDK, in that it does not require a partner (cyclin-like) subunit for kinase activity. Finally, we found that various forms of PCTAIRE-1 transfected into neuroblastoma cell lines could either promote or inhibit neurite outgrowth, suggesting a potential role for the PCTAIRE-1 gene product in the control of neurite outgrowth.

    Journal of cell science 2002;115;Pt 17;3479-90

  • Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex.

    Takahashi M, Yamagiwa A, Nishimura T, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Japan.

    Microtubule assembly is initiated by the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gamma-TuRC). In yeast, the microtubule is nucleated from gamma-TuRC anchored to the amino-terminus of the spindle pole body component Spc110p, which interacts with calmodulin (Cmd1p) at the carboxy-terminus. However, mammalian protein that anchors gamma-TuRC remains to be elucidated. A giant coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was localized to the centrosome via the carboxyl-terminal region. This region was found to interact with calmodulin by yeast two-hybrid screening, and it shares high homology with the carboxyl-terminal region of another centrosomal coiled-coil protein, kendrin. The amino-terminal region of either CG-NAP or kendrin indirectly associated with gamma-tubulin through binding with gamma-tubulin complex protein 2 (GCP2) and/or GCP3. Furthermore, endogenous CG-NAP and kendrin were coimmunoprecipitated with each other and with endogenous GCP2 and gamma-tubulin, suggesting that CG-NAP and kendrin form complexes and interact with gamma-TuRC in vivo. These proteins were localized to the center of microtubule asters nucleated from isolated centrosomes. Pretreatment of the centrosomes by antibody to CG-NAP or kendrin moderately inhibited the microtubule nucleation; moreover, the combination of these antibodies resulted in stronger inhibition. These results imply that CG-NAP and kendrin provide sites for microtubule nucleation in the mammalian centrosome by anchoring gamma-TuRC.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;9;3235-45

  • The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Yu T, Robb VA, Singh V, Gutmann DH and Newsham IF

    David and Doreen Hermelin Laboratory of Molecular Oncogenetics, Department of Neurosurgery and Hermelin Brain Tumor Center, Henry Ford Hospital, E&R Bldg. Rm. 3096, 2799 W. Grand Blvd. Detroit, MI 48202, U.S.A.

    The Protein 4.1 family contains at least two members that function as tumour suppressors, the neurofibromatosis 2 gene product merlin and the recently identified differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung (DAL-1)/Protein 4.1B molecule. DAL-1/Protein 4.1B loss is observed in a variety of tumours, including breast and lung cancers as well as meningiomas. We have previously demonstrated that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B interacts with some but not all merlin-binding proteins, raising the possibility that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B associates with additional unique proteins specific to its function as a negative growth regulator. Using yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning, we identified three 14-3-3 isoforms, beta, gamma and eta, to be DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-binding proteins. These interactions were verified by using glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation in vivo. The interaction of 14-3-3 with DAL-1/Protein 4.1B was specific, as 14-3-3 did not bind to the related Protein 4.1 family members merlin, ezrin or radixin. The DAL-1/Protein 4.1B domain that mediates 14-3-3 binding was mapped to residues Pro(244) and Leu(280) within the 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain. The identification of this novel DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-interacting protein represents the first step towards elucidating its potentially unique mechanism of action.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77730; NINDS NIH HHS: NS/CA41520

    The Biochemical journal 2002;365;Pt 3;783-9

  • Cytoplasmic localization of tristetraprolin involves 14-3-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Johnson BA, Stehn JR, Yaffe MB and Blackwell TK

    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The immediate early gene tristetraprolin (TTP) is induced transiently in many cell types by numerous extracellular stimuli. TTP encodes a zinc finger protein that can bind and destabilize mRNAs that encode tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and other cytokines. We hypothesize that TTP also has a broader role in growth factor-responsive pathways. In support of this model, we have previously determined that TTP induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, analogously to certain oncogenes and other immediate-early genes, and that TTP sensitizes cells to the pro-apoptotic signals of TNFalpha. In this study, we show that TTP and the related proteins TIS11b and TIS11d bind specifically to 14-3-3 proteins and that individual 14-3-3 isoforms preferentially bind to different phosphorylated TTP species. 14-3-3 binding does not appear to inhibit or promote induction of apoptosis by TTP but is one of multiple mechanisms that localize TTP to the cytoplasm. Our results provide the first example of 14-3-3 interacting functionally with an RNA binding protein and binding in vivo to a Type II 14-3-3 binding site. They also suggest that 14-3-3 binding is part of a complex network of stimuli and interactions that regulate TTP function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA84418; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60594

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;20;18029-36

  • Aberrant expression of signaling-related proteins 14-3-3 gamma and RACK1 in fetal Down syndrome brain (trisomy 21).

