G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001353
Gene symbol
EPHA4 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
EPH receptor A4
Orthologue
G00000104 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000116106 (Ensembl human gene)
2043 (Entrez Gene)
439 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EPHA4 (GeneCards)
Literature
602188 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3388 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P54764 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Hek8

Literature (41)

Pubmed - other

  • Overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA4 in human gastric cancers.

    Oki M, Yamamoto H, Taniguchi H, Adachi Y, Imai K and Shinomura Y

    First Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8543, Japan.

    Aim: To clarify the expression and role of Ephrin receptor A4 (EphA4) in gastric cancer in relation to clinicopathological characteristics and the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ephrin ligands.

    Methods: Eleven gastric carcinoma cell lines, 24 paired surgical fresh specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and adjacent nontumor tissue, 74 conventional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens, and 55 specimens spotted on tissue microarray (TMA) were analyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and cell growth assays were performed.

    Results: Overexpression of EphA4 mRNA expression was observed in 8 (73%) of 11 gastric cancer cell lines and 10 (42%) of 24 gastric cancer tissues. Overexpression of EphA4, analyzed by immunohistochemistry, was observed in 62 (48%) of 129 gastric cancer tissues. EphA4 overexpression, at the protein level, was significantly associated with depth of invasion and recurrence. EphA4 overexpression was also correlated with FGFR1 overexpression. Patients with EphA4-positive cancer had significantly shorter overall survival periods than did those with EphA4-negative cancer (P = 0.0008). The mRNAs for ephrin ligands were coexpressed in various combinations in gastric cancer cell lines and cancer tissues. Downregulation of EphA4 expression by siRNA in EphA4-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that overexpression of EphA4 plays a role in gastric cancer.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2008;14;37;5650-6

  • EphA4 promotes cell proliferation and migration through a novel EphA4-FGFR1 signaling pathway in the human glioma U251 cell line.

    Fukai J, Yokote H, Yamanaka R, Arao T, Nishio K and Itakura T

    Department of Neurological Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands form a unique cell-cell contact-mediated bidirectional signaling mechanism for regulating cell localization and organization. High expression of Eph receptors in a wide variety of human tumors indicates some roles in tumor progression, which makes these proteins potential targets for anticancer therapy. For this purpose, we did gene expression profiling for 47 surgical specimens of brain tumors including 32 high-grade glioma using a microarray technique. The analysis, focused on the receptor tyrosine kinases, showed that EphA4 mRNA in the tumors was 4-fold higher than in normal brain tissue. To investigate the biological significance of EphA4 overexpression in these tumors, we analyzed EphA4-induced phenotypic changes and the signaling mechanisms using human glioma U251 cells. EphA4 promoted fibroblast growth factor 2-mediated cell proliferation and migration accompanied with enhancement of fibroblast growth factor 2-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt phosphorylation. In addition, active forms of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased in the EphA4-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, we found that EphA4 formed a heteroreceptor complex with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in the cells and that the EphA4-FGFR1 complex potentiated FGFR-mediated downstream signaling. Thus, our results indicate that EphA4 plays an important role in malignant phenotypes of glioblastoma by enhancing cell proliferation and migration through accelerating a canonical FGFR signaling pathway.

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2008;7;9;2768-78

  • Overexpression of EphA4 gene and reduced expression of EphB2 gene correlates with liver metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Oshima T, Akaike M, Yoshihara K, Shiozawa M, Yamamoto N, Sato T, Akihito N, Nagano Y, Fujii S, Kunisaki C, Wada N, Rino Y, Tanaka K, Masuda M and Imada T

    Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Minami-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 232-0024, Japan. ohshimatakashi@yahoo.co.jp

    The Eph receptors, members of a large family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, play important roles in a variety of biological functions. Recent studies have suggested that EphA4 and EphB2 participate in the growth and development of various carcinomas. This study examined the relationship of EphA4 and EphB2 gene expression to clinicopathological factors, especially metastasis, in patients with colorectal cancer. We studied surgical specimens of cancer tissue and adjacent normal mucosa obtained from 205 patients with untreated colorectal cancer. The relative expression levels of EphA4 and EphB2 mRNA in the specimens were measured by quantitative real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative expression level of EphA4 mRNA was higher in the presence than in the absence of liver metastasis, whereas the relative expression levels of EphB2 mRNA were similar. Analysis of the relationship between clinicopathological features and gene expression showed that high expression of the EphA4 gene and low expression of the EphB2 gene correlated with liver metastasis. There was no correlation between EphA4 and EphB2 gene expression. Our results suggest that overexpression of the EphA4 gene and reduced expression of the EphB2 gene might promote liver metastasis in colorectal cancer. Overexpression of the EphA4 gene and reduced expression of the EphB2 gene may thus be a useful predictor of liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    International journal of oncology 2008;33;3;573-7

  • Neither replication nor simulation supports a role for the axon guidance pathway in the genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    Li Y, Rowland C, Xiromerisiou G, Lagier RJ, Schrodi SJ, Dradiotis E, Ross D, Bui N, Catanese J, Aggelakis K, Grupe A and Hadjigeorgiou G

    Celera, Alameda, California, United States of America. yonghong.li@celera.com

    Susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interaction with each other. Statistical models including multiple variants in axon guidance pathway genes have recently been purported to be capable of predicting PD risk, survival free of the disease and age at disease onset; however the specific models have not undergone independent validation. Here we tested the best proposed risk panel of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two PD sample sets, with a total of 525 cases and 518 controls. By single marker analysis, only one marker was significantly associated with PD risk in one of our sample sets (rs6692804: P = 0.03). Multi-marker analysis using the reported model found a mild association in one sample set (two sided P = 0.049, odds ratio for each score change = 1.07) but no significance in the other (two sided P = 0.98, odds ratio = 1), a stark contrast to the reported strong association with PD risk (P = 4.64x10(-38), odds ratio as high as 90.8). Following a procedure similar to that used to build the reported model, simulated multi-marker models containing SNPs from randomly chosen genes in a genome wide PD dataset produced P-values that were highly significant and indistinguishable from similar models where disease status was permuted (3.13x10(-23) to 4.90x10(-64)), demonstrating the potential for overfitting in the model building process. Together, these results challenge the robustness of the reported panel of genetic markers to predict PD risk in particular and a role of the axon guidance pathway in PD genetics in general.

