G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
NCK-associated protein 1
G00000128 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000061676 (Ensembl human gene)
10787 (Entrez Gene)
482 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NCKAP1 (GeneCards)
604891 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7666 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y2A7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • HEM2
  • NAP125
  • Nap1

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • WW domains provide a platform for the assembly of multiprotein networks.

    Ingham RJ, Colwill K, Howard C, Dettwiler S, Lim CS, Yu J, Hersi K, Raaijmakers J, Gish G, Mbamalu G, Taylor L, Yeung B, Vassilovski G, Amin M, Chen F, Matskova L, Winberg G, Ernberg I, Linding R, O'donnell P, Starostine A, Keller W, Metalnikov P, Stark C and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    WW domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions through recognition of proline-rich peptide motifs and phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline sites. To pursue the functional properties of WW domains, we employed mass spectrometry to identify 148 proteins that associate with 10 human WW domains. Many of these proteins represent novel WW domain-binding partners and are components of multiprotein complexes involved in molecular processes, such as transcription, RNA processing, and cytoskeletal regulation. We validated one complex in detail, showing that WW domains of the AIP4 E3 protein-ubiquitin ligase bind directly to a PPXY motif in the p68 subunit of pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor Im in a manner that promotes p68 ubiquitylation. The tested WW domains fall into three broad groups on the basis of hierarchical clustering with respect to their associated proteins; each such cluster of bound proteins displayed a distinct set of WW domain-binding motifs. We also found that separate WW domains from the same protein or closely related proteins can have different specificities for protein ligands and also demonstrated that a single polypeptide can bind multiple classes of WW domains through separate proline-rich motifs. These data suggest that WW domains provide a versatile platform to link individual proteins into physiologically important networks.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;16;7092-106

  • Ethanol potentiates HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in human neurons via both the death receptor and NMDA receptor pathways.

    Chen W, Tang Z, Fortina P, Patel P, Addya S, Surrey S, Acheampong EA, Mukhtar M and Pomerantz RJ

    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Suite 329, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    Neuronal loss is a hallmark of AIDS dementia syndromes. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1)-specific proteins may induce neuronal apoptosis, but the signal transduction of HIV-1 gp120-induced, direct neuronal apoptosis remains unclear. Ethanol (EtOH) is considered to be an environmental co-factor in AIDS development. However, whether EtOH abuse in patients with AIDS increases neuronal dysfunction is still uncertain. Using pure, differentiated, and post-mitotic NT2.N-derived human neurons, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 and/or EtOH-related direct neuronal injury and the molecular interactions between HIV-1-specific proteins and EtOH. It was demonstrated that NT2.N neurons were susceptible to HIV-1 Bal (R5-tropic strain) gp120-induced direct cell death. Of importance, EtOH induced cell death in human neurons in a clinically-relevant dose range and EtOH strongly potentiated HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal injury at low and moderate concentrations. Furthermore, this potentiation of neurotoxicity could be blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) antagonists. We analyzed human genomic profiles in these human neurons, using Affymetrix genomics technology, to elucidate the apoptotic pathways involved in HIV-1- and EtOH-related neurodegeneration. Our findings indicated significant over-expression of selected apoptosis functional genes. Significant up-regulation of TRAF5 gene expression may play an essential role in triggering potentiation by EtOH of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis at early stages of interaction. These studies suggested that two primary apoptotic pathways, death receptor (extrinsic) and NMDA receptor (intrinsic)-related programmed cell-death pathways, are both involved in the potentiation by EtOH of HIV-1 gp120-induced direct human neuronal death. Thus, these data suggest rationally-designed, molecular targets for potential anti-HIV-1 neuroprotection.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA13849; NIAID NIH HHS: AI46149; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41864, NS44513

    Virology 2005;334;1;59-73

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Interchangeable functions of Arabidopsis PIROGI and the human WAVE complex subunit SRA1 during leaf epidermal development.

    Basu D, El-Assal Sel-D, Le J, Mallery EL and Szymanski DB

    Agronomy Department, Purdue University, Lilly Hall, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054, USA.