    Peyrl A, Weitzdoerfer R, Gulesserian T, Fountoulakis M and Lubec G

    University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Austria.

    Although Down Syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most frequent isolated cause of mental retardation, information on brain protein expression and in particular protein expression of signaling-related proteins is limited. Impaired signaling in DS involving different signaling systems has been proposed and the availability of fetal brain along with recent proteome technologies unambiguously identifying individual brain proteins made us study individual signaling factors in the brain. We studied fetal brain cortex of controls (n = 7) and DS (n = 9) from early second trimester of gestation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) identification followed by quantification with specific software. Four 14-3-3 protein isoforms, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, receptor for activited kinase 1 (RACK1), constitutive photomorphogenesis (COP9) complex subunit 4 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II have been identified. Quantification showed that protein 14-3-3 gamma (means +/- standard deviation of controls: 10.18+/-2.30 and of DS 4.20+/-1.19) and two spots assigned to RACK1 (controls spot 1: 4.15+/-2.45 and DS 1.95+/-0.93; controls spot 2: 5.08+/-2.4 vs. DS: 2.56+/-1.19) were significantly decreased in DS cortex. Reduced 14-3-3 gamma may represent impaired neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and impaired signaling by PKC and Raf while decreased RACK1 (anchoring protein receptor for activated C-kinase) may reflect or generate deranged beta-II- protein kinease C (PKC) function with the putative biological meaning of aberrant migration and neuritic outgrowth in DS early in life.

    Electrophoresis 2002;23;1;152-7

  • HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both Wee1 and Cdc25.

    Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Zhu X, Yanagida M and Zhao Y

    Children's Memorial Institute for Education and Research, Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.

    Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces G2 arrest in cells from distantly related eukaryotes including human and fission yeast through inhibitory phosphorylation of tyrosine 15 (Tyr15) on Cdc2. Since the DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoints also induce G2 arrest through phosphorylation of Tyr15, it seemed possible that Vpr induces G2 arrest through the checkpoint pathways. However, Vpr does not use either the early or the late checkpoint genes that are required for G2 arrest in response to DNA damage or inhibition of DNA synthesis indicating that Vpr induces G2 arrest by an alternative pathway. It was found that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an important role in the induction of G2 arrest by Vpr since mutations in genes coding for a regulatory or catalytic subunit of PP2A reduce Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Vpr was also found to upregulate PP2A, supporting a model in which Vpr activates the PP2A holoenzyme to induce G2 arrest. PP2A is known to interact genetically in fission yeast with the Wee1 kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase that act on Tyr15 of Cdc2. Both Wee1 and Cdc25 play a role in Vpr-induced G2 arrest since a wee1 deletion reduces Vpr-induced G2 arrest and a direct in vivo assay shows that Vpr inhibits Cdc25. Additional support for both Wee1 and Cdc25 playing a role in Vpr-induced G2 arrest comes from a genetic screen, which identified genes whose overexpression affects Vpr-induced G2 arrest. For this genetic screen, a strain was constructed in which cell killing by Vpr was nearly eliminated while the effect of Vpr on the cell cycle was clearly indicated by an increase in cell length. Overexpression of the wos2 gene, an inhibitor of Wee1, suppresses Vpr-induced G2 arrest while overexpression of rad25, an inhibitor of Cdc25, enhances Vpr-induced G2 arrest. These two genes may be part of the uncharacterized pathway for Vpr-induced G2 arrest in which Vpr upregulates PP2A to activate Wee1 and inhibit Cdc25.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1R29-AI-40891-01

    Virology 2001;287;2;359-70

  • Differential localization of HDAC4 orchestrates muscle differentiation.

    Miska EA, Langley E, Wolf D, Karlsson C, Pines J and Kouzarides T

    Wellcome/CRC Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK.