    PloS one 2008;3;7;e2707

  • Mutation in WNT10A is associated with an autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia.

    Adaimy L, Chouery E, Megarbane H, Mroueh S, Delague V, Nicolas E, Belguith H, de Mazancourt P and Megarbane A

    Unite de Genetique Medicale, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, Paris, France.

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned the disease locus to an ~9-cM region at chromosome 2q35-q36.2, located between markers rs16853834 and D2S353, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7. Screening of candidate genes in this region led us to identify the same c.697G-->T (p.Glu233X) homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the WNT10A gene in all patients. At the protein level, the mutation is predicted to result in a premature truncated protein of 232 aa instead of 417 aa. This is the first report to our knowledge of a human phenotype resulting from a mutation in WNT10A, and it is the first demonstration of an ectodermal dysplasia caused by an altered WNT signaling pathway, expanding the list of WNT-related diseases.

    American journal of human genetics 2007;81;4;821-8

  • Genome-wide association of echocardiographic dimensions, brachial artery endothelial function and treadmill exercise responses in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Vasan RS, Larson MG, Aragam J, Wang TJ, Mitchell GF, Kathiresan S, Newton-Cheh C, Vita JA, Keyes MJ, O'Donnell CJ, Levy D and Benjamin EJ

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. vasan@bu.edu

    Background: Echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) measurements, exercise responses to standardized treadmill test (ETT) and brachial artery (BA) vascular function are heritable traits that are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the community-based Framingham Heart Study.

    Methods: We estimated multivariable-adjusted residuals for quantitative echocardiography, ETT and BA function traits. Echocardiography residuals were averaged across 4 examinations and included LV mass, diastolic and systolic dimensions, wall thickness, fractional shortening, left atrial and aortic root size. ETT measures (single exam) included systolic blood pressure and heart rate responses during exercise stage 2, and at 3 minutes post-exercise. BA measures (single exam) included vessel diameter, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and baseline and hyperemic flow responses. Generalized estimating equations (GEE), family-based association tests (FBAT) and variance-components linkage were used to relate multivariable-adjusted trait residuals to 70,987 SNPs (Human 100K GeneChip, Affymetrix) restricted to autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency > or =0.10, genotype call rate > or =0.80, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p > or = 0.001.

    Results: We summarize results from 17 traits in up to 1238 related middle-aged to elderly men and women. Results of all association and linkage analyses are web-posted at http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite. We confirmed modest-to-strong heritabilities (estimates 0.30-0.52) for several Echo, ETT and BA function traits. Overall, p < 10(-5) in either GEE or FBAT models were observed for 21 SNPs (nine for echocardiography, eleven for ETT and one for BA function). The top SNPs associated were (GEE results): LV diastolic dimension, rs1379659 (SLIT2, p = 1.17*10(-7)); LV systolic dimension, rs10504543 (KCNB2, p = 5.18*10(-6)); LV mass, rs10498091 (p = 5.68*10(-6)); Left atrial size, rs1935881 (FAM5C, p = 6.56*10(-6)); exercise heart rate, rs6847149 (NOLA1, p = 2.74*10(-6)); exercise systolic blood pressure, rs2553268 (WRN, p = 6.3*10(-6)); BA baseline flow, rs3814219 (OBFC1, 9.48*10(-7)), and FMD, rs4148686 (CFTR, p = 1.13*10(-5)). Several SNPs are reasonable biological candidates, with some being related to multiple traits suggesting pleiotropy. The peak LOD score was for LV mass (4.38; chromosome 5); the 1.5 LOD support interval included NRG2.

    Conclusion: In hypothesis-generating GWAS of echocardiography, ETT and BA vascular function in a moderate-sized community-based sample, we identified several SNPs that are candidates for replication attempts and we provide a web-based GWAS resource for the research community.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: 1R01 HL60040, HL080124, K23 HL074077, K23 HL080025, K23-HL-074077, K23-HL080025, K24 HL004334, K24-HL04334, N01-HC-25195, N01HC25195, R01 HL060040, R01 HL070100, R01 HL080124, R01 HL70100; NINDS NIH HHS: 6R01-NS 17950, R01 NS017950

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S2

  • EphA4 receptor, overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, promotes cancer cell growth.

    Iiizumi M, Hosokawa M, Takehara A, Chung S, Nakamura T, Katagiri T, Eguchi H, Ohigashi H, Ishikawa O, Nakamura Y and Nakagawa H

    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    To isolate novel diagnostic markers and drug targets for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we previously performed expression profile analysis of PDAC cells using a genome-wide cDNA microarray combined with laser microdissection. Among dozens of up-regulated genes identified in PDAC cells, we herein focused on one tyrosine kinase receptor, Eph receptor A4 (EphA4), as a molecular target for PDAC therapy. Immunohistochemical analysis validated EphA4 overexpression in approximately half of the PDAC tissues. To investigate its biological function in PDAC cells, we knocked down EphA4 expression by siRNA, which drastically attenuated PDAC cell viability. In concordance with the siRNA experiment, PDAC-derivative cells that were designed to constitutively express exogenous EphA4 showed a more rapid growth rate than cells transfected with mock vector, suggesting a growth-promoting effect of EphA4 on PDAC cells. Furthermore, the expression analysis for ephrin ligand family members indicated the coexistence of ephrinA3 ligand in PDAC cells with EphA4 receptor, and knockdown of ephrinA3 by siRNA also attenuated PDAC cell viability. These results suggest that the EphA4-ephrinA3 pathway is likely to be a promising molecular target for pancreatic cancer therapy.

    Cancer science 2006;97;11;1211-6

  • Temporal regulation of EphA4 in astroglia during murine retinal and optic nerve development.

