G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15-like 1
G00000137 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000070701 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000127527 (Ensembl human gene)
58513 (Entrez Gene)
477 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EPS15L1 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24634 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UBC2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • eps15R

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly.

    Schmid EM, Ford MG, Burtey A, Praefcke GJ, Peak-Chew SY, Mills IG, Benmerah A and McMahon HT

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    Adaptor protein complex 2 alpha and beta-appendage domains act as hubs for the assembly of accessory protein networks involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation. We identify a large repertoire of beta-appendage interactors by mass spectrometry. These interact with two distinct ligand interaction sites on the beta-appendage (the "top" and "side" sites) that bind motifs distinct from those previously identified on the alpha-appendage. We solved the structure of the beta-appendage with a peptide from the accessory protein Eps15 bound to the side site and with a peptide from the accessory cargo adaptor beta-arrestin bound to the top site. We show that accessory proteins can bind simultaneously to multiple appendages, allowing these to cooperate in enhancing ligand avidities that appear to be irreversible in vitro. We now propose that clathrin, which interacts with the beta-appendage, achieves ligand displacement in vivo by self-polymerisation as the coated pit matures. This changes the interaction environment from liquid-phase, affinity-driven interactions, to interactions driven by solid-phase stability ("matricity"). Accessory proteins that interact solely with the appendages are thereby displaced to areas of the coated pit where clathrin has not yet polymerised. However, proteins such as beta-arrestin (non-visual arrestin) and autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein, which have direct clathrin interactions, will remain in the coated pits with their interacting receptors.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0100100, MC_U105178795

    PLoS biology 2006;4;9;e262

  • Sprouty2 acts at the Cbl/CIN85 interface to inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor downregulation.

    Haglund K, Schmidt MH, Wong ES, Guy GR and Dikic I

    Institute for Biochemistry II, Building 75, Goethe University Medical School, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 605 90 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    The ubiquitin ligase Cbl mediates ubiquitination of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and interacts with endocytic scaffold complexes, including CIN85/endophilins, to facilitate RTK endocytosis and degradation. Several mechanisms regulate the functions of Cbl to ensure the fine-tuning of RTK signalling and cellular homeostasis. One regulatory mechanism involves the binding of Cbl to Sprouty2, which sequesters Cbl away from activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Here, we show that Sprouty2 associates with CIN85 and acts at the interface between Cbl and CIN85 to inhibit EGFR downregulation. The CIN85 SH3 domains A and C bind specifically to proline-arginine motifs present in Sprouty2. Intact association between Sprouty2, Cbl and CIN85 is required for inhibition of EGFR endocytosis as well as EGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Moreover, Sprouty4, which lacks CIN85-binding sites, does not inhibit EGFR downregulation, providing a molecular explanation for functional differences between Sprouty isoforms. Sprouty2 therefore acts as an inducible inhibitor of EGFR downregulation by targeting both the Cbl and CIN85 pathways.

    EMBO reports 2005;6;7;635-41

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cbl-directed monoubiquitination of CIN85 is involved in regulation of ligand-induced degradation of EGF receptors.

    Haglund K, Shimokawa N, Szymkiewicz I and Dikic I

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Box 595, Husargatan 3, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.

    Addition of ubiquitin or ubiquitin chains to target proteins leads to their mono- or polyubiquitination, respectively. Whereas polyubiquitination targets proteins for degradation, monoubiquitination is thought to regulate receptor internalization and endosomal sorting. Cbl proteins are major ubiquitin ligases that promote ligand-dependent polyubiquitination and degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases. They also recruit CIN85-endophilin in the complex with activated receptors, thus controlling receptor endocytosis. Here we show that the adaptor protein CIN85 and its homologue CMS are monoubiquitinated by Cbl/Cbl-b after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Monoubiquitination of CIN85 required direct interactions between CIN85 and Cbl, the intact RING finger domain of Cbl and a ubiquitin acceptor site present in the carboxyl terminus of CIN85. Cbl-b and monoubiquitinated CIN85 are found in the complex with polyubiquitinated EGF receptors during prolonged EGF stimulation and are degraded together in the lysosome. Dominant interfering forms of CIN85, which have been shown previously to delay EGF receptor degradation, were also impaired in their monoubiquitination. Thus, our data demonstrate that Cbl/Cbl-b can mediate polyubiquitination of cargo as well as monoubiquitination of CIN85 to control endosomal sorting and degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;19;12191-6

  • Differential nucleocytoplasmic trafficking between the related endocytic proteins Eps15 and Eps15R.

    Poupon V, Polo S, Vecchi M, Martin G, Dautry-Varsat A, Cerf-Bensussan N, Di Fiore PP and Benmerah A

    INSERM E9925, Faculté Necker-Enfants Malades, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France.

