G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 2
G00000132 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000198010 (Ensembl human gene)
9228 (Entrez Gene)
476 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DLGAP2 (GeneCards)
605438 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2906 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9P1A6 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • DAP-2

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • Recurrent rearrangements in synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes and shared biologic pathways in schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation.

    Guilmatre A, Dubourg C, Mosca AL, Legallic S, Goldenberg A, Drouin-Garraud V, Layet V, Rosier A, Briault S, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Laumonnier F, Odent S, Le Vacon G, Joly-Helas G, David V, Bendavid C, Pinoit JM, Henry C, Impallomeni C, Germano E, Tortorella G, Di Rosa G, Barthelemy C, Andres C, Faivre L, Frébourg T, Saugier Veber P and Campion D

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 614, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire de Recherche Biomédicale, 76000 Rouen, France.

    Context: Results of comparative genomic hybridization studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the cause of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

    Objectives: To provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent or overlapping CNVs in 3 different groups of cases compared with healthy control subjects and to assess whether each CNV is present in more than 1 clinical category.

    Design: Case-control study.

    Setting: Academic research.

    Participants: We investigated 28 candidate loci previously identified by comparative genomic hybridization studies for gene dosage alteration in 247 cases with mental retardation, in 260 cases with autism spectrum disorders, in 236 cases with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and in 236 controls.

    Collective and individual frequencies of the analyzed CNVs in cases compared with controls.

    Results: Recurrent or overlapping CNVs were found in cases at 39.3% of the selected loci. The collective frequency of CNVs at these loci is significantly increased in cases with autism, in cases with schizophrenia, and in cases with mental retardation compared with controls (P < .001, P = .01, and P = .001, respectively, Fisher exact test). Individual significance (P = .02 without correction for multiple testing) was reached for the association between autism and a 350-kilobase deletion located at 22q11 and spanning the PRODH and DGCR6 genes.

    Conclusions: Weakly to moderately recurrent CNVs (transmitted or occurring de novo) seem to be causative or contributory factors for these diseases. Most of these CNVs (which contain genes involved in neurotransmission or in synapse formation and maintenance) are present in the 3 pathologic conditions (schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation), supporting the existence of shared biologic pathways in these neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Archives of general psychiatry 2009;66;9;947-56

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Increased numbers of coassembled PSD-95 to NMDA-receptor subunits NR2B and NR1 in human epileptic cortical dysplasia.

    Ying Z, Bingaman W and Najm IM

    Department of Neurology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. yingz@ccf.org

    Purpose: Glutamatergic transmission between neurons occurs at chemical synapses. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been implicated in the epileptogenic mechanisms in human cortical dysplasia (CD). NMDA receptors are clustered at the postsynaptic membrane by anchoring to the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95, a putative ion channel-clustering protein. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the coassembly of PSD-95 to NR2B and NR1 in human epileptogenic cortex as compared with nonepileptic cortex.

    Methods: We used coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques to quantify and compare the numbers of coassembled PSD-95 with NR2B, PSD-95 with NR1, and NR2B with NR1 in the membrane proteins of brain tissues resected from four patients (aged 3.5, 6, 14, and 18 years) with medically intractable neocortical epilepsy associated with CD. The resected cortical tissues were grouped into epileptic and nonepileptic, as determined by prolonged subdural electrode recordings in three patients and direct intraoperative electrocorticographic recording in one patient.

    Results: In all patients, the amounts of immunoprecipitated complexes, which reflect the numbers of coassembled PSD-95 proteins to NR2B subunits, were increased in epileptic cortex as compared with nonepileptic cortex.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that increased coassembly of NR2B and NR1 with PSD-95 may underlie one of the cellular mechanisms that contribute to the in situ increased hyperexcitability, leading to seizure generation in focal CD.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: K08 NS-02046, R21 NS42354

    Epilepsia 2004;45;4;314-21

  • Slowed conduction and thin myelination of peripheral nerves associated with mutant rho Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor 10.

    Verhoeven K, De Jonghe P, Van de Putte T, Nelis E, Zwijsen A, Verpoorten N, De Vriendt E, Jacobs A, Van Gerwen V, Francis A, Ceuterick C, Huylebroeck D and Timmerman V

    Molecular Genetics Department, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Antwerp, Belgium.

