G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
solute carrier family 17 (sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter), member 7
G00000116 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071732 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000104888 (Ensembl human gene)
57030 (Entrez Gene)
453 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SLC17A7 (GeneCards)
605208 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:16704 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q6PCD0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • BNPI
  • VGLUT1

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • Resequencing and association study of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 gene (VGLUT1) with schizophrenia.

    Shen YC, Liao DL, Chen JY, Wang YC, Lai IC, Liou YJ, Chen YJ, Luu SU and Chen CH

    Department of Psychiatry, Tzu-Chi General Hospital and University, Hualien, Taiwan; Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

    Dysregulation of glutamate neurotransmission is implicated in the pathphysiology of schizophrenia. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) package glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal and regulate the release of glutamate. Abnormal VGLUT1 expression has been linked to schizophrenia in postmortem brain studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the human VGLUT1 in the susceptibility to schizophrenia. In this study, we searched for genetic variants in the putative core promoter region and 12 exons (including UTR ends) of the VGLUT1 gene using direct sequencing in a sample of Han Chinese schizophrenic patients (n=376) and non-psychotic controls (n=368) from Taiwan, and conducted a case-control association study. We identified two common SNPs (g.-248G>C (ss159695612) and c.2697C>A (rs1043558)) in the VGLUT1 gene. No differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between the patients and control subjects. Besides, we identified eight patient-specific rare variants in 16 out of 376 patients, including two variants (g.-296A>G (ss159695611) and g.-32Cv>T (ss159695613)) at the core promoter region and 5'UTR, two missense variants (L516M (ss159695617) and P551S (ss159695618)) and three silent variants (E24E (ss159695614), L118L (ss159695615), and P133P (ss159695616)) at protein-coding regions, and one variant (c.2201G>A (ss159695619)) at the 3'UTR. No rare variants were found in 368 control subjects (4.3% versus 0, P=1.5x10(-5)). Although the functional significance of these rare variants remains to be characterized, our study may lend support to the multiple rare mutation hypothesis of schizophrenia, and may provide genetic clues to indicate the involvement of the glutamate transmission pathway in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia research 2009;115;2-3;254-60

  • Vesicular glutamate transporter mRNA expression in the medial temporal lobe in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

    Uezato A, Meador-Woodruff JH and McCullumsmith RE

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Background: Altered glutamate transmission has been found in the medial temporal lobe in severe psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have a pivotal role in presynaptic release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft. We investigated this presynaptic marker in major psychiatric illness by measuring transcript expression of the VGLUTs in the medial temporal lobe.

    Methods: The study sample comprised four groups of 13 subjects with MDD, BD, or schizophrenia (SCZ), and a comparison group from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. In situ hybridization was performed to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of VGLUT 1, 2, and 3 in medial temporal lobe structures. We also examined the same areas of rats treated with antidepressants, a mood stabilizer, and antipsychotics to assess the effects of these medications on VGLUT mRNA expression.

    Results: We found decreased VGLUT1 mRNA expression in both MDD and BD in the entorhinal cortex (ERC), decreased VGLUT2 mRNA expression in MDD in the middle temporal gyrus, and increased VGLUT2 mRNA expression in SCZ in the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). We also found a negative correlation between age and VGLUT1 mRNA expression in BD in the ERC and ITG. We did not find any changes in VGLUT mRNA expression in the hippocampus in any diagnostic group. We found decreased VGLUT1 mRNA expression in rats treated with haloperidol in the temporal cortex.

    Conclusions: These data indicate region-specific alterations of presynaptic glutamate innervation in the medial temporal lobe in the mood disorders.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH074016, MH53327

    Bipolar disorders 2009;11;7;711-25

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.

    Need AC, Keefe RS, Ge D, Grossman I, Dickson S, McEvoy JP and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics research, the very richness of the clinical data presents challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting association results for these trials one gene at a time, ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand, suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new hypotheses that can be tested through both replication efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate handling of these forms of data therefore requires dissemination of association statistics without undue emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769 polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21 pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is impossible to know which of these associations may be real, although in total they form a valuable resource that is immediately available to the scientific community.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: N01 MH90001

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;7;946-57

  • Loss of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the prefrontal cortex is correlated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease.

    Kashani A, Lepicard E, Poirel O, Videau C, David JP, Fallet-Bianco C, Simon A, Delacourte A, Giros B, Epelbaum J, Betancur C and El Mestikawy S

    INSERM, U513, 94000 Créteil, France.