    The WAVE complex is an essential regulator of actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3-dependent actin filament nucleation and cell shape change in migrating cells. Although the composition of the WAVE complex is well characterized, the cellular mechanisms that control its activity and localization are not well known. The 'distorted group' defines a set of Arabidopsis genes that are required to remodel the actin cytoskeleton and maintain the polarized elongation of branched, hair-like cells termed trichomes. Several loci within this group encode homologs of ARP2/3 subunits. In addition to trichome distortion, ARP2/3 subunit mutants have reduced shoot fresh weight and widespread defects in epidermal cell-cell adhesion. The precise cellular function of plant ARP2/3, and the means by which it is regulated, is not known. In this paper, we report that the 'distorted group' gene PIROGI encodes a homolog of the WAVE complex subunit SRA1. The similar cell shape and actin phenotypes of pir and ARP2/3 complex subunit mutants suggest that PIROGI positively regulates ARP2/3. PIROGI directly interacts with the small GTPase ATROP2 with isoform specificity and with selectivity for active forms of the protein. PIROGI shares only 30% amino acid identity with its human homolog. However, both WAVE subunit homologs are functionally interchangeable and display identical physical interactions with RHO family GTPases and the Arabidopsis homolog of the WAVE complex subunit NAP125. These results demonstrate the utility of the 'distorted group' mutants to study ARP2/3 complex functions from signaling input to cell shape output.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2004;131;17;4345-55

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Abi1 is essential for the formation and activation of a WAVE2 signalling complex.

    Innocenti M, Zucconi A, Disanza A, Frittoli E, Areces LB, Steffen A, Stradal TE, Di Fiore PP, Carlier MF and Scita G

    IFOM Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare Via Adamello 16, 20134, Milan, Italy.

    WAVE2 belongs to a family of proteins that mediates actin reorganization by relaying signals from Rac to the Arp2/3 complex, resulting in lamellipodia protrusion. WAVE2 displays Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation activity in vitro, and does not bind directly to Rac. Instead, it forms macromolecular complexes that have been reported to exert both positive and negative modes of regulation. How these complexes are assembled, localized and activated in vivo remains to be established. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry to identify an Abi1-based complex containing WAVE2, Nap1 (Nck-associated protein) and PIR121. Abi1 interacts directly with the WHD domain of WAVE2, increases WAVE2 actin polymerization activity and mediates the assembly of a WAVE2-Abi1-Nap1-PIR121 complex. The WAVE2-Abi1-Nap1-PIR121 complex is as active as the WAVE2-Abi1 sub-complex in stimulating Arp2/3, and after Rac activation it is re-localized to the leading edge of ruffles in vivo. Consistently, inhibition of Abi1 by RNA interference (RNAi) abrogates Rac-dependent lamellipodia protrusion. Thus, Abi1 orchestrates the proper assembly of the WAVE2 complex and mediates its activation at the leading edge in vivo.

    Funded by: Telethon: D.090

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;4;319-27

  • CYFIP2 is highly abundant in CD4+ cells from multiple sclerosis patients and is involved in T cell adhesion.

    Mayne M, Moffatt T, Kong H, McLaren PJ, Fowke KR, Becker KG, Namaka M, Schenck A, Bardoni B, Bernstein CN and Melanson M

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Division of Neuroscience, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada. michael.mayne@nrc.gc.ca

    DNA microarray profiling of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells from non-treated relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients determined that the cytoplasmic binding partner of fragile X protein (CYFIP2, also called PIR121) was increased significantly compared to healthy controls. Western analysis confirmed that CYFIP2 protein was increased approximately fourfold in CD4(+) cells from MS compared to inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD) patients or healthy controls. Because CYFIP2 acts as part of a tetrameric complex that regulates WAVE1 activation we hypothesized that high levels of CYFIP2 facilitate T cell adhesion, which is elevated in MS patients. Several findings indicated that increased levels of CYFIP2 facilitated adhesion. First, adenoviral-mediated overexpression of CYFIP2 in Jurkat cells increased fibronectin-mediated adhesion. Secondly, CYFIP2 knock-down experiments using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reduced fibronectin-mediated binding in Jurkat and CD4(+) cells. Thirdly, inhibition of Rac-1, a physical partner with CYFIP2 and regulator of WAVE1 activity, reduced fibronectin-mediated adhesion in Jurkat and CD4(+) cells. Finally, inhibition of Rac-1 or reduction of CYFIP2 protein decreased fibronectin-mediated adhesion in CD4(+) cells from MS patients to levels similar to controls. These studies suggest that overabundance of CYFIP2 protein facilitates increased adhesion properties of T cells from MS patients.