    The class II histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 interact specifically with the myogenic MEF2 transcription factor and repress its activity. Here we show that HDAC4 is cytoplasmic during myoblast differentiation, but relocates to the nucleus once fusion has occurred. Inappropriate nuclear entry of HDAC4 following overexpression suppresses the myogenic programme as well as MEF2-dependent transcription. Activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin signalling pathway via constitutively active CaMKIV prevents nuclear entry of HDAC4 and HDAC4-mediated inhibition of differentiation. Consistent with a role of phosphorylation in HDAC4 cytoplasmic localisation, HDAC4 binds to 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Together these data establish a role for HDAC4 in muscle differentiation. Recently, HDAC5 has also been implicated in muscle differentiation. However, despite the functional similarities of HDAC4 and HDAC5, their intracellular localisations are opposed, suggesting a distinct role for these enzymes during muscle differentiation.

    Nucleic acids research 2001;29;16;3439-47

  • Roles of the forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) phosphorylation sites in regulating 14-3-3 binding, transactivation and nuclear targetting.

    Rena G, Prescott AR, Guo S, Cohen P and Unterman TG

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

    The transcription factor, forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR), is phosphorylated at three amino acid residues (Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-319) by protein kinase B (PKB)alpha. In the present study, mutagenesis has been used to study the roles of these phosphorylation events in regulating FKHR function in transfected HEK-293 cells. We find that the overexpression of FKHR[S256A] (where Ser-256-->Ala) blocks PKB activity in cells, preventing phosphorylation of the endogenous substrates FKHRL1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3. Thus some reported effects of overexpression of this and other mutants may be indirect, and result from suppression of the phosphorylation of other sites on FKHR and/or other PKB substrates. For example, we have shown that Thr-24 phosphorylation alone is critical for interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, and that the substitution of Ser-256 with an alanine residue indirectly blocks 14-3-3 protein binding by preventing the phosphorylation of Thr-24. We also found that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and serum-induced nuclear exclusion of FKHR[S256A] depends on the degree of overexpression of this mutant. Our results indicated that the interaction of FKHR with 14-3-3 proteins was not required for IGF-1-stimulated exclusion of FKHR from the nucleus. We present evidence in support of another mechanism, which depends on the phosphorylation of Ser-256 and may involve the masking of a nuclear localization signal. Finally, we have demonstrated that the failure of IGF-1 to suppress transactivation by FKHR[S256A] is not explained entirely by its failure to bind 14-3-3 proteins or to undergo nuclear exclusion. This result suggests that Ser-256 phosphorylation may also suppress transactivation by FKHR by yet another mechanism, perhaps by disrupting the interaction of FKHR with target DNA binding sites and/or the function of the transactivation domain.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK41430

    The Biochemical journal 2001;354;Pt 3;605-12

  • The centrosomal protein C-Nap1 is required for cell cycle-regulated centrosome cohesion.

    Mayor T, Stierhof YD, Tanaka K, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

    Duplicating centrosomes are paired during interphase, but are separated at the onset of mitosis. Although the mechanisms controlling centrosome cohesion and separation are important for centrosome function throughout the cell cycle, they remain poorly understood. Recently, we have proposed that C-Nap1, a novel centrosomal protein, is part of a structure linking parental centrioles in a cell cycle-regulated manner. To test this model, we have performed a detailed structure-function analysis on C-Nap1. We demonstrate that antibody-mediated interference with C-Nap1 function causes centrosome splitting, regardless of the cell cycle phase. Splitting occurs between parental centrioles and is not dependent on the presence of an intact microtubule or microfilament network. Centrosome splitting can also be induced by overexpression of truncated C-Nap1 mutants, but not full-length protein. Antibodies raised against different domains of C-Nap1 prove that this protein dissociates from spindle poles during mitosis, but reaccumulates at centrosomes at the end of cell division. Use of the same antibodies in immunoelectron microscopy shows that C-Nap1 is confined to the proximal end domains of centrioles, indicating that a putative linker structure must contain additional proteins. We conclude that C-Nap1 is a key component of a dynamic, cell cycle-regulated structure that mediates centriole-centriole cohesion.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;4;837-46

  • Regulation of BAD by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated via phosphorylation of a novel site, Ser155.