    Slowed nerve-conduction velocities (NCVs) are a biological endophenotype in the majority of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN). Here, we identified a family with autosomal dominant segregation of slowed NCVs without the clinical phenotype of HMSN. Peripheral-nerve biopsy showed predominantly thinly myelinated axons. We identified a locus at 8p23 and a Thr109Ile mutation in ARHGEF10, encoding a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho family of GTPase proteins (RhoGTPases). Rho GEFs are implicated in neural morphogenesis and connectivity and regulate the activity of small RhoGTPases by catalyzing the exchange of bound GDP by GTP. Expression analysis of ARHGEF10, by use of its mouse orthologue Gef10, showed that it is highly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. Our data support a role for ARHGEF10 in developmental myelination of peripheral nerves.

    American journal of human genetics 2003;73;4;926-32

  • Densin-180, a synaptic protein, links to PSD-95 through its direct interaction with MAGUIN-1.

    Ohtakara K, Nishizawa M, Izawa I, Hata Y, Matsushima S, Taki W, Inada H, Takai Y and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: Densin-180, a brain-specific protein highly concentrated at the postsynaptic density (PSD), belongs to the LAP [leucine-rich repeats and PSD-95/Dlg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains] family of proteins, some of which play fundamental roles in the establishment of cell polarity.

    Results: To identify new Densin-180-interacting proteins, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the COOH-terminal fragment of Densin-180 containing the PDZ domain as bait, and we isolated MAGUIN-1 as a Densin-180-binding protein. MAGUIN-1, a mammalian homologue of Drosophila connector enhancer of KSR (CNK), is known to interact with PSD-95 and has a short isoform, MAGUIN-2. The Densin-180 PDZ domain bound to the COOH-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif of MAGUIN-1. Densin-180 co-immunoprecipitated with MAGUIN-1 as well as with PSD-95 from the rat brain. In dissociated hippocampal neurones Densin-180 co-localized with MAGUINs and PSD-95, mainly at neuritic spines. In transfected cells, Densin-180 formed a ternary complex with MAGUIN-1 and PSD-95, whereas no association was detected between Densin-180 and PSD-95 in the absence of MAGUIN-1. MAGUIN-1 formed a dimer or multimer via the COOH-terminal leucine-rich region which is present in MAGUIN-1 but not in -2. Among the PDZ domains of PSD-95, the first was sufficient for interaction with MAGUIN-1.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the potential to dimerize or multimerize allows MAGUIN-1 to bind simultaneously to both Densin-180 and PSD-95, leading to the ternary complex assembly of these proteins at the postsynaptic membrane.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;11;1149-60

  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95.

    Hu LA, Chen W, Premont RT, Cong M and Lefkowitz RJ

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    We previously reported that the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) associates with PSD-95 through a PDZ domain-mediated interaction, by which PSD-95 modulates beta(1)AR function and facilitates the physical association of beta(1)AR with other synaptic proteins such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Here we demonstrate that beta(1)AR association with PSD-95 is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5). When beta(1)AR and PSD-95 were coexpressed with either GRK2 or GRK5 in COS-7 cells, GRK5 alone dramatically decreased the association of beta(1)AR with PSD-95, although GRK2 and GRK5 both could be co-immunoprecipitated with beta(1)AR and both could enhance receptor phosphorylation in vivo. Increasing expression of GRK5 in the cells led to further decreased beta(1)AR association with PSD-95. Stimulation with the beta(1)AR agonist isoproterenol further decreased PSD-95 binding to beta(1)AR. In addition, GRK5 protein kinase activity was required for this regulatory effect since a kinase-inactive GRK5 mutant had no effect on PSD-95 binding to beta(1)AR. Moreover, the regulatory effect of GRK5 on beta(1)AR association with PSD-95 was observed only when GRK5 was expressed together with the receptor, but not when GRK5 was coexpressed with PSD-95. Thus, we propose that GRK5 regulates beta(1)AR association with PSD-95 through phosphorylation of beta(1)AR. Regulation of protein association through receptor phosphorylation may be a general mechanism used by G protein-coupled receptors that associate via PDZ domain-mediated protein/protein interactions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL16037

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;2;1607-13

  • Identification of a novel neuroligin in humans which binds to PSD-95 and has a widespread expression.

    Bolliger MF, Frei K, Winterhalter KH and Gloor SM

    Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Neuroligins, first discovered in rat brain, form a family of three synaptically enriched membrane proteins. Using reverse transcription-PCR of human brain polyadenylated RNA and extensive database searches, we identified the human homologues of the three rat neuroligins and a cDNA encoding a fourth member, which we named neuroligin 4. Neuroligin 4 has 63-73% amino acid identity with the other members of the human neuroligin family, and the same predicted domain structure. DNA database analyses, furthermore, indicated that a possible fifth neuroligin gene may be present in the human genome. Northern-blot analysis revealed expression of neuroligin 4 in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but barely at all in brain. Overexpression of neuroligin 4 cDNA in COS-7 cells led to the production of a 110 kDa protein. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the protein was integrated into the plasma membrane. Overexpression of cDNAs encoding neuroligin 4 and the PDZ-domain protein, PSD-95, in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of detergent-resistant complexes. Neuroligin 4 did not bind to ZO-1, another PDZ-domain protein. Together, our data show that the human neuroligin family is composed of at least one additional member, and suggest that neuroligin 4 may also be produced outside the central nervous system.

