G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide
G00000147 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000032549 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000166913 (Ensembl human gene)
7529 (Entrez Gene)
490 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
YWHAB (GeneCards)
601289 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12849 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3759 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P31946 (UniProt)

Literature (129)

Pubmed - other

  • Focal amplifications are associated with high grade and recurrences in stage Ta bladder carcinoma.

    Nord H, Segersten U, Sandgren J, Wester K, Busch C, Menzel U, Komorowski J, Dumanski JP, Malmström PU and Díaz de Ståhl T

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with tumors ranging from papillary noninvasive (stage Ta) to solid muscle infiltrating tumors (stage T2+). The risk of progression and death for the most frequent diagnosed type, Ta, is low, but the high incidence of recurrences has a significant effect on the patients' quality of life and poses substantial costs for health care systems. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to search for predictive factors of recurrence on the basis of genetic profiling. A clinically well characterized cohort of Ta bladder carcinomas, selected by the presence or absence of recurrences, was evaluated by an integrated analysis of DNA copy number changes and gene expression (clone-based 32K, respectively, U133Plus2.0 arrays). Only a few chromosomal aberrations have previously been defined in superficial bladder cancer. Surprisingly, the profiling of Ta tumors with a high-resolution array showed that DNA copy alterations are relatively common in this tumor type. Furthermore, we observed an overrepresentation of focal amplifications within high-grade and recurrent cases. Known (FGFR3, CCND1, MYC, MDM2) and novel candidate genes were identified within the loci. For example, MYBL2, a nuclear transcription factor involved in cell-cycle progression; YWHAB, an antiapoptotic protein; and SDC4, an important component of focal adhesions represent interesting candidates detected within two amplicons on chromosome 20, for which DNA amplification correlated with transcript up-regulation. The observed overrepresentation of amplicons within high-grade and recurrent cases may be clinically useful for the identification of patients who will benefit from a more aggressive therapy.

    International journal of cancer 2010;126;6;1390-402

  • Identification of five novel 14-3-3 isoforms interacting with the GPIb-IX complex in platelets.

    Mangin PH, Receveur N, Wurtz V, David T, Gachet C and Lanza F

    INSERM UMR_S 949, EFS-Alsace, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. pierre.mangin@efs-alsace.fr

    Background: Binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex initiates a signaling cascade leading to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a key process in hemostasis and thrombosis. Interaction of 14-3-3zeta with the intracytoplasmic domain of GPIb appears to be a major effector of this activation pathway.

    Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether other members of the 14-3-3 family bind to GPIb-IX.

    Results: In this study, western blot analyses showed that platelets also contain the 14-3-3beta, 14-3-3gamma, 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3theta isoforms, but lack 14-3-3sigma. Coimmunoprecipitation studies in platelets and CHO transfectants demonstrated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in platelets, including, as previously reported, 14-3-3zeta, bind to GPIb-IX. In addition, their interaction was found to critically require the same GPIbalpha domains (580-590 and 605-610) already identified as essential for 14-3-3zeta binding, in agreement with the conservation of the sequence of the I-helix among these different isoforms. Pull-down experiments indicated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms present in platelets bind to GPIbbeta. In contrast, deletion or mutation of the GPIbbeta intracytoplasmic tail did not affect the interaction of GPIb-IX with the 14-3-3 isoforms, questioning the importance of this domain.

    Conclusions: Our study suggests that, to inhibit GPIb-induced integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a more appropriate strategy than inhibiting individual 14-3-3 isoforms would be to target the 14-3-3-binding motif on GPIb or, alternatively, the conserved 14-3-3 I-helix.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2009;7;9;1550-5

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Isoform-specific cleavage of 14-3-3 proteins in apoptotic JURL-MK1 cells.

    Kuzelová K, Grebenová D, Pluskalová M, Kavan D, Halada P and Hrkal Z

    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Prague 2, Czech Republic. kuzel@uhkt.cz

    The proteins of 14-3-3 family are substantially involved in the regulation of many biological processes including the apoptosis. We studied the changes in the expression of five 14-3-3 isoforms (beta, gamma, epsilon, tau, and zeta) during the apoptosis of JURL-MK1 and K562 cells. The expression level of all these proteins markedly decreased in relation with the apoptosis progression and all isoforms underwent truncation, which probably corresponds to the removal of several C-terminal amino acids. The observed 14-3-3 modifications were partially blocked by caspase-3 inhibition. In addition to caspases, a non-caspase protease is likely to contribute to 14-3-3's cleavage in an isoform-specific manner. While 14-3-3 gamma seems to be cleaved mainly by caspase-3, the alternative mechanism is essentially involved in the case of 14-3-3 tau, and a combined effect was observed for the isoforms epsilon, beta, and zeta. We suggest that the processing of 14-3-3 proteins could form an integral part of the programmed cell death or at least of some apoptotic pathways.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;106;4;673-81

  • Examination of association to autism of common genetic variationin genes related to dopamine.

    Anderson BM, Schnetz-Boutaud N, Bartlett J, Wright HH, Abramson RK, Cuccaro ML, Gilbert JR, Pericak-Vance MA and Haines JL

    Center for Human Genetics Research and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of complications. Autistic individuals display significant disturbances in language and reciprocal social interactions, combined with repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. Prevalence studies suggest that autism is more common than originally believed, with recent estimates citing a rate of one in 150. Although multiple genetic linkage and association studies have yielded multiple suggestive genes or chromosomal regions, a specific risk locus has yet to be identified and widely confirmed. Because many etiologies have been suggested for this complex syndrome, we hypothesize that one of the difficulties in identifying autism genes is that multiple genetic variants may be required to significantly increase the risk of developing autism. Thus, we took the alternative approach of examining 14 prominent dopamine pathway candidate genes for detailed study by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although we did observe a nominally significant association for rs2239535 (P=0.008) on chromosome 20, single-locus analysis did not reveal any results as significant after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant interaction was identified when Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was employed to test specifically for multilocus effects. Although genome-wide linkage scans in autism have provided support for linkage to various loci along the dopamine pathway, our study does not provide strong evidence of linkage or association to any specific gene or combination of genes within the pathway. These results demonstrate that common genetic variation within the tested genes located within this pathway at most play a minor to moderate role in overall autism pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH080647, R01 MH080647-12, R01MH080647; NINDS NIH HHS: NS026630, P01 NS026630, P01 NS026630-190010

    Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research 2008;1;6;364-9

  • Phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 terminates signalling by the Gab2 docking protein.

    Brummer T, Larance M, Herrera Abreu MT, Lyons RJ, Timpson P, Emmerich CH, Fleuren ED, Lehrbach GM, Schramek D, Guilhaus M, James DE and Daly RJ

    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    Grb2-associated binder (Gab)2 functions downstream of a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases as a docking platform for specific signal transducers and performs important functions in both normal physiology and oncogenesis. Gab2 signalling is promoted by its association with specific receptors through the adaptor Grb2. However, the molecular mechanisms that attenuate Gab2 signals have remained unclear. We now demonstrate that growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Gab2 on two residues, S210 and T391, leads to recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins. Together, these events mediate negative-feedback regulation, as Gab2(S210A/T391A) exhibits sustained receptor association and signalling and promotes cell proliferation and transformation. Importantly, introduction of constitutive 14-3-3-binding sites into Gab2 renders it refractory to receptor activation, demonstrating that site-selective binding of 14-3-3 proteins is sufficient to terminate Gab2 signalling. Furthermore, this is associated with reduced binding of Grb2. This leads to a model where signal attenuation occurs because 14-3-3 promotes dissociation of Gab2 from Grb2, and thereby uncouples Gab2 from the receptor complex. This represents a novel regulatory mechanism with implications for diverse tyrosine kinase signalling systems.

    The EMBO journal 2008;27;17;2305-16

  • A novel binding factor of 14-3-3beta functions as a transcriptional repressor and promotes anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis.

    Komiya Y, Kurabe N, Katagiri K, Ogawa M, Sugiyama A, Kawasaki Y and Tashiro F

    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.

    The 14-3-3 proteins form a highly conserved family of dimeric proteins that interact with various signal transduction proteins and regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, stress response, and malignant transformation. We previously demonstrated that the beta isoform of 14-3-3 proteins promotes tumorigenicity and angiogenesis of rat hepatoma K2 cells. In this study, to analyze the mechanism of 14-3-3beta-induced malignant transformation, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed, and a novel 14-3-3beta-binding factor, FBI1 (fourteen-three-three beta interactant 1), was identified. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation analyses verified specific interaction of 14-3-3beta with FBI1. The strong expression of FBI1 was observed in several tumor cell lines but not in non-tumor cell lines. Forced expression of antisense FBI1 in K2 cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth but had no significant effect on cell proliferation in monolayer culture. Down-regulation of FBI1 also inhibited tumorigenicity and metastasis accompanying a decrease in MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) expression. In addition, the duration of ERK1/2 activation was curtailed in antisense FBI1-expressing K2 cells. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that the FBI1-14-3-3beta complex could act as a transcriptional silencer, and MKP-1 (MAPK phosphatase-1) was one of the target genes of the FBI1-14-3-3beta complex. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that FBI1 and 14-3-3beta were presented on the MKP-1 promoter. These results indicate that FBI1 promotes sustained ERK1/2 activation through repression of MKP-1 transcription, resulting in promotion of tumorigenicity and metastasis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;27;18753-64

  • A novel regulatory mechanism of myosin light chain phosphorylation via binding of 14-3-3 to myosin phosphatase.

    Koga Y and Ikebe M

    Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

    Myosin II phosphorylation-dependent cell motile events are regulated by myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase and MLC phosphatase (MLCP). Recent studies have revealed myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1), a myosin-binding subunit of MLCP, plays a critical role in MLCP regulation. Here we report the new regulatory mechanism of MLCP via the interaction between 14-3-3 and MYPT1. The binding of 14-3-3beta to MYPT1 diminished the direct binding between MYPT1 and myosin II, and 14-3-3beta overexpression abolished MYPT1 localization at stress fiber. Furthermore, 14-3-3beta inhibited MLCP holoenzyme activity via the interaction with MYPT1. Consistently, 14-3-3beta overexpression increased myosin II phosphorylation in cells. We found that MYPT1 phosphorylation at Ser472 was critical for the binding to 14-3-3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation increased both Ser472 phosphorylation and the binding of MYPT1-14-3-3. Rho-kinase inhibitor inhibited the EGF-induced Ser472 phosphorylation and the binding of MYPT1-14-3-3. Rho-kinase specific siRNA also decreased EGF-induced Ser472 phosphorylation correlated with the decrease in MLC phosphorylation. The present study revealed a new RhoA/Rho-kinase-dependent regulatory mechanism of myosin II phosphorylation by 14-3-3 that dissociates MLCP from myosin II and attenuates MLCP activity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 073050, R01 HL073050; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 048526, AR 048898, R01 AR048526, R01 AR048898; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC 006103, R01 DC006103

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;3;1062-71

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Homodimerization of Ror2 tyrosine kinase receptor induces 14-3-3(beta) phosphorylation and promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

    Liu Y, Ross JF, Bodine PV and Billiard J

    Women's Health and Musculoskeletal Biology, Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

    Ror2 receptor plays a key role in bone formation, but its signaling pathway is not completely understood. We demonstrate that Ror2 homodimerizes at the cell surface, and that dimerization can be induced by a bivalent antibody. Antibody-mediated dimerization causes receptor autophosphorylation and induces functional consequences of its signaling, including osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells and bone formation in organ culture. We further show that Ror2 associates with and phosphorylates 14-3-3beta scaffold protein. Endogenous Ror2 binds 14-3-3beta in U2OS osteosarcoma cells, and purified intracellular domain of Ror2 interacts with 14-3-3beta in vitro. 14-3-3beta Is tyrosine phosphorylated in U2OS cells, and this phosphorylation is inhibited by down-regulating Ror2 and enhanced by overexpressing the kinase. Purified Ror2 phosphorylates 14-3-3beta in vitro, confirming 14-3-3beta as the first identified Ror2 substrate. Down-regulating 14-3-3beta potentiates osteoblastogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells and increases bone formation in calvarial cultures, indicating that 14-3-3beta exerts a negative effect on osteogenesis. This raises a possibility that Ror2 induces osteogenic differentiation, at least in part, through a release of the 14-3-3beta-mediated inhibition. Our research forms a foundation for several new areas of investigation, including the molecular regulation of 14-3-3 by tyrosine phosphorylation and the role of this scaffold in osteogenesis.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2007;21;12;3050-61

  • Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control.

    Zhao B, Wei X, Li W, Udan RS, Yang Q, Kim J, Xie J, Ikenoue T, Yu J, Li L, Zheng P, Ye K, Chinnaiyan A, Halder G, Lai ZC and Guan KL

    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    The Hippo pathway plays a key role in organ size control by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila. Although recent genetic studies have shown that the Hippo pathway is regulated by the NF2 and Fat tumor suppressors, the physiological regulations of this pathway are unknown. Here we show that in mammalian cells, the transcription coactivator YAP (Yes-associated protein), is inhibited by cell density via the Hippo pathway. Phosphorylation by the Lats tumor suppressor kinase leads to cytoplasmic translocation and inactivation of the YAP oncoprotein. Furthermore, attenuation of this phosphorylation of YAP or Yorkie (Yki), the Drosophila homolog of YAP, potentiates their growth-promoting function in vivo. Moreover, YAP overexpression regulates gene expression in a manner opposite to cell density, and is able to overcome cell contact inhibition. Inhibition of YAP function restores contact inhibition in a human cancer cell line bearing deletion of Salvador (Sav), a Hippo pathway component. Interestingly, we observed that YAP protein is elevated and nuclear localized in some human liver and prostate cancers. Our observations demonstrate that YAP plays a key role in the Hippo pathway to control cell proliferation in response to cell contact.

    Genes & development 2007;21;21;2747-61

  • Papillomavirus binding factor (PBF)-mediated inhibition of cell growth is regulated by 14-3-3beta.

    Sichtig N, Silling S and Steger G

    Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, Fürst-Pückler-Strasse 56, 50935 Cologne, Germany.

    The cellular factor, papillomavirus (PV)-binding factor (PBF)/Huntington's disease binding protein 2 (HDBP2), was identified by its ability to bind regulatory sequences of certain papillomavirus types as well as the Huntington's disease gene. PBF is thought to be a novel nuclear-shuttling transcription factor with unknown function. To further characterize PBF, we identified 14-3-3beta as an interaction partner. We demonstrated that PBF binds to 14-3-3beta using two motifs. Akt-kinase and an unidentified kinase that are activated by the PI3K-signaling pathway were able to phosphorylate these motifs, allowing PBF to associate with 14-3-3beta. This interaction may contribute to the control of the subcellular localization of PBF, which migrated into the nucleus in the absence of growth factors. Over-expression of PBF resulted in the inhibition of cell growth, which was enhanced using a 14-3-3 binding-deficient PBF mutant. Thus, our experiments characterized PBF as a new cellular factor mediating the effects of PI3K/Akt signaling and 14-3-3 on cell growth.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2007;464;1;90-9

  • DYRK1A autophosphorylation on serine residue 520 modulates its kinase activity via 14-3-3 binding.

    Alvarez M, Altafaj X, Aranda S and de la Luna S

    Genes and Disease Program, Centre de Regulació Genómica, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase (DYRK) proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of protein kinases, with members identified from yeast to humans, that participate in a variety of cellular processes. DYRKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by autophosphorylation on a tyrosine residue in the activation loop. The family member DYRK1A has been shown to phosphorylate several cytosolic proteins and a number of splicing and transcription factors, including members of the nuclear factor of activated T cells family. In the present study, we show that DYRK1A autophosphorylates, via an intramolecular mechanism, on Ser-520, in the PEST domain of the protein. We also show that phosphorylation of this residue, which we show is subjected to dynamic changes in vivo, mediates the interaction of DYRK1A with 14-3-3beta. A second 14-3-3 binding site is present within the N-terminal of the protein. In the context of the DYRK1A molecule, neither site can act independently of the other. Bacterially produced DYRK1A and the mutant DYRK1A/S520A have similar kinase activities, suggesting that Ser-520 phosphorylation does not affect the intrinsic kinase activity on its own. Instead, we demonstrate that this phosphorylation allows the binding of 14-3-3beta, which in turn stimulates the catalytic activity of DYRK1A. These findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism for the regulation of DYRK1A kinase activity.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;4;1167-78

  • Protein kinase A phosphorylation of human phosphodiesterase 3B promotes 14-3-3 protein binding and inhibits phosphatase-catalyzed inactivation.

    Palmer D, Jimmo SL, Raymond DR, Wilson LS, Carter RL and Maurice DH

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.

    Recent studies confirm that intracellular cAMP concentrations are nonuniform and that localized subcellular cAMP hydrolysis by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is important in maintaining these cAMP compartments. Human phosphodiesterase 3B (HSPDE3B), a member of the PDE3 family of PDEs, represents the dominant particulate cAMP-PDE activity in many cell types, including adipocytes and cells of hematopoietic lineage. Although several previous reports have shown that phosphorylation of HSPDE3B by either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase B (PKB) activates this enzyme, the mechanisms that allow cells to distinguish these two activated forms of HSPDE3B are unknown. Here we report that PKA phosphorylates HSPDE3B at several distinct sites (Ser-73, Ser-296, and Ser-318), and we show that phosphorylation of HSPDE3B at Ser-318 activates this PDE and stimulates its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, although PKB-catalyzed phosphorylation of HSPDE3B activates this enzyme, it does not promote 14-3-3 protein binding. Interestingly, we report that the PKA-phosphorylated, 14-3-3 protein-bound, form of HSPDE3B is protected from phosphatase-dependent dephosphorylation and inactivation. In contrast, PKA-phosphorylated HSPDE3B that is not bound to 14-3-3 proteins is readily dephosphorylated and inactivated. Our data are presented in the context that a selective interaction between PKA-activated HSPDE3B and 14-3-3 proteins represents a mechanism by which cells can protect this enzyme from deactivation. Moreover, we propose that this mechanism may allow cells to distinguish between PKA- and PKB-activated HSPDE3B.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;13;9411-9

  • p53-deficient cells rely on ATM- and ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling through the p38MAPK/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage.

    Reinhardt HC, Aslanian AS, Lees JA and Yaffe MB

    Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E18-580, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells activate ATM-Chk2 and/or ATR-Chk1 to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. We show that, in the absence of p53, cells depend on a third cell-cycle checkpoint pathway involving p38MAPK/MK2 for cell-cycle arrest and survival after DNA damage. MK2 depletion in p53-deficient cells, but not in p53 wild-type cells, caused abrogation of the Cdc25A-mediated S phase checkpoint after cisplatin exposure and loss of the Cdc25B-mediated G2/M checkpoint following doxorubicin treatment, resulting in mitotic catastrophe and pronounced regression of murine tumors in vivo. We show that the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 also potently inhibits MK2, suggesting that its clinical efficacy results from the simultaneous disruption of two critical checkpoint pathways in p53-defective cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA112967, CA14051, U54 CA112967, U54 CA112967-050003; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES002109, ES015339, R01 ES015339, R01 ES015339-03; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60594, R01 GM060594, R01 GM060594-09

    Cancer cell 2007;11;2;175-89

  • 14-3-3 protein binds to the low molecular weight neurofilament (NFL) mRNA 3' UTR.

    Ge WW, Volkening K, Leystra-Lantz C, Jaffe H and Strong MJ

    Cell Biology Research Group, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5K8.

    We have previously reported that altered stability of low molecular weight neurofilament (NFL) mRNA in lumbar spinal cord homogenates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with altered expression of trans-acting 3' UTR mRNA binding proteins. We have identified two hexanucleotide motifs as the main cis elements and, using LC/MS/MS of peptide digests of NFL 3' UTR interacting proteins from human spinal cord, observed that 14-3-3 proteins interact with these motifs. 14-3-3 beta, zeta, tau, gamma, and eta isoforms were found to be expressed in human spinal cord. Each isoform was expressed in vitro and shown to interact with NFL 3' UTR mRNA. Mutation of one or both motifs resulted in decreased 14-3-3 interaction, changes in predicted mRNA structure or alteration in stability of the mRNA. These data show a novel interaction for 14-3-3 with NFL mRNA, and suggests that 14-3-3 may play a role in regulating NFL mRNA stability.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2007;34;1;80-7

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • HIV-1 Vpr induces G2 cell cycle arrest in fission yeast associated with Rad24/14-3-3-dependent, Chk1/Cds1-independent Wee1 upregulation.