    Lizcano JM, Morrice N and Cohen P

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

    The interaction of BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) with Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) is thought to neutralize the anti-apoptotic effects of the latter proteins, and may represent one of the mechanisms by which BAD promotes apoptosis. A variety of survival signals are reported to induce the phosphorylation of BAD at Ser(112) or Ser(136), triggering its dissociation from Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L). Ser(136) is thought to be phosphorylated by protein kinase B (PKB, also called Akt), which is activated when cells are exposed to agonists that stimulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, Ser(112) is reported to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1, also called RSK) and by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here we identify Ser(155) as a third phosphorylation site on BAD. We find that Ser(155) is phosphorylated preferentially by PKA in vitro and is the only residue in BAD that becomes phosphorylated when cells are exposed to cAMP-elevating agents. The phosphorylation of BAD at Ser(155) prevents it from binding to Bcl-X(L) and promotes its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. We also provide further evidence that MAPKAP-K1 mediates the phosphorylation of Ser(112) in response to agonists that activate the classical MAP kinase pathway. However insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent activator of PI3K and PKB does not increase the phosphorylation of Ser(136) in BAD-transfected HEK-293 cells, and nor is the basal level of Ser(136) phosphorylation suppressed by inhibitors of PI3K.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;349;Pt 2;547-57

  • Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 interact with members of the 14.3.3 family.

    Pierrat B, Ito M, Hinz W, Simonen M, Erdmann D, Chiesi M and Heim J

    Novartis Pharma Inc., Basle, Switzerland.

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the superfamily of the mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MATP). Localized in the inner membrane of the organelle, they are postulated to be regulators of mitochondrial uncoupling. UCP2 and 3 may play an important role in the regulation of thermogenesis and, thus, on the resting metabolic rate in humans. To identify interacting proteins that may be involved in the regulation of the activity of UCPs, the yeast two-hybrid system was applied. Segments of hUCP2 containing the hydrophilic loops facing the intermembrane space, or combinations of these, were used to screen an adipocyte activation domain (AD) fusion library. The 14.3.3 protein isoforms theta, beta, zeta were identified as possible interacting partners of hUCP2. Screening of a human skeletal muscle AD fusion library, on the other hand, yielded several clones all of them encoding the gamma isoform of the 14.3.3 family. Mapping experiments further revealed that all these 14.3.3 proteins interact specifically with the C-terminal intermembrane space domain of both hUCP2 and hUCP3 whereas no interactions could be detected with the C-terminal part of hUCP1. Direct interaction between UCP3 and 14.3.3 theta could be demonstrated after in vitro translation by coimmunoprecipitation. When coexpressed in a heterologous yeast system, 14.3.3 proteins potentiated the inhibitory effect of UCP3 overexpression on cell growth. These findings suggest that 14.3.3 proteins could be involved in the targeting of UCPs to the mitochondria.

    European journal of biochemistry 2000;267;9;2680-7

  • 14-3-3 isotypes facilitate coupling of protein kinase C-zeta to Raf-1: negative regulation by 14-3-3 phosphorylation.

    Van Der Hoeven PC, Van Der Wal JC, Ruurs P, Van Dijk MC and Van Blitterswijk J

    Division of Cellular Biochemistry, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    14-3-3 Proteins may function as adapters or scaffold in signal-transduction pathways. We found previously that protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) can phosphorylate and activate Raf-1 in a signalling complex [van Dijk, Hilkmann and van Blitterswijk (1997) Biochem. J. 325, 303-307]. We report now that PKC-zeta-Raf-1 interaction is mediated by 14-3-3 proteins in vitro and in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in COS cells revealed that complex formation between PKC-zeta and Raf-1 is mediated strongly by the 14-3-3beta and -theta; isotypes, but not by 14-3-3zeta. Far-Western blotting revealed that 14-3-3 binds PKC-zeta directly at its regulatory domain, where a S186A mutation in a putative 14-3-3-binding domain strongly reduced the binding and the complex formation with 14-3-3beta and Raf-1. Treatment of PKC-zeta with lambda protein phosphatase also reduced its binding to 14-3-3beta in vitro. Preincubation of an immobilized Raf-1 construct with 14-3-3beta facilitated PKC-zeta binding. Together, the results suggest that 14-3-3 binds both PKC-zeta (at phospho-Ser-186) and Raf-1 in a ternary complex. Complex formation was much stronger with a kinase-inactive PKC-zeta mutant than with wild-type PKC-zeta, supporting the idea that kinase activity leads to complex dissociation. 14-3-3beta and -θ were substrates for PKC-zeta, whereas 14-3-3zeta was not. Phosphorylation of 14-3-3beta by PKC-zeta negatively regulated their physical association. 14-3-3beta with its putative PKC-zeta phosphorylation sites mutated enhanced co-precipitation between PKC-zeta and Raf-1, suggesting that phosphorylation of 14-3-3 by PKC-zeta weakens the complex in vivo. We conclude that 14-3-3 facilitates coupling of PKC-zeta to Raf-1 in an isotype-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that 14-3-3 is a transient mediator of Raf-1 phosphorylation and activation by PKC-zeta.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;345 Pt 2;297-306