    Eps15 and Eps15R are constitutive components of clathrin-coated pits that are required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The most striking difference between these two related proteins is that Eps15R is also found in the nucleus, whereas Eps15 is excluded from this compartment at steady state. To better understand the individual functions of these two proteins, the mechanisms responsible for their different localization were investigated. Interestingly, some mutants of Eps15 were found in the nucleus. This nuclear localization was correlated with the loss of the last approximately 100 amino acids of Eps15, suggesting the presence of a nuclear export signal (NES) within this region. As expected, the last 25 amino acids contain a leucine-rich sequence matching with classical NESs, show a leptomycin B-sensitive nuclear export activity, and bind to the exportin CRM1 in a leucine residue-dependent manner. In contrast, no NES could be found in Eps15R, a result in keeping with its constitutive nuclear localization that appears to be regulated by alternative splicing. Altogether, these results are the first characterization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling signals for endocytic proteins. They also provide an explanation for the different nuclear localization of Eps15 and Eps15R and further evidence for a possible nuclear function for Eps15 protein family members.

    Funded by: Telethon: D.090

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;11;8941-8

  • Stonin 2: an adaptor-like protein that interacts with components of the endocytic machinery.

    Martina JA, Bonangelino CJ, Aguilar RC and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Endocytosis of cell surface proteins is mediated by a complex molecular machinery that assembles on the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Here, we report the identification of two ubiquitously expressed human proteins, stonin 1 and stonin 2, related to components of the endocytic machinery. The human stonins are homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster stoned B protein and exhibit a modular structure consisting of an NH(2)-terminal proline-rich domain, a central region of homology specific to the stonins, and a COOH-terminal region homologous to the mu subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes. Stonin 2, but not stonin 1, interacts with the endocytic machinery proteins Eps15, Eps15R, and intersectin 1. These interactions occur via two NPF motifs in the proline-rich domain of stonin 2 and Eps15 homology domains of Eps15, Eps15R, and intersectin 1. Stonin 2 also interacts indirectly with the adaptor protein complex, AP-2. In addition, stonin 2 binds to the C2B domains of synaptotagmins I and II. Overexpression of GFP-stonin 2 interferes with recruitment of AP-2 to the plasma membrane and impairs internalization of the transferrin, epidermal growth factor, and low density lipoprotein receptors. These observations suggest that stonin 2 is a novel component of the general endocytic machinery.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;153;5;1111-20

  • Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis.

    Offenhäuser N, Santolini E, Simeone A and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy.

    Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ventricular zone, which contains proliferating neuroblasts, whereas Eps15R was found only in postmitotic neurons. Conversely, both proteins were expressed in sensory and cranial ganglia. At later times, the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R was widely maintained in neuronal structures. In other tissues, Eps15 was first seen in the liver primordium and at low levels in choroid plexus, lung, kidney and intestine; later on the expression was maintained at high levels in epithelia. Nuclear staining of Eps15R was present in kidney, intestine, lung and liver, as well as in heart and pancreas.

    Mechanisms of development 2000;95;1-2;309-12

  • The eps15 homology (EH) domain-based interaction between eps15 and hrb connects the molecular machinery of endocytosis to that of nucleocytosolic transport.

    Doria M, Salcini AE, Colombo E, Parslow TG, Pelicci PG and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

    The Eps15 homology (EH) module is a protein-protein interaction domain that establishes a network of connections involved in various aspects of endocytosis and sorting. The finding that EH-containing proteins bind to Hrb (a cellular cofactor of the Rev protein) and to the related protein Hrbl raised the possibility that the EH network might also influence the so-called Rev export pathway, which mediates nucleocytoplasmic transfer of proteins and RNAs. In this study, we demonstrate that Eps15 and Eps15R, two EH-containing proteins, synergize with Hrb and Hrbl to enhance the function of Rev in the export pathway. In addition, the EH-mediated association between Eps15 and Hrb is required for the synergistic effect. The interaction between Eps15 and Hrb occurs in the cytoplasm, thus pointing to an unexpected site of action of Hrb, and to a possible role of the Eps15-Hrb complex in regulating the stability of Rev.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI40317, R01 AI040317; Telethon: D.090

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;147;7;1379-84

  • The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module.

    Rosenthal JA, Chen H, Slepnev VI, Pellegrini L, Salcini AE, Di Fiore PP and De Camilli P

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    Epsin (epsin 1) is an interacting partner for the EH domain-containing region of Eps15 and has been implicated in conjunction with Eps15 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We report here the characterization of a similar protein (epsin 2), which we have cloned from human and rat brain libraries. Epsin 1 and 2 are most similar in their NH(2)-terminal region, which represents a module (epsin NH(2) terminal homology domain, ENTH domain) found in a variety of other proteins of the data base. The multiple DPW motifs, typical of the central region of epsin 1, are only partially conserved in epsin 2. Both proteins, however, interact through this central region with the clathrin adaptor AP-2. In addition, we show here that both epsin 1 and 2 interact with clathrin. The three NPF motifs of the COOH-terminal region of epsin 1 are conserved in the corresponding region of epsin 2, consistent with the binding of both proteins to Eps15. Epsin 2, like epsin 1, is enriched in brain, is present in a brain-derived clathrin-coated vesicle fraction, is concentrated in the peri-Golgi region and at the cell periphery of transfected cells, and partially colocalizes with clathrin. High overexpression of green fluorescent protein-epsin 2 mislocalizes components of the clathrin coat and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The epsins define a new protein family implicated in membrane dynamics at the cell surface.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46128; NINDS NIH HHS: NS1024-01, NS36251; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;48;33959-65

  • Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins.

    Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T and Muramatsu M

    Biological Technology Laboratory, Helix Research Institute, Chiba, Japan. goose@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp

    Nuclear proteins have essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. We have developed a yeast selection system-the nuclear transportation trap (NTT)-to identify genes encoding nuclear transport signals. Both unknown and previously identified nuclear localization signals were identified from a human fetal brain cDNA library. The majority (75%) of the unknown proteins examined were exclusively localized to the nucleus in COS-7 cells. We propose that NTT is an efficient method for isolating cDNAs that encode nuclear targeted proteins that can be applied to the retrieval of novel nuclear proteins and to annotate gene function.

    Nature biotechnology 1998;16;13;1338-42

  • Epsin is an EH-domain-binding protein implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Chen H, Fre S, Slepnev VI, Capua MR, Takei K, Butler MH, Di Fiore PP and De Camilli P

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to generate an invaginated bud at the cell membrane. One of these factors is Eps15, a clathrin-coat-associated protein that binds the alpha-adaptin subunit of AP-2. Here we investigate the function of Eps15 by characterizing an important binding partner for its region containing EH domains; this protein, epsin, is closely related to the Xenopus mitotic phosphoprotein MP90 and has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. It is concentrated together with Eps15 in presynaptic nerve terminals, which are sites specialized for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. The central region of epsin binds AP-2 and its carboxy-terminal region binds Eps15. Epsin is associated with clathrin coats in situ, can be co-precipitated with AP-2 and Eps15 from brain extracts, but does not co-purify with clathrin coat components in a clathrin-coated vesicle fraction. When epsin function is disrupted, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is blocked. We propose that epsin may participate, together with Eps15, in the molecular rearrangement of the clathrin coats that are required for coated-pit invagination and vesicle fission.

    Nature 1998;394;6695;793-7

  • Eps15R is a tyrosine kinase substrate with characteristics of a docking protein possibly involved in coated pits-mediated internalization.

    Coda L, Salcini AE, Confalonieri S, Pelicci G, Sorkina T, Sorkin A, Pelicci PG and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

    eps15R was identified because of its relatedness to eps15, a gene encoding a tyrosine kinase substrate bearing a novel protein-protein interaction domain, called EH. In this paper, we report a biochemical characterization of the eps15R gene product(s). In NIH-3T3 cells, three proteins of 125, 108, and 76 kDa were specifically recognized by anti-eps15R sera. The 125-kDa species is a bona fide product of the eps15R gene, whereas p108 and p76 are most likely products of alternative splicing events. Eps15R protein(s) are tyrosine-phosphorylated following epidermal growth factor receptor activation in NIH-3T3 cells overexpressing the receptor, even at low levels of receptor occupancy, thus behaving as physiological substrates. A role for eps15R in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is suggested by its localization in plasma membrane-coated pits and in vivo association to the coated pits' adapter protein AP-2. Finally, we demonstrate that a sizable fraction of eps15R exists in the cell as a complex with eps15 and that its EH domains exhibit binding specificities that are partially distinct from those of eps15. We propose that eps15 and eps15R are multifunctional binding proteins that serve pleiotropic functions within the cell.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46817

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;5;3003-12

  • eps15 and eps15R are essential components of the endocytic pathway.

    Carbone R, Fré S, Iannolo G, Belleudi F, Mancini P, Pelicci PG, Torrisi MR and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

    eps15 and eps1SR are substrates of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase that are characterized by the presence of a protein:protein interaction domain, the EH domain, and by their ability to bind to the clathrin adaptor protein complex adaptor protein 2. Indirect evidence suggests that eps15 and eps15R are involved in endocytosis. Here we show that microinjection of antibodies against eps15 and eps15R inhibits internalization of EGF and transferrin. In addition, fragments of eps15 (encompassing its EH domains or the COOH-terminal region that binds to adaptor protein 2) inhibit EGF internalization or endocytosis of Sindbis virus. These results demonstrate that eps15 and eps15R are essential components of the endocytic machinery.

    Cancer research 1997;57;24;5498-504

  • Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module.

    Salcini AE, Confalonieri S, Doria M, Santolini E, Tassi E, Minenkova O, Cesareni G, Pelicci PG and Di Fiore PP

    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct screening of expression libraries with EH domains yielded a number of putative EH interactors, all of which possessed NPF motifs that were shown to be responsible for the interaction. Among these interactors were the human homolog of NUMB, a developmentally reguated gene of Drosophila, and RAB, the cellular cofactor of the HIV REV protein. We demonstrated coimmunoprecipitation of Eps15 with NUMB and RAB. Finally, in vitro binding of NPF-containing peptides to cellular proteins and EST database screening established the existence of a family of EH-containing proteins in mammals. Based on the characteristics of EH-containing and EH-binding proteins, we propose that EH domains are involved in processes connected with the transport and sorting of molecules within the cell.

    Genes & development 1997;11;17;2239-49

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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