    Matsuda N, Tanaka H, Yamazaki S, Suzuki J, Tanaka K, Yamada T and Masuda M

    Department of Microbiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Kita-kobayashi 880, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan.

    Viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), induces the G2 cell cycle arrest in fission yeast for which host factors, such as Wee1 and Rad24, are required. Catalyzing the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2, Wee1 is known to serve as a major regulator of G2/M transition in the eukaryotic cell cycle. It has been reported that the G2 checkpoint induced by DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication is associated with phosphorylation and upregulation of Wee1 for which Chk1 and Cds1 kinase is required. In this study, we demonstrate that the G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast is also associated with increase in the phosphorylation and amount of Wee1, but in a Chk1/Cds1-independent manner. Rad24 and human 14-3-3 appear to contribute to Vpr-induced G2 arrest by elevating the level of Wee1 expression. It appears that Vpr could cause the G2 arrest through a mechanism similar to, but distinct from, the physiological G2 checkpoint controls. The results may provide useful insights into the mechanism by which HIV-1 Vpr causes the G2 arrest in eukaryotic cells. Vpr may also serve as a useful molecular tool for exploring novel cell cycle control mechanisms.

    Microbes and infection 2006;8;12-13;2736-44

  • Efficient ADAM22 surface expression is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 protein family members.

    Gödde NJ, D'Abaco GM, Paradiso L and Novak U

    Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3050, Australia.

    ADAM22 is one of three catalytically inactive ADAM family members highly expressed in the brain. ADAM22 has numerous splice variants, all with considerable cytoplasmic tails of up to 148 amino acids. ADAM22 can act to inhibit cell proliferation, however, it has been suggested that it also acts as an adhesion protein. We identified three 14-3-3 protein members by a yeast two-hybrid screen and show by co-immunoprecipitation that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM22 can interact with all six 14-3-3 proteins expressed in the brain. In addition, we show that 14-3-3 proteins interact preferentially with the serine phosphorylated precursor form of ADAM22. ADAM22 has two 14-3-3 protein binding consensus motifs; the first binding site, spanning residues 831-834, was shown to be the most crucial for 14-3-3 binding to occur. The interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3 proteins is dependent on phosphorylation of ADAM22, but not of 14-3-3 proteins. ADAM22 point mutants lacking functional 14-3-3 protein binding motifs could no longer accumulate efficiently at the cell surface. Deletion of both 14-3-3 binding sites and newly identified ER retention motifs restored localization of ADAM22 at the cell surface. These results reveal a role for 14-3-3 proteins in targeting ADAM22 to the membrane by masking ER retention signals.

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 16;3296-305

  • Inhibitory interaction of the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchangers with the 14-3-3 proteins.

    Pulina MV, Rizzuto R, Brini M and Carafoli E

    Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, and Department of Biochemistry, University of Padova, 35100 Padova, Italy.

    The three Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoforms, NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3, contain a large cytoplasmic loop that is responsible for the regulation of activity. We have used 347 residues of the loop of NCX2 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify proteins that could interact with the exchanger and regulate its activity. Screening of a human brain cDNA library identified the epsilon and zeta isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein family as interacting partners of the exchanger. The interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments. The effect of the interaction on the homeostasis of Ca2+ was investigated by co-expressing NCX2 and 14-3-3epsilon in HeLa cells together with the recombinant Ca2+ probe aequorin; the ability of cells expressing both NCX2 and 14-3-3epsilon to dispose of a Ca2+ transient induced by an InsP3-producing agonist was substantially decreased, indicating a reduction of NCX2 activity. The 14-3-3epsilon protein also inhibited the NCX1 and NCX3 isoforms. In vitro binding experiments revealed that all three NCX isoforms interacted with multiple 14-3-3 isoforms. 14-3-3 was bound by both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated NCX, but the phosphorylated form had much higher binding affinity.

    Funded by: Telethon: GP0193Y01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;28;19645-54

  • A Cdc2-related protein kinase hPFTAIRE1 from human brain interacting with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Gao Y, Jiang M, Yang T, Ni J and Chen J

    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China.

    hPFTAIRE1 (PFTK1), a Cdc2-related protein kinase, is highly expressed in human brain. It exhibits cytoplasmic distribution in Hela cells, although it contains two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in its N-terminus. To search for its substrates and regulatory components, we screened a two-hybrid library by using the full-length hPFTAIRE1 as a bait. Four 14-3-3 isoforms (beta, epsilon, eta, tau) were identified interacting with the hPFTAIRE1. We found a putative 14-3-3 binding consensus motif (RHSSPSS) in the hPFTAIRE1, which overlapped with its second NLS. Deletion of the RHSSPSS motif or substitution of Ser119 with Ala in the conserved binding motif abolished the specific interaction between the hPFTAIRE1 and the 14-3-3 proteins. The mutant S120A hPFTAIRE1 also showed a weak interaction to the 14-3-3 proteins. The results suggested that the Ser119 is crucial for the interaction between hPFTAIRE1 and the 14-3-3 proteins. All the hPFTAIRE1 mutants distributed in cytoplasm of Hela cells and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) when fused to the C-terminus of a green fluorescent protein (GFP), indicating that binding with the 14-3-3 proteins does not contribute to the subcellular localization of the hPFTAIRE1, although the binding may be involved in its signaling regulation.

    Cell research 2006;16;6;539-47

  • New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium.

    Calinisan V, Gravem D, Chen RP, Brittin S, Mohandas N, Lecomte MC and Gascard P

    Life Sciences Division, Department of Genome Biology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physio-pathology.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32094, DK56355

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2006;11;1646-66

  • Subcellular targeting of p33ING1b by phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 binding regulates p21WAF1 expression.

    Gong W, Russell M, Suzuki K and Riabowol K

    Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Calgary, #370 Heritage Medical Research Building, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.

    ING1 is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell growth, stress signaling, apoptosis, and DNA repair by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Decreased ING1 expression is seen in several human cancers, and mislocalization has been noted in diverse types of cancer cells. Aberrant targeting may, therefore, functionally inactivate ING1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a sequence between the nuclear localization sequence and plant homeodomain domains of ING1 that closely matched the binding motif of 14-3-3 proteins that target cargo proteins to specific subcellular locales. We find that the widely expressed p33(ING1b) splicing isoform of ING1 interacts with members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins and that this interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation status of ING1. 14-3-3 binding resulted in significant amounts of p33(ING1b) protein being tethered in the cytoplasm. As shown previously, ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) increased levels of the p21(Waf1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor upon UV-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of 14-3-3 inhibited the up-regulation of p21(Waf1) by p33(ING1b), consistent with the idea that mislocalization blocks at least one of ING1's biological activities. These data support the idea that the 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the activity of p33(ING1b) by directing its subcellular localization.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;8;2947-54

  • Regulation of MDMX nuclear import and degradation by Chk2 and 14-3-3.

    LeBron C, Chen L, Gilkes DM and Chen J

    Molecular Oncology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

    The MDM2 homolog MDMX is an important regulator of p53 during mouse embryonic development. DNA damage promotes MDMX phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and degradation by MDM2. Here we show that MDMX copurifies with 14-3-3, and DNA damage stimulates MDMX binding to 14-3-3. Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of MDMX on S367 is important for stimulating 14-3-3 binding, MDMX nuclear import by a cryptic nuclear import signal, and degradation by MDM2. Mutation of MDMX S367 inhibits ubiquitination and degradation by MDM2, and prevents MDMX nuclear import. Expression of 14-3-3 stimulates the degradation of phosphorylated MDMX. Chk2 and 14-3-3 cooperatively stimulate MDMX ubiquitination and overcome the inhibition of p53 by MDMX. These results suggest that MDMX-14-3-3 interaction plays a role in p53 response to DNA damage by regulating MDMX localization and stability.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;6;1196-206

  • Evidence that Ser87 of BimEL is phosphorylated by Akt and regulates BimEL apoptotic function.

    Qi XJ, Wildey GM and Howe PH

    Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA.

    Bim, the Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death, is a member of the BH3-only family of pro-apoptotic proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that the apoptotic activity of Bim can be regulated through a post-translational mechanism whereby ERK phosphorylation serves as a signal for Bim ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In this report, we investigated the signaling pathways leading to Bim phosphorylation in Ba/F3 cells, an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent B-cell line. IL-3 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Bim(EL), one of the predominant isoforms of Bim expressed in cells, at multiple sites, as evidenced by the formation of at least three to four bands by Western blotting that were sensitive to phosphatase digestion. The appearance of multiple, phosphorylated species of Bim(EL) correlated with Akt, and not ERK, activation. The PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, blocked IL-3-stimulated Akt activity and partially blocked Bim(EL) phosphorylation. In vitro kinase assays showed that recombinant Akt could directly phosphorylate a GST-Bim(EL) fusion protein and identified the Akt phosphorylation site in the Bim(EL) domain as Ser(87). Further, we demonstrated that cytokine stimulation promotes Bim(EL) binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Finally, we show that mutation of Ser(87) dramatically increases the apoptotic potency of Bim(EL). We propose that Ser(87) of Bim(EL) is an important regulatory site that is targeted by Akt to attenuate the pro-apoptotic function of Bim(EL), thereby promoting cell survival.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55536, CA80095

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;2;813-23

  • The role of metallothionein in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.

    Wesselkamper SC, McDowell SA, Medvedovic M, Dalton TP, Deshmukh HS, Sartor MA, Case LM, Henning LN, Borchers MT, Tomlinson CR, Prows DR and Leikauf GD

    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA.

    Often fatal, acute lung injury has a complicated etiology. Previous studies from our laboratory in mice have demonstrated that survival during acute lung injury is a complex trait governed by multiple loci. We also found that the increase in metallothionein (MT) is one of the greatest noted in transcriptome-wide analyses of gene expression. To assess the role of MT in nickel-induced acute lung injury, the survival of Mt-transgenic, Mt1/2(+/+), and Mt1/2(-/-) mice was compared. Pulmonary inflammation and global gene expression were compared in Mt1/2(+/+) and Mt1/2(-/-) mice. Gene-targeted Mt1/2(-/-) mice were more susceptible than Mt1/2(+/+) mice to nickel-induced inflammation, surfactant-associated protein B transcript loss, and lethality. Similarly, Mt-transgenic mice exhibited increased survival. MAPPFinder analyses also noted significant decreases in genes involved in protein processing (e.g., ubiquitination, folding), which were greater in Mt1/2(-/-) mice as compared with Mt1/2(+/+) mice early in the progression of acute lung injury, possibly due to a zinc-mediated transcript destabilization. In contrast, transcript levels of genes associated with the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix regulation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis were increased more in Mt1/2(-/-) mice as compared with Mt1/2(+/+) mice late in the development of acute lung injury. Thus, MT ultimately improves survival in the progression of acute lung injury in mice. Transcriptome-wide analysis suggests that this survival may be mediated through changes in the destabilization of transcripts associated with protein processing, the subsequent augmentation of transcripts controlling inflammation, extracellular matrix regulation, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and disruption of surfactant homeostasis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL65612; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES012463, ES06096, ES07250, ES10562, U01 ES015675

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2006;34;1;73-82

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • BCR kinase phosphorylates 14-3-3 Tau on residue 233.

    Clokie SJ, Cheung KY, Mackie S, Marquez R, Peden AH and Aitken A

    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.

    The breakpoint cluster region protein, BCR, has protein kinase activity that can auto- and trans-phosphorylate serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. BCR has been implicated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia as well as important signalling pathways, and as such its interaction with 14-3-3 is of major interest. 14-3-3tau and zeta isoforms have been shown previously to be phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by BCR kinase on serine and threonine residue(s) but site(s) were not determined. Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 isoforms at distinct sites is an important mode of regulation that negatively affects interaction with Raf kinase and Bax, and potentially influences the dimerization of 14-3-3. In this study we have further characterized the BCR-14-3-3 interaction and have identified the site phosphorylated by BCR. We show here that BCR interacts with at least five isoforms of 14-3-3 in vivo and phosphorylates 14-3-3tau on Ser233 and to a lesser extent 14-3-3zeta on Thr233. We have previously shown that these two isoforms are also phosphorylated at this site by casein kinase 1, which, in contrast to BCR, preferentially phosphorylates 14-3-3zeta.

    The FEBS journal 2005;272;15;3767-76

  • Convergent actions of I kappa B kinase beta and protein kinase C delta modulate mRNA stability through phosphorylation of 14-3-3 beta complexed with tristetraprolin.

    Gringhuis SI, García-Vallejo JJ, van Het Hof B and van Dijk W

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MC Amsterdam, The Netherlands. si.gringhuis@vumc.nl

    Regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA stability is a major topic of research; however, knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms affecting the binding and function of AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins (AUBPs) in response to extracellular signals is minimal. The beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (beta4GalT1) gene enabled us to study the mechanisms involved in binding of tristetraprolin (TTP) as the stability of its mRNA is regulated solely through one ARE bound by TTP in resting human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that the complex formation of TTP with 14-3-3beta is required to bind beta4GalT1 mRNA and promote its decay. Furthermore, upon tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation, the activation of both Ikappabeta kinase and protein kinase Cdelta is involved in the phosphorylation of 14-3-3beta on two serine residues, paralleled by release of binding of TTP and 14-3-3beta from beta4GalT1 mRNA, nuclear sequestration of TTP, and beta4GalT1 mRNA stabilization. Thus, a key mechanism regulating mRNA binding and function of the destabilizing AUBP TTP involves the phosphorylation status of 14-3-3beta.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;15;6454-63

  • The cyclin-dependent kinase 11 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Feng Y, Qi W, Martinez J and Nelson MA

    Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. yfeng@email.arizona.edu

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 isoforms (CDK11) are members of the p34(cdc2) superfamily. They have been shown to play a role in RNA processing and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigate whether CDK11 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Our study shows that the putative 14-3-3 binding site (113-RHRSHS-118) within the N-terminal domain of CDK11(p110) is functional. Endogenous CDK11(p110) binds directly to 14-3-3 proteins and phosphorylation of the serine 118 within the RHRSHS motif seems to be required for the binding. Besides, CDK11(p110) is capable of interacting with several different isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The interaction of 14-3-3 gamma with CDK11(p110) occurs throughout the entire cell cycle and reaches maximum at the G2/M phase. Interestingly, 14-3-3 gamma shows strong interaction with N-terminal portion of caspase-cleaved CDK11(p110) (CDK11(p60)) product at 48 h after Fas treatment, which correlates with the maximal cleavage level of CDK11(p110) and the maximum activation level of CDK11 kinase activity during apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CDK11 kinases could be regulated by interaction with 14-3-3 proteins during cell cycle and apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 107510, CA 70145

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;331;4;1503-9

  • Altered expression of 14-3-3 genes in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Middleton FA, Peng L, Lewis DA, Levitt P and Mirnics K

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

    Seven distinct 14-3-3 proteins are expressed in mammals. One of the 14-3-3 genes (eta) has been previously associated with decreased expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia. DNA microarray analysis of the PFC of 10 subjects with schizophrenia and 10 matched controls indicated that the majority of 14-3-3 genes exhibited moderate to marked decreases in expression in schizophrenia, which were significant at the group level across all 10 comparisons (p<0.021). Selected changes in gene expression were further examined using in situ hybridization (ISH) in the same subject pairs as well as in four monkeys treated chronically with haloperidol and matched control animals. All analyses were performed blind to subject identity and diagnosis, or treatment. ISH analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance confirmed the significant decreases in expression of two 14-3-3 genes: beta -31.9%, zeta -18.2%. Two other 14-3-3 genes exhibited more modest decreases in expression levels that were significant only in pairwise comparisons that did not factor in post-mortem interval or tissue storage time: gamma -11.9%, eta -15.4%. In the PFC of haloperidol-treated monkeys, there was no difference in 14-3-3 zeta expression, while 14-3-3 beta increased 28% (p<0.05) as a result of neuroleptic treatment. Our results suggest that decreased expression of selected 14-3-3 genes is a common feature of schizophrenia and that the 14-3-3 beta transcript may be unique among the 14-3-3 genes in its increase in response to haloperidol and decrease in the disease state.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH45156

    Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;30;5;974-83

  • JNK phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins regulates nuclear targeting of c-Abl in the apoptotic response to DNA damage.

    Yoshida K, Yamaguchi T, Natsume T, Kufe D and Miki Y

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan. yos.mgen@mri.tmd.ac.jp

    The ubiquitously expressed c-Abl tyrosine kinase localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Nuclear c-Abl is activated by diverse genotoxic agents and induces apoptosis; however, the mechanisms that are responsible for nuclear targeting of c-Abl remain unclear. Here, we show that cytoplasmic c-Abl is targeted to the nucleus in the DNA damage response. The results show that c-Abl is sequestered into the cytoplasm by binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of c-Abl on Thr 735 functions as a site for direct binding to 14-3-3 proteins. We also show that, in response to DNA damage, activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) induces phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins and their release from c-Abl. Together with these results, expression of an unphosphorylated 14-3-3 mutant attenuates DNA-damage-induced nuclear import of c-Abl and apoptosis. These findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins are pivotal regulators of intracellular c-Abl localization and of the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29431, CA98628

    Nature cell biology 2005;7;3;278-85

  • Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds to 14-3-3 proteins and facilitates complex formation with Cdc25C: implications for cell cycle arrest.

    Kino T, Gragerov A, Valentin A, Tsopanomihalou M, Ilyina-Gragerova G, Erwin-Cohen R, Chrousos GP and Pavlakis GN

    Human Retrovirus Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Bldg. 535, Rm. 210, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

    Vpr and selected mutants were used in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen to identify cellular interactors. We found Vpr interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, a family regulating a multitude of proteins in the cell. Vpr mutant R80A, which is inactive in cell cycle arrest, did not interact with 14-3-3. 14-3-3 proteins regulate the G(2)/M transition by inactivating Cdc25C phosphatase via binding to the phosphorylated serine residue at position 216 of Cdc25C. 14-3-3 overexpression in human cells synergized with Vpr in the arrest of cell cycle. Vpr did not arrest efficiently cells not expressing 14-3-3sigma. This indicated that a full complement of 14-3-3 proteins is necessary for optimal Vpr function on the cell cycle. Mutational analysis showed that the C-terminal portion of Vpr, known to harbor its cell cycle-arresting activity, bound directly to the C-terminal part of 14-3-3, outside of its phosphopeptide-binding pocket. Vpr expression shifted localization of the mutant Cdc25C S216A to the cytoplasm, indicating that Vpr promotes the association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C, independently of the presence of serine 216. Immunoprecipitations of cell extracts indicated the presence of triple complexes (Vpr/14-3-3/Cdc25C). These results indicate that Vpr promotes cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase by facilitating association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C independently of the latter's phosphorylation status.

    Journal of virology 2005;79;5;2780-7

  • Comparative analysis of the signaling capabilities of the insulin receptor-related receptor.

    Klammt J, Garten A, Barnikol-Oettler A, Beck-Sickinger AG and Kiess W

    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Leipzig, 04317 Leipzig, Oststrasse 21-25, Germany. juergen.klammt@medizin.uni-leipzig.de <juergen.klammt@medizin.uni-leipzig.de&gt;

    Although insulin receptor (InsR) and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) elicit different physiological effects in their target tissues, their signaling capabilities are similar to a large extent. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the third member of the family, insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), to associate with known interaction partners of the InsR and the IGF-I receptor in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Using the intracellular part of the IRR we found no association with any of the tested signaling molecules. Phosphotyrosine detection revealed a lack in the constitutive activation of the IRR described for analogous constructs of the two other members of the family. Replacement of the kinase domain of the IGF-IR or its C-terminal lobe alone into the IRR caused a complete restoration of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IRR. The reestablishment of autophosphorylation was paralleled by restoration of interaction with a specific range of signaling molecules.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;327;2;557-64

  • 14-3-3 regulation of cell spreading and migration requires a functional amphipathic groove.