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system is severely impaired in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we assessed the status of glutamatergic terminals in AD using the first available specific markers, the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. We quantified VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex (Brodmann area 9) of controls and AD patients using specific antiserums. A dramatic decrease in VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 was observed in AD using Western blot. Similar decreases were observed in an independent group of subjects using immunoautoradiography. The VGLUT1 reduction was highly correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment, assessed with the clinical dementia rating (CDR) score. A significant albeit weaker correlation was also observed with VGLUT2. These findings provide evidence indicating that glutamatergic systems are severely impaired in the A9 region of AD patients and that this impairment is strongly correlated with the progression of cognitive decline. Our results suggest that VGLUT1 expression in the prefrontal cortex could be used as a valuable neurochemical marker of dementia in AD.

    Neurobiology of aging 2008;29;11;1619-30

  • Altered vesicular glutamate transporter expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

    Oni-Orisan A, Kristiansen LV, Haroutunian V, Meador-Woodruff JH and McCullumsmith RE

    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe mental illness with profound emotional and economic burdens for those afflicted and their families. An increasing number of studies have found that schizophrenia is marked by dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. While numerous studies have found alterations of postsynaptic molecules in schizophrenia, a growing body of evidence implicates presynaptic factors. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been identified and are known to package glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal for subsequent release into the synaptic cleft. Recent studies have shown that VGLUTs regulate synaptic activity via the amount of glutamate released. Accordingly, we hypothesized that VGLUTs are altered in schizophrenia, contributing to dysfunction of presynaptic activity.

    Methods: Using in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis, we investigated alterations in VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 transcript and protein expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of subjects with schizophrenia and a comparison group.

    Results: We found increased VGLUT1 transcript and reduced VGLUT1 protein expression in the ACC, but not DLPFC, in schizophrenia. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 was unchanged at both levels of gene expression. We did not find changes in VGLUT1 messenger RNA (mRNA) or protein levels following 28-day treatment of rats with haloperidol (2 mg/kg/day), suggesting that our findings in schizophrenia are not due to an effect of antipsychotic treatment.

    Conclusions: Overall, our data suggest decreased glutamate release in the ACC, as well as discordant regulation of VGLUT1 expression at different levels of gene expression.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K08 MH074016, K08 MH074016-02, MH064673, MH074016, MH53327, R01 MH053327, R01 MH053327-12, R01 MH064673, R01 MH064673-01A2

    Biological psychiatry 2008;63;8;766-75

  • Docking and homology modeling explain inhibition of the human vesicular glutamate transporters.

    Almqvist J, Huang Y, Laaksonen A, Wang DN and Hovmöller S

    Division of Structural Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. jonasa@struc.su.se

    As membrane transporter proteins, VGLUT1-3 mediate the uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles at presynaptic nerve terminals of excitatory neural cells. This function is crucial for exocytosis and the role of glutamate as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The three transporters, sharing 76% amino acid sequence identity in humans, are highly homologous but differ in regional expression in the brain. Although little is known regarding their three-dimensional structures, hydropathy analysis on these proteins predicts 12 transmembrane segments connected by loops, a topology similar to other members in the major facilitator superfamily, where VGLUT1-3 have been phylogenetically classified. In this work, we present a three-dimensional model for the human VGLUT1 protein based on its distant bacterial homolog in the same superfamily, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli. This structural model, stable during molecular dynamics simulations in phospholipid bilayers solvated by water, reveals amino acid residues that face its pore and are likely to affect substrate translocation. Docking of VGLUT1 substrates to this pore localizes two different binding sites, to which inhibitors also bind with an overall trend in binding affinity that is in agreement with previously published experimental data.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-53973, R01 DK053973

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2007;16;9;1819-29

  • Interaction between the vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 and endophilin A1, a protein essential for endocytosis.

    Vinatier J, Herzog E, Plamont MA, Wojcik SM, Schmidt A, Brose N, Daviet L, El Mestikawy S and Giros B

    INSERM U513, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France.

    In the nerve terminal, neurotransmitter is actively packaged into synaptic vesicles before its release by Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. The three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, -2 and -3) are highly conserved proteins that display similar bioenergetic and pharmacological properties but are expressed in different brain areas. We used the divergent C-terminus of VGLUT1 as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify and map the interaction between a proline-rich domain of VGLUT1 and the Src homology domain 3 (SH3) domain of endophilin. We further confirmed this interaction by using different glutathione-S-transferase-endophilin fusion proteins to pull down VGLUT1 from rat brain extracts. The expression profiles of the two genes and proteins were compared on rat brain sections, showing that endophilin is most highly expressed in regions and cells expressing VGLUT1. Double immunofluorescence in the rat cerebellum shows that most VGLUT1-positive terminals co-express endophilin, whereas VGLUT2-expressing terminals are often devoid of endophilin. However, neither VGLUT1 transport activity, endophilin enzymatic activity nor VGLUT1 synaptic targeting were altered by this interaction. Overall, the discovery of endophilin as a partner for VGLUT1 in nerve terminals strongly suggests the existence of functional differences between VGLUT1 and -2 terminals in their abilities to replenish vesicle pools.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2006;97;4;1111-25

  • Decreased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and complexin II mRNAs in schizophrenia: further evidence for a synaptic pathology affecting glutamate neurons.