    Petros TJ, Williams SE and Mason CA

    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands play important roles in many aspects of visual system development. In this study, we characterized the spatial and temporal expression pattern of EphA4 in astrocyte precursor cell (APC) and astrocyte populations in the murine retina and optic nerve. EphA4 is expressed by immotile optic disc astrocyte precursor cells (ODAPS), but EphA4 is downregulated as these cells migrate into the retina. Surprisingly, mature astrocytes in the adult retina re-express EphA4. Within the optic nerve, EphA4 is expressed in specialized astrocytes that form a meshwork at the optic nerve head (ONH). Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that EphA4 is dispensable for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon growth and projections through the chiasm. While optic stalk structure, APC proliferation and migration, retinal vascularization, and oligodendrocyte migration appear normal in EphA4 mutants, the expression of EphA4 in APCs and in the astrocyte meshwork at the ONH has implications for optic nerve pathologies.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY015290, R01 EY012736, R01 EY12736, T32 EY013933, T32 EY13933; NINDS NIH HHS: F31 NS051008

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2006;32;1-2;49-66

  • Cell mixing at a neural crest-mesoderm boundary and deficient ephrin-Eph signaling in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis.

    Merrill AE, Bochukova EG, Brugger SM, Ishii M, Pilz DT, Wall SA, Lyons KM, Wilkie AO and Maxson RE

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Cancer Hospital, University of Southern Califoirnia Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0176, USA.

    Boundaries between cellular compartments often serve as signaling interfaces during embryogenesis. The coronal suture is a major growth center of the skull vault and develops at a boundary between cells derived from neural crest and mesodermal origin, forming the frontal and parietal bones, respectively. Premature fusion of these bones, termed coronal synostosis, is a common human developmental anomaly. Known causes of coronal synostosis include haploinsufficiency of TWIST1 and a gain of function mutation in MSX2. In Twist1(+/-) mice with coronal synostosis, we found that the frontal-parietal boundary is defective. Specifically, neural crest cells invade the undifferentiated mesoderm of the Twist1(+/-) mutant coronal suture. This boundary defect is accompanied by an expansion in Msx2 expression and reduction in ephrin-A4 distribution. Reduced dosage of Msx2 in the Twist1 mutant background restores the expression of ephrin-A4, rescues the suture boundary and inhibits craniosynostosis. Underlining the importance of ephrin-A4, we identified heterozygous mutations in the human orthologue, EFNA4, in three of 81 patients with non-syndromic coronal synostosis. This provides genetic evidence that Twist1, Msx2 and Efna4 function together in boundary formation and the pathogenesis of coronal synostosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: T32 HL 07895; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 44528; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE 12450, DE 12941, R01 DE016320; Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 2006;15;8;1319-28

  • Trans-activation of EphA4 and FGF receptors mediated by direct interactions between their cytoplasmic domains.

    Yokote H, Fujita K, Jing X, Sawada T, Liang S, Yao L, Yan X, Zhang Y, Schlessinger J and Sakaguchi K

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Advanced Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509, Japan.

    A yeast two-hybrid analysis has shown that the juxtamembrane region of FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of EphA4, which is a member of the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Complex formation between the two receptors was shown to be mediated by direct interactions between the juxtamembrane domain of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR4 and the N-terminal portion of the tyrosine kinase domain of EphA4. Activation of FGFR1 in transfected cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-negative EphA4 mutant and activation of EphA4 led to tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-negative FGFR1 mutant. Moreover, both receptors stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the docking protein FRS2alpha and induce mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulation with a time course and intensity that depends on the ligand that is applied. We also demonstrate that FGF-receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulation is potentiated in cells costimulated with ephrin-A1. The direct interaction between EphA4 and FGFRs and the potentiation of FGF response that is induced by ephrin-A1 stimulation may modulate the biological responses that are mediated by these receptor families in cells or tissues in which the two receptors are coexpressed.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR051448, R01 AR051886, R01-AR051448, R01-AR051886

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;52;18866-71

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Eph kinases and ephrins support thrombus growth and stability by regulating integrin outside-in signaling in platelets.

    Prévost N, Woulfe DS, Jiang H, Stalker TJ, Marchese P, Ruggeri ZM and Brass LF

    Department of Medicine, and Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    The ability of activated platelets to adhere to each other at sites of vascular injury depends on the integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). However, as aggregation continues, other signaling and adhesion molecules can contribute as well. We have previously shown that human platelets express on their surface the Eph receptor kinases EphA4 and EphB1 and the Eph kinase ligand ephrinB1. We now show that EphA4 is physically associated with alpha(IIb)beta(3) in resting platelets, increases its surface expression when platelets are activated, and colocalizes with alpha(IIb)beta(3) at sites of contact between platelets. We also show that Eph/ephrin interactions can support the stable accumulation of platelets on collagen under flow and contribute to postengagement "outside-in" signaling through alpha(IIb)beta(3) by stabilizing platelet aggregates and facilitating tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta(3) cytoplasmic domain. beta(3) phosphorylation allows myosin to bind to alpha(IIb)beta(3) and clot retraction to occur. The data support a model in which the onset of aggregation permits Eph/ephrin interactions to occur, after which signaling downstream from ephrinB1 and its receptors favors continued growth and stability of the thrombus by several mechanisms, including positive effects on outside-in signaling through alpha(IIb)beta(3).

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;28;9820-5

  • Cell-type-specific regulation of distinct sets of gene targets by Pax3 and Pax3/FKHR.

    Begum S, Emami N, Emani N, Cheung A, Wilkins O, Der S and Hamel PA

    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8.