    The Biochemical journal 2001;356;Pt 2;581-8

  • Formation of a native-like beta-hairpin finger structure of a peptide from the extended PDZ domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in aqueous solution.

    Wang P, Zhang Q, Tochio H, Fan JS and Zhang M

    Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, P. R. China.

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is targeted to the cell membrane via interactions of its extended PDZ domain with PDZ domains of membrane-associated proteins including PSD-95 and alpha1-syntrophin. The formation of heterodimers between the nNOS PDZ domain and the PDZ domains of nNOS-binding proteins requires a stretch of continuous amino-acid residues C-terminal to the canonical nNOS PDZ domain. In this work, we show that a 27-residue peptide comprising the C-terminal extension of the extended nNOS PDZ domain is capable of binding to PSD-95. The structure of the 27-residue peptide in aqueous solution was determined using multidimensional NMR-spectroscopic techniques. The free peptide adopts a native-like beta-hairpin finger structure in aqueous solution. The results indicate that the C-terminal extension peptide of the nNOS PDZ domain may represent a relatively independent structural unit in the mediation of the interaction between nNOS and PDZ domain-containing proteins including PSD-95 and alpha1-syntrophin.

    European journal of biochemistry 2000;267;11;3116-22

  • Positional cloning and characterisation of the human DLGAP2 gene and its exclusion in progressive epilepsy with mental retardation.

    Ranta S, Zhang Y, Ross B, Takkunen E, Hirvasniemi A, de la Chapelle A, Gilliam TC and Lehesjoki AE

    Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, and Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Finland. susanna.ranta@helsinki.fi

    In search of the gene for progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) we identified DLGAP2, the human homolog of the gene encoding the rat PSD-95/SAP90-associated protein-2 (Dlgap2). We extended the transcript in both the 5' and 3' directions and characterised the genomic structure of the approximately 10 kb gene. Sequence comparisons of human DLGAP2 cDNA sequences obtained from human testis and brain cDNA libraries with homologous rat genes suggest alternative splicing in the 5' end of the gene. The 5' coding sequence of the testis cDNA is complete, whereas based on homology with the rat gene 103 bp of coding sequence may still be missing in the 5' end of the DLGAP2 brain transcript. DLGAP2 was excluded as the gene responsible for EPMR.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2000;8;5;381-4

  • Association of synapse-associated protein 90/ postsynaptic density-95-associated protein (SAPAP) with neurofilaments.

    Hirao K, Hata Y, Deguchi M, Yao I, Ogura M, Rokukawa C, Kawabe H, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd, 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    Background: Synapse-associated protein (SAP) 90/Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-associated protein (SAPAP) (also called Guanylate kinase-associated protein/hDLG-associated protein) interacts with the guanylate kinase domains of PSD-95 and synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) via the middle region containing 5 repeats of 14 amino acids. SAPAP also binds the recently identified proteins, nArgBP2 and synamon (also called Shank 1a), via the proline-rich region and the C-terminus, respectively. SAPAP is highly enriched in the Triton X-100-insoluble PSD fraction, and recruits PSD-95 into the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction in transfected cells. We have further characterized here the Triton X-100-insolubility of SAPAP and tried to identify the Triton X-100-insoluble structures which SAPAP interacts with.

    Results: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors were recruited into the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction with PSD-95 by SAPAP. The N-terminal region of SAPAP was Triton X-100-insoluble, whereas the middle and C-terminal regions were Triton X-100-soluble. We identified proteins interacting with 35S-methionine-labelled SAPAP in the overlay assay, determined their amino acid sequences, and found them to be neurofilaments. SAPAP interacted with neurofilaments via the N-terminal region, was co-immunoprecipitated with neurofilaments from the rat brain, and co-localized with neurofilaments in transfected cells.

    Conclusion: SAPAP associates with neurofilaments via the N-terminal region and may link various components of the PSD to neurofilaments.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2000;5;3;203-10

  • nArgBP2, a novel neural member of ponsin/ArgBP2/vinexin family that interacts with synapse-associated protein 90/postsynaptic density-95-associated protein (SAPAP).