    Eastwood SL and Harrison PJ

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Neurosciences Building, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. sharon.eastwood@psych.ox.ac.uk

    Synaptic protein gene expression is altered in schizophrenia. In the hippocampal formation there may be particular involvement of glutamatergic neurons and their synapses, but overall the profile remains unclear. In this in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) study, we examined four informative synaptic protein transcripts: vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2, complexin I, and complexin II, in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), superior temporal cortex (STC), and hippocampal formation, in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 18 controls. In these areas, VGLUT1 and complexin II are expressed primarily by excitatory neurons, whereas complexin I is mainly expressed by inhibitory neurons. In schizophrenia, VGLUT1 mRNA was decreased in hippocampal formation and DPFC, complexin II mRNA was reduced in DPFC and STC, and complexin I mRNA decreased in STC. Hippocampal VGLUT1 mRNA declined with age selectively in the schizophrenia group. VGLUT2 mRNA was not quantifiable due to its low level. The data provide additional evidence for a synaptic pathology in schizophrenia, in terms of a reduced expression of three synaptic protein genes. In the hippocampus, the loss of VGLUT1 mRNA supports data indicating that glutamatergic presynaptic deficits are prominent, whereas the pattern of results in temporal and frontal cortex suggests broadly similar changes may affect inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The impairment of synaptic transmission implied by the synaptic protein reductions may contribute to the dysfunction of cortical neural circuits that characterises the disorder.

    Schizophrenia research 2005;73;2-3;159-72

  • Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 immunostaining in the normal and epileptic human cerebral cortex.

    Alonso-Nanclares L and De Felipe J

    Instituto Cajal (CSIC), Ave. Dr. Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain.

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain where, due to the activity of specific vesicular glutamate transporters, it accumulates in synaptic vesicles. The vesicular glutamate transporter 1 is found in the majority of axon terminals that form asymmetrical (excitatory) synapses in the rat neocortex. However, since there is no information available regarding the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in the human neocortex, we have used correlative light and electron microscopy to define its expression in this tissue. We found that the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-immunoreactivity is virtually identical to that found in the rat neocortex, both at the light and electron microscope levels. Therefore, we assessed whether vesicular glutamate transporter 1 immunostaining might be a useful tool to study the pathological alterations of glutamatergic transmission in the epileptic cerebral cortex. We analyzed the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in the peritumoral neocortex of patients with epilepsy secondary to low-grade tumors. In these regions, we found alterations in the pattern of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-immunoreactivity that perfectly matched the neuronal loss and gliosis, as well as the decrease in the number of asymmetrical synapses identified by electron microscopy in this tissue. Thus, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 immunostaining appears to be a reliable and simple tool to study glutamatergic synapses in the normal and epileptic human cerebral cortex.

    Neuroscience 2005;134;1;59-68

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Expressed sequence tag analysis of human retina for the NEIBank Project: retbindin, an abundant, novel retinal cDNA and alternative splicing of other retina-preferred gene transcripts.

    Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, Ray S, Behal A, Touchman JW, Bouffard G, Smith D and Peterson K

    Section on Molecular Structure and Function, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2740, USA. graeme@helix.nih.gov

    Purpose: Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was performed on un-normalized, unamplified cDNA libraries constructed from adult human retina to examine the expression profile of the tissue and to contribute resources for functional genomics studies.

    Methods: Two size fractionated cDNA libraries (designated hd and he) were constructed from human retina RNA. Clones were randomly selected for sequencing and analyzed using the bioinformatics program GRIST (GRouping and Identification of Sequence Tags). PCR, Northern blotting and other techniques have been used to examine selected novel transcripts.

    Results: After informatics analysis, 2200 retina cDNAs yield 1254 unique clusters, potentially representing individual genes. Opsin is the most abundant transcript and other retina transcripts are prominently represented. One abundant cluster of cDNAs encodes retbindin, a novel, retina preferred transcript which has sequence similarity to riboflavin binding proteins and whose gene is on chromosome 19. Variant transcripts of known retina genes are also observed, including an alternative exon in the coding sequence of the transcription factor NRL and a skipped coding sequence exon in the phosphodiesterase gammasubunit (PDE6G).