    The oncogenic fusion protein, Pax3/FKHR, is a more potent transcription factor relative to its normal counterpart, Pax3. Since Pax3 induced a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) in human SaOS-2 osteosarcomas, we hypothesized that Pax3/FKHR would also induce a morphological change in SaOS-2 cells. We demonstrate here that Pax3/FKHR more potently induces a MET in SaOS-2 cells than Pax3. This greater potency was further evident where Pax3/FKHR, but not Pax3, induced a morphological alteration in U2-OS osteosarcoma cells. By microarray analysis, we determined that Pax3/FKHR altered the expression of gene targets in a manner quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from Pax3. Three classes of genes were identified: (i) genes induced or repressed by Pax3 and Pax3/FKHR, (ii) genes induced or repressed by Pax3/FKHR but not Pax3 and (iii) genes induced by Pax3/FKHR but repressed by Pax3. Chromatin immunoprecipitations confirmed the direct binding of Pax3/FKHR to the promoter region of several factors including cannabinoid receptor-1, EPHA2 and EPHA4. Verification of the microarray data also revealed coordinate alteration in the expression of factors involved in BMP4 signalling. Regulation of gene expression by Pax3 and Pax3/FKHR is, however, cell-type specific. BMP4 expression, for example, was repressed by both Pax3 and Pax3/FKHR in SaOS-2 cells, while in the rhabdomyosarcoma, RD, Pax3/FKHR, but not Pax3, induced BMP4 expression. Thus, our data reveal that Pax3/FKHR regulates a distinct but overlapping set of genes relative to Pax3 and that the global set of Pax3 and Pax3/FKHR gene targets is cell-type specific.

    Oncogene 2005;24;11;1860-72

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Aberrant expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the transcription factor twist in Sézary syndrome identified by gene expression analysis.

    van Doorn R, Dijkman R, Vermeer MH, Out-Luiting JJ, van der Raaij-Helmer EM, Willemze R and Tensen CP

    Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Sézary syndrome (Sz) is a malignancy of CD4+ memory skin-homing T cells and presents with erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral blood involvement. To gain more insight into the molecular features of Sz, oligonucleotide array analysis was performed comparing gene expression patterns of CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of patients with Sz with those of patients with erythroderma secondary to dermatitis and healthy controls. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering gene, expression patterns of T cells from patients with Sz were classified separately from those of benign T cells. One hundred twenty-three genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed and had an average fold change exceeding 2. T cells from patients with Sz demonstrated decreased expression of the following hematopoietic malignancy-linked tumor suppressor genes: TGF-beta receptor II, Mxi1, Riz1, CREB-binding protein, BCL11a, STAT4, and Forkhead Box O1A. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the potentially oncogenic transcription factor Twist were highly and selectively expressed in T cells of patients with Sz. High expression of EphA4 and Twist was also observed in lesional skin biopsy specimens of a subset of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas related to Sz, whereas their expression was nearly undetectable in benign T cells or in skin lesions of patients with inflammatory dermatoses. Detection of EphA4 and Twist may be used in the molecular diagnosis of Sz and related cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, the membrane-bound EphA4 receptor may serve as a target for directed therapeutic intervention.

    Cancer research 2004;64;16;5578-86

  • Signaling by ephrinB1 and Eph kinases in platelets promotes Rap1 activation, platelet adhesion, and aggregation via effector pathways that do not require phosphorylation of ephrinB1.

    Prévost N, Woulfe DS, Tognolini M, Tanaka T, Jian W, Fortna RR, Jiang H and Brass LF

    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    We have previously shown that platelets express 2 receptor tyrosine kinases, EphA4 and EphB1, and the Eph kinase ligand, ephrinB1, and proposed that transcellular Eph/ephrin interactions made possible by the onset of platelet aggregation promote the further growth and stability of the hemostatic plug. The present study examines how this might occur. The results show that clustering of either ephrinB1 or EphA4 causes platelets to adhere to immobilized fibrinogen via alpha(IIb)beta(3). Adhesion occurs more slowly than with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and requires phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase and protein kinase C activity but not ephrinB1 phosphorylation. By itself, Eph and ephrin signaling is insufficient to cause aggregation or the binding of soluble fibrinogen, but it can potentiate aggregation initiated by a Ca(++) ionophore or by agonists for thrombin and thromboxane receptors. It also enhances Rap1 activation without requiring ADP secretion, ephrinB1 phosphorylation, or the activation of PI3-kinase and Src. From this we conclude that (1) Eph/ephrin signaling enhances the ability of platelet agonists to cause aggregation provided that those agonists can increase cytosolic Ca(++); (2) this is accomplished in part by activating Rap1; and (3) these effects require oligomerization of ephrinB1 but not phosphotyrosine-based interactions with the ephrinB1 cytoplasmic domain.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01-HL40387

    Blood 2004;103;4;1348-55

  • EphA4 provides repulsive signals to developing cochlear ganglion neurites mediated through ephrin-B2 and -B3.

    Brors D, Bodmer D, Pak K, Aletsee C, Schäfers M, Dazert S and Ryan AF

    Department of Surgery, Division Otolaryngology and Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, La Jolla 92093, USA.

    The ephrins and Eph receptors make up two large families of bi-directional signaling molecules that are known to play a role in the development of the nervous system. Recently, expression of EphA4 in the developing cochlea was shown, with strong expression in cells lining the osseous spiral lamina (OSL) through which afferent dendrites must pass to reach the organ of Corti (OC). It was also demonstrated that ephrin-B2 and -B3, both of which are known to interact with EphA4, are expressed by spiral ganglion (SG) neurons. To investigate the functional role of EphA4 in the development of inner ear neurons, neonatal rat SG explants were cultured for 72 hours on uniformly coated surfaces or near stripes of EphA4/IgG-Fc-chimera. Control explants were cultured on or near IgG-Fc and EphA1/IgG-Fc-chimera. To assess the roles of ephrin-B2 and -B3 in EphA4 signaling, SG explants were cultured with or without anti-ephrin-B2 and/or -B3 blocking antibodies. Growth patterns of SG neurites at the border of EphA4 receptor stripes showed repulsion, characterized by turning, stopping and/or reversal. In the case of IgG-Fc and EphA1, the neurites grew straight onto the stripes. Treatment with either anti-ephrin-B2 or -B3 blocking antibodies significantly reduced the repulsive effect of an EphA4 stripe. Moreover, when both antibodies were used together, neurites crossed onto EphA4 stripes with no evidence of repulsion. The results suggest that EphA4 provides repulsive signals to SG neurites in the developing cochlea, and that ephrin-B2 and -B3 together mediate this response.