    Rodriguez LG and Guan JL

    Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    The 14-3-3 proteins associate with many cellular proteins that participate in the regulation of various cellular events including apoptosis, the cell cycle, spreading, and migration. We have previously described that 14-3-3beta binds the beta1-integrin and overexpression of 14-3-3beta promoted increased cell spreading and migration (Han et al. [2001] Oncogene 20: 346-357). In this study, we find that mutation of Ser 60 of 14-3-3beta, outside of the amphipathic groove which is involved in 14-3-3 protein interactions with other ligands, abolished its interaction with integrin. Surprisingly, this mutant retained its ability to promote cell spreading, suggesting that 14-3-3beta interaction with the beta1-integrin is not required for its regulation of cell adhesion. We next showed that mutations of several critical residues in the amphipathic groove did not affect 14-3-3beta interaction with the beta1-integrin. As expected, these mutants disrupted their association with the phosphoserine dependent ligands Raf and Cas. Analysis of the groove mutant LF (mutation of Arg129Tyr130 to Leu and Phe) indicated that, unlike wild type 14-3-3beta, it could not stimulate cell spreading or migration, suggesting that a functional amphipathic groove is required for 14-3-3 regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Consistent with this, cells expressing the LF mutant exhibited a delay in F-actin organization compared to cells expressing wild type or the S60A mutant (Ser 60 to Ala mutation) upon cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN). Taken together, these studies identified a novel binding site on 14-3-3 for integrin beta1 and showed that a functional amphipathic groove, rather than its interaction with integrin beta1, is required for 14-3-3 regulation of cell spreading and migration.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050, GM64086

    Journal of cellular physiology 2005;202;1;285-94

  • The CREB coactivator TORC2 functions as a calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detector.

    Screaton RA, Conkright MD, Katoh Y, Best JL, Canettieri G, Jeffries S, Guzman E, Niessen S, Yates JR, Takemori H, Okamoto M and Montminy M

    Peptide Biology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Elevations in circulating glucose and gut hormones during feeding promote pancreatic islet cell viability in part via the calcium- and cAMP-dependent activation of the transcription factor CREB. Here, we describe a signaling module that mediates the synergistic effects of these pathways on cellular gene expression by stimulating the dephosphorylation and nuclear entry of TORC2, a CREB coactivator. This module consists of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and the Ser/Thr kinase SIK2, both of which associate with TORC2. Under resting conditions, TORC2 is sequestered in the cytoplasm via a phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Triggering of the calcium and cAMP second messenger pathways by glucose and gut hormones disrupts TORC2:14-3-3 complexes via complementary effects on TORC2 dephosphorylation; calcium influx increases calcineurin activity, whereas cAMP inhibits SIK2 kinase activity. Our results illustrate how a phosphatase/kinase module connects two signaling pathways in response to nutrient and hormonal cues.

    Cell 2004;119;1;61-74

  • BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function.

    Seo SY, Chen YB, Ivanovska I, Ranger AM, Hong SJ, Dawson VL, Korsmeyer SJ, Bellows DS, Fannjiang Y and Hardwick JM

    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD21205, USA.

    The mammalian BAD protein belongs to the BH3-only subgroup of the BCL-2 family. In contrast to its known pro-apoptotic function, we found that endogenous and overexpressed BAD(L) can inhibit cell death in neurons and other cell types. Several mechanisms regulate the conversion of BAD from an anti-death to a pro-death factor, including alternative splicing that produces the N-terminally truncated BAD(S). In addition, caspases convert BAD(L) into a pro-death fragment that resembles the short splice variant. The caspase site that is selectively cleaved during cell death following growth factor (interleukin-3) withdrawal is conserved between human and murine BAD. A second cleavage site that is required for murine BAD to promote death following Sindbis virus infection, gamma-irradiation, and staurosporine treatment is not conserved in human BAD, consistent with the inability of human BAD to promote death with these stimuli. However, loss of the BAD N terminus by any mechanism is not always sufficient to activate its pro-death activity, suggesting that the N terminus is a regulatory domain rather than an anti-death domain. These findings suggest that BAD is more than an inert death factor in healthy cells; it is also a pro-survival factor, prior to its role in promoting cell death.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS34175, NS37402, R01 NS034175, R01 NS037402

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;40;42240-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • aPKC acts upstream of PAR-1b in both the establishment and maintenance of mammalian epithelial polarity.

    Suzuki A, Hirata M, Kamimura K, Maniwa R, Yamanaka T, Mizuno K, Kishikawa M, Hirose H, Amano Y, Izumi N, Miwa Y and Ohno S

    Department of Molecular Biology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan. abell@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    Background: aPKC and PAR-1 are required for cell polarity in various contexts. In mammalian epithelial cells, aPKC localizes at tight junctions (TJs) and plays an indispensable role in the development of asymmetric intercellular junctions essential for the establishment and maintenance of apicobasal polarity. On the other hand, one of the mammalian PAR-1 kinases, PAR-1b/EMK1/MARK2, localizes to the lateral membrane in a complimentary manner with aPKC, but little is known about its role in apicobasal polarity of epithelial cells as well as its functional relationship with aPKC.

    Results: We demonstrate that PAR-1b is essential for the asymmetric development of membrane domains of polarized MDCK cells. Nonetheless, it is not required for the junctional localization of aPKC nor the formation of TJs, suggesting that PAR-1b works downstream of aPKC during epithelial cell polarization. On the other hand, aPKC phosphorylates threonine 595 of PAR-1b and enhances its binding with 14-3-3/PAR-5. In polarized MDCK cells, T595 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding are observed only in the soluble form of PAR-1b, and okadaic acid treatment induces T595-dependent dissociation of PAR-1b from the lateral membrane. Furthermore, T595A mutation induces not only PAR-1b leakage into the apical membrane, but also abnormal development of membrane domains. These results suggest that in polarized epithelial cells, aPKC phosphorylates PAR-1b at TJs, and in cooperation with 14-3-3, promotes the dissociation of PAR-1b from the lateral membrane to regulate PAR-1b activity for the membrane domain development.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that mammalian aPKC functions upstream of PAR-1b in both the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity.

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1425-35

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Anchoring of both PKA and 14-3-3 inhibits the Rho-GEF activity of the AKAP-Lbc signaling complex.

    Diviani D, Abuin L, Cotecchia S and Pansier L

    Département de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie, Faculté de Médecine, Lausanne, Switzerland. Dario.diviani@ipharm.unil.ch

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) target the cAMP-regulated protein kinase (PKA) to its physiological substrates. We recently identified a novel anchoring protein, called AKAP-Lbc, which functions as a PKA-targeting protein as well as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoA. We demonstrated that AKAP-Lbc Rho-GEF activity is stimulated by the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G12. Here, we identified 14-3-3 as a novel regulatory protein interacting with AKAP-Lbc. Elevation of the cellular concentration of cAMP activates the PKA holoenzyme anchored to AKAP-Lbc, which phosphorylates the anchoring protein on the serine 1565. This phosphorylation event induces the recruitment of 14-3-3, which inhibits the Rho-GEF activity of AKAP-Lbc. AKAP-Lbc mutants that fail to interact with PKA or with 14-3-3 show a higher basal Rho-GEF activity as compared to the wild-type protein. This suggests that, under basal conditions, 14-3-3 maintains AKAP-Lbc in an inactive state. Therefore, while it is known that AKAP-Lbc activity can be stimulated by Galpha12, in this study we demonstrated that it is inhibited by the anchoring of both PKA and 14-3-3.

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;14;2811-20

  • The subcellular localization of the ChoRE-binding protein, encoded by the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region gene 14, is regulated by 14-3-3.

    Merla G, Howald C, Antonarakis SE and Reymond A

    Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland.

    The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by chromosomal rearrangements at chromosome band 7q11.23. Several endocrine phenotypes, in particular impaired glucose tolerance and silent diabetes, have been described for this clinically complex disorder. The WBSCR14 gene, one of the genes mapping to the WBS critical region, encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family of transcription factors, which dimerizes with the Max-like protein, Mlx. This heterodimeric complex binds and activates, in a glucose-dependent manner, carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) motifs in the promoter of lipogenic enzymes. We identified five novel WBSCR14-interacting proteins, four 14-3-3 isotypes and NIF3L1, which form a single polypeptide complex in mammalian cells. Phosphatase treatment abrogates the association between WBSCR14 and 14-3-3, as shown previously for multiple 14-3-3 interactors. WBSCR14 is exported actively from the nucleus through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. This translocation is contingent upon the ability to bind 14-3-3. Through this mechanism the 14-3-3 isotypes directly affect the WBSCR14:Mlx complexes, which activate the transcription of lipogenic genes.

    Human molecular genetics 2004;13;14;1505-14

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome?

    Kino T and Chrousos GP

    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1583, USA. kinot@mail.nih.gov

    Recent advances in the development of three different types of antiviral drugs, the nucleotide and non-nucleotide analogues acting as reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonpeptidic viral protease inhibitors (PI), and their introduction in the management of patients with AIDS, either alone or in combination, have dramatically improved the clinical course of the disease and prolonged life expectancy in patients with AIDS. The increase in life expectancy in association with the long-term use of the above antiviral agents, however, have generated novel morbidities and complications. Central among them is the quite common AIDS-related insulin resistance and lipodystrophy syndrome, which is characterized by a striking phenotype and marked metabolic disturbances. To look for the pathologic causes of this particular syndrome, we focused on one of the HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vpr, which has multiple functions, such as virion incorporation, nuclear translocation of the HIV-1 preintegration complex, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, transcriptional activation, and induction of apoptosis. Vpr may also act like a hormone, which is secreted into the extracellular space and affects the function of distant organs. Vpr functions as a coactivator of the glucocorticoid receptor and potentiates the action of glucocorticoid hormones, thereby inducing tissue glucocorticoid hypersensitivity. Vpr also arrests host cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by interacting with novel 14-3-3 proteins. Vpr facilitates the interaction of 14-3-3 and its partner protein Cdc25C, which is critical for the transition of G2/M checkpoint in the cell cycle, and suppresses its activity by segregating it into the cytoplasm. The same Vpr protein also suppresses the association of 14-3-3 with other partner molecules, the Foxo transcription factors. Since the Foxo proteins function as negative transcription factors for insulin, Vpr may cause resistance of tissues to insulin. Through these two newly identified functions of Vpr, namely, coactivation of glucocorticoid receptor activity and inhibition of insulin effects on Foxo proteins, Vpr may participate in the development of AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004;1024;153-67

  • A pathway of neuregulin-induced activation of cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot and cofilin in lamellipodia.

    Nagata-Ohashi K, Ohta Y, Goto K, Chiba S, Mori R, Nishita M, Ohashi K, Kousaka K, Iwamatsu A, Niwa R, Uemura T and Mizuno K

    Dept. of Biomolecular Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan.

    Cofilin mediates lamellipodium extension and polarized cell migration by stimulating actin filament dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells. Cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-3 and reactivated by cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-1L (SSH1L). Little is known of signaling mechanisms of cofilin activation and how this activation is spatially regulated. Here, we show that cofilin-phosphatase activity of SSH1L increases approximately 10-fold by association with actin filaments, which indicates that actin assembly at the leading edge per se triggers local activation of SSH1L and thereby stimulates cofilin-mediated actin turnover in lamellipodia. We also provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins inhibit SSH1L activity, dependent on the phosphorylation of Ser-937 and Ser-978 of SSH1L. Stimulation of cells with neuregulin-1beta induced Ser-978 dephosphorylation, translocation of SSH1L onto F-actin-rich lamellipodia, and cofilin dephosphorylation. These findings suggest that SSH1L is locally activated by translocation to and association with F-actin in lamellipodia in response to neuregulin-1beta and 14-3-3 proteins negatively regulate SSH1L activity by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;165;4;465-71

  • 14-3-3 suppresses the nuclear localization of threonine 157-phosphorylated p27(Kip1).

    Sekimoto T, Fukumoto M and Yoneda Y

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    p27(Kip1) (p27), a CDK inhibitor, migrates into the nucleus, where it controls cyclin-CDK complex activity for proper cell cycle progression. We report here that the classical bipartite-type basic amino-acid cluster and the two downstream amino acids of the C-terminal region of p27 function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for its full nuclear import activity. Importin alpha3 and alpha5, but not alpha1, transported p27 into the nucleus in conjunction with importin beta, as evidenced by an in vitro transport assay. It is known that Akt phosphorylates Thr 157 of p27 and this reduces the nuclear import activity of p27. Using a pull-down experiment, 14-3-3 was identified as the Thr157-phosphorylated p27NLS-binding protein. Although importin alpha5 bound to Thr157-phosphorylated p27NLS, 14-3-3 competed with importin alpha5 for binding to it. Thus, 14-3-3 sequestered phosphorylated p27NLS from importin alpha binding, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of NLS-phosphorylated p27. These findings indicate that 14-3-3 suppresses importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear localization of Thr157-phosphorylated p27, suggesting implications for cell cycle disorder in Akt-activated cancer cells.

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;9;1934-42

  • HIV-1-mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells: Proximal molecular mechanisms of HIV-1-induced encephalopathy.

    Xu Y, Kulkosky J, Acheampong E, Nunnari G, Sullivan J and Pomerantz RJ

    Dorrance H. Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Suite 329, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    The induction of neuronal cell death in vivo has been recognized as a prominent feature of HIV type I (HIV-1) infection leading to HIV-1-induced encephalopathy. Viral and host cell products, released from HIV-1-infected cells, have been implicated as inducers of neuronal cell apoptosis. It is unclear which is more important in this process. Neuronal cells were treated with media bearing HIV-1 virions derived from infected T cells and macrophage or the same set of media depleted of virions. T cell media bearing virus induced high levels of apoptosis, whereas that depleted of virions did not. In contrast, neurons treated with media from infected macrophages induced cell death whether virions were present or depleted by ultracentrifugation. The former initiated a repeatedly and significantly higher degree of apoptosis. These data suggest that exposure of neurons to viral products is critical for the induction of apoptosis, in addition to putative host factors released from virally infected cells. Protein-array analyses identified host cell factors up-regulated from infected macrophages, versus their uninfected counterparts, and these host cell factors may be prime candidates for contributing to neuronal apoptosis. Gene-array analyses also identified mRNAs up-regulated in human neurons after treatment with purified HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein or virus-containing media from HIV-1-infected macrophages. These analyses suggest molecular mechanisms for the induction of apoptosis relating to the exposure of viral and host cell factors and rationally designed approaches toward neuroprotection.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA13849, R21 AA013849; NINDS NIH HHS: NS21405, NS41864, R01 NS041864

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;18;7070-5

  • Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Kino T and Pavlakis GN

    Human Retrovirus Section, Center for Basic Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA.

    Vpr (Viral protein-R) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 is a 14-kDa virion-associated protein, conserved in HIV-1, -2 and the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). Vpr is incorporated into the virion, travels to the nucleus, and has multiple activities including promoter activation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and apoptosis induction. Through these activities, Vpr is thought to influence not only viral replication but also numerous host cell functions. These functions may be categorized in three groups depending on the domains of Vpr that support them: (1) functions mediated by the amino terminal portion of Vpr, like virion packaging; (2) functions mediated by the carboxyl terminal portion such as cell cycle arrest; and (3) functions that depend on central alpha-helical structures such as transcriptional activation, apoptosis and subcellular shuttling. Association of these activities to specific regions of the Vpr molecule appears to correlate to the host/viral molecules that interact with corresponding portion of Vpr. They include Gag, host transcription factors/coactivators such as SP1, the glucocorticoid receptor, p300/CREB-binding protein and TFIIB, apoptotic adenine nucleotide translocator, cyclophilin A and 14-3-3 proteins. The properties of Vpr molecule has made it difficult to assess its function and determine the true cellular interactors. Further studies on Vpr function are needed to fully assess the function of this important early regulatory molecule of HIV and other lentiviruses.

    DNA and cell biology 2004;23;4;193-205

  • Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network.

    Brajenovic M, Joberty G, Küster B, Bouwmeester T and Drewes G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The polarization of eukaryotic cells is controlled by the concerted activities of asymmetrically localized proteins. The PAR proteins, first identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, are common regulators of cell polarity conserved from nematode and flies to man. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins and protein complexes establish cell polarity in mammals. We have mapped multiprotein complexes formed around the putative human Par orthologs MARK4 (microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4) (Par-1), Par-3, LKB1 (Par-4), 14-3-3zeta and eta (Par-5), Par-6a, -b, -c, and PKClambda (PKC3). We employed a proteomic approach comprising tandem affinity purification (TAP) of protein complexes from cultured cells and protein sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. From these data we constructed a highly interconnected protein network consisting of three core complex "modules" formed around MARK4 (Par-1), Par-3.Par-6, and LKB1 (Par-4). The network confirms most previously reported interactions. In addition we identified more than 50 novel interactors, some of which, like the 14-3-3 phospho-protein scaffolds, occur in more than one distinct complex. We demonstrate that the complex formation between LKB1.Par-4, PAPK, and Mo25 results in the translocation of LKB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and to tight junctions and show that the LKB1 complex may activate MARKs, which are known to introduce 14-3-3 binding sites into several substrates. Our findings suggest co-regulation and/or signaling events between the distinct Par complexes and provide a basis for further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern cell polarity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;13;12804-11

  • 14-3-3beta binds to big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1/ERK5) and regulates BMK1 function.

    Zheng Q, Yin G, Yan C, Cavet M and Berk BC

    Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aab Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Big mitogen-activated kinase 1 (BMK1/ERK5) is a member of the MAPK family activated by growth factors that mediates cell growth and survival. Previous data show that BMK1 can be activated by steady laminar flow and is atheroprotective by preventing endothelial cells from undergoing apoptosis. The primary structure of BMK1 is distinct from other MAPK members by virtue of a unique long C-tail, suggesting specific mechanisms of regulation. To characterize regulatory mechanisms for BMK1 function, we identified binding proteins by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Among these proteins, the scaffolding protein 14-3-3 was identified. BMK1 bound to 14-3-3beta in vitro and in vivo as demonstrated by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-14-3-3beta fusion protein pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation of BMK1 was most likely required for this interaction. GST-14-3-3beta pull-down assays using truncated constructs of BMK1 and site-directed BMK1 mutants demonstrated that the interaction requires serine 486 within the C terminus of BMK1. BMK1 bound to 14-3-3beta basally, and the interaction was greatly abrogated when BMK1 was activated. The interaction of 14-3-3beta and BMK1 inhibited kinase activities stimulated by constitutively active (CA)-MEK5 and epidermal growth factor. Mutation of serine 486 (BMK1-S486A) prevented the interaction with 14-3-3beta and enhanced BMK1 activity upon epidermal growth factor stimulation. These data demonstrate an inhibitory function for 14-3-3beta binding to BMK1 and show that serine 486 phosphorylation represents a novel regulatory mechanism for BMK1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;10;8787-91

  • Association of a four-amino acid residue insertion polymorphism of the HS1 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular and functional analysis.

    Otsuka J, Horiuchi T, Yoshizawa S, Tsukamoto H, Sawabe T, Kikuchi Y, Himeji D, Koyama T, Mitoma H, Watanabe T and Harada M

    Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Objective: To investigate whether polymorphism(s) or mutation(s) in the hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1 (HS1) gene are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Methods: The entire coding region of the HS1 gene was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. HS1-transfected WEHI-231 cells or B lymphocytes from patients with SLE were studied for apoptosis, activation, and proliferation by flow cytometric analysis and MTT assay.

    Results: We identified a glutamic acid-proline-glutamic acid-proline insertion between codons 366 and 367 (EPEP366-367ins) and 2 amino acid substitutions (A235T and E361K). The genotype frequency among individuals homozygous for the EPEP+ allele was 0.184 in 201 patients with SLE but only 0.098 in 184 healthy individuals (P = 0.016). The allele frequency of EPEP366-367ins was 0.408 in patients with SLE; this frequency was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (0.312) (P = 0.006). WEHI-231 cells transfected with EPEP+ HS1 were 100-fold more sensitive to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis than were those transfected with HS1 without EPEP. B lymphocytes from SLE patients with the EPEP+ allele were significantly more apoptotic without BCR stimulation and less activated after BCR stimulation than were those from SLE patients without the EPEP allele.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that HS1 with the EPEP insertion polymorphism transmits accelerated signals from BCR and is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.

    Arthritis and rheumatism 2004;50;3;871-81

  • Computational and experimental studies on human misshapen/NIK-related kinase MINK-1.