    European journal of immunology 2004;34;4;1217-27

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Tuba, a novel protein containing bin/amphiphysin/Rvs and Dbl homology domains, links dynamin to regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Salazar MA, Kwiatkowski AV, Pellegrini L, Cestra G, Butler MH, Rossman KL, Serna DM, Sondek J, Gertler FB and De Camilli P

    Department of Cell Biology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA.

    Tuba is a novel scaffold protein that functions to bring together dynamin with actin regulatory proteins. It is concentrated at synapses in brain and binds dynamin selectively through four N-terminal Src homology-3 (SH3) domains. Tuba binds a variety of actin regulatory proteins, including N-WASP, CR16, WAVE1, WIRE, PIR121, NAP1, and Ena/VASP proteins, via a C-terminal SH3 domain. Direct binding partners include N-WASP and Ena/VASP proteins. Forced targeting of the C-terminal SH3 domain to the mitochondrial surface can promote accumulation of F-actin around mitochondria. A Dbl homology domain present in the middle of Tuba upstream of a Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain activates Cdc42, but not Rac and Rho, and may thus cooperate with the C terminus of the protein in regulating actin assembly. The BAR domain, a lipid-binding module, may functionally replace the pleckstrin homology domain that typically follows a Dbl homology domain. The properties of Tuba provide new evidence for a close functional link between dynamin, Rho GTPase signaling, and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46128; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM58801, GM62299; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36251

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;49;49031-43

  • Identification of NAP1, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase-related kinases that potentiates NF-kappaB signaling.

    Fujita F, Taniguchi Y, Kato T, Narita Y, Furuya A, Ogawa T, Sakurai H, Joh T, Itoh M, Delhase M, Karin M and Nakanishi M

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.

    The IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinase NAK (also known as TBK or T2K) contributes to the activation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. Here we identify NAP1 (for NAK-associated protein 1), a protein that interacts with NAK and its relative IKK epsilon (also known as IKKi). NAP1 activates NAK and facilitates its oligomerization. Interestingly, the NAK-NAP1 complex itself effectively phosphorylated serine 536 of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-kappaB, and this activity was stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Overexpression of NAP1 specifically enhanced cytokine induction of an NF-kappaB-dependent, but not an AP-1-dependent, reporter. Depletion of NAP1 reduced NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression and sensitized cells to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. These results define NAP1 as an activator of IKK-related kinases and suggest that the NAK-NAP1 complex may protect cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by promoting NF-kappaB activation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;21;7780-93

  • Mechanism of regulation of WAVE1-induced actin nucleation by Rac1 and Nck.

    Eden S, Rohatgi R, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M and Kirschner MW

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Rac signalling to actin -- a pathway that is thought to be mediated by the protein Scar/WAVE (WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-family verprolin homologous protein -- has a principal role in cell motility. In an analogous pathway, direct interaction of Cdc42 with the related protein N-WASP stimulates actin polymerization. For the Rac-WAVE pathway, no such direct interaction has been identified. Here we report a mechanism by which Rac and the adapter protein Nck activate actin nucleation through WAVE1. WAVE1 exists in a heterotetrameric complex that includes orthologues of human PIR121 (p53-inducible messenger RNA with a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 140,000), Nap125 (NCK-associated protein with an M(r) of 125,000) and HSPC300. Whereas recombinant WAVE1 is constitutively active, the WAVE1 complex is inactive. We therefore propose that Rac1 and Nck cause dissociation of the WAVE1 complex, which releases active WAVE1-HSPC300 and leads to actin nucleation.

    Nature 2002;418;6899;790-3

  • Isolation of hNap1BP which interacts with human Nap1 (NCKAP1) whose expression is down-regulated in Alzheimer's disease.

    Yamamoto A, Suzuki T and Sakaki Y

    Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. bun@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel apoptosis-related gene, human Nap1 (HGMW-approved symbol NCKAP1), the expression of which was strongly down-regulated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human Nap1 proved to be an orthologue of rat Nap1 which binds to the adaptor molecule Nck in signal transduction. In order to further elucidate the function of human Nap1, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. As a result of screening, we discovered a protein designated hNap1BP (human Nap1 binding protein) which is a member of the tyrosine kinase-binding protein family. In addition, hNap1BP bound to the SH3 domain of c-Abl and Nck. hNap1BP is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues like human Nap1, and intriguingly these genes are co-expressed in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mouse brain where AD pathological features are strongly evident. Further functional analysis of hNap1BP may clarify its contribution to AD pathology.