  • The kinesin-like motor protein KIF1C occurs in intact cells as a dimer and associates with proteins of the 14-3-3 family.

    Dorner C, Ullrich A, Häring HU and Lammers R

    Medical Clinic IV, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, 72076 Germany.

    Proteins of the kinesin superfamily are regulated in their motor activity as well as in their ability to bind to their cargo by carboxyl-terminal associating proteins and phosphorylation. KIF1C, a recently identified member of the KIF1/Unc104 family, was shown to be involved in the retrograde vesicle transport from the Golgi-apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. In a yeast two-hybrid screen using the carboxyl-terminal 350 amino acids of KIF1C as a bait, we identified as binding proteins 14-3-3 beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. In addition, a clone encoding the carboxyl-terminal 290 amino acids of KIF1C was found, indicating a potential for KIF1C to dimerize. Subsequent transient overexpression experiments showed that KIF1C can dimerize efficiently. However, in untransfected cells, only a small portion of KIF1C was detected as a dimer. The association of 14-3-3 proteins with KIF1C could be confirmed in transient expression systems and in untransfected cells and was dependent on the phosphorylation of serine 1092 located in a consensus binding sequence for 14-3-3 ligands. Serine 1092 was a substrate for the protein kinase casein kinase II in vitro, and inhibition of casein kinase II in cells diminished the association of KIF1C with 14-3-3gamma. Our data thus suggest that KIF1C can form dimers and is associated with proteins of the 14-3-3 family.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;47;33654-60

  • Cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of the human 14-3-3gamma gene (YWHAG) to 7q11.23.

    Horie M, Suzuki M, Takahashi E and Tanigami A

    Otsuka GEN Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima, 771-0192, Japan.

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins exerts diverse influences on the signal transduction pathways of cells. We have newly identified a human cDNA encoding the gamma subtype of the 14-3-3 family of genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of human 14-3-3gamma was identical to that of rat 14-3-3gamma. The human 14-3-3gamma gene (HGMW-approved symbol YWHAG) is highly expressed in brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. By fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, the human 14-3-3gamma gene was mapped to chromosome 7q11.23. Radiation hybrid mapping has shown that this gene is localized 2.33 cR telomeric to D7S1870, a polymorphic marker located at the most telomeric end of the common deletion region of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of 14-3-3gamma may not contribute to the WBS phenotype. However, information regarding the precise chromosomal location of a member of the 14-3-3 family of genes will aid in examining the relationship between this family of proteins and human disorders.

    Genomics 1999;60;2;241-3

  • 14-3-3Gamma interacts with and is phosphorylated by multiple protein kinase C isoforms in PDGF-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Autieri MV and Carbone CJ

    Department of Cardiology and Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA. mautieri@unix.temple.edu

    It has recently been demonstrated that some members of the 14-3-3 protein family play an important role in signal transduction leading to cellular proliferation. We have previously shown that expression of 14-3-3gamma is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we cloned the human homolog of 14-3-3gamma and observed many potential phosphorylation sites, suggesting the potential for post-translational modification. In VSMC treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 14-3-3gamma protein was expressed and phosphorylated in an activation-dependent manner. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation could be inhibited by phosphokinase C (PKC) inhibitory compounds, and 14-3-3gamma could be phosphorylated in the absence of PDGF by compounds that activate PKC. We also demonstrated interaction between 14-3-3gamma and several PKC isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, theta, and delta), implicating these PKC family isoforms as the kinases responsible for PDGF-induced 14-3-3gamma phosphorylation. We found that 14-3-3gamma interacted with the signal transduction protein Raf-1, suggesting that 14-3-3gamma provides a link between this protein and PKC. Thus, 14-3-3gamma may represent a signal transduction protein that is regulated transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally by growth factors.