    Qu K, Lu Y, Lin N, Singh R, Xu X, Payan DG and Xu D

    Rigel, Inc., 1180 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. kqu@rigel.com

    We have studied the structure and function of Human Misshapen/NIK-related kinase (MINK-1) through a combination of computational methods and experimental approaches, including (1) fold recognition and sequence-structure alignment for each structural domain using the threading program PROSPECT, (2) gene expression and protein-protein interaction analysis of yeast homologs of human MINK-1 domains, and (3) yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with human MINK-1. Our structure prediction dissects MINK-1 into four domains: a conserved N-terminal kinase domain, followed by a coiled-coil region and a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal GCK domain. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid analysis of yeast homologs of the MINK-1 domains suggest that MINK-1 may be involved in cell-cycle progression and cytoskeletal control. Consistent with these predicted functions, our in-house yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with human MINK-1 provides strong evidence that the coiled-coil and proline-rich domains of MINK-1 participate in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A homology model of the MINK-1 kinase domain was used to screen the NCI open compound database in DOCK, and chemical compounds with pharmaceutically acceptable properties were identified. Further medicinal chemistry compound structure optimization and kinase assays are underway.

    Current medicinal chemistry 2004;11;5;569-82

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 11p110 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibit the interaction between tyrosine hydroxylase and 14-3-3.

    Sachs NA and Vaillancourt RR

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is regulated by the reversible phosphorylation of serines 8, 19, 31 and 40. Upon initiation of this study, serine 19 was unique due to its requirement of 14-3-3 binding after phosphorylation for optimal enzyme activity, although it has been more recently demonstrated that phosphorylated serine 40 also binds 14-3-3. To identify proteins that interact with TH following phosphorylation of serine 19, this amino acid was mutated to alanine and THS19A was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system. From this, mouse-derived cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11)p110 was identified as an interacting partner with THS19A. The interaction was confirmed using human CDK11p110 cDNA in a mammalian system. Previous research has demonstrated that casein kinase 2 (CK2) interacts with CDK11p110, and both were observed to phosphorylate TH in vitro. In addition, CDK11p110 overexpression was observed to inhibit the interaction between TH and 14-3-3. A mechanism contributing to disruption of the interaction between TH and 14-3-3 may be due to CK2 phosphorylation of specific 14-3-3 isoforms, i.e. 14-3-3 tau. Collectively, these results imply that CDK11p110 and CK2 negatively regulate TH catecholamine biosynthetic activity since phosphoserine 19 of TH requires 14-3-3 binding for optimal enzyme activity and a decreased rate of dephosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG19710; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES07091, ES12007, P30 ES06694, P42 ES04940

    Journal of neurochemistry 2004;88;1;51-62

  • Phosphorylation of critical serine residues in Gem separates cytoskeletal reorganization from down-regulation of calcium channel activity.

    Ward Y, Spinelli B, Quon MJ, Chen H, Ikeda SR and Kelly K

    Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute/NIH, Building 10, Room 3B43, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Gem is a small GTP-binding protein that has a ras-like core and extended chains at each terminus. The primary structure of Gem and other RGK family members (Rad, Rem, and Rem2) predicts a GTPase deficiency, leading to the question of how Gem functional activity is regulated. Two functions for Gem have been demonstrated, including inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and inhibition of Rho kinase-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, such as stress fiber formation and neurite retraction. These functions for Gem have been ascribed to its interaction with the calcium channel beta subunit and Rho kinase beta, respectively. We show here that these functions are separable and regulated by distinct structural modifications to Gem. Phosphorylation of serines 261 and 289, located in the C-terminal extension, is required for Gem-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, while GTP and possibly calmodulin binding are required for calcium channel inhibition. In addition to regulating cytoskeletal reorganization, phosphorylation of serine 289 in conjunction with serine 23 results in bidentate 14-3-3 binding, leading to increased Gem protein half-life. Evidence presented shows that phosphorylation of serine 261 is mediated via a cdc42/protein kinase Czeta-dependent pathway. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation of serines 261 and 289, outside the GTP-binding region of Gem, controls its inhibition of Rho kinase beta and associated changes in the cytoskeleton.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;2;651-61

  • Interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR): evidence for a role of 14-3-3 proteins in IGFIR signaling.

    Spence SL, Dey BR, Terry C, Albert P, Nissley P and Furlanetto RW

    Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    We have extended our previous yeast two-hybrid findings to show that 14-3-3beta also interacts with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) in mammalian cells overexpressing both proteins and that the interaction involves serine 1283 and is dependent on receptor activation. Treatment of cells with the phorbol ester PMA stimulates the interaction of 14-3-3beta with the IGFIR in the absence of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that receptor activation leads to activation of an endogenous protein kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine 1283. To investigate the role of 14-3-3 proteins in IGF signal transduction, IGFIR structure-function studies were performed. Mutation of serine 1283 alone (S1283A) (a mutation that decreases but does not abolish the interaction of the IGFIR with 14-3-3) did not affect anchorage-independent growth of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing the mutant receptor. However, the simultaneous mutation of this residue and the truncation of the C-terminal 27 residues of the receptor (Delta1310/S1283A) abolished the interaction of the receptor with 14-3-3 and reversed the enhanced colony formation observed with the IGFIR truncation mutation alone (Delta1310). The difference between the Delta1310 and Delta1310/S1283A transfectants in the soft agar assay was confirmed by tumorigenesis experiments. These findings suggest that 14-3-3 proteins interact with the IGFIR in vivo and that this interaction may play a role in a transformation pathway signaled by the IGFIR.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 1R01 DK51657

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;312;4;1060-6

  • Tuberous sclerosis genes regulate cellular 14-3-3 protein levels.

    Hengstschläger M, Rosner M, Fountoulakis M and Lubec G

    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vienna, Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, Austria.

    The genes TSC1, encoding hamartin, and TSC2, encoding tuberin are responsible for tuberous sclerosis. This autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affects about 1 in 6000 individuals. A variety of tumors characteristically occur in different organs of tuberous sclerosis patients and are believed to result from defects in cell cycle/cell size control. We performed a proteomics approach of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of protein spots after ectopic overexpression of human TSC1 or TSC2. We found the cellular levels of four isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3, 14-3-3 sigma, and 14-3-3 zeta, to be regulated by the two tuberous sclerosis gene products. In the same experiments the protein levels of keratin 7, capZ alpha-1 subunit, ezrin, and nedasin were not affected by ectopic TSC1 or TSC2. Western blot analyses confirmed the deregulation of 14-3-3 proteins upon ectopic overexpression of TSC1 and TSC2. A TSC1 mutant not encoding the transmembrane domain and the tuberin-binding domain but harbouring most of the coiled-coil region and the ERM protein interaction domain of hamartin did not affect 14-3-3 protein levels. The here presented findings suggest that deregulation of 14-3-3 protein amounts might contribute to the development of tumors in tuberous sclerosis patients. These data provide important new insights into the molecular development of this disease especially since both, the TSC genes and the 14-3-3 proteins, are known to be involved in mammalian cell cycle control.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;312;3;676-83

  • DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen-immortalized embryonic fibroblast cells requires SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase.

    Yuan L, Yu WM and Qu CK

    Department of Hematopoiesis, Jerome H. Holland Laboratory for the Biomedical Sciences, American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland 20855, USA.

    DNA damage induced by radiation or DNA-damaging agents leads to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, DNA damage-triggered signal transduction involved in these cellular responses is not well understood. We previously demonstrated an important role for SHP-2, a ubiquitously expressed SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase, in the DNA damage-induced apoptotic response. Here we report a potential role for SHP-2 in a DNA damage-activated cell cycle checkpoint. Cell cycle analysis and the mitotic index assay showed that following DNA damage induced by cisplatin or gamma-irradiation, the G2 (but not S) arrest response was diminished in SV40 large T antigen-immortalized embryonic fibroblast cells lacking functional SHP-2. Notably, reintroduction of wild-type SHP-2 into the mutant cells fully restored the DNA damage-induced G2 arrest response, suggesting a direct role of SHP-2 in the G2/M checkpoint. Further biochemical analysis revealed that SHP-2 constitutively associated with 14-3-3beta, and that Cdc25C cytoplasmic translocation induced by DNA damage was essentially blocked in SHP-2 mutant cells. Additionally, we showed that following DNA damage, activation of p38 kinase was significantly elevated, while Erk kinase activation was decreased in mutant cells, and treatment of SHP-2 mutant cells with SB203580, a selective inhibitor for p38 kinase, partially restored the DNA damage-induced G2 arrest response. These results together provide the first evidence that SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase enhances the DNA damage G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen immortalized murine embryonic fibroblast cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL68212-01A1

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;44;42812-20

  • Alternative splicing as a mechanism for regulating 14-3-3 binding: interactions between hD53 (TPD52L1) and 14-3-3 proteins.

    Boutros R, Bailey AM, Wilson SH and Byrne JA

    Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Oncology Research Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

    D52 (TPD52)-like proteins are coiled-coil motif-bearing proteins first identified through their expression in human breast carcinoma, which have been proposed to represent signalling intermediates and regulators of vesicle trafficking. D52-like gene transcripts are subject to alternative splicing, with sequences encoding a region termed insert 3 being affected in all three D52-like genes. We have now identified a 14-3-3 binding motif within one of two alternatively spliced exons encoding insert 3. As predicted from the distribution of 14-3-3 binding motifs in four hD52-like bait proteins tested, only a hD53 isoform encoding a 14-3-3 binding motif bound both 14-3-3beta and 14-3-3zeta preys in the yeast two-hybrid system. Since D53 proteins carrying 14-3-3 binding motifs are predicted to be widely expressed, polyclonal antisera were derived to specifically detect these isoforms. Using soluble protein extracts from breast carcinoma cell lines, pull-down assays replicated interactions between recombinant 14-3-3beta and 14-3-3zeta isoforms and exogenously expressed hD53, and co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated interactions between endogenous 14-3-3 and both endogenously and exogenously-expressed hD53 protein. Co-expressed hD53 and 14-3-3 proteins were similarly demonstrated to co-localise within the cytoplasm of breast carcinoma cell lines. These results identify 14-3-3 proteins as partners for hD53, and alternative splicing as a mechanism for regulating 14-3-3 binding.

    Journal of molecular biology 2003;332;3;675-87

  • Expression of death-associated protein kinase and recruitment to the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway following brief seizures.

    Henshall DC, Araki T, Schindler CK, Shinoda S, Lan JQ and Simon RP

    Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Clinical Research & Technology Center, 1225 NE 2nd Avenue, Portland, OR 97232, USA. dhenshall@DowNeurobiology.org

    Death-associated protein (DAP) kinase is calcium-regulated and known to function downstream of death receptors, prompting us to examine its role in the mechanism of seizure-induced neuronal death. Brief seizures were focally evoked in rats, eliciting neuronal death within the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus, and to a lesser extent, cortex. Western blotting confirmed expression of DAP kinase within hippocampus and cortex at the predicted weight of approximately 160 kDa. Immunohistochemistry revealed seizures triggered a significant increase in numbers of DAP kinase-expressing cells within CA3 and cortex, without affecting cell counts within seizure-resistant CA2 or the dentate gyrus. Numbers of DAP kinase-expressing cells were increased in relation to specific patterns of injury-causing seizure activity, electrographically defined. Seizures caused an early increase in DAP kinase binding to actin, and association with calmodulin. Co-immunoprecipitation studies also revealed seizures triggered binding of DAP kinase to the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and the Fas-associated death domain protein, commensurate with caspase-8 proteolysis. In contrast, within surviving fields of the hippocampus, DAP kinase interacted with the molecular chaperone 14-3-3. These data suggest DAP kinase is involved in the molecular pathways activated during seizure-induced neuronal death.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 39016, NS 41935

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;86;5;1260-70

  • The MSP receptor regulates alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrins via 14-3-3 proteins in keratinocyte migration.

    Santoro MM, Gaudino G and Marchisio PC

    Department of Medical Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", 28100, Novara, Italy. msantoro@med.unipmn.it

    Growth factors, integrins, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play key roles in epidermal wound healing, although the interplay between these proteins is not fully understood. We show that growth factor macrophage stimulating protein (MSP)- and its receptor Ron-mediated PI3K activation in keratinocytes induces phosphorylation of both Ron and alpha6beta4 integrin at specific 14-3-3 binding sites. Consequently, a Ron/alpha6beta4 complex formed via 14-3-3 binding displaces alpha6beta4 from its location at hemidesmosomes (structures supporting cell adhesion) and relocalizes it to lamellipodia. Concomitant activation of alpha3beta1 and keratinocyte spreading/migration on laminin-5 occurs. Further, MSP-dependent beta4 tyrosine phosphorylation evokes p38 and NF-kappaB signaling required for keratinocyte wound closure. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism based on MSP-Ron-dependent phosphorylation and 14-3-3 association, whereby the function of alpha6beta4 switches from a mechanical adhesive device into a signaling component, and might be critically involved in human epidermal wound healing.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;2;257-71

  • Immunoexpression of 14-3-3 proteins in glial cytoplasmic inclusions of multiple system atrophy.

    Komori T, Ishizawa K, Arai N, Hirose T, Mizutani T and Oda M

    Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, 2-6 Musashidai, Fuchu City, 183-8526 Tokyo, Japan. komori@tmin.ac.jp

    Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) are the histological hallmark of multiple system atrophy (MSA). In six postmortem brains of patients with MSA, 14-3-3-protein immunoreactivity was identified in GCIs predominately in the white matter tissue of the basal forebrain and cerebellum. Using double immunohistochemistry, co-localization of 14-3-3-protein and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivities in the GCIs was confirmed. The immunolabeling rate of GCIs with 14-3-3 proteins varied regionally from approximately 40% to 90%. Semiquantitative analysis yielded a significant negative correlation between degree of tissue degeneration and density of 14-3-3-protein-immunoreactive GCIs. The 14-3-3 proteins are active cofactors involved in cellular regulation through binding to phosphorylated motifs in target proteins and alpha-synuclein is a known target of 14-3-3. Our study suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are closely associated with alpha-synuclein in GCIs and 14-3-3 proteins may be candidate cofactors of alpha-synuclein in GCI formation.

    Acta neuropathologica 2003;106;1;66-70

  • Interaction of 14-3-3 with Bid during seizure-induced neuronal death.

    Shinoda S, Schindler CK, Quan-Lan J, Saugstad JA, Taki W, Simon RP and Henshall DC

    Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Research, Portland, Oregon 97232, USA.

    Seizure-induced neuronal death may involve coordinated intracellular trafficking and protein-protein interactions of members of the Bcl-2 family. The 14-3-3 proteins are known to sequester certain pro-apoptotic members of this family. BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) may contribute to seizure-induced neuronal death, although regulation by 14-3-3 has not been reported. In this study we examined whether 14-3-3 proteins interact with Bid during seizure-induced neuronal death. Brief seizures were evoked in rats by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid to elicit unilateral hippocampal CA3 neuronal death. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that although Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) constitutively bound 14-3-3, there was no interaction between Bid and 14-3-3 in control brain. Seizures triggered Bid cleavage and a commensurate increase in binding of Bid to 14-3-3 within injured hippocampus. Casein kinases I and II, which can inactivate Bid by phosphoserine/threonine modification, did not coimmunoprecipitate with Bid. The largely uninjured contralateral hippocampus did not exhibit Bid cleavage or binding of 14-3-3 to Bid. In vitro experiments confirmed that 14-3-3beta is capable of binding truncated Bid, likely in the absence of phosphoserine/threonine modification. These data suggest 14-3-3 proteins may target active as well as inactive conformations of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 death agonists, highlighting novel targets for intervention in seizure-induced neuronal death.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS39016, NS411935

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;86;2;460-9

  • Cleavage of 14-3-3 protein by caspase-3 facilitates bad interaction with Bcl-x(L) during apoptosis.

    Won J, Kim DY, La M, Kim D, Meadows GG and Joe CO

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701, South Korea.

    The 14-3-3 epsilon protein was identified as one of the caspase-3 substrates by the modified yeast two-hybrid system. The cellular 14-3-3 epsilon protein was also cleaved in response to the treatment of apoptosis inducers in cultured mammalian cells. Asp238 of the 14-3-3 epsilon protein was determined as the site of cleavage by caspase-3. The affinity of the cleaved 14-3-3 mutant protein (D238) to Bad, a death-promoting Bcl-2 family protein, was lower than that of wild type or the uncleavable mutant 14-3-3 epsilon protein (D238A). However, Bad associated with the cellular Bcl-x(L) more effectively in human 293T cells co-expressing Bad with the truncated form of the 14-3-3 epsilon protein (D238) than in control cells co-expressing Bad with wild type or the uncleavable mutant 14-3-3 epsilon protein (D238A). The present study suggests that the cleavage of 14-3-3 protein during apoptosis promotes cell death by releasing the associated Bad from the 14-3-3 protein and facilitates Bad translocation to the mitochondria and its interaction with Bcl-x(L).

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;21;19347-51

  • 14-3-3beta is a p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) isoform 1-binding protein that negatively regulates RSK kinase activity.

    Cavet ME, Lehoux S and Berk BC

    Center for Cardiovascular Research and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 upon mitogen stimulation. Under basal conditions, RSK1 is located in the cytosol and upon stimulation, RSK1 translocates to the plasma membrane where it is fully activated. The ability of RSK1 to bind the adapter protein 14-3-3beta was investigated because RSK1 contains several putative 14-3-3-binding motifs. We demonstrate that RSK1 specifically and directly binds 14-3-3beta. This interaction was dependent on phosphorylation of serine 154 within the motif RLSKEV of RSK1. Binding of RSK1 to 14-3-3beta was maximal under basal conditions and decreased significantly upon mitogen stimulation. After 5 min of serum stimulation, a portion of 14-3-3beta and RSK1 translocated to the membrane fraction, and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated colocalization of RSK1 and 14-3-3beta at the plasma membrane in vivo. Incubation of recombinant RSK1 with 14-3-3beta decreased RSK1 kinase activity by approximately 50%. Mutation of RSK1 serine 154 increased both basal and serum-stimulated RSK activity. In addition, the epidermal growth factor response of RSK1S154A was enhanced compared with wild type RSK. The amount of RSK1S154A was significantly increased in the membrane fraction under basal conditions. Increased phosphorylation of two sites essential for RSK1 kinase activity (Ser(380) and Ser(363)) in RSK1S154A compared with RSK1 wild type, demonstrated that 14-3-3 interferes with RSK1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that 14-3-3beta binding negatively regulates RSK1 activity to maintain signal specificity and that association/dissociation of the 14-3-3beta-RSK1 complex is likely to be important for mitogen-mediated RSK1 activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL07949, R01 HL44721

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;20;18376-83

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • The p38 and MK2 kinase cascade phosphorylates tuberin, the tuberous sclerosis 2 gene product, and enhances its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Li Y, Inoki K, Vacratsis P and Guan KL

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes. TSC1 and TSC2 (also known as hamartin and tuberin, respectively) form a functional complex and negatively regulate cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. 14-3-3 binds to TSC2 and may inhibit TSC2 function. We have reported previously that phosphorylation of serine 1210 (Ser(1210)) in TSC2 is essential for 14-3-3 binding. Here we show that serum and anisomycin enhance the interaction between TSC2 and 14-3-3 by stimulating phosphorylation of Ser(1210). Activation of p38 MAP kinase (p38) is essential for the stimulating effect of serum and anisomycin although p38 is not directly responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser(1210) in TSC2. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the p38-activated kinase MK2 (also known as MAPKAPK2) is directly responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser(1210). Our data show that anisomycin stimulates phosphorylation of Ser(1210) of TSC2 via the p38-MK2 kinase cascade. Phosphorylation of TSC2 by MK2 creates a 14-3-3 binding site and thus regulates the cellular function of the TSC2 tumor suppressor protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;16;13663-71

  • Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis.

    Yuryev A and Wennogle LP

    Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Summit, NJ 07901, USA.

    We have performed an exhaustive unbiased yeast two-hybrid analysis to identify interaction partners of two human Raf kinase isoforms, A-Raf and C-Raf, using their N-terminal regulatory domain as "bait." A total of 20 different human proteins were found to interact with Raf isoforms. Several of these interactions were novel and an extensive bioinformatics evaluation was performed for each. The novel putative interactions include a signalosome component, TOPK/PBK kinase, and two new putative protein phosphatases. The cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain (CRD) of Raf was found to interact with all 20 proteins and to achieve isoform-specific interactions. Since similar putative CRDs are present in a variety of protein serine-threonine kinases, the data suggest that the CRD may function as a major protein-protein interaction domain of these kinases. We propose possible functional consequences of these novel Raf interactions.