    Funded by: BLRD VA: I01 BX001205; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC00139

    The Journal of comparative neurology 2003;462;1;90-100

  • EphA4-mediated Rho activation via Vsm-RhoGEF expressed specifically in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Ogita H, Kunimoto S, Kamioka Y, Sawa H, Masuda M and Mochizuki N

    Department of Structural Analysis, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan.

    Rho-kinase, an effector of Rho GTPase, increases the contractility of vascular smooth muscle by phosphorylating myosin light chain (MLC) and by inactivating MLC phosphatase. A wide variety of extracellular stimuli activate RhoA via G protein-coupled receptors. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel cell-cell interaction-mediated Rho activation signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Among many receptor tyrosine kinases, the Eph family receptors are unique in that they require cell-cell interaction to engage their ligands, ephrin. We found that a novel VSMC-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho (Vsm-RhoGEF/KIAA0915) was expressed specifically in VSMCs of several organs including the heart, aorta, liver, kidney, and spleen, as examined by the immunohistochemical analysis using a specific antibody against Vsm-RhoGEF. Based on the association of Vsm-RhoGEF with EphA4 in quiescent cells, we tested whether EphA4 and Vsm-RhoGEF were expressed in the same tissue and further studied the molecular mechanism of Vsm-RhoGEF regulation by EphA4. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that EphA4 and Vsm-RhoGEF expression overlapped in VSMCs. Additionally, tyrosine phosphorylation of Vsm-RhoGEF induced by EphA4 upon ephrin-A1 stimulation enhanced the Vsm-RhoGEF activity for RhoA. The requirement of Vsm-RhoGEF for ephrin-A1-induced assembly of actin stress fibers in VSMCs was shown by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of VSM-RhoGEF and by the depletion of Vsm-RhoGEF using RNA interference. These results suggested that ephrin-A1-triggered EphA4-Vsm-RhoGEF-RhoA pathway is involved in the cell-cell interaction-mediated RhoA activation that regulates vascular smooth muscle contractility.

    Circulation research 2003;93;1;23-31

  • Control of hippocampal dendritic spine morphology through ephrin-A3/EphA4 signaling.

    Murai KK, Nguyen LN, Irie F, Yamaguchi Y and Pasquale EB

    The Burnham Institute, Neurobiology Program, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Communication between glial cells and neurons is emerging as a critical parameter of synaptic function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of glial cells to modify synaptic structure and physiology are poorly understood. Here we describe a repulsive interaction that regulates postsynaptic morphology through the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand ephrin-A3. EphA4 is enriched on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus, and ephrin-A3 is localized on astrocytic processes that envelop spines. Activation of EphA4 by ephrin-A3 was found to induce spine retraction, whereas inhibiting ephrin/EphA4 interactions distorted spine shape and organization in hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spine irregularities in pyramidal neurons from EphA4 knockout mice and in slices transfected with kinase-inactive EphA4 indicated that ephrin/EphA4 signaling is critical for spine morphology. Thus, our data support a model in which transient interactions between the ephrin-A3 ligand and the EphA4 receptor regulate the structure of excitatory synaptic connections through neuroglial cross-talk.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY10576; NICHD NIH HHS: HD25938; NINDS NIH HHS: NS43029

    Nature neuroscience 2003;6;2;153-60

  • Ephrin-B3-EphA4 interactions regulate the growth of specific thalamocortical axon populations in vitro.

    Takemoto M, Fukuda T, Sonoda R, Murakami F, Tanaka H and Yamamoto N

    Neuroscience Laboratories, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.

    The role was studied of ephrin-B3, a ligand of the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors, in the formation of cortical connectivity. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that EphA4, a receptor of ephrin-B3, was expressed in the lateral thalamus (visual and somaotosensory thalamus) of the developing rat brain, but not in the medial thalamic nuclei which project to the limbic cortex. Correspondingly, ephrin-B3 was expressed strongly in the developing limbic cortex including amygdala, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. To examine the action of ephrin-B3 on thalamic axons, either lateral or medial thalamic explants were cultured on membranes obtained from ephrin-B3-expressing COS cells. Axonal growth was inhibited for cells from the lateral thalamus but not from the medial thalamus. These results suggest that ephrin-B3 contributes to regional specificity by suppressing axonal growth of lateral thalamic neurons.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2002;16;6;1168-72

  • Interactions between Eph kinases and ephrins provide a mechanism to support platelet aggregation once cell-to-cell contact has occurred.

    Prevost N, Woulfe D, Tanaka T and Brass LF

    Department of Medicine and Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Eph kinases are receptor tyrosine kinases whose ligands, the ephrins, are also expressed on the surface of cells. Interactions between Eph kinases and ephrins on adjacent cells play a central role in neuronal patterning and vasculogenesis. Here we examine the expression of ephrins and Eph kinases on human blood platelets and explore their role in the formation of the hemostatic plug. The results show that human platelets express EphA4 and EphB1, and the ligand, ephrinB1. Forced clustering of EphA4 or ephrinB1 led to cytoskeletal reorganization, adhesion to fibrinogen, and alpha-granule secretion. Clustering of ephrinB1 also caused activation of the Ras family member, Rap1B. In platelets that had been activated by ADP and allowed to aggregate, EphA4 formed complexes with two tyrosine kinases, Fyn and Lyn, and the cell adhesion molecule, L1. Blockade of Eph/ephrin interactions prevented the formation of these complexes and caused platelet aggregation at low ADP concentrations to become more readily reversible. We propose that when sustained contacts between platelets have occurred in response to agonists such as collagen, ADP, and thrombin, the binding of ephrins to Eph kinases on adjacent platelets provides a mechanism to perpetuate signaling and promote stable platelet aggregation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-16520, P30 CA016520; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-40387, P01 HL040387; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-19525, P30 DK019525

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;14;9219-24

  • EphA receptors regulate growth cone dynamics through the novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor ephexin.