    DNA and cell biology 1999;18;7;555-64

  • Phosphorylation of human keratin 18 serine 33 regulates binding to 14-3-3 proteins.

    Ku NO, Liao J and Omary MB

    VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, 154J, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family bind the human intermediate filament protein keratin 18 (K18) in vivo, in a cell-cycle- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified K18 Ser33 as an interphase phosphorylation site, which increases its phosphorylation during mitosis in cultured cells and regenerating liver, and as an in vitro cdc2 kinase phosphorylation site. Comparison of wild-type versus K18 Ser33-->Ala/Asp transfected cells showed that K18 Ser33 phosphorylation is essential for the association of K18 with 14-3-3 proteins, and plays a role in keratin organization and distribution. Mutation of another K18 major phosphorylation site (Ser52) or K18 glycosylation sites had no effect on the binding of K18 to 14-3-3 proteins. The K18 phospho-Ser33 motif is different from several 14-3-3-binding phosphomotifs already described. Antibodies that are specific to K18 phospho-Ser33 or phospho-Ser52 show that although Ser52 and Ser33 phosphorylated K18 molecules manifest partial colocalization, these phosphorylation events reside predominantly on distinct K18 molecules. Our results demonstrate a unique K18 phosphorylation site that is necessary but not sufficient for K18 binding to 14-3-3 proteins. This binding is likely to involve one or more mitotic events coupled to K18 Ser33 phosphorylation, and plays a role in keratin subcellular distribution. Physiological Ser52 or Ser33 phosphorylation on distinct K18 molecules suggests functional compartmentalization of these modifications.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38707, DK47918, DK52951

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;7;1892-906

  • Expression of 14-3-3 gamma in injured arteries and growth factor- and cytokine-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Autieri MV, Haines DS, Romanic AM and Ohlstein EH

    Department of Molecular Biology, Deborah Research Institute, Browns Mills, New Jersey 08015, USA.

    One of the most critical cellular events in disease states such as vascular restenosis is the cytokine-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) resulting in intimal thickening. Identification of the molecular mechanisms of VSMC activation is crucial in understanding the initiation of vascular restenosis. In this report, we show that one 14-3-3 protein family isoform, gamma, is transcriptionally up-regulated in rat carotid arteries after balloon angioplasty. 14-3-3 gamma protein induction localizes to both the media and neointima in such injured vessels. Because it has been shown that some members of the 14-3-3 family may play an important role in cellular proliferation by binding to and activating the protein kinase Raf-1 and VSMCs constitute the major cellular component of the restenotic lesion, we investigated the expression of this message in serum- and cytokine-stimulated human VSMCs. Both serum and selected cytokines induce 14-3-3 gamma mRNA and protein, the magnitude of which correlates with the degree of cellular stimulation. 14-3-3 gamma mRNA, however, does not increase when other cell types are stimulated with specific growth factors. Human tissue distribution of 14-3-3 gamma mRNA indicates that in contrast to other 14-3-3 proteins, the gamma isoform is highly expressed in VSMCs and skeletal and heart muscle, suggesting an important role for the gamma isoform in muscle tissue as well. These results indicate that 14-3-3 gamma expression increases in response to vessel damage and proliferative signals and may implicate a role for the gamma isoform of 14-3-3 in VSMC activation and metabolism.

    Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 1996;7;11;1453-60

  • 14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules.

    Vincenz C and Dixit VM

    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    A20, a novel zinc finger protein, is an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which A20 exerts its protective effect is currently unknown. Several isoforms of the 14-3-3 proteins were found to interact with A20 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. A20 bound several 14-3-3 isoforms in vitro. Moreover, transfected A20 was found to preferentially bind the endogenous eta14-3-3 isoform, whereas the beta/zeta isoforms co-immunoprecipitated much less efficiently, and epsilon14-3-3 had an intermediate affinity. Importantly, c-Raf, a previously described 14-3-3-interacting protein, also preferentially bound the eta isoform. The cellular localization and subcellular fractionation of A20 was dramatically altered by co-transfected 14-3-3, providing the first experimental evidence for the notion that 14-3-3 can function as a chaperone. Furthermore, c-Raf and A20 co-immunoprecipitated in a 14-3-3-dependent manner, suggesting that 14-3-3 can function as a bridging or adapter molecule.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA61348

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;33;20029-34

  • Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    Golsteyn RM, Mundt KE, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Epalinges.