    Gene 2001;271;2;159-69

  • Molecular cloning of a novel apoptosis-related gene, human Nap1 (NCKAP1), and its possible relation to Alzheimer disease.

    Suzuki T, Nishiyama K, Yamamoto A, Inazawa J, Iwaki T, Yamada T, Kanazawa I and Sakaki Y

    Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. hakuna@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    Expression profiles of thousands of genes (cDNAs) were analyzed in sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD)-affected brains in comparison with normal subjects by using the high-density cDNA filter method and differential display analysis. Among 31 differentially expressed genes, one gene was found to be markedly depressed in AD-affected brains. A full-length (or nearly full-length) cDNA of the gene was isolated and sequenced. The cDNA turned out to be an orthologue of rat Nap1. The gene was thus designated human Nap1 (HGMW-approved symbol NCKAP1) and was mapped to human chromosome 2q32 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization studies showed that in brain, the gene is predominantly expressed in neuronal cells. Antisense oligo DNA of human Nap1 transcripts was found to induce apoptosis of neuronal cells. Based on these results, the possible role of human Nap1 in AD is discussed.

    Genomics 2000;63;2;246-54

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of a series of projects for sequencing human cDNA clones derived from relatively long transcripts, we herein report the entire sequences of 100 newly determined cDNA clones with the potential of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries with insert sizes between 4.5 and 8.3 kb. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and of their open reading frames was 5.3 kb and 2.8 kb (930 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology search against public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 86 clones exhibited significant similarities to known genes; 51 of them (59%) were related to those for cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. All the clones characterized in this study are accompanied by their expression profiles in 14 human tissues examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal mapping data.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;1;31-9

  • In mouse brain profilin I and profilin II associate with regulators of the endocytic pathway and actin assembly.

    Witke W, Podtelejnikov AV, Di Nardo A, Sutherland JD, Gurniak CB, Dotti C and Mann M

    Mouse Biology Programme, EMBL, Monterotondo/Rome, Italy. witke@embl-heidelberg.de

    Profilins are thought to be essential for regulation of actin assembly. However, the functions of profilins in mammalian tissues are not well understood. In mice profilin I is expressed ubiquitously while profilin II is expressed at high levels only in brain. In extracts from mouse brain, profilin I and profilin II can form complexes with regulators of endocytosis, synaptic vesicle recycling and actin assembly. Using mass spectrometry and database searching we characterized a number of ligands for profilin I and profilin II from mouse brain extracts including dynamin I, clathrin, synapsin, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, the Rac-associated protein NAP1 and a member of the NSF/sec18 family. In vivo, profilins co-localize with dynamin I and synapsin in axonal and dendritic processes. Our findings strongly suggest that in brain profilin I and profilin II complexes link the actin cytoskeleton and endocytic membrane flow, directing actin and clathrin assembly to distinct membrane domains.

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;4;967-76

  • p140Sra-1 (specifically Rac1-associated protein) is a novel specific target for Rac1 small GTPase.

    Kobayashi K, Kuroda S, Fukata M, Nakamura T, Nagase T, Nomura N, Matsuura Y, Yoshida-Kubomura N, Iwamatsu A and Kaibuchi K

    Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma 630-01, Japan.

    Rac1 small GTPase plays pivotal roles in various cell functions such as cell morphology, cell polarity, and cell proliferation. We have previously identified IQGAP1 from bovine brain cytosol as a target for Rac1 by an affinity purification method. By using the same method, we purified a specifically Rac1-associated protein with a molecular mass of about 140 kDa (p140) from bovine brain cytosol. This protein interacted with guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS).glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Rac1 but not with the GDP.GST-Rac1, GTPgammaS.GST-Cdc42, or GTPgammaS.GST-RhoA. The amino acid sequences of this protein revealed that p140 is identified as a product of KIAA0068 gene. We denoted this protein as Sra-1 (Specifically Rac1-associated protein). Recombinant Sra-1 interacted with GTPgammaS.GST-Rac1 and weakly with GDP.Rac1 but not with GST-Cdc42 or GST-RhoA. The N-terminal domain of Sra-1 (1-407 amino acids) was responsible for the interaction with Rac1. Myc-tagged Sra-1 and the deletion mutant capable of interacting with Rac1, but not the mutants unable to bind Rac1, were colocalized with dominant active Rac1(Val-12) and cortical actin filament at the Rac1(Val-12)-induced membrane ruffling area in KB cells. Sra-1 was cosedimented with filamentous actin (F-actin), indicating that Sra-1 directly interacts with F-actin. These results suggest that Sra-1 is a novel and specific target for Rac1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;1;291-5