    Shamah SM, Lin MZ, Goldberg JL, Estrach S, Sahin M, Hu L, Bazalakova M, Neve RL, Corfas G, Debant A and Greenberg ME

    Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital and the Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Eph receptors transduce short-range repulsive signals for axon guidance by modulating actin dynamics within growth cones. We report the cloning and characterization of ephexin, a novel Eph receptor-interacting protein that is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho GTPases. Ephrin-A stimulation of EphA receptors modulates the activity of ephexin leading to RhoA activation, Cdc42 and Rac1 inhibition, and cell morphology changes. In addition, expression of a mutant form of ephexin in primary neurons interferes with ephrin-A-induced growth cone collapse. The association of ephexin with Eph receptors constitutes a molecular link between Eph receptors and the actin cytoskeleton and provides a novel mechanism for achieving highly localized regulation of growth cone motility.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43855; NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY11310; NICHD NIH HHS: 1K08HD01384, HD18655; NINDS NIH HHS: NS10070-02, R01 NS045500, R01 NS35884

    Cell 2001;105;2;233-44

  • Multiple roles of EPH receptors and ephrins in neural development.

    Wilkinson DG

    Division of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK. dwilkin@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    The control of cell movement during development is essential for forming and stabilizing the spatial organization of tissues and cell types. During initial steps of tissue patterning, distinct regional domains or cell types arise at appropriate locations, and the movement of cells is constrained in order to maintain spatial relationships during growth. In other situations, the guidance of migrating cells or neuronal growth cones to specific destinations underlies the establishment or remodeling of a pattern. Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands are key players in controlling these cell movements in many tissues and at multiple stages of patterning.

    Nature reviews. Neuroscience 2001;2;3;155-64

  • The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is necessary for the guidance of nasal retinal ganglion cell axons in vitro.

    Walkenhorst J, Dütting D, Handwerker C, Huai J, Tanaka H and Drescher U

    Department of Physical Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.

    The retinotectal projection serves as a model system for the study of topographic projections. It has been shown in the past few years that members of the Eph family are strongly involved in establishing this projection. The analysis so far has focused on a characterization of Ephrin ligands which are expressed in a gradient in both the tectum and the retina. Here we investigate the role of one of the multiple EphA receptors expressed on retinal ganglion cell axons, EphA4, which is uniformly expressed on nasal and temporal axons. We have adopted both a dominant negative approach and a method using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in order to inactivate this receptor. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that EphA4 is crucially involved in the repulsive guidance of nasal but not of temporal axons.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2000;16;4;365-75

  • Roles of Eph receptors and ephrins in segmental patterning.

    Xu Q, Mellitzer G and Wilkinson DG

    Division of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, have key roles in patterning and morphogenesis. Interactions between these molecules are promiscuous, but largely fall into two groups: EphA receptors bind to glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored ephrin-A ligands, and EphB receptors bind to transmembrane ephrin-B proteins. Ephrin-B proteins transduce signals, such that bidirectional signalling can occur upon interaction with the Eph receptor. In many tissues, there are complementary and overlapping expression domains of interacting Eph receptors and ephrins. An important role of Eph receptors and ephrins is to mediate cell contact-dependent repulsion, and this has been implicated in the pathfinding of axons and neural crest cells, and the restriction of cell intermingling between hindbrain segments. Studies in an in vitro system show that bidirectional activation is required to prevent intermingling between cell populations, whereas unidirectional activation can restrict cell communication via gap junctions. Recent work indicates that Eph receptors can also upregulate cell adhesion, but the biochemical basis of repulsion versus adhesion responses is unclear. Eph receptors and ephrins have thus emerged as key regulators that, in parallel with cell adhesion molecules, underlie the establishment and maintenance of patterns of cellular organization.

    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2000;355;1399;993-1002

  • A splice variant of human ephrin-A4 encodes a soluble molecule that is secreted by activated human B lymphocytes.

    Aasheim HC, Munthe E, Funderud S, Smeland EB, Beiske K and Logtenberg T

    Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway. h.c.asheim@labmed.uio.no

    Ephrin-A4 is a ligand for the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptor family of tyrosine kinases. We have identified a secreted form of ephrin-A4, denoted ephrin-A4 (s), which is encoded by an alternatively spliced mRNA and is produced by in vivo activated B cells in tonsils. Blood B cells secrete ephrin-A4 (s) upon stimulation via the B-cell antigen receptor. A subpopulation of tonsil cells in the crypts with a dendritic cell phenotype was shown to express EphA2, an Eph receptor tyrosine kinase that was found to be capable of binding an ephrin-A4 immunoglobulin chimeric protein. We conclude that ephrin-A4 (s) may play a role in the interaction between activated B lymphocytes and dendritic cells in human tonsils. (Blood. 2000;95:221-230)

    Blood 2000;95;1;221-30

  • Eph receptors and ephrins: regulators of guidance and assembly.

    Wilkinson DG

    Division of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom.

    Recent advances have started to elucidate the developmental functions and biochemistry of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins. Interactions between these molecules are promiscuous, but they largely fall into two groups: EphA receptors bind to GPI-anchored ephrin-A ligands, while EphB receptors bind to ephrin-B proteins that have a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain. Remarkably, ephrin-B proteins transduce signals, such that bidirectional signaling can occur upon interaction with Eph receptor. In many tissues, specific Eph receptors and ephrins have complementary domains, whereas other family members may overlap in their expression. An important role of Eph receptors and ephrins is to mediate cell-contact-dependent repulsion. Complementary and overlapping gradients of expression underlie establishment of a topographic map of neuronal projections in the retinotectal system. Eph receptors and ephrins also act at boundaries to channel neuronal growth cones along specific pathways, restrict the migration of neural crest cells, and via bidirectional signaling prevent intermingling between hindbrain segments. Intriguingly, Eph receptors and ephrins can also trigger an adhesive response of endothelial cells and are required for the remodeling of blood vessels. Biochemical studies suggest that the extent of multimerization of Eph receptors modulates the cellular response and that the actin cytoskeleton is one major target of the intracellular pathways activated by Eph receptors. Eph receptors and ephrins have thus emerged as key regulators of the repulsion and adhesion of cells that underlie the establishment, maintenance, and remodeling of patterns of cellular organization.