    Conclusions: The new retina cDNA libraries compare favorably in quality with those already represented in public databases. They are rich in retina specific sequences and include abundant cDNAs for a novel protein, retbindin. The function of retbindin remains to be determined, but it is a candidate for flavinoid or carotenoid binding. Analysis of multiple clones for highly expressed retina genes reveals several alternative splice variants in both coding and noncoding sequences which may have functional significance. The validated set of retina cDNAs will contribute to a nonredundant set for microarray construction.

    Molecular vision 2002;8;196-204

  • Identification of a vesicular glutamate transporter that defines a glutamatergic phenotype in neurons.

    Takamori S, Rhee JS, Rosenmund C and Jahn R

    Department of Neurobiology, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany.

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Synaptic vesicles are loaded with neurotransmitter by means of specific vesicular transporters. Here we show that expression of BNPI, a vesicle-bound transporter associated with sodium-dependent phosphate transport, results in glutamate uptake by intracellular vesicles. Substrate specificity and energy dependence are very similar to glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles. Stimulation of exocytosis--fusion of the vesicles with the cell membrane and release of their contents--resulted in quantal release of glutamate from BNPI-expressing cells. Furthermore, we expressed BNPI in neurons containing GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and maintained them as cultures of single, isolated neurons that form synapses to themselves. After stimulation of these neurons, a component of the postsynaptic current is mediated by glutamate as it is blocked by a combination of the glutamate receptor antagonists, but is insensitive to a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. We conclude that BNPI functions as vesicular glutamate transporter and that expression of BNPI suffices to define a glutamatergic phenotype in neurons.

    Nature 2000;407;6801;189-94

  • Uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by an inorganic phosphate transporter.

    Bellocchio EE, Reimer RJ, Fremeau RT and Edwards RH

    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0435, USA.

    Previous work has identified two families of proteins that transport classical neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, but the protein responsible for vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate has remained unknown. We demonstrate that a protein that is unrelated to any known neurotransmitter transporters and that was previously suggested to mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of inorganic phosphate across the plasma membrane transports glutamate into synaptic vesicles. In addition, we show that this vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, exhibits a conductance for chloride that is blocked by glutamate.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;289;5481;957-60

  • Molecular cloning of a novel brain-type Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter.

    Aihara Y, Mashima H, Onda H, Hisano S, Kasuya H, Hori T, Yamada S, Tomura H, Yamada Y, Inoue I, Kojima I and Takeda J

    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Gunma, Japan.

    We have isolated a human cDNA encoding a protein, designated DNPI, that shows 82% amino acid identity and 92% similarity to the human brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate (Na(+)/P(i)) cotransporter (BNPI), which is localized exclusively to neuron-rich regions. Expression of DNPI mRNA in Xenopus oocytes resulted in a significant increase in Na(+)-dependent P(i) transport, indicating that DNPI is a novel Na(+)/P(i) cotransporter. Northern blot analysis shows that DNPI mRNA is expressed predominantly in brain, where the highest levels are observed in medulla, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus, all of which express BNPI mRNA at low levels. In contrast, DNPI mRNA is expressed at low levels in cerebellum and hippocampus, where BNPI mRNA is expressed at high levels. No hybridizing signal for DNPI mRNA is observed in the glia-rich region of corpus callosum. In other regions examined, both mRNAs are moderately or highly expressed. These results indicate that BNPI and DNPI, which coordinate Na(+)-dependent P(i) transport in the neuron-rich regions of the brain, may form a new class within the Na(+)/P(i) cotransporter family.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;74;6;2622-5

  • Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a human brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter.

    Ni B, Du Y, Wu X, DeHoff BS, Rosteck PR and Paul SM

    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

    We describe the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a human brain Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) cotransporter (hBNPI). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of hBNPI reveal a protein of 560 amino acids with six to eight putative transmembrane segments. hBNPI shares a high degree of homology with other Na(+)-dependent inorganic P(i) cotransporters, including those found in rat brain and human and rabbit kidney. Expression of hBNPI in COS-1 cells results in Na(+)-dependent P(i) uptake. Northern blot analysis demonstrates that hBNPI mRNA is expressed predominantly in brain and most abundantly in neuron-enriched regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. Moderate levels of expression are also observed in glia-enriched areas such as the corpus callosum, and low levels are observed in the substantia nigra, subthalamic nuclei, and thalamus. In situ hybridization histochemistry reveals relatively high levels of hBNPI mRNA in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in granule neurons of dentate gyrus. The level of hBNPI mRNA is quite low in fetal compared with adult human brain, suggesting developmental regulation of hBNPI gene expression. Southern analyses of nine eukaryotic genomic DNAs probed under stringent conditions with hBNPI cDNA revealed that the hBNPI gene is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and that each gene is most likely present as a single copy. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we localized hBNPI to the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13) in close proximity to the late-onset familial Alzheimer's disease locus.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1996;66;6;2227-38

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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