    Kawabe H, Hata Y, Takeuchi M, Ide N, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

    Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/synapse-associated protein (SAP) 90 and synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) are synaptic membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Both the proteins interact with SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein (SAPAP) (also called guanylate kinase-associated protein/Dlg-associated protein). SAPAP is a protein highly enriched in the PSD fraction and may link PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM to Triton X-100-insoluble structures. We found here a novel SAPAP-interacting protein, which was specifically expressed in neural tissue and was present in the postsynaptic density fraction in brain. This protein had a sorbin homology domain in the N terminus, a zinc finger motif in the middle region, and three src homology (SH) 3 domains in the C terminus and was homologous to the ponsin/ArgBP2/vinexin family proteins. We named this protein nArgBP2 because it was the most homologous to ArgBP2. nArgBP2 is a neural member of a growing family of SH3-containing proteins. nArgBP2 bound to the proline-rich region of SAPAP via its third SH3 domain and was coimmunoprecipitated with SAPAP from the extract of rat brain. Furthermore, nArgBP2 was colocalized with SAPAP at synapses in cerebellum. nArgBP2 bound to not only SAPAP but also vinculin and l-afadin, known to bind to ponsin and vinexin. nArgBP2 may be implicated in the protein network around SAPAP in the PSD.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;43;30914-8

  • Proline-rich synapse-associated proteins ProSAP1 and ProSAP2 interact with synaptic proteins of the SAPAP/GKAP family.

    Boeckers TM, Winter C, Smalla KH, Kreutz MR, Bockmann J, Seidenbecher C, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Biology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, 39118, Germany. bockers@uni-muenster.de

    We have recently isolated a novel proline-rich synapse-associated protein-1 (ProSAP1) that is highly enriched in postsynaptic density (PSD). A closely related multidomain protein, ProSAP2, shares a highly conserved PDZ (PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1) domain (80% identity), a ppI domain that mediates the interaction with cortactin, and a C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha-motif) domain. In addition, ProSAP2 codes for five ankyrin repeats and a SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. Transcripts for both proteins are coexpressed in many regions of rat brain, but show a distinct expression pattern in the cerebellum. Using the PDZ domains of ProSAP1 and 2 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated several clones of the SAPAP/GKAP (SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein/guanylate kinase-associated protein) family. The association of the proteins was verified by coimmunoprecipitation and cotransfection in HEK cells. Therefore, proteins of the ProSAP family represent a novel link between SAP90/PSD-95 bound membrane receptors and the cytoskeleton at glutamatergic synapses of the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;264;1;247-52

  • A novel multiple PDZ domain-containing molecule interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neuronal cell adhesion proteins.

    Hirao K, Hata Y, Ide N, Takeuchi M, Irie M, Yao I, Deguchi M, Toyoda A, Sudhof TC and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    At synaptic junctions, pre- and postsynaptic membranes are connected by cell adhesion and have distinct structures for specialized functions. The presynaptic membranes have a machinery for fast neurotransmitter release, and the postsynaptic membranes have clusters of neurotransmitter receptors. The molecular mechanism of the assembly of synaptic junctions is not yet clear. Pioneering studies identified postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/SAP90 as a prototypic synaptic scaffolding protein to maintain the structure of synaptic junctions. PSD-95/SAP90 belongs to a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases and binds N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, potassium channels, and neuroligins through the PDZ domains and GKAP/SAPAP/DAP through the guanylate kinase (GK) domain. We performed here a yeast two-hybrid screening for SAPAP-interacting molecules and identified a novel protein that has an inverse structure of membrane-associated guanylate kinases with an NH2-terminal GK-like domain followed by two WW and five PDZ domains. It binds SAPAP through the GK-like domain and NMDA receptors and neuroligins through the PDZ domains. We named this protein S-SCAM (synaptic scaffolding molecule) because S-SCAM may assemble receptors and cell adhesion proteins at synaptic junctions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;33;21105-10

  • High-resolution mapping and transcript identification at the progressive epilepsy with mental retardation locus on chromosome 8p.

    Ranta S, Lehesjoki AE, de Fatima Bonaldo M, Knowles JA, Hirvasniemi A, Ross B, de Jong PJ, Soares MB, de la Chapelle A and Gilliam TC

    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia Genome Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York 10032, USA.

    Progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) is an autosomal recessive central nervous system disorder characterized by childhood onset epilepsy and subsequent mental retardation. The locus for EPMR has been mapped to human chromosome 8p23. We recently reported the construction of a YAC contig across the 4 centimorgan minimum genetic region that harbors the disease locus. We now report further delineation of the critical region to <700 kb. Our mapping strategy relied on the identification of nine novel microsatellite markers and the construction of a complete BAC contig across the critical region. Several partial gene sequences have been identified from the region and are being analyzed as candidate genes for EPMR.

    Genome research 1997;7;9;887-96

  • Characterization of guanylate kinase-associated protein, a postsynaptic density protein at excitatory synapses that interacts directly with postsynaptic density-95/synapse-associated protein 90.

    Naisbitt S, Kim E, Weinberg RJ, Rao A, Yang FC, Craig AM and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachussetts 02114, USA.

    The structure of central synapses is poorly understood at the molecular level. A recent advance came with the identification of the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/synapse-associated protein 90 family of proteins as important mediators of the synaptic clustering of certain classes of ion channels. By yeast two-hybrid screening, a novel protein termed guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP) has been isolated that binds to the GK-like domain of PSD-95 (). Here we present a detailed characterization of GKAP expression in the rat brain and report the cloning of a novel GKAP splice variant. By Northern blot, GKAP mRNAs (4, 6.5, and 8 kB) are expressed predominantly in the rat brain. By in situ hybridization, GKAP is expressed widely in neurons of cortex and hippocampus and in the Purkinje and granule cells of the cerebellum. On brain immunoblots, two prominent bands of 95 and 130 kDa are detected that correspond to products of short and long N-terminal splice variants of GKAP. Two independent GKAP antibodies label somatodendritic puncta in neocortical and hippocampal neurons in a pattern consistent with synaptic elements. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals GKAP to be predominantly postsynaptic and present at asymmetric synapses and in dendritic spines. The distribution of GKAP immunogold particles is uniform in the lateral plane of the PSD but peaks in the perpendicular axis approximately 20 nm from the postsynaptic membrane. In cultured hippocampal neurons GKAP immunoreactive puncta colocalize with the AMPA receptor subunit Glu receptor 1 but not with the GABAA receptor subunits beta2 and beta3. Thus GKAP is a widely expressed neuronal protein localized specifically in the PSD of glutamatergic synapses, consistent with its direct interaction with PSD-95 family proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS35050

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1997;17;15;5687-96

  • DAP-1, a novel protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95.

    Satoh K, Yanai H, Senda T, Kohu K, Nakamura T, Okumura N, Matsumine A, Kobayashi S, Toyoshima K and Akiyama T

    Department of Oncogene Research, Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

    Background: The human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumour suppressor protein (hDLG) and closely related proteins such as postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa (PSD-95) are associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) and Shaker-type K+ channels, and are thought to be involved in their clustering.

    Results: We have identified a protein named DAP-1 that binds to the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95. DAP-1 was found to associate with hDLG, PSD-95, NMDA-R and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). Furthermore, we found that DAP-1 is specifically expressed in the brain and colocalizes with PSD-95 and APC in mouse cerebellum. We also found that DAP-1 is colocalized with PSD-95 and NMDA-R at the synapses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that DAP-1 may play several roles in the molecular organization of synapses and neuronal cell signalling by interacting with hDLG and PSD-95, which in turn are associated with receptors, ion channels and APC.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 1997;2;6;415-24

  • SAPAPs. A family of PSD-95/SAP90-associated proteins localized at postsynaptic density.

    Takeuchi M, Hata Y, Hirao K, Toyoda A, Irie M and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-22, Japan.

    PSD-95/SAP90 is a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinases localized at postsynaptic density (PSD) in neuronal cells. Membrane-associated guanylate kinases are a family of signaling molecules expressed at various submembrane domains which have the PDZ (DHR) domains, the SH3 domain, and the guanylate kinase domain. PSD-95/SAP90 interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 2A/B, Shaker-type potassium channels, and brain nitric oxide synthase through the PDZ (DHR) domains and clusters these molecules at synaptic junctions. However, neither the function of the SH3 domain or the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95/SAP90, nor the protein interacting with these domains has been identified. We have isolated here a novel protein family consisting of at least four members which specifically interact with PSD-95/SAP90 and its related proteins through the guanylate kinase domain, and named these proteins SAPAPs (SAP90/PSD-95-Associated Proteins). SAPAPs are specifically expressed in neuronal cells and enriched in the PSD fraction. SAPAPs induce the enrichment of PSD-95/SAP90 to the plasma membrane in transfected cells. Thus, SAPAPs may have a potential activity to maintain the structure of PSD by concentrating its components to the membrane area.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;18;11943-51

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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