    Genomics 2003;81;2;112-25

  • 14-3-3beta binds to and negatively regulates the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) tumor suppressor gene product, tuberin.

    Shumway SD, Li Y and Xiong Y

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Program in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7295, USA.

    TSC2, or tuberin, is the product of the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor gene TSC2 and acts downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway to negatively regulate cellular growth. One mechanism underlying its function is to assemble into a heterodimer with the TSC1 gene product TSC1, or hamartin, resulting in a reduction in phosphorylation, and hence activation, of the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase (S6K). We identified a novel interaction between TSC2 and 14-3-3beta. We found that 14-3-3beta does not interfere with TSC1-TSC2 binding and can form a ternary complex with these two proteins. Association between 14-3-3beta and TSC2 requires phosphorylation of TSC2 at a unique residue that is not a known Akt phosphorylation site. The overexpression of 14-3-3beta compromises the ability of the TSC1-TSC2 complex to reduce S6K phosphorylation. The antagonistic activity of 14-3-3beta toward TSC is dependent on the 14-3-3beta-TSC2 interaction, since a mutant of TSC2 that is not recognized by 14-3-3beta is refractory to 14-3-3beta. We suggest that 14-3-3 proteins interact with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and negatively regulate the function of the TSC proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65572

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;4;2089-92

  • A novel germ line-specific gene of the phosducin-like protein (PhLP) family. A meiotic function conserved from yeast to mice.

    Lopez P, Yaman R, Lopez-Fernandez LA, Vidal F, Puel D, Clertant P, Cuzin F and Rassoulzadegan M

    University of Nice, INSERM U470, 06108 Nice, France.

    We identified a new member of the phosducin-like (PhLP) protein family that is predominantly, if not exclusively, expressed in male and female germ cells. In situ analysis on testis sections and analysis of purified spermatogenic cell fractions evidenced a stage-specific expression with high levels of RNA and protein in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Three mRNA species were detected, which correspond to different polyadenylation sites and vary in abundance during germ cell maturation. Only low levels of RNA were detected in whole ovary extracts, but expression of the protein became detectable within hours after hormonal induction of superovulation. The gene (Mgcphlp) is located on mouse chromosome 5 in the immediate vicinity of the Clock locus. The predicted amino acid sequence shows extensive similarities not only with the known mammalian PhLP proteins but also with the yeast phosducin-like protein Plp2, required for the production and growth of haploid cells. Expression of the murine protein was found to complement the defect of a yeast plp2 Delta mutant. We propose that MgcPhLP/Plp2 proteins exert a function in germ cell maturation that is conserved from yeast to mammals.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;3;1751-7

  • Mammalian and yeast 14-3-3 isoforms form distinct patterns of dimers in vivo.

    Chaudhri M, Scarabel M and Aitken A

    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.

    The 14-3-3 protein family associates with many proteins involved in intracellular signalling. In many cases, there is a distinct preference for a particular isoform(s) of 14-3-3. A specific repertoire of 14-3-3 dimer formation may therefore influence which of the interacting proteins could be brought together. We have analysed the pattern of dimer formation for two of the most abundant isoforms of 14-3-3, epsilon ( epsilon ) and gamma (gamma), following their stable expression. This revealed a distinct preference for particular dimer combinations that is largely independent of cellular conditions. gamma 14-3-3 occurred as homodimers and also formed heterodimers, mainly with epsilon 14-3-3 (In PC12 and Cos cells). The epsilon isoform formed heterodimers with 14-3-3 beta, gamma, zeta, and eta, but no homodimers were detected. The two 14-3-3 homologues, BMH1 and BMH2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were mainly heterodimers.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;300;3;679-85

  • 14-3-3 binding to the IGF-1 receptor is mediated by serine autophosphorylation.

    Parvaresch S, Yesilkaya T, Baer K, Al-Hasani H and Klein HW

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Cologne, Otto-Fischer-Str. 12-14, 50674, Cologne, Germany.

    The phosphoserine-binding 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in playing a role in mitogenic and apoptotic signaling pathways. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to phosphoserine residues in the C-terminus of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been described to occur in a variety of cell systems, but the kinase responsible for this serine phosphorylation has not been identified yet. Here we present evidence that the isolated dimeric insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor kinase domain (IGFKD) contains a dual specific (i.e. tyrosine/serine) kinase activity that mediates autophosphorylation of C-terminal serine residues in the enzyme. From the total phosphate incorporation of approximately 4 mol per mol kinase subunit, 1 mol accounts for serine phosphate. However, tyrosine autophosphorylation proceeds more rapidly than autophosphorylation of serine residues (t(1/2) approximately 1 min vs. t(1/2) approximately 5 min). Moreover, dot-blot and far-Western analyses reveal that serine autophosphorylation of IGFKD is sufficient to promote binding of 14-3-3 proteins in vitro. The proof that dual kinase activity of IGFKD is necessary and sufficient for 14-3-3 binding was obtained with an inactive kinase mutant that was phosphorylated on serine residues in a stoichiometric reaction with the catalytically active enzyme. Thus, the IGF-1R itself might be responsible for the serine autophosphorylation which leads to recognition of 14-3-3 proteins in vivo.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;3;357-62

  • The interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta.

    Zhu P, Sang Y, Xu R, Zhao J, Li C and Zhao S

    Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    ADAM family consists of a number of transmembrane proteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. ADAMs are involved in a highly diverse set of biological processes, including fertilization, neurogenesis, myogenesis and inflammatory response. The ADAM proteins have both cell adhesion and protease activities. Adam22 is highly expressed in human brain. The adam22-/- mice presented severe ataxia and died before weaning, but the function of ADAM22 is still unknown. 14-3-3 beta interacting with ADAM22 was detected by using yeast two-hybrid assay. The specificity of interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta was proved by in vitro binding assay and immunoprecipitation. The major 14-3-3beta binding site was located in the last 28 amino acid residues of ADAM22 cytoplasmic tail. Protein 14-3-3beta is abundant and plays an important role in mediating cell diffusion, migration and cell cycle control. The interaction of ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta suggests that the ADAM22 may play a crucial role in neural function and development.

    Science in China. Series C, Life sciences 2002;45;6;577-82

  • A novel heterodimerization domain, CRM1, and 14-3-3 control subcellular localization of the MondoA-Mlx heterocomplex.

    Eilers AL, Sundwall E, Lin M, Sullivan AA and Ayer DE

    Huntsman Cancer Institute, Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-5550, USA.

    Among members of the bHLHZip family of transcriptional regulators, MondoA and Mlx have the unique property of cytoplasmic localization. We have proposed that MondoA-Mlx heterodimers accumulate in the nucleus in response to extracellular cues. Our previous work implicated heterodimerization between MondoA and Mlx and a conserved domain in the N terminus of MondoA as important determinants of MondoA-Mlx subcellular localization. MondoA and Mlx share sequence similarity in their bHLHZip domains and C termini. Here we show that for both MondoA and Mlx, this C-terminal domain has cytoplasmic localization activity that is required by the protein monomers to accumulate in the cytoplasm. This C-terminal domain is also a novel dimerization interface that functions independently of the leucine zipper to mediate heterotypic interactions between MondoA and Mlx. Dimerization between MondoA and Mlx inactivates the cytoplasmic localization activity of their C termini and is necessary for the heterocomplex to accumulate in the nucleus. MondoA-Mlx heterodimers, while poised for nuclear entry, are retained in the cytoplasm by conserved domains in the N terminus of MondoA. Mondo conserved regions (MCRs) II and III contribute to cytoplasmic localization of MondoA-Mlx by functioning as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal and as a novel binding site for 14-3-3 family members, respectively. We propose that the nuclear accumulation of MondoA and Mlx is a two-step process. First, heterodimerization abolishes the cytoplasmic localization activity of their C termini. Second, an extracellular signal(s) must overcome the cytoplasmic localization function imparted by CRM1 and 14-3-3 binding to the N terminus of MondoA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P30 CA42014, P30 CA042014; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM55668, R01 GM055668

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;24;8514-26

  • Identification of the insulin-regulated interaction of phosphodiesterase 3B with 14-3-3 beta protein.

    Onuma H, Osawa H, Yamada K, Ogura T, Tanabe F, Granner DK and Makino H

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shigenobu, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-3B, a major PDE isoform in adipocytes, plays a pivotal role in the antilipolytic action of insulin. Insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of PDE3B is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and Akt dependent, but the precise mechanism of PDE3B activation is not fully understood. We have identified 14-3-3 beta, a critical scaffolding molecule in signal transduction, as a protein that interacts with PDE3B using the yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between PDE3B and 14-3-3 beta was then confirmed in vitro. The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged 14-3-3 beta interacts with endogenous PDE3B of rat adipocytes, and this interaction is enhanced when adipocytes are treated with insulin. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that endogenous PDE3B also associates with endogenous 14-3-3 beta in rat adipocytes, and this interaction is enhanced by insulin. Two different PI3-K inhibitors, wortmannin and Ly294002, block this induction, suggesting that PI3-K is required. Synthetic 15 amino acid peptides of rat PDE3B containing phosphorylated Ser-279 or -302 inhibit this interaction, indicating that the insulin-regulated phosphorylation of these serine residues is involved. Because insulin receptor substrate-1 also associates with 14-3-3, the dimeric 14-3-3 beta could function as a scaffolding protein in the activation of PDE3B by insulin.

    Diabetes 2002;51;12;3362-7

  • Regulation of TSC2 by 14-3-3 binding.

    Li Y, Inoki K, Yeung R and Guan KL

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene is responsible for the inherited genetic disease of tuberous sclerosis complex. TSC1 and TSC2 form a physical and functional complex to regulate cell growth. Recently, it has been demonstrated that TSC1.TSC2 functions to inhibit ribosomal S6 kinase and negatively regulate cell size. TSC2 is negatively regulated by Akt phosphorylation. Here, we report that TSC2, but not TSC1, associates with 14-3-3 in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser(1210) in TSC2 is required for its association with 14-3-3. Our data indicate that 14-3-3 association may inhibit the function of TSC2 and represents a possible mechanism of TSC2 regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;47;44593-6

  • 14-3-3 interacts with the tumor suppressor tuberin at Akt phosphorylation site(s).

    Liu MY, Cai S, Espejo A, Bedford MT and Walker CL

    Department of Carcinogenesis, Science Park-Research Division, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

    Tuberin, the product of the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 tumor suppressor gene, is a phosphoprotein that negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase signaling downstream of Akt. Several high stringency 14-3-3 binding sites that overlapped with Akt phosphorylation sites were identified in tuberin in silico. Recognition of tuberin by an alpha-14-3-3 binding site-specific antibody correlated with mitogen-induced phosphorylation of tuberin and recognition of tuberin by an alpha-Akt phosphorylation substrate antibody. Recognition of tuberin by both antibodies was blocked by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity. Using a protein domain microarray, a tuberin peptide containing Ser(939) demonstrated phospho-specific binding to 14-3-3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays with 14-3-3 fusion proteins revealed that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms (beta, gamma, zeta, epsilon, tau, eta, and sigma) could bind tuberin, and this interaction was abrogated by competition with phosphorylated but not unphosphorylated Ser(939) tuberin peptide. Tuberin also coimmunoprecipitated with 14-3-3, confirming the interaction between endogenous 14-3-3 and tuberin. These data establish the presence of functional and overlapping 14-3-3 and Akt recognition site(s) in tuberin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63613; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK62268; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES07784, ES08263

    Cancer research 2002;62;22;6475-80

  • Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic reticulum by dibasic signals.

    O'Kelly I, Butler MH, Zilberberg N and Goldstein SA

    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA.

    Proteins with dibasic retention motifs are subject to retrograde transport to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by COPI-coated vesicles. As forward transport requires escape from ER retention, general release mechanisms have been expected. Here, KCNK3 potassium channels are shown to bear two cytoplasmic trafficking motifs: an N-terminal dibasic site that binds beta-COP to hold channels in ER and a C-terminal "release" site that binds the ubiquitous intracellular regulator 14-3-3beta on a nonclassical motif in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion to suppress beta-COP binding and allow forward transport. The strategy appears to be common. The major histocompatibility antigen class II-associated invariant chain Iip35 exhibits dibasic retention, carries a release motif, and shows mutually exclusive binding of beta-COP and 14-3-3beta on adjacent N-terminal sites. Other retained proteins are demonstrated to carry functional 14-3-3beta release motifs.

    Cell 2002;111;4;577-88

  • Interaction with 14-3-3 proteins promotes functional expression of the potassium channels TASK-1 and TASK-3.

    Rajan S, Preisig-Müller R, Wischmeyer E, Nehring R, Hanley PJ, Renigunta V, Musset B, Schlichthörl G, Derst C, Karschin A and Daut J

    Institute of Physiology, Marburg University, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

    The two-pore-domain potassium channels TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5 possess a conserved C-terminal motif of five amino acids. Truncation of the C-terminus of TASK-1 strongly reduced the currents measured after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells and decreased surface membrane expression of GFP-tagged channel proteins. Two-hybrid analysis showed that the C-terminal domain of TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5, but not TASK-4, interacts with isoforms of the adapter protein 14-3-3. A pentapeptide motif at the extreme C-terminus of TASK-1, RRx(S/T)x, was found to be sufficient for weak but significant interaction with 14-3-3, whereas the last 40 amino acids of TASK-1 were required for strong binding. Deletion of a single amino acid at the C-terminal end of TASK-1 or TASK-3 abolished binding of 14-3-3 and strongly reduced the macroscopic currents observed in Xenopus oocytes. TASK-1 mutants that failed to interact with 14-3-3 isoforms (V411*, S410A, S410D) also produced only very weak macroscopic currents. In contrast, the mutant TASK-1 S409A, which interacts with 14-3-3-like wild-type channels, displayed normal macroscopic currents. Co-injection of 14-3-3zeta cRNA increased TASK-1 current in Xenopus oocytes by about 70 %. After co-transfection in HEK293 cells, TASK-1 and 14-3-3zeta (but not TASK-1DeltaC5 and 14-3-3zeta) could be co-immunoprecipitated. Furthermore, TASK-1 and 14-3-3 could be co-immunoprecipitated in synaptic membrane extracts and postsynaptic density membranes. Our findings suggest that interaction of 14-3-3 with TASK-1 or TASK-3 may promote the trafficking of the channels to the surface membrane.

    The Journal of physiology 2002;545;1;13-26

  • Role of the 14-3-3 C-terminal loop in ligand interaction.

    Truong AB, Masters SC, Yang H and Fu H

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved dimeric molecules that interact with a broad range of target proteins, most of which contain phosphoserine/threonine. The amphipathic groove of 14-3-3 is the main structural feature involved in mediating its associations. We have studied another domain of 14-3-3, the C-terminal loop, to determine what role it plays in ligand interaction. A truncated form of 14-3-3zeta lacking this C-terminal loop was generated and found to bind with higher affinity than the wild-type 14-3-3zeta protein to the ligands Raf-1 and Bad. Interestingly, the truncated 14-3-3zeta also showed increased association with the 14-3-3 binding-deficient Bad/S136A mutant. Taken together, these data support a role for the C-terminal loop as a general inhibitor of 14-3-3/ligand interactions. This may provide a mechanism by which inappropriate associations with 14-3-3 are prevented.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53165, GM60033

    Proteins 2002;49;3;321-5

  • Identification and characterization of the interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta.

    Nellist M, Goedbloed MA, de Winter C, Verhaaf B, Jankie A, Reuser AJ, van den Ouweland AM, van der Sluijs P and Halley DJ

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. nellist@kgen.fgg.eur.nl

    Tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations to either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene. The disease is characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction, and dermatological abnormalities. TSC1 encodes a 130-kDa protein called hamartin, and TSC2 encodes a 200-kDa protein called tuberin. Although it has been shown that hamartin and tuberin form a complex and mediate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6, it is not yet clear how inactivation of either protein leads to tuberous sclerosis. Therefore, to obtain additional insight into tuberin and hamartin function, yeast two-hybrid screening experiments were performed to identify proteins that interact with tuberin. One of the proteins identified was 14-3-3zeta, a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. The interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta was confirmed in vitro and by co-immunoprecipitation; multiple sites within tuberin for 14-3-3zeta binding were identified; and it was determined that 14-3-3zeta associated with the tuberin-hamartin complex. Finally, it was shown that the tuberin/14-3-3zeta interaction is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin, providing insight into how tuberin may regulate phosphorylation of S6.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;42;39417-24

  • The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Yu T, Robb VA, Singh V, Gutmann DH and Newsham IF

    David and Doreen Hermelin Laboratory of Molecular Oncogenetics, Department of Neurosurgery and Hermelin Brain Tumor Center, Henry Ford Hospital, E&R Bldg. Rm. 3096, 2799 W. Grand Blvd. Detroit, MI 48202, U.S.A.

    The Protein 4.1 family contains at least two members that function as tumour suppressors, the neurofibromatosis 2 gene product merlin and the recently identified differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung (DAL-1)/Protein 4.1B molecule. DAL-1/Protein 4.1B loss is observed in a variety of tumours, including breast and lung cancers as well as meningiomas. We have previously demonstrated that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B interacts with some but not all merlin-binding proteins, raising the possibility that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B associates with additional unique proteins specific to its function as a negative growth regulator. Using yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning, we identified three 14-3-3 isoforms, beta, gamma and eta, to be DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-binding proteins. These interactions were verified by using glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation in vivo. The interaction of 14-3-3 with DAL-1/Protein 4.1B was specific, as 14-3-3 did not bind to the related Protein 4.1 family members merlin, ezrin or radixin. The DAL-1/Protein 4.1B domain that mediates 14-3-3 binding was mapped to residues Pro(244) and Leu(280) within the 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain. The identification of this novel DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-interacting protein represents the first step towards elucidating its potentially unique mechanism of action.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77730; NINDS NIH HHS: NS/CA41520

    The Biochemical journal 2002;365;Pt 3;783-9

  • RGS3 interacts with 14-3-3 via the N-terminal region distinct from the RGS (regulator of G-protein signalling) domain.

    Niu J, Scheschonka A, Druey KM, Davis A, Reed E, Kolenko V, Bodnar R, Voyno-Yasenetskaya T, Du X, Kehrl J and Dulin NO

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, U.S.A.

    RGS3 belongs to a family of the regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS), which bind and inhibit the G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins via a homologous RGS domain. Increasing evidence suggests that RGS proteins can also interact with targets other than G-proteins. Employing yeast two-hybrid screening of a cDNA library, we identified an interaction between RGS3 and the phosphoserine-binding protein 14-3-3. This interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RGS3-deletion analysis revealed the presence of a single 14-3-3-binding site located outside of the RGS domain. Ser(264) was then identified as the 14-3-3-binding site of RGS3. The S(264)A mutation resulted in the loss of RGS3 binding to 14-3-3, without affecting its ability to bind G alpha(q). Signalling studies showed that the S(264)A mutant was more potent than the wild-type RGS3 in inhibition of G-protein-mediated signalling. Binding experiments revealed that RGS3 exists in two separate pools, either 14-3-3-bound or G-protein-bound, and that the 14-3-3-bound RGS3 is unable to interact with G-proteins. These data are consistent with the model wherein 14-3-3 serves as a scavenger of RGS3, regulating the amounts of RGS3 available for binding G-proteins. This study describes a new level in the regulation of G-protein signalling, in which the inhibitors of G-proteins, RGS proteins, can themselves be regulated by phosphorylation and binding 14-3-3.

    The Biochemical journal 2002;365;Pt 3;677-84

  • Insulin receptor substrate 4 associates with the protein IRAS.

    Sano H, Liu SC, Lane WS, Piletz JE and Lienhard GE

    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.