    International review of cytology 2000;196;177-244

  • Ephrin-A binding and EphA receptor expression delineate the matrix compartment of the striatum.

    Janis LS, Cassidy RM and Kromer LF

    Department of Cell Biology and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

    The striatum integrates limbic and neocortical inputs to regulate sensorimotor and psychomotor behaviors. This function is dependent on the segregation of striatal projection neurons into anatomical and functional components, such as the striosome and matrix compartments. In the present study the association of ephrin-A cell surface ligands and EphA receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with the organization of these compartments was determined in postnatal rats. Ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 selectively bind to EphA receptors on neurons restricted to the matrix compartment. Binding is absent from the striosomes, which were identified by mu-opioid receptor immunostaining. In contrast, ephrin-A2, ephrin-A3, and ephrin-A5 exhibit a different mosaic binding pattern that appears to define a subset of matrix neurons. In situ hybridization for EphA RTKs reveals that the two different ligand binding patterns strictly match the mRNA expression patterns of EphA4 and EphA7. Ligand-receptor binding assays indicate that ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 selectively bind EphA4 but not EphA7 in the lysates of striatal tissue. Conversely, ephrin-A2, ephrin-A3, and ephrin-A5 bind EphA7 but not EphA4. These observations implicate selective interactions between ephrin-A molecules and EphA RTKs as potential mechanisms for regulating the compartmental organization of the striatum.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD07549

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;12;4962-71

  • Eph receptors and ephrins: effectors of morphogenesis.

    Holder N and Klein R

    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College, Gower Street, London, WC1 6BT, UK. Klein@embl-heidelberg.de

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, the ephrins, appear to lie functionally at the interface between pattern formation and morphogenesis. We review the role of Eph and ephrin signalling in the formation of segmented structures, in the control of axon guidance and cell migration and in the development of the vasculature. We address the question of how the specificity of response is achieved and discuss the specificity of ephrin-Eph interactions and the significance of structural domains in Eph receptors.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1999;126;10;2033-44

  • Complex formation between EphB2 and Src requires phosphorylation of tyrosine 611 in the EphB2 juxtamembrane region.

    Zisch AH, Kalo MS, Chong LD and Pasquale EB

    The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    The cellular components of the neuronal signaling pathways of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are only beginning to be elucidated. Here we show that in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation sites of the Eph receptors EphA3, EphA4, and EphB2 in embryonic retina serve as binding sites for the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain of Src kinase. Furthermore, tyrosine-phosphorylated EphB2 was detected in Src immunoprecipitates from transfected Cos cells, indicating that EphB2 and Src can physically associate. Interestingly, a form of Src with reduced electrophoretic mobility and increased tyrosine phosphorylation was detected in Cos cells expressing tyrosine-phosphorylated EphB2, suggesting a functional interaction between EphB2 and Src. Yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that phosphorylated tyrosine 611 in the juxtamembrane region of EphB2 is crucial for the interaction with the SH2 domain of Src. In contrast, binding of the carboxy-terminal SH2 domain of phospholipase Cgamma was not abolished upon mutation of tyrosine 611 in EphB2. Phosphopeptide mapping of autophosphorylated full-length EphB2, and wild-type and tyrosine to phenylalanine mutants of the EphB2 cytoplasmic domain fused to LexA, showed tyrosine 611 in the sequence motif YEDP as a major site of autophosphorylation in EphB2. Our mutational analysis also indicated that tyrosines 605 and 611 are important for EphB2 kinase activity. We propose Src kinase as a downstream effector that mediates the neuron's response to Eph receptor activation.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY105576; NICHD NIH HHS: HD25938

    Oncogene 1998;16;20;2657-70

  • The Eph family receptors and ligands.

    Zhou R

    Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855, USA.

    The Eph family is the largest of all known tyrosine kinase receptor-ligand systems. They are expressed in distinct, but overlapping, spatial and temporal patterns during embryonic development and postnatal life, and function in a variety of morphogenic events. The best known function is their role in the guidance of migration of axons and cells in the nervous system through repulsive interactions. They may also play a role in angiogenesis, tissue patterning, and tumor formation.

    Pharmacology & therapeutics 1998;77;3;151-81

  • Ephrin-B3, a ligand for the receptor EphB3, expressed at the midline of the developing neural tube.

    Bergemann AD, Zhang L, Chiang MK, Brambilla R, Klein R and Flanagan JG

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The ephrins are a family of ligands that bind to Eph family receptor tyrosine kinases, and have been implicated in axon guidance and other patterning processes during vertebrate development. We describe here the identification and characterization of murine ephrin-B3. The cDNA encodes a 340 amino acid transmembrane molecule, most closely related to the two other known transmembrane ligands, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2. In addition to homology in their extracellular receptor binding domains, these transmembrane ligands share striking homology between their cytoplasmic domains, with 31 of the last 34 amino acids of ephrin-B3 being identical to ephrin-B2, suggesting functional interactions of the cytoplasmic tail. While most Eph family ligands are promiscuous in their interactions with Eph receptors, binding studies with the five receptors known to bind other transmembrane ligands only revealed a high affinity interaction of ephrin-B3 with EphB3, with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 nM. In situ hybridization of mouse embryos showed ephrin-B3 is expressed prominently at the dorsal and ventral midline of the neural tube, particularly in the floor plate, a structure with key functions in patterning the nervous system. The isolation of this ligand may help to elucidate the molecular basis of patterning activities at the neural tube midline.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD29417; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45580

    Oncogene 1998;16;4;471-80

  • The ephrins and Eph receptors in neural development.

    Flanagan JG and Vanderhaeghen P

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Flanagan@warren.med.harvard.edu

    The Eph receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Initially all of them were identified as orphan receptors without known ligands, and their specific functions were not well understood. During the past few years, a corresponding family of ligands has been identified, called the ephrins, and specific functions have now been identified in neural development. The ephrins and Eph receptors are implicated as positional labels that may guide the development of neural topographic maps. They have also been implicated in pathway selection by axons, the guidance of cell migration, and the establishment of regional pattern in the nervous system. The ligands are anchored to cell surfaces, and most of the functions so far identified can be interpreted as precise guidance of cell or axon movement. This large family of ligands and receptors may make a major contribution to the accurate spatial patterning of connections and cell position in the nervous system.