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation.

    The Journal of cell biology 1995;129;6;1617-28

  • 14-3-3: modulators of signaling proteins?

    Morrison D

    Molecular Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis Laboratory, National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research Development Center, MD 21702-1201.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1994;266;5182;56-7

  • Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear cDNA library using subtractive hybridization and differential screening.

    Robertson NG, Khetarpal U, Gutiérrez-Espeleta GA, Bieber FR and Morton CC

    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    We used a combination of subtractive hybridization and differential screening strategies to identify genes that may function normally in hearing and, when mutated, result in deafness. A human fetal cochlear (membranous labyrinth) cDNA library was subtracted against total human fetal brain RNAs by an avidin-biotin-based procedure to enrich for cochlear transcripts. Subtracted cochlear clones were differentially screened with 32P-labeled total cochlear and total brain cDNA probes. Sequence analysis of clones that hybridized more intensely with cochlear than with brain cDNA probes revealed some previously characterized genes, including mitochondrial sequences, collagen type I alpha-2 (COL1A2), collagen type II alpha-1 (COL2A1), collagen type III alpha-1 (COL3A1), spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT), osteonectin (SPARC), and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Also identified were clones that are potential novel cochlear genes. Northern blots of cochlear and brain RNAs probed with COL1A2, COL2A1, COL3A1, SAT, SPARC, PMP22, and a novel sequence, designated Coch-5B2, confirm results of the subtractive procedure by showing preferential cochlear expression. A number of these genes serve structural or regulatory functions in extracellular matrix or neural conduction; defects in some of these genes are associated with disorders involving hearing loss. Partial sequence analysis of Coch-5B2 reveals a von Willebrand factor type A-like domain in this cDNA. To assess the cochlear specificity of Coch-5B2, a Northern blot panel of 14 human fetal tissue RNAs was probed with Coch-5B2, showing differential expression of this novel gene in the cochlea.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: T32 HL07627; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC00871

    Genomics 1994;23;1;42-50

  • Characterization of 14-3-3 proteins in adrenal chromaffin cells and demonstration of isoform-specific phospholipid binding.

    Roth D, Morgan A, Martin H, Jones D, Martens GJ, Aitken A and Burgoyne RD

    Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, U.K.

    Isoform-specific antisera were used to examine which 14-3-3 isoforms were present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The eta, tau and sigma isoforms were not detectable, and the epsilon isoform was present at only low levels. 14-3-3 isoforms were readily detected with antisera against the beta, gamma and zeta isoforms. The latter isoforms were found to leak from digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells, as expected for cytosolic proteins, but a proportion of each isoform was retained. In subcellular fractionation studies isoforms recognized by the beta and zeta antisera were found in the cytosol and Triton-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions, while the gamma isoform was found in cytosol and also in microsomal and chromaffin granule membrane fractions. The gamma 14-3-3 protein associated with granule membranes was partially removed by a high-salt/carbonate wash, and the membranes could bind further gamma from cytosol or from a purified brain 14-3-3 protein mixture. The binding of gamma 14-3-3 was not Ca(2+)-dependent, nor was it affected by phorbol ester, GTP analogues or cyclic AMP. Using pure phospholipid vesicles it was found that gamma and also epsilon 14-3-3 proteins bound directly to phospholipids. Little binding of brain beta, eta or zeta to phospholipid vesicles was detected. Brain 14-3-3 proteins were also able to aggregate phospholipid vesicles. Recombinant 14-3-3 isoforms (tau and the Xenopus protein) were able to stimulate Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. The Xenopus proteins lacks part of the extreme N-terminus, indicating that this domain is not essential for function in exocytosis.

    The Biochemical journal 1994;301 ( Pt 1);305-10

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000040 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H9 Human orthologues of cluster 9 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 6
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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