    The insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are key components in signaling from the insulin receptor, and consequently any proteins that interact with them are expected to participate in insulin signaling. In this study we have searched for proteins that interact with IRS-4 by identifying the proteins that coimmunoprecipitated with IRS-4 from human embryonic kidney 293 cells by microsequencing through mass spectrometry. A group of proteins was found. These included phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a protein previously identified as an IRS-4 interactor, and several proteins for which there was no previous evidence of IRS-4 association. One of these proteins, named IRAS, that had been found earlier in another context was examined in detail. The results from the overexpression of IRAS, where its amount was about the same as that of IRS-4, indicated that IRAS associated directly with IRS-4 and showed that the increased complexation of IRS-4 with IRAS did not alter the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-4 or the association of IRS-4 with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Grb2. On the other hand, overexpression of IRAS enhanced IRS-4-dependent insulin stimulation of the extracellularly regulated kinase. The domains of IRAS and IRS-4 responsible for the association of these two proteins were identified, and it was shown that IRAS also associates with IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH49248, R01 MH049248

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;22;19439-47

  • Cytoplasmic localization of tristetraprolin involves 14-3-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Johnson BA, Stehn JR, Yaffe MB and Blackwell TK

    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The immediate early gene tristetraprolin (TTP) is induced transiently in many cell types by numerous extracellular stimuli. TTP encodes a zinc finger protein that can bind and destabilize mRNAs that encode tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and other cytokines. We hypothesize that TTP also has a broader role in growth factor-responsive pathways. In support of this model, we have previously determined that TTP induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, analogously to certain oncogenes and other immediate-early genes, and that TTP sensitizes cells to the pro-apoptotic signals of TNFalpha. In this study, we show that TTP and the related proteins TIS11b and TIS11d bind specifically to 14-3-3 proteins and that individual 14-3-3 isoforms preferentially bind to different phosphorylated TTP species. 14-3-3 binding does not appear to inhibit or promote induction of apoptosis by TTP but is one of multiple mechanisms that localize TTP to the cytoplasm. Our results provide the first example of 14-3-3 interacting functionally with an RNA binding protein and binding in vivo to a Type II 14-3-3 binding site. They also suggest that 14-3-3 binding is part of a complex network of stimuli and interactions that regulate TTP function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA84418; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60594

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;20;18029-36

  • The RAS effector RIN1 directly competes with RAF and is regulated by 14-3-3 proteins.

    Wang Y, Waldron RT, Dhaka A, Patel A, Riley MM, Rozengurt E and Colicelli J

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    Activation of RAS proteins can lead to multiple outcomes by virtue of regulated signal traffic through alternate effector pathways. We demonstrate that the RAS effector protein RIN1 binds to activated RAS with an affinity (K(d), 22 nM) similar to that observed for RAF1. At concentrations close to their equilibrium dissociation constant values, RIN1 and RAF1 compete directly for RAS binding. RIN1 was also observed to inhibit cellular transformation by activated mutant RAS. This distinguishes RIN1 from other RAS effectors, which are transformation enhancing. Blockade of transformation was mediated by the RAS binding domain but required membrane localization. RIN1 recognizes endogenous RAS following transient activation by epidermal growth factor, and a portion of RIN1 fractionates to the cell membrane in a manner consistent with a reversible interaction. RIN1 also binds to 14-3-3 proteins through a sequence including serine 351. Mutation of this residue abolished the 14-3-3 binding capacity of RIN1 and led to more efficient blockade of RAS-mediated transformation. The mutant protein, RIN1(S351A), showed a shift in localization to the plasma membrane. Serine 351 is a substrate for protein kinase D (PKD [also known as PKCmu]) in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the normal localization and function of RIN1, as well as its ability to compete with RAF, are regulated in part by 14-3-3 binding, which in turn is controlled by PKD phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 56301, R01 CA056301; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 55003, KO1 DK 02834, R01 DK055003

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;3;916-26

  • The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins.

    Tchernev VT, Mansfield TA, Giot L, Kumar AM, Nandabalan K, Li Y, Mishra VS, Detter JC, Rothberg JM, Wallace MR, Southwick FS and Kingsmore SF

    CuraGen Corporation, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. velizart@molecularstaging.com

    Background: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an inherited immunodeficiency disease characterized by giant lysosomes and impaired leukocyte degranulation. CHS results from mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) gene, which encodes a 425-kD cytoplasmic protein of unknown function. The goal of this study was to identify proteins that interact with LYST as a first step in understanding how LYST modulates lysosomal exocytosis.

    Fourteen cDNA fragments, covering the entire coding domain of LYST, were used as baits to screen five human cDNA libraries by a yeast two-hybrid method, modified to allow screening in the activation and the binding domain, three selectable markers, and more stringent confirmation procedures. Five of the interactions were confirmed by an in vitro binding assay.

    Results: Twenty-one proteins that interact with LYST were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens. Four interactions, confirmed directly, were with proteins important in vesicular transport and signal transduction (the SNARE-complex protein HRS, 14-3-3, and casein kinase II).

    Conclusions: On the basis of protein interactions, LYST appears to function as an adapter protein that may juxtapose proteins that mediate intracellular membrane fusion reactions. The pathologic manifestations observed in CHS patients and in mice with the homologous mutation beige suggest that understanding the role of LYST may be relevant to the treatment of not only CHS but also of diseases such as asthma, urticaria, and lupus, as well as to the molecular dissection of the CHS-associated cancer predisposition.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01 AI039824; NICHD NIH HHS: U19 HD077693

    Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2002;8;1;56-64

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.

    Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, Rice CM, Ross MT, Scott CE, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Soderlund C, Steward CA, Sulston JE, Swann M, Sycamore N, Taylor R, Tee L, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans AC, Vaudin M, Wall M, Wallis JM, Whitehead SL, Whittaker P, Willey DL, Williams L, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Hubbard T, Durbin RM, Bentley DR, Beck S and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within the pericentromeric region of the long arm. We annotated 727 genes and 168 pseudogenes in the sequence. About 64% of these genes have a 5' and a 3' untranslated region and a complete open reading frame. Comparative analysis of the sequence of chromosome 20 to whole-genome shotgun-sequence data of two other vertebrates, the mouse Mus musculus and the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis, provides an independent measure of the efficiency of gene annotation, and indicates that this analysis may account for more than 95% of all coding exons and almost all genes.

    Nature 2001;414;6866;865-71

  • Binding of 14-3-3beta regulates the kinase activity and subcellular localization of testicular protein kinase 1.

    Toshima JY, Toshima J, Watanabe T and Mizuno K

    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

    Testicular protein kinase 1 (TESK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates cofilin and induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization. The kinase activity of TESK1 is stimulated by integrin-mediated signaling pathways, but the mechanism of regulation has remained unknown. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified 14-3-3beta to be the binding protein of TESK1. Specific interaction between TESK1 and 14-3-3beta became evident in in vitro and in vivo co-precipitation assays. 14-3-3beta interacts with TESK1 through the C-terminal region of TESK1 and in a manner dependent on the phosphorylation of Ser-439 within an RXXSXP motif. Binding of 14-3-3beta inhibited the kinase activity of TESK1. During cell spreading on fibronectin, the TESK1/14-3-3beta interaction significantly decreased, in a time course that inversely correlated with increase in TESK1 kinase activity. Thus, the dissociation of 14-3-3beta from a TESK1/14-3-3beta complex is likely to be involved in the integrin-mediated TESK1 activation. In HeLa cells, TESK1, together with 14-3-3beta, accumulated at the cell periphery when cells were plated on fibronectin, whereas they were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm in the case of non-stimulated cells. We propose that 14-3-3beta plays important roles in regulating the kinase activity of TESK1 and localizing TESK1 to cell adhesion sites following integrin stimulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;46;43471-81

  • HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both Wee1 and Cdc25.

    Elder RT, Yu M, Chen M, Zhu X, Yanagida M and Zhao Y

    Children's Memorial Institute for Education and Research, Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.

    Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces G2 arrest in cells from distantly related eukaryotes including human and fission yeast through inhibitory phosphorylation of tyrosine 15 (Tyr15) on Cdc2. Since the DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoints also induce G2 arrest through phosphorylation of Tyr15, it seemed possible that Vpr induces G2 arrest through the checkpoint pathways. However, Vpr does not use either the early or the late checkpoint genes that are required for G2 arrest in response to DNA damage or inhibition of DNA synthesis indicating that Vpr induces G2 arrest by an alternative pathway. It was found that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an important role in the induction of G2 arrest by Vpr since mutations in genes coding for a regulatory or catalytic subunit of PP2A reduce Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Vpr was also found to upregulate PP2A, supporting a model in which Vpr activates the PP2A holoenzyme to induce G2 arrest. PP2A is known to interact genetically in fission yeast with the Wee1 kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase that act on Tyr15 of Cdc2. Both Wee1 and Cdc25 play a role in Vpr-induced G2 arrest since a wee1 deletion reduces Vpr-induced G2 arrest and a direct in vivo assay shows that Vpr inhibits Cdc25. Additional support for both Wee1 and Cdc25 playing a role in Vpr-induced G2 arrest comes from a genetic screen, which identified genes whose overexpression affects Vpr-induced G2 arrest. For this genetic screen, a strain was constructed in which cell killing by Vpr was nearly eliminated while the effect of Vpr on the cell cycle was clearly indicated by an increase in cell length. Overexpression of the wos2 gene, an inhibitor of Wee1, suppresses Vpr-induced G2 arrest while overexpression of rad25, an inhibitor of Cdc25, enhances Vpr-induced G2 arrest. These two genes may be part of the uncharacterized pathway for Vpr-induced G2 arrest in which Vpr upregulates PP2A to activate Wee1 and inhibit Cdc25.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1R29-AI-40891-01

    Virology 2001;287;2;359-70

  • A high-resolution 6.0-megabase transcript map of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility region on human chromosome 20.

    Fossey SC, Mychaleckyj JC, Pendleton JK, Snyder JR, Bensen JT, Hirakawa S, Rich SS, Freedman BI and Bowden DW

    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157, USA.

    Recent linkage studies and association analyses indicate the presence of at least one type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene in human chromosome region 20q12-q13.1. We have constructed a high-resolution 6.0-megabase (Mb) transcript map of this interval using two parallel, complementary strategies to construct the map. We assembled a series of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs from 56 overlapping BAC clones, using STS/marker screening of 42 genes, 43 ESTs, 38 STSs, 22 polymorphic, and 3 BAC end sequence markers. We performed map assembly with GraphMap, a software program that uses a greedy path searching algorithm, supplemented with local heuristics. We anchored the resulting BAC contigs and oriented them within a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) scaffold by observing the retention patterns of shared markers in a panel of 21 YAC clones. Concurrently, we assembled a sequence-based map from genomic sequence data released by the Human Genome Project, using a seed-and-walk approach. The map currently provides near-continuous coverage between SGC32867 and WI-17676 ( approximately 6.0 Mb). EST database searches and genomic sequence alignments of ESTs, mRNAs, and UniGene clusters enabled the annotation of the sequence interval with experimentally confirmed and putative transcripts. We have begun to systematically evaluate candidate genes and novel ESTs within the transcript map framework. So far, however, we have found no statistically significant evidence of functional allelic variants associated with type 2 diabetes. The combination of the BAC transcript map, YAC-to-BAC scaffold, and reference Human Genome Project sequence provides a powerful integrated resource for future genomic analysis of this region.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01-HL56266; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK53591, R01-DK56289

    Genomics 2001;76;1-3;45-57

  • 14-3-3 Binding to Na+/H+ exchanger isoform-1 is associated with serum-dependent activation of Na+/H+ exchange.

    Lehoux S, Abe Ji, Florian JA and Berk BC

    Center for Cardiovascular Research and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform-1 (NHE1), the ubiquitous form of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, has increased activity in hypertensive patients and in animal models of hypertension. Furthermore, NHE1 is activated in cells stimulated with growth factors. We showed previously that activation of the exchanger is dependent on phosphorylation of serine 703 (Ser(P)(703)) by p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). Because the NHE1 sequence at Ser(P)(703) (RIGSDP) is similar to a consensus sequence (RSXSXP) specific for 14-3-3 ligands, we evaluated whether serum stimulated 14-3-3 binding to NHE1. Five different GST-NHE1 fusion proteins spanning amino acids 515-815 were phosphorylated by RSK and used as ligands in a far Western analysis; only those containing Ser(P)(703) exhibited high affinity 14-3-3 binding. In PS127A cells (NHE1-overexpressing Chinese hamster fibroblasts) stimulated with 20% serum, NHE1 co-precipitation with GST-14-3-3 fusion protein increased at 5 min (5.2 +/- 0.4-fold versus control; p < 0.01) and persisted at 40 min (3.9 +/- 0.3-fold; p < 0.01). We confirmed that binding occurs at the RIGSDP motif using PS120 (NHE1 null) cells transfected with S703A-NHE1 or P705A-NHE1 (based on data indicating that 14-3-3 binding requires phosphoserine and +2 proline). Serum failed to stimulate association of 14-3-3 with these mutants. A GST-NHE1 fusion protein was phosphorylated by RSK and used as a ligand to assess the effect of 14-3-3 on protein phosphatase 1-mediated dephosphorylation of Ser(P)(703). GST-14-3-3 limited dephosphorylation (66% of initial state at 60 min) compared with GST alone (27% of initial state; p < 0.01). The protective effect of GST-14-3-3 was lost in the GST-NHE1 P705A mutant. Finally, the base-line rate of pH recovery in acid-loaded cells was equal in unstimulated cells expressing wild-type or P705A-NHE1. However, activation of NHE1 by serum was dramatically inhibited in cells expressing P705A-NHE1 compared with wild-type (0.13 +/- 0.02 versus 0.48 +/- 0.06 mmol of H(+)/min/liter, p < 0.01). These data suggest that 14-3-3 binding to NHE1 participates in serum-stimulated exchanger activation, a new function for 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL44721

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;19;15794-800

  • Identification of a novel interaction between integrin beta1 and 14-3-3beta.

    Han DC, Rodriguez LG and Guan JL

    Cancer Biology Laboratories, Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853, USA.

    Integrins are cell surface receptors for extracellular matrix, which play important roles in a variety of biological processes. 14-3-3 proteins are a highly conserved family of cytoplasmic proteins that associate with several intracellular signaling molecules in regulation of various cellular functions. Here, we report identification of an interaction between the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain and 14-3-3beta by using the yeast two-hybrid screen. Like several other proteins, the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain associated with 14-3-3beta by a non-phosphoserine mechanism. The 14-3-3beta/integrin beta1 interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding assays as well as co-precipitation in vivo. Furthermore, we found that 14-3-3beta co-localized with integrin beta1 during the early stage of cell spreading on fibronectin, suggesting a potential role of the 14-3-3beta/integrin beta1 interaction in the regulation of cell adhesion. Using tetracycline-regulated expression system, we showed that overexpression of 14-3-3beta stimulated cell spreading and migration on fibronectin but not on poly-L-lysine. However, the induced expression of 14-3-3beta did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK or its substrates, p130(cas) and paxillin, suggesting that 14-3-3beta regulated integrin-mediated cell spreading and migration by FAK-independent mechanisms. Taken together, these results identify an interaction between integrin and 14-3-3 proteins and suggest a potentially novel cellular function for 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling events.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050

    Oncogene 2001;20;3;346-57

  • Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair.

    Sofroniew MV, Howe CL and Mobley WC

    Department of Neurobiology and Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1763, USA. sofroniew@mednet.ucla.edu

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered 50 years ago as a molecule that promoted the survival and differentiation of sensory and sympathetic neurons. Its roles in neural development have been characterized extensively, but recent findings point to an unexpected diversity of NGF actions and indicate that developmental effects are only one aspect of the biology of NGF. This article considers expanded roles for NGF that are associated with the dynamically regulated production of NGF and its receptors that begins in development, extends throughout adult life and aging, and involves a surprising variety of neurons, glia, and nonneural cells. Particular attention is given to a growing body of evidence that suggests that among other roles, endogenous NGF signaling subserves neuroprotective and repair functions. The analysis points to many interesting unanswered questions and to the potential for continuing research on NGF to substantially enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of neurological disorders.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS24054

    Annual review of neuroscience 2001;24;1217-81

  • Cell type-specific regulation of B-Raf kinase by cAMP and 14-3-3 proteins.

    Qiu W, Zhuang S, von Lintig FC, Boss GR and Pilz RB

    Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0652, USA.

    Cyclic AMP can either activate or inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in different cell types; MAPK activation has been observed in B-Raf-expressing cells and has been attributed to Rap1 activation with subsequent B-Raf activation, whereas MAPK inhibition has been observed in cells lacking B-Raf and has been attributed to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A)-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of Raf-1 kinase. We found that cAMP stimulated MAPK activity in CHO-K1 and PC12 cells but inhibited MAPK activity in C6 and NB2A cells. In all four cell types, cAMP activated Rap1, and the 95- and 68-kDa isoforms of B-Raf were expressed. cAMP activation or inhibition of MAPK correlated with activation or inhibition of endogenous and transfected B-Raf kinase. Although all cell types expressed similar amounts of 14-3-3 proteins, approximately 5-fold less 14-3-3 was associated with B-Raf in cells in which cAMP was inhibitory than in cells in which cAMP was stimulatory. We found that the cell type-specific inhibition of B-Raf could be completely prevented by overexpression of 14-3-3 isoforms, whereas expression of a dominant negative 14-3-3 mutant resulted in partial loss of B-Raf activity. Our data suggest that 14-3-3 bound to B-Raf protects the enzyme from protein kinase A-mediated inhibition; the amount of 14-3-3 associated with B-Raf may explain the tissue-specific effects of cAMP on B-Raf kinase activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R21-CA81115; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM55586

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;41;31921-9

  • 14-3-3 interacts with regulator of G protein signaling proteins and modulates their activity.

    Benzing T, Yaffe MB, Arnould T, Sellin L, Schermer B, Schilling B, Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K, Leparc GG, Kim E and Walz G

    Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate the inactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have recently shown that RGS proteins may be regulated on a post-translational level (Benzing, T., Brandes, R., Sellin, L., Schermer, B., Lecker, S., Walz, G., and Kim, E. (1999) Nat. Med. 5, 913-918). However, mechanisms controlling the GAP activity of RGS proteins are poorly understood. Here we show that 14-3-3 proteins associate with RGS7 and RGS3. Binding of 14-3-3 is mediated by a conserved phosphoserine located in the Galpha-interacting portion of the RGS domain; interaction with 14-3-3 inhibits the GAP activity of RGS7, depends upon phosphorylation of a conserved residue within the RGS domain, and results in inhibition of GAP function. Collectively, these data indicate that phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 may act as molecular switch that controls the GAP activity keeping a substantial fraction of RGS proteins in a dormant state.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03601

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;36;28167-72

  • 14-3-3zeta is an effector of tau protein phosphorylation.

    Hashiguchi M, Sobue K and Paudel HK

    Bloomfield Center for Research in Aging, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Neurofibrillary tangles associated with Alzheimer's disease are composed mainly of paired helical filaments that are formed by the aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. 14-3-3, a highly conserved protein family that exists as seven isoforms and regulates diverse cellular processes is present in neurofibrillary tangles (Layfield, R., Fergusson, J., Aitken, A., Lowe, J., Landon, M., Mayer, R. J. (1996) Neurosci. Lett. 209, 57-60). The role of 14-3-3 in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not known. In this study, we found that the 14-3-3zeta isoform is associated with tau in brain extract and profoundly stimulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalyzed in vitro phosphorylation on Ser(262)/Ser(356) located within the microtubule-binding region of tau. 14-3-3zeta binds to both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated tau, and the binding site is located within the microtubule-binding region of tau. From brain extract, 14-3-3zeta co-purifies with microtubules, and tubulin blocks 14-3-3zeta-tau binding. Among four 14-3-3 isoforms tested, beta and zeta but not gamma and epsilon associate with tau. Our data suggest that 14-3-3zeta is a tau protein effector and may be involved in the abnormal tau phosphorylation occurring during Alzheimer's disease ontogeny.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25247-54

  • Regulation of histone deacetylase 4 and 5 and transcriptional activity by 14-3-3-dependent cellular localization.

    Grozinger CM and Schreiber SL

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

    Transcription is controlled in part by the dynamic acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins. The latter process is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Previous analysis of the regulation of HDAC activity in transcription has focused primarily on the recruitment of HDAC proteins to specific promoters or chromosomal domains by association with DNA-binding proteins. To characterize the cellular function of the recently identified HDAC4 and HDAC5 proteins, complexes were isolated by immunoprecipitation. Both HDACs were found to interact with14-3-3 proteins at three phosphorylation sites. The association of 14-3-3 with HDAC4 and HDAC5 results in the sequestration of these proteins in the cytoplasm. Loss of this interaction allows HDAC4 and HDAC5 to translocate to the nucleus, interact with HDAC3, and repress gene expression. Regulation of the cellular localization of HDAC4 and HDAC5 by 14-3-3 represents a mechanism for controlling the transcriptional activity of these class II HDAC proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38627, R01 GM038627, R37 GM038627

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;14;7835-40

  • Isoform-specific localization of A-RAF in mitochondria.