  • A novel ligand for an SH3 domain of the adaptor protein Nck bears an SH2 domain and nuclear signaling motifs.

    Matuoka K, Miki H, Takahashi K and Takenawa T

    Department of Biosignal Research, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Japan.

    Nck is a small protein composed of Src homology regions (SH) 2 and 3, paralleling the adaptors c-Crk and Grb2/Ash, but its function remains enigmatic. To clarify Nck signaling, a human brain cDNA library was searched for targets of the SH3 moiety of Nck. A novel molecule detected therefrom (referred to as Nck-, Ash- and phospholipase Cgamma-binding protein 4) contained proline-rich sequences and, through the function of one of them, interacted with the middle SH3 domain of Nck. A NAP4 fusion peptide exhibited an affinity for Nck, Ash and phospholipase Cgamma in whole cell lysates. NAP4 also had an SH2 domain, which could bind to activated EGF receptor. These intermolecular interactions imply the intricacy of Nck-mediated signaling around the receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. In addition, NAP4 bore a putative nuclear localization signal and a Q-run/P-run composite, both characteristic of nuclear proteins, and might therefore relate to the presence of Nck in the cellular nucleus.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;239;2;488-92

  • Interaction of Nck-associated protein 1 with activated GTP-binding protein Rac.

    Kitamura Y, Kitamura T, Sakaue H, Maeda T, Ueno H, Nishio S, Ohno S, Osada Si, Sakaue M, Ogawa W and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650, Japan.

    Bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Rac1 were used to identify binding proteins of this Rho family GTPase present in a bovine brain extract. Five proteins of 85, 110, 125, 140 and 170 kDa were detected, all of which were associated exclusively with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-bound Rac1, not with GDP-bound Rac1. The 85 and 110 kDa proteins were identified as the regulatory and catalytic subunits respectively of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Several lines of evidence suggested that the 125 kDa protein is identical with Nck-associated protein 1 (Nap1). The mobilities of the 125 kDa protein and Nap1 on SDS/PAGE were indistinguishable, and the 125 kDa protein was depleted from brain extract by preincubation with the Src homology 3 domain of Nck to which Nap1 binds. Furthermore, antibodies to Nap1 reacted with the 125 kDa protein. Nap1 was co-immunoprecipitated with a constitutively active form of Rac expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The observation that complex formation between activated Rac and PAK, but not that between Rac and Nap1, could be reproduced in vitro with recombinant proteins indicates that the interaction of Nap1 with Rac is indirect. The 140 kDa Rac-binding protein is a potential candidate for a link that connects Nap1 to Rac. The multimolecular complex comprising Rac, Nap1 and probably the 140 kDa protein might mediate some of the biological effects transmitted by the multipotent GTPase.

    The Biochemical journal 1997;322 ( Pt 3);873-8

  • Molecular cloning of p125Nap1, a protein that associates with an SH3 domain of Nck.

    Kitamura T, Kitamura Y, Yonezawa K, Totty NF, Gout I, Hara K, Waterfield MD, Sakaue M, Ogawa W and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Japan.

    Binding proteins to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of Nck were screened by the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Two proteins of 140 and 125 kDa were detected, both of which associated preferentially with the first SH3 domain of Nck. The 125-kDa protein, designated as Nap1 for Nck-associated protein 1, was purified and the corresponding rat cDNA was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence revealed that p125Nap1 does not contain any known functional motif but shows sequence homology to Hem family gene. Using specific antibodies, p125Nap1 was shown to associate with Nck both in vitro and in intact cells. Further characterization of p125Nap1 may clarify the protein-protein interaction in the downstream signaling of Nck.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;219;2;509-14

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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