    Annual review of neuroscience 1998;21;309-45

  • Regulated expression of the Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinase Hek11 in early human B lymphopoiesis.

    Aasheim HC, Terstappen LW and Logtenberg T

    Department of Immunology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Members of the large Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) display temporally and spatially restricted expression patterns during embryogenesis, suggesting a role in various developmental processes. We have begun to investigate the expression of members of this receptor family during human hematopoiesis, in particular B lymphopoiesis. Expression of Eph RTKs in cells of the B-lymphoid lineage was assessed by using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on stretches of conserved nucleic acid sequences in members of the Eph family. First, the content of Eph-family RTKs was assessed in freshly sorted fetal bone marrow pro-B cells. This population was found to harbor transcripts of the Hek8 and Hek11 members of this gene family. Subsequent analysis of expression of these genes in B cells representing various differentiation and ontogenic stages showed that the Hek8 transcript is constitutively present in all fetal and adult B-lineage cells, with high levels of expression in peripheral blood B cells. In contrast, the Hek11 transcript was exclusively found in fetal bone marrow pro-B cells and pre-B cells, but not in more mature fetal B-lineage cells. All adult B-lineage cells, from early pro-B cells to end-stage plasma cells, lacked Hek11 transcripts. The developmentally regulated expression of Hek11 during fetal B lymphopoiesis suggests a role for this gene in pre/pro-B cell expansion and/or differentiation and defines a difference in progenitor B cell populations isolated from fetal versus adult human bone marrow.

    Blood 1997;90;9;3613-22

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Unified nomenclature for Eph family receptors and their ligands, the ephrins. Eph Nomenclature Committee.

    No authors listed

    Cell 1997;90;3;403-4

  • Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during embryogenesis.

    Gale NW, Holland SJ, Valenzuela DM, Flenniken A, Pan L, Ryan TE, Henkemeyer M, Strebhardt K, Hirai H, Wilkinson DG, Pawson T, Davis S and Yancopoulos GD

    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Incorporated, Tarrytown, New York, 10591-6707, USA.

    We report that the many Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, and their numerous membrane-bound ligands, can each be grouped into only two major specificity subclasses. Receptors in a given subclass bind most members of a corresponding ligand subclass. The physiological relevance of these groupings is suggested by viewing the collective distributions of all members of a subclass. These composite distributions, in contrast with less informative patterns seen with individual members of the family, reveal that the developing embryo is subdivided into domains defined by reciprocal and apparently mutually exclusive expression of a receptor subclass and its corresponding ligands. Receptors seem to encounter their ligands only at the interface between these domains. This reciprocal compartmentalization implicates the Eph family in the formation of spatial boundaries that may help to organize the developing body plan.

    Neuron 1996;17;1;9-19

  • A juxtamembrane autophosphorylation site in the Eph family receptor tyrosine kinase, Sek, mediates high affinity interaction with p59fyn.

    Ellis C, Kasmi F, Ganju P, Walls E, Panayotou G and Reith AD

    Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK.

    The large subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) for which EPH is the prototype have likely roles in intercellular communication during normal mammalian development, but the biochemical signalling pathways utilised by this family are poorly characterised. We have now identified two in vitro autophosphorylation sites within the juxtamembrane domain of the Eph family member Sek, and a candidate binding protein for the activated Sek kinase. Specific antibodies defined Sek as a 130 kDa glycoprotein with protein kinase activity expressed in keratinocytes, whilst a bacterially expressed gst-Sek kinase domain fusion protein autophosphorylated exclusively on tyrosine residues, confirming that Sek encodes an authentic protein tyrosine kinase. Two dimensional phosphopeptide mapping and site-directed mutagenesis defined juxtamembrane residue Y602 as a major site of in vitro autophosphorylation in Sek, whilst Y596 was phosphorylated to a lower stoichiometry. Complimentary approaches of in vitro binding assays and BIAcore analysis revealed a high affinity association between the Y602 Sek autophosphorylation site and the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase p59fyn, an interaction mediated through the SH2 domain of this intracellular signalling molecule. Moreover, these data identify the novel phosphotyrosyl motif pYEDP as mediating high affinity association with fyn-SH2, extending the previously defined consensus motif for this interaction. The extensive conservation of this fyn-binding motif within the juxtamembrane domain of Eph family RTKs suggests that signalling through fyn, or fyn-related, tyrosine kinases may be utilised by many members of this large subclass of transmembrane receptors.

    Oncogene 1996;12;8;1727-36

  • cDNA cloning and tissue distribution of five human EPH-like receptor protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Fox GM, Holst PL, Chute HT, Lindberg RA, Janssen AM, Basu R and Welcher AA

    Department of Immunology, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320-1789.

    We have isolated cDNA clones from a human fetal brain library that encode five members of the EPH sub-family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Comparison of the DNA sequences of these receptors to the Genbank database reveals that two of our clones correspond to the previously identified HEK and ERK receptors, two are apparently human homologues of the mouse receptors Sek and Bsk and one is novel. With these additions, the number of known human EPH sub-family members is nine and the total in all vertebrate species is 13 making it the largest known sub-family of PTKs. Analysis of the expression pattern of EPH sub-family mRNAs reveals that some are expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues while others are quite restricted. Consistent with the amplification of these sequences from a fetal brain cDNA library, all five members which we have isolated are expressed in the brain. We have named these receptors HEK4, HEK5, HEK7, HEK8 and HEK11, following the nomenclature of Wicks et al. (1992) and the numbering convention set forth by Sajjadi et al. (1991). Analysis of these new EPH sub-family members will increase our understanding of the biology of this receptor family and their isolation will provide reagents for the identification of ligands for this large family of orphan receptors.

    Oncogene 1995;10;5;897-905

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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