    Yuryev A, Ono M, Goff SA, Macaluso F and Wennogle LP

    Novartis Institute for Biomolecular Research, Summit, NJ 07901, USA.

    RAF kinase is a family of isoforms including A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF. Despite the important role of RAF in cell growth and proliferation, little evidence exists for isoform-specific function of RAF family members. Using Western analysis and immunogold labeling, A-RAF was selectively localized in highly purified rat liver mitochondria. Two novel human proteins, which interact specifically with A-RAF, were identified, and the full-length sequences are reported. These proteins, referred to as hTOM and hTIM, are similar to components of mitochondrial outer and inner membrane protein-import receptors from lower organisms, implicating their involvement in the mitochondrial transport of A-RAF. hTOM contains multiple tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, which function in protein-protein interactions. TPR domains are frequently present in proteins involved in cellular transport systems. In contrast, protein 14-3-3, an abundant cytosolic protein that participates in many facets of signal transduction, was found to interact with C-RAF but not with A-RAF N-terminal domain. This information is discussed in view of the important role of mitochondria in cellular functions involving energy balance, proliferation, and apoptosis and the potential role of A-RAF in regulating these systems.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;13;4870-8

  • Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 interact with members of the 14.3.3 family.

    Pierrat B, Ito M, Hinz W, Simonen M, Erdmann D, Chiesi M and Heim J

    Novartis Pharma Inc., Basle, Switzerland.

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the superfamily of the mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MATP). Localized in the inner membrane of the organelle, they are postulated to be regulators of mitochondrial uncoupling. UCP2 and 3 may play an important role in the regulation of thermogenesis and, thus, on the resting metabolic rate in humans. To identify interacting proteins that may be involved in the regulation of the activity of UCPs, the yeast two-hybrid system was applied. Segments of hUCP2 containing the hydrophilic loops facing the intermembrane space, or combinations of these, were used to screen an adipocyte activation domain (AD) fusion library. The 14.3.3 protein isoforms theta, beta, zeta were identified as possible interacting partners of hUCP2. Screening of a human skeletal muscle AD fusion library, on the other hand, yielded several clones all of them encoding the gamma isoform of the 14.3.3 family. Mapping experiments further revealed that all these 14.3.3 proteins interact specifically with the C-terminal intermembrane space domain of both hUCP2 and hUCP3 whereas no interactions could be detected with the C-terminal part of hUCP1. Direct interaction between UCP3 and 14.3.3 theta could be demonstrated after in vitro translation by coimmunoprecipitation. When coexpressed in a heterologous yeast system, 14.3.3 proteins potentiated the inhibitory effect of UCP3 overexpression on cell growth. These findings suggest that 14.3.3 proteins could be involved in the targeting of UCPs to the mitochondria.

    European journal of biochemistry 2000;267;9;2680-7

  • The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree.

    Reuther GW and Der CJ

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina 27599-7295, USA. greuther@med.unc.edu

    The Ras branch of the Ras superfamily consists of small GTPases most closely related to Ras and include the R-Ras, Rap, Ral, Rheb, Rin and Rit proteins. Although our understanding of Ras signaling and biology is now considerable, recent observations suggest that Ras function is more complex than previously believed. First, the three Ras proteins may not be functionally identical. Second, Ras function involves functional cross-talk with their close relatives.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42978, CA55008, CA63071

    Current opinion in cell biology 2000;12;2;157-65

  • Binding of 14-3-3beta to the carboxyl terminus of Wee1 increases Wee1 stability, kinase activity, and G2-M cell population.

    Wang Y, Jacobs C, Hook KE, Duan H, Booher RN and Sun Y

    Department of Molecular Biology, Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    Wee1 protein kinase plays an important regulatory role in cell cycle progression. It inhibits Cdc-2 activity by phosphorylating Tyr15 and arrests cells at G2-M phase. In an attempt to understand Wee1 regulation during cell cycle, yeast two-hybrid screening was used to identify Wee1-binding protein(s). Five of the eight positive clones identified encode 14-3-3beta. In vivo binding assay in 293 cells showed that both full-length and NH2-terminal truncated Wee1 bind with 14-3-3beta. The 14-3-3beta binding site was mapped to a COOH-terminal consensus motif, RSVSLT (codons 639 to 646). Binding with 14-3-3beta increases the protein level of full-length Wee1 but not of the truncated Wee1. Accompanying the protein level increases, the kinase activity of Wee1 also increases when coexpressed with 14-3-3beta. Increased Wee1 protein level/enzymatic activity is accountable, at least in part, to an increased Wee1 protein half-life when coexpressed with 14-3-3beta. The protein half-life of the NH2-terminal truncated Wee1 is much longer than that of the full-length protein and is not affected by 14-3-3beta cotransfection. Biologically, 14-3-3beta/Wee1 coexpression increases the cell population at G2-M phase. Thus, Wee1 binding with 14-3-3beta increases its biochemical activity as well as its biological function. The finding reveals a novel mechanism by which 14-3-3 regulates G2-M arrest and suggests that the NH2-terminal domain of Wee1 contains a negative regulatory sequence that determines Wee1 stability.

    Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2000;11;4;211-9

  • Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase.

    Mils V, Baldin V, Goubin F, Pinta I, Papin C, Waye M, Eychene A and Ducommun B

    LBCMCP - CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex, France.

    CDC25 dual-specificity phosphatases are essential regulators that activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) at critical stages of the cell cycle. In human cells, CDC25A and C are involved in the control of G1/S and G2/M respectively, whereas CDC25B is proposed to act both in S phase and G2/M. Evidence for an interaction between CDC25 phosphatases and members of the 14-3-3 protein family has been obtained in vitro and in vivo in several organisms. On the basis of the work performed with CDC25C, it has been proposed that phosphorylation is required to mediate the interaction with 14-3-3. Here we have examined the molecular basis of the interaction between CDC25B phosphatases and 14-3-3 proteins. We show that in the two-hybrid assay all three splice variants of CDC25B interact similarly and strongly with 14-3-3eta, beta and zeta proteins, but poorly with epsilon and Theta. In vitro, CDC25B interacts at a low level with 14-3-3beta, epsilon, zeta, eta, and Theta isoforms. This interaction is not increased upon phosphorylation of CDC25B by CHK1 and is not abolished by dephosphorylation. In contrast, a specific, strong interaction between CDC25B and 14-3-3zeta and eta isoforms is revealed by a deletion of 288 residues in the amino-terminal region of CDC25B. This interaction requires the integrity of Ser 323, although it is independent of phosphorylation. Thus, interaction between 14-3-3 proteins and CDC25B is regulated in a manner that is different from that with CDC25C. We propose that, in addition to a low affinity binding site that is available for all 14-3-3 isoforms, post-translational modification of CDC25B in vivo exposes a high-affinity binding site that is specific for the zeta and eta14-3-3 isoforms.

    Oncogene 2000;19;10;1257-65

  • Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with 14-3-3 protein and activates the kinase Raf-1.

    Aoki H, Hayashi J, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y and Hino O

    Department of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 1-37-1 Kami-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-8455, Japan.

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver dysfunction in humans and is epidemiologically closely associated with the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Among HCV components, core protein has been reported to be implicated in cell growth regulation both in vitro and in vivo, although mechanisms explaining those effects are still unclear. In the present study, we identified that members of the 14-3-3 protein family associate with HCV core protein. 14-3-3 protein bound to HCV core protein in a phosphoserine-dependent manner. Introduction of HCV core protein caused a substantial increase in Raf-1 kinase activity in HepG2 cells and in a yeast genetic assay. Furthermore, the HCV core-14-3-3 interaction was essential for Raf-1 kinase activation by HCV core protein. These results suggest that HCV core protein may represent a novel type of Raf-1 kinase-activating protein through its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and may contribute to hepatocyte growth regulation.

    Journal of virology 2000;74;4;1736-41

  • 14-3-3 isotypes facilitate coupling of protein kinase C-zeta to Raf-1: negative regulation by 14-3-3 phosphorylation.

    Van Der Hoeven PC, Van Der Wal JC, Ruurs P, Van Dijk MC and Van Blitterswijk J

    Division of Cellular Biochemistry, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    14-3-3 Proteins may function as adapters or scaffold in signal-transduction pathways. We found previously that protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) can phosphorylate and activate Raf-1 in a signalling complex [van Dijk, Hilkmann and van Blitterswijk (1997) Biochem. J. 325, 303-307]. We report now that PKC-zeta-Raf-1 interaction is mediated by 14-3-3 proteins in vitro and in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in COS cells revealed that complex formation between PKC-zeta and Raf-1 is mediated strongly by the 14-3-3beta and -theta; isotypes, but not by 14-3-3zeta. Far-Western blotting revealed that 14-3-3 binds PKC-zeta directly at its regulatory domain, where a S186A mutation in a putative 14-3-3-binding domain strongly reduced the binding and the complex formation with 14-3-3beta and Raf-1. Treatment of PKC-zeta with lambda protein phosphatase also reduced its binding to 14-3-3beta in vitro. Preincubation of an immobilized Raf-1 construct with 14-3-3beta facilitated PKC-zeta binding. Together, the results suggest that 14-3-3 binds both PKC-zeta (at phospho-Ser-186) and Raf-1 in a ternary complex. Complex formation was much stronger with a kinase-inactive PKC-zeta mutant than with wild-type PKC-zeta, supporting the idea that kinase activity leads to complex dissociation. 14-3-3beta and -&theta; were substrates for PKC-zeta, whereas 14-3-3zeta was not. Phosphorylation of 14-3-3beta by PKC-zeta negatively regulated their physical association. 14-3-3beta with its putative PKC-zeta phosphorylation sites mutated enhanced co-precipitation between PKC-zeta and Raf-1, suggesting that phosphorylation of 14-3-3 by PKC-zeta weakens the complex in vivo. We conclude that 14-3-3 facilitates coupling of PKC-zeta to Raf-1 in an isotype-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that 14-3-3 is a transient mediator of Raf-1 phosphorylation and activation by PKC-zeta.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;345 Pt 2;297-306

  • The kinesin-like motor protein KIF1C occurs in intact cells as a dimer and associates with proteins of the 14-3-3 family.

    Dorner C, Ullrich A, Häring HU and Lammers R

    Medical Clinic IV, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, 72076 Germany.

    Proteins of the kinesin superfamily are regulated in their motor activity as well as in their ability to bind to their cargo by carboxyl-terminal associating proteins and phosphorylation. KIF1C, a recently identified member of the KIF1/Unc104 family, was shown to be involved in the retrograde vesicle transport from the Golgi-apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. In a yeast two-hybrid screen using the carboxyl-terminal 350 amino acids of KIF1C as a bait, we identified as binding proteins 14-3-3 beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. In addition, a clone encoding the carboxyl-terminal 290 amino acids of KIF1C was found, indicating a potential for KIF1C to dimerize. Subsequent transient overexpression experiments showed that KIF1C can dimerize efficiently. However, in untransfected cells, only a small portion of KIF1C was detected as a dimer. The association of 14-3-3 proteins with KIF1C could be confirmed in transient expression systems and in untransfected cells and was dependent on the phosphorylation of serine 1092 located in a consensus binding sequence for 14-3-3 ligands. Serine 1092 was a substrate for the protein kinase casein kinase II in vitro, and inhibition of casein kinase II in cells diminished the association of KIF1C with 14-3-3gamma. Our data thus suggest that KIF1C can form dimers and is associated with proteins of the 14-3-3 family.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;47;33654-60

  • Phosphorylation-dependent association of the Ras-related GTP-binding protein Rem with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Finlin BS and Andres DA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536-0084, USA.

    Rem belongs to a subfamily of Ras-related GTPases that includes Rad, Gem, and Kir. These proteins are unique among the Ras superfamily since their expression is under transcriptional regulation and they contain distinct amino and carboxyl termini. To gain insight into the cellular function of Rem, we have undertaken an expression screen using a mouse embryo cDNA library to identify Rem-interacting proteins and find that Rem interacts with a series of 14-3-3 isoforms (epsilon, eta, theta, and zeta). Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate an interaction that is independent of the nucleotide state of Rem. Rem is phosphorylated in vivo, and binding of Rem to 14-3-3zeta is abolished by pretreating Rem with protein phosphatase 1. Thus, the association of Rem and 14-3-3zeta is phosphorylation-dependent. Examination of the interaction between 14-3-3zeta and various Rem deletion mutants mapped a critical binding site to the C-terminus of Rem. Finally, we demonstrate the interaction of Rad but not the newly identified Rem2 protein with 14-3-3 proteins. These results suggest that 14-3-3 may allow the recruitment of distinct proteins that participate in Rem-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY11231

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1999;368;2;401-12

  • alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Ostrerova N, Petrucelli L, Farrer M, Mehta N, Choi P, Hardy J and Wolozin B

    Department of Pharmacology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.

    alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in alpha-synuclein cause some cases of familial PD (Polymeropoulos et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 1998). In addition, many neurodegenerative diseases show accumulation of alpha-synuclein in dystrophic neurites and in Lewy bodies (Spillantini et al., 1998). Here, we show that alpha-synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins, which are a family of ubiquitous cytoplasmic chaperones. Regions of alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 proteins share over 40% homology. In addition, alpha-synuclein binds to 14-3-3 proteins, as well as some proteins known to associate with 14-3-3, including protein kinase C, BAD, and extracellular regulated kinase, but not Raf-1. We also show that overexpression of alpha-synuclein inhibits protein kinase C activity. The association of alpha-synuclein with BAD and inhibition of protein kinase C suggests that increased expression of alpha-synuclein could be harmful. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein is toxic, and overexpression of alpha-synuclein containing the A53T or A30P mutations exhibits even greater toxicity. The activity and binding profile of alpha-synuclein suggests that it might act as a protein chaperone and that accumulation of alpha-synuclein could contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;14;5782-91

  • Ca2+-induced apoptosis through calcineurin dephosphorylation of BAD.

    Wang HG, Pathan N, Ethell IM, Krajewski S, Yamaguchi Y, Shibasaki F, McKeon F, Bobo T, Franke TF and Reed JC

    The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The Ca2+-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin induces apoptosis, but the mechanism is unknown. Calcineurin was found to dephosphorylate BAD, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, thus enhancing BAD heterodimerization with Bcl-xL and promoting apoptosis. The Ca2+-induced dephosphorylation of BAD correlated with its dissociation from 14-3-3 in the cytosol and translocation to mitochondria where Bcl-xL resides. In hippocampal neurons, L-glutamate, an inducer of Ca2+ influx and calcineurin activation, triggered mitochondrial targeting of BAD and apoptosis, which were both suppressible by coexpression of a dominant-inhibitory mutant of calcineurin or pharmacological inhibitors of this phosphatase. Thus, a Ca2+-inducible mechanism for apoptosis induction operates by regulating BAD phosphorylation and localization in cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-69381; NIA NIH HHS: AG-1593; NICHD NIH HHS: HD25938; ...

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999;284;5412;339-43

  • CCG repeats in cDNAs from human brain.

    Kleiderlein JJ, Nisson PE, Jessee J, Li WB, Becker KG, Derby ML, Ross CA and Margolis RL

    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

    Expansion mutations of trinucleotide repeats and other units of unstable DNA have been proposed to account for at least some of the genetic susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, autism, and panic disorder. To generate additional candidate genes for these and other disorders, cDNA libraries from human brain were probed at high stringency for clones containing CCG, CGC, GCC, CGG, GCG, and GGC repeats (referred to collectively as CCG repeats). Some 18 cDNAs containing previously unpublished or uncharacterized repeats were characterized for chromosomal locus, repeat length polymorphism, and similarity to genes of known function. The cDNAs were also compared with the 37 human genes with eight or more consecutive CCG triplets in GenBank. The repeats were mapped to a number of loci, including 1p34, 2p11.2, 2q30-32, 3p21, 3p22, 4q35, 6q22, 7qter, 13p13, 17q24, 18p11, 19p13.3, 20q12, 20q13.3, and 22q12. Length polymorphism was detected in 50% of the repeats. The newly cloned cDNAs include a complete transcript of human neurexin-1B, a portion of BCNG-1 (a newly described brain-specific ion channel), a previously unreported polymorphic repeat located in the 5' UTR region of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) beta2 subunit, and a human version of the mouse proline-rich protein 7. This list of cDNAs should expedite the search for expansion mutations associated with diseases of the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH01275, MH50763

    Human genetics 1998;103;6;666-73

  • A novel sphingosine-dependent protein kinase (SDK1) specifically phosphorylates certain isoforms of 14-3-3 protein.

    Megidish T, Cooper J, Zhang L, Fu H and Hakomori S

    Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122 and Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    Protein kinases activated by sphingosine or N,N'-dimethylsphingosine, but not by other lipids, have been detected and are termed sphingosine-dependent protein kinases (SDKs). These SDKs were previously shown to phosphorylate endogenous 14-3-3 proteins (Megidish, T., White, T., Takio, K., Titani, K., Igarashi, Y., and Hakomori, S. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 216, 739-747). We have now partially purified one SDK, termed SDK1, from cytosol of mouse Balb/c 3T3(A31) fibroblasts. SDK1 is a serine kinase with molecular mass 50-60 kDa that is strongly activated by N, N'-dimethylsphingosine and sphingosine, but not by ceramide, sphingosine 1-phosphate, or other sphingo-, phospho-, or glycerolipids tested. Its activity is inhibited by the protein kinase C activator phosphatidylserine. Activity of SDK1 is clearly distinct from other types of serine kinases tested, including casein kinase II, the alpha and zeta isoforms of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated mitogene-activated protein kinase 1 (Erk-1), Erk-2, and Raf-1. SDK1 specifically phosphorylates certain isoforms of 14-3-3 (eta, beta, zeta) but not others (sigma, tau). The phosphorylation site was identified as Ser* in the sequence Arg-Arg-Ser-Ser*-Trp-Arg in 14-3-3 beta. The sigma and tau isoforms of 14-3-3 lack serine at this position, potentially explaining their lack of phosphorylation by SDK1. Interestingly, the phosphorylation site is located on the dimer interface of 14-3-3. Phosphorylation of this site by SDK1 was studied in 14-3-3 mutants. Mutation of a lysine residue, located 9 amino acids N-terminal to the phosphorylation site, abolished 14-3-3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate an association between an SDK and 14-3-3 in situ. Exogenous N, N'-dimethylsphingosine stimulates 14-3-3 phosphorylation in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting that SDK1 may phosphorylate 14-3-3 in situ. These data support a biological role of SDK1 activation and consequent phosphorylation of specific 14-3-3 isoforms that regulate signal transduction. In view of the three-dimensional structure of 14-3-3, it is likely that phosphorylation by SDK1 would alter dimerization of 14-3-3, and/or induce conformational changes that alter 14-3-3 association with other kinases involved in signal transduction.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42505, CA54786; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53165

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;34;21834-45

  • Phosphorylation of human keratin 18 serine 33 regulates binding to 14-3-3 proteins.

    Ku NO, Liao J and Omary MB

    VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, 154J, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family bind the human intermediate filament protein keratin 18 (K18) in vivo, in a cell-cycle- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified K18 Ser33 as an interphase phosphorylation site, which increases its phosphorylation during mitosis in cultured cells and regenerating liver, and as an in vitro cdc2 kinase phosphorylation site. Comparison of wild-type versus K18 Ser33-->Ala/Asp transfected cells showed that K18 Ser33 phosphorylation is essential for the association of K18 with 14-3-3 proteins, and plays a role in keratin organization and distribution. Mutation of another K18 major phosphorylation site (Ser52) or K18 glycosylation sites had no effect on the binding of K18 to 14-3-3 proteins. The K18 phospho-Ser33 motif is different from several 14-3-3-binding phosphomotifs already described. Antibodies that are specific to K18 phospho-Ser33 or phospho-Ser52 show that although Ser52 and Ser33 phosphorylated K18 molecules manifest partial colocalization, these phosphorylation events reside predominantly on distinct K18 molecules. Our results demonstrate a unique K18 phosphorylation site that is necessary but not sufficient for K18 binding to 14-3-3 proteins. This binding is likely to involve one or more mitotic events coupled to K18 Ser33 phosphorylation, and plays a role in keratin subcellular distribution. Physiological Ser52 or Ser33 phosphorylation on distinct K18 molecules suggests functional compartmentalization of these modifications.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38707, DK47918, DK52951

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;7;1892-906

  • C-TAK1 protein kinase phosphorylates human Cdc25C on serine 216 and promotes 14-3-3 protein binding.

    Peng CY, Graves PR, Ogg S, Thoma RS, Byrnes MJ, Wu Z, Stephenson MT and Piwnica-Worms H

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Cdc25C is a dual-specificity protein kinase that controls entry into mitosis by dephosphorylating Cdc2 on both threonine 14 and tyrosine 15. Cdc25C is phosphorylated on serine 216 throughout interphase but not during mitosis. Serine 216 phosphorylation mediates the binding of 14-3-3 protein to Cdc25C, and Cdc25C/14-3-3 complexes are present throughout interphase but not during mitosis. Here we report the cloning of a human kinase denoted C-TAK1 (for Cdc twenty-five C associated protein kinase) that phosphorylates Cdc25C on serine 216 in vitro. C-TAK1 is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and cell lines and is distinct from the DNA damage checkpoint kinase Chk1, shown previously to phosphorylate Cdc25C on serine 216. Cotransfection of Cdc25C with C-TAK1 resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of Cdc25C on serine 216. In addition, a physical interaction between C-TAK1 and Cdc25C was observed upon transient overexpression in COS-7 cells. Finally, coproduction of Cdc25C and C-TAK1 in bacteria resulted in the stoichiometric phosphorylation of Cdc25C on serine 216 and facilitated 14-3-3 protein binding in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that one function of C-TAK1 may be to regulate the interactions between Cdc25C and 14-3-3 in vivo by phosphorylating Cdc25C on serine 216.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM18428, GM47017

    Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 1998;9;3;197-208

  • 14-3-3beta protein associates with insulin receptor substrate 1 and decreases insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity in 3T3L1 adipocytes.

    Kosaki A, Yamada K, Suga J, Otaka A and Kuzuya H

    Clinical Research Unit, Diabetes Center, Kyoto National Hospital, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612, Japan. akosaki@osk2.3web.ne.jp

    The 14-3-3 protein family has been implicated in growth factor signaling. We investigated whether 14-3-3 protein is involved in insulin signaling in 3T3L1 adipocytes. A significant amount of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was immunodetected in the immunoprecipitate with anti-14-3-3beta antibody at the basal condition. 100 nM insulin increased the amount of IRS-1 in the immunoprecipitate 2.5-fold. The effect of insulin was abolished by 100 nM wortmannin. An in vitro binding study revealed that glutathione S-transferase-14-3-3beta fusion protein directly associates with recombinant IRS-1. Pretreatment of recombinant IRS-1 with alkaline phosphatase clearly decreased this association. Because the recombinant IRS-1 was not phosphorylated on its tyrosine residues, the results suggest that serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 is responsible for the association. When the cells are treated with insulin, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) is supposed to complex either 14-3-3beta-IRS-1 or IRS-1. The 14-3-3beta-IRS-1-PI3K and IRS-1-PI3K complexes were separately prepared by a sequential immunoprecipitation, first with anti-14-3-3beta and then with anti-IRS-1 antibodies. The specific activity of the PI3K in the former was approximately half of that in the latter, suggesting that 14-3-3beta protein bound to IRS-1 inhibits insulin-stimulated lipid kinase activity of PI3K in 3T3L1 adipocytes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;2;940-4

  • The structural basis for 14-3-3:phosphopeptide binding specificity.

    Yaffe MB, Rittinger K, Volinia S, Caron PR, Aitken A, Leffers H, Gamblin SJ, Smerdon SJ and Cantley LC

    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins mediates signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. Using phosphoserine-oriented peptide libraries to probe all mammalian and yeast 14-3-3s, we identified two different binding motifs, RSXpSXP and RXY/FXpSXP, present in nearly all known 14-3-3 binding proteins. The crystal structure of 14-3-3zeta complexed with the phosphoserine motif in polyoma middle-T was determined to 2.6 A resolution. The bound peptide is in an extended conformation, with a tight turn created by the pS +2 Pro in a cis conformation. Sites of peptide-protein interaction in the complex rationalize the peptide library results. Finally, we show that the 14-3-3 dimer binds tightly to single molecules containing tandem repeats of phosphoserine motifs, implicating bidentate association as a signaling mechanism with molecules such as Raf, BAD, and Cbl.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56203, R01 GM056203

    Cell 1997;91;7;961-71

  • A c-Cbl yeast two hybrid screen reveals interactions with 14-3-3 isoforms and cytoskeletal components.

    Robertson H, Langdon WY, Thien CB and Bowtell DD

    Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Victoria, Australia.

    The protein product of c-cbl proto-oncogene is known to interact with several proteins, including Grb2, Crk and PI3 kinase, and is thought to regulate signalling by many cell surface receptors. The precise function of c-Cbl in these pathways is not clear, although a genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that c-Cbl is a negative regulator of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Here we describe a yeast two hybrid screen performed with c-Cbl in an attempt to further elucidate its role in signal transduction. The screen identified interactions involving c-Cbl and two 14-3-3 isoforms, cytokeratin 18, human unconventional myosin IC, and a recently identified SH3 domain containing protein, SH3 P17. We have used the yeast two hybrid assay to localise regions of c-Cbl required for its interaction with each of the proteins. Interaction with 14-3-3 is demonstrated in mammalian cell extracts.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;240;1;46-50

  • 14-3-3 proteins interact with the insulin-like growth factor receptor but not the insulin receptor.

    Furlanetto RW, Dey BR, Lopaczynski W and Nissley SP

    Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    We have used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins which bind to the cytosolic portion of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGFIR) but not the insulin receptor (IR). This analysis identified 14-3-3beta and zeta proteins. 14-3-3beta also binds to the IGFIR but not the IR in vitro and 14-3-3-IGFIR complexes are present in insect cells overexpressing the IGFIR cytoplasmic domain. 14-3-3 proteins are substrates of the IGFIR in the yeast system and in vitro. The interaction of 14-3-3 with the IGFIR requires receptor-kinase activity and maps to the C-terminus of the receptor, but does not depend on tyrosine residues in this or the juxtamembrane regions. Instead, the binding maps to serine residue 1283 and requires phosphorylation of this residue. 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins which have been shown to interact directly with components of the mitogenic and apoptotic signalling pathways, suggesting that they participate in growth regulation. Our findings suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in IGFIR signal transduction and may contribute to the differences in IGF and IR signalling capabilities.

    The Biochemical journal 1997;327 ( Pt 3);765-71

  • Interference of BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells by 14-3-3 isoforms and P11.

    Hsu SY, Kaipia A, Zhu L and Hsueh AJ

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Stanford University Medical School, California 94305-5317, USA.

    Apoptosis and survival of diverse cell types are under hormonal control, but intracellular mechanisms regulating cell death are unclear. The Bcl-2/Ced-9 family of proteins contains conserved Bcl-2 homology regions that mediate the formation of homo- or heterodimers important for enhancing or suppressing apoptosis. Unlike most other members of the Bcl-2 family, BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter), a death enhancer, has no C-terminal transmembrane domain for targeting to the outer mitochondrial membrane and nuclear envelope. We hypothesized that BAD, in addition to binding Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, may interact with proteins outside the Bcl-2 family. Using the yeast two-hybrid system to search for BAD-binding proteins in an ovarian fusion cDNA library, we identified multiple cDNA clones encoding different isoforms of 14-3-3, a group of evolutionally conserved proteins essential for signal transduction and cell cycle progression. Point mutation of BAD in one (S137A), but not the other (S113A), putative binding site found in diverse 14-3-3 interacting proteins abolished the interaction between BAD and 14-3-3 without affecting interactions between BAD and Bcl-2. Because the S137A BAD mutant presumably resembles an underphosphorylated form of BAD, we used this mutant to screen for additional BAD-interacting proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. P11, a nerve growth factor-induced neurite extension factor and member of the calcium-binding S-100 protein family, interacted strongly with the mutant BAD but less effectively with the wild type protein. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, transient expression of wild type BAD or its mutants increased apoptotic cell death, which was blocked by cotransfection with the baculovirus-derived cysteine protease inhibitor, P35. Cotransfection with 14-3-3 suppressed apoptosis induced by wild type or the S113A mutant BAD but not by the S137A mutant incapable of binding 14-3-3. Furthermore, cotransfection with P11 attenuated the proapoptotic effect of both wild type BAD and the S137A mutant. For both 14-3-3 and P11, direct binding to BAD was also demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest that both 14-3-3 and P11 may function as BAD-binding proteins to dampen its apoptotic activity. Because the 14-3-3 family of proteins could interact with key signaling proteins including Raf-1 kinase, protein kinase C, and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase, whereas P11 is an early response gene induced by the neuronal survival factor, nerve growth factor, the present findings suggest that BAD plays an important role in mediating communication between different signal transduction pathways regulated by hormonal signals and the apoptotic mechanism controlled by Bcl-2 family members.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD31566

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1997;11;12;1858-67

  • Serine phosphorylation-dependent association of the band 4.1-related protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 with 14-3-3beta protein.

    Zhang SH, Kobayashi R, Graves PR, Piwnica-Worms H and Tonks NK

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.

    PTPH1 is a human protein-tyrosine phosphatase with homology to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. PTPH1 was found to associate with 14-3-3beta using a yeast two-hybrid screen, and its interaction could be reconstituted in vitro using recombinant proteins. Examination of the interaction between 14-3-3beta and various deletion mutants of PTPH1 by two-hybrid tests suggested that the integrity of the PTP is important for this binding. Although both PTPH1 and Raf-1 form complexes with 14-3-3beta, they appear to do so independently. Binding of 14-3-3beta to PTPH1 in vitro was abolished by pretreating PTPH1 with potato acid phosphatase and was greatly enhanced by pretreating with Cdc25C-associated protein kinase. Thus the association between PTPH1 and 14-3-3beta is phosphorylation-dependent. Two novel motifs RSLS359VE and RVDS853EP in PTPH1 were identified as major 14-3-3beta-binding sites, both of which are distinct from the consensus binding motif RSXSXP recently found in Raf-1. Mutation of Ser359 and Ser853 to alanine significantly reduced the association between 14-3-3beta and PTPH1. Furthermore, association of PTPH1 and 14-3-3beta was detected in several cell lines and was regulated in response to extracellular signals. These results raise the possibility that 14-3-3beta may function as an adaptor molecule in the regulation of PTPH1 and may provide a link between serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA53840; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM18428

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;43;27281-7

  • Protein binding and signaling properties of RIN1 suggest a unique effector function.

    Han L, Wong D, Dhaka A, Afar D, White M, Xie W, Herschman H, Witte O and Colicelli J

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Human RIN1 was first characterized as a RAS binding protein based on the properties of its carboxyl-terminal domain. We now show that full-length RIN1 interacts with activated RAS in mammalian cells and defines a minimum region of 434 aa required for efficient RAS binding. RIN1 interacts with the "effector domain" of RAS and employs some RAS determinants that are common to, and others that are distinct from, those required for the binding of RAF1, a known RAS effector. The same domain of RIN1 that binds RAS also interacts with 14-3-3 proteins, extending the similarity between RIN1 and other RAS effectors. When expressed in mammalian cells, the RAS binding domain of RIN1 can act as a dominant negative signal transduction blocker. The amino-terminal domain of RIN1 contains a proline-rich sequence similar to consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) binding regions. This RIN1 sequence shows preferential binding to the ABL-SH3 domain in vitro. Moreover, the amino-terminal domain of RIN1 directly associates with, and is tyrosine phosphorylated by, c-ABL. In addition, RIN1 encodes a functional SH2 domain that has the potential to activate downstream signals. These data suggest that RIN1 is able to mediate multiple signals. A differential pattern of expression and alternate splicing indicate several levels of RIN1 regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA53867, CA56301, R01 CA056301, R01 CA071443; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24787

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;10;4954-9

  • The complexity of Raf-1 regulation.

    Morrison DK and Cutler RE

    Molecular Basis of Carcinogenesis Laboratory, ABL-Basic Research Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

    The activation of the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 is proving to be an intricate multistep process. Recent advances in elucidating how Raf-1 becomes activated in response to signaling events have emphasized the role of phosphorylation and protein interactions in Raf-1 regulation. The picture clearly emerging is that Raf-1 activity can be regulated by multiple mechanisms.

    Current opinion in cell biology 1997;9;2;174-9

  • Signal transduction by the neurotrophin receptors.

    Kaplan DR and Miller FD

    Brain Tumor Research Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3801 University Street, Montreal, PQ, Canada, H3A 2B4. mcdv@musica.mcgill.ca

    The neurotrophins signal cell survival, differentiation, growth cessation, and apoptosis through two cell surface receptors, the Trks and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor). Recent advances indicate that the particular events that are mediated by neurotrophins are dependent upon the cell type and the expression pattern of each neurotrophin receptor. For example, TrkA activation induces cell death of neural tumor cells, and survival and differentiation of neurons. Likewise, p75NTR, when activated in the absence of a strong Trk signal, induces apoptosis of neurons, while in the presence of Trk it enhances responses to neurotrophin. These differing responses point to a complex interplay between neurotrophin-stimulated survival, differentiation, and apoptosis pathways.

    Current opinion in cell biology 1997;9;2;213-21

  • 14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules.

    Vincenz C and Dixit VM

    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    A20, a novel zinc finger protein, is an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which A20 exerts its protective effect is currently unknown. Several isoforms of the 14-3-3 proteins were found to interact with A20 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. A20 bound several 14-3-3 isoforms in vitro. Moreover, transfected A20 was found to preferentially bind the endogenous eta14-3-3 isoform, whereas the beta/zeta isoforms co-immunoprecipitated much less efficiently, and epsilon14-3-3 had an intermediate affinity. Importantly, c-Raf, a previously described 14-3-3-interacting protein, also preferentially bound the eta isoform. The cellular localization and subcellular fractionation of A20 was dramatically altered by co-transfected 14-3-3, providing the first experimental evidence for the notion that 14-3-3 can function as a chaperone. Furthermore, c-Raf and A20 co-immunoprecipitated in a 14-3-3-dependent manner, suggesting that 14-3-3 can function as a bridging or adapter molecule.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA61348

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;33;20029-34

  • Assignment of the human genes encoding 14,3-3 Eta (YWHAH) to 22q12, 14-3-3 zeta (YWHAZ) to 2p25.1-p25.2, and 14-3-3 beta (YWHAB) to 20q13.1 by in situ hybridization.

    Tommerup N and Leffers H

    Danish Center for Human Genome Research, John F. Kennedy Institute, Glostrup, Denmark.

    Genomics 1996;33;1;149-50

  • 14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases.

    Conklin DS, Galaktionov K and Beach D

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 11724, USA.

    The cdc25 phosphatases play key roles in cell cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Two members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen designed to identify proteins that interact with the human cdc25A and cdc25B phosphatases. Genes encoding the human homolog of the 14-3-3 epsilon protein and the previously described 14-3-3 beta protein have been isolated in this screening. 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well-conserved eukaryotic proteins that were originally isolated in mammalian brain preparations and that possess diverse biochemical activities related to signal transduction. We present evidence that indicates that cdc25 and 14-3-3 proteins physically interact both in vitro and in vivo. 14-3-3 protein does not, however, affect the phosphatase activity of cdc25A. Raf-1, which is known to bind 14-3-3 proteins, has recently been shown to associate with cdc25A and to stimulate its phosphatase activity. 14-3-3 protein, however, has no effect on the cdc25A-kinase activity of Raf-1. Instead, 14-3-3 may facilitate the association of cdc25 with Raf-1 in vivo, participating in the linkage between mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;17;7892-6

  • 14-3-3 alpha and delta are the phosphorylated forms of raf-activating 14-3-3 beta and zeta. In vivo stoichiometric phosphorylation in brain at a Ser-Pro-Glu-Lys MOTIF.

    Aitken A, Howell S, Jones D, Madrazo J and Patel Y

    Laboratory of Protein Structure, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom.

    The 14-3-3 protein family has received considerable attention recently in the literature, because of the finding that beta and zeta isoforms interact with and activate Raf. We had previously shown that these 14-3-3 isoforms also exist as phosphorylated forms in mammalian and avian brain. The presence of this modification enhances the activity of 14-3-3 as an inhibitor of protein kinase C nearly 2-fold. In this report we show by a combination of electrospray mass spectrometry and protein microsequencing that alpha and delta are in vivo post-translationally modified forms of beta and zeta, respectively, and the site of phosphorylation, serine 185, is in a consensus sequence motif for proline-directed kinases.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;11;5706-9

  • Characterization of 14-3-3 proteins in adrenal chromaffin cells and demonstration of isoform-specific phospholipid binding.

    Roth D, Morgan A, Martin H, Jones D, Martens GJ, Aitken A and Burgoyne RD

    Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, U.K.

    Isoform-specific antisera were used to examine which 14-3-3 isoforms were present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The eta, tau and sigma isoforms were not detectable, and the epsilon isoform was present at only low levels. 14-3-3 isoforms were readily detected with antisera against the beta, gamma and zeta isoforms. The latter isoforms were found to leak from digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells, as expected for cytosolic proteins, but a proportion of each isoform was retained. In subcellular fractionation studies isoforms recognized by the beta and zeta antisera were found in the cytosol and Triton-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions, while the gamma isoform was found in cytosol and also in microsomal and chromaffin granule membrane fractions. The gamma 14-3-3 protein associated with granule membranes was partially removed by a high-salt/carbonate wash, and the membranes could bind further gamma from cytosol or from a purified brain 14-3-3 protein mixture. The binding of gamma 14-3-3 was not Ca(2+)-dependent, nor was it affected by phorbol ester, GTP analogues or cyclic AMP. Using pure phospholipid vesicles it was found that gamma and also epsilon 14-3-3 proteins bound directly to phospholipids. Little binding of brain beta, eta or zeta to phospholipid vesicles was detected. Brain 14-3-3 proteins were also able to aggregate phospholipid vesicles. Recombinant 14-3-3 isoforms (tau and the Xenopus protein) were able to stimulate Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. The Xenopus proteins lacks part of the extreme N-terminus, indicating that this domain is not essential for function in exocytosis.

    The Biochemical journal 1994;301 ( Pt 1);305-10

  • Molecular cloning and expression of the transformation sensitive epithelial marker stratifin. A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway.

    Leffers H, Madsen P, Rasmussen HH, Honoré B, Andersen AH, Walbum E, Vandekerckhove J and Celis JE

    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Danish Centre for Human Genome Research, Aarhus University.

    We have identified a family of abundant acidic human keratinocyte proteins with apparent molecular masses ranging between 30,000 and 31,100 (isoelectric focussing sample spot proteins 9109 (epithelial marker stratifin), 9124, 9125, 9126 and 9231 in the master two-dimensional gel database of human keratinocyte proteins) that share peptide sequences with each other, with protein 14-3-3 and with the kinase C inhibitory protein. Immunofluorescence staining of keratinocytes showed that two of these proteins (IEF SSPs 9124 and 9126) localize to the Golgi apparatus, while stratifin is distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Significant levels of stratifin, and in smaller amount the sample spot proteins 9124, 9125 and 9126, were detected in the medium of cultured human keratinocytes suggesting that they are partially secreted by these cells. Two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins from cultured human cells and fetal tissues showed that polypeptides comigrating with proteins 9124, 9125 and 9126 are ubiquitous and highly expressed in the brain. Stratifin, however, was present only in cultured epithelial cells and was most abundant in fetal and adult human tissues enriched in stratified squamous keratinising epithelium. We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs coding for members of this family. The complete identity of the sequenced peptides from stratifin with the amino acid sequence translated from the stratifin cDNA clone indicated that this cDNA codes for stratifin. The identity of clones 1054, HS1 and AS1 is less clear as, with few exceptions, none of the individual peptide sequences fits the predicted protein sequences. The polypeptides synthesized by clones 1054 and HS1 in the vaccinia expression system, on the other hand, comigrate with proteins 9126 and 9124, suggesting cell-type-specific expression of members of the protein family. Database searches indicated that clone HS1 corresponds to a human T-cell cDNA 14-3-3 clone, while the high level of similarity of clones 1054 and AS1 with the 14-3-3 beta and eta sequences respectively, suggested that they code for the human equivalent of the two bovine proteins. Microsequence data indicated that IEF SSP 9124 corresponds to the human homolog of bovine 14-3-3 gamma.

    Journal of molecular biology 1993;231;4;